Biological methods: Neuropharmacology
Psychological methods: Psychopharmacology
• Stereotaxic methods
– Electrode implants: Stimulation and ablation
• Macroelectrodes and microelectrodes
– Sensor implants: Measurement
• Sampling by push-pull technique
• Neurotoxin ablation/lesioning
• Macroelectrode lesions
• Enzyme analysis
• Imaging techniques
Psychology and Sociology
of Drug Use Epidemiology
• How could you go about finding the number
of users of a particular drug, say
marijuana, in your high school?
• What problems would you encounter that
might make the estimate unreliable?
• Would the problems be different if you
were to try to find the number of users of
marijuana at Houghton?
• Track manufacture, transport, and sales
• Track ER visits and hospitalizations
• Track police reports and court records
– Is the sample representative and inclusive?
– Are the answers honest?
– Are participant biases consistent over time?
• Correlation and factor analysis
– Age and gender factor with drug use
– Extreme poverty correlates with higher
drug use (but other socioeconomic levels
do not differ in drug use)
– Personality traits do not correlate with
drug use, but social nonconformity does.
• Risk factors Protective factors
– Parents – Parents
– Education – Education
– Peers – Peers
– Early experience – Religious and
with alcohol prosocial activities
– Emotional pain – High self-esteem
• Longitudinal studies
• Are there gateway drugs?
• What is the interaction effect of
peers and parents?
• What are the triggers?
– Stupidity and rebellion
– Identification with an accepting sub-
– Positive and negative reinforcement