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Research Methods

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					      Research methods
  Biological methods: Neuropharmacology
Psychological methods: Psychopharmacology
               Epidemiology
     Biological methods
• Stereotaxic methods
  – Electrode implants: Stimulation and ablation
     • Macroelectrodes and microelectrodes
  – Sensor implants: Measurement
  – Cannulae:
     • Sampling by push-pull technique
     • Neurotoxin ablation/lesioning
     • Microdialysis
        Location analysis
•   Macroelectrode lesions
•   Autoradiography
•   Enzyme analysis
•   Antibodies
•   Imaging techniques
Psychology and Sociology
of Drug Use Epidemiology
• How could you go about finding the number
  of users of a particular drug, say
  marijuana, in your high school?
• What problems would you encounter that
  might make the estimate unreliable?
• Would the problems be different if you
  were to try to find the number of users of
  marijuana at Houghton?
     Epidemiology: Data
         collection
• Track manufacture, transport, and sales
• Track ER visits and hospitalizations
  (DAWN)
• Track police reports and court records
• Survey
  – Is the sample representative and inclusive?
  – Are the answers honest?
  – Are participant biases consistent over time?
  Epidemiology: Marker
       variables
• Correlation and factor analysis
  – Age and gender factor with drug use
  – Extreme poverty correlates with higher
    drug use (but other socioeconomic levels
    do not differ in drug use)
  – Personality traits do not correlate with
    drug use, but social nonconformity does.
      More epidemiology
• Risk factors        Protective factors
  – Parents            – Parents
  – Education          – Education
  – Peers              – Peers
  – Early experience   – Religious and
    with alcohol         prosocial activities
  – Emotional pain     – High self-esteem
      Epidemiology:
      Antecedents
• Longitudinal studies
• Are there gateway drugs?
• What is the interaction effect of
  peers and parents?
• What are the triggers?
  – Stupidity and rebellion
  – Identification with an accepting sub-
    culture
  – Positive and negative reinforcement

				
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posted:11/14/2011
language:English
pages:8