Research Methods_Psychology David Myers

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					PSYCHOLOGY
      (8th Edition)
      David Myers

   PowerPoint Slides
     Aneeq Ahmad
Henderson State University


  Worth Publishers, © 2006   1
Thinking Critically with
 Psychological Science

        Chapter 1
                           2
The Need for Psychological Science
           Intuition & Common Sense

 Many people believe that intuition and common
sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding
                 human nature.


  Intuition and common sense may aid queries,
           but they are not free of error.


                                                3
Limits of Human Intuition
         Exercise




                            4
             Limits of Intuition


Personal interviewers may
rely too much on their “gut
  feelings” when meeting
    with job applicants.




                                       Taxi/ Getty Images
                                   5
              Hindsight Bias
    Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along”
                 phenomenon.

  After learning the outcome of an event, many
people believe they could have predicted that very
outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would
    plummet after they actually did plummet.



                                                  6
          Overconfidence Activity
• I feel 98 percent certain that the area of the U.S. is
  more than ____ square miles but less than ____
  square miles.

• I feel 98 percent certain that in 2003 the population of
  Australia was more than ___ but less than ____.

• I feel 98 percent certain that the number of American
  battle deaths in the Spanish-American War was more
  than ___ but less than ___.
                                                           7
      Overconfidence Activity
• I feel 98 percent certain that in 2002 the
  number of female engineers in the United
  States was more than ___ but less than
  ___.

• I feel 98 percent certain that in 2002 the
  number of operating nuclear plants in the
  world was more than ___ but less than
  ___.
                                               8
            Overconfidence
 Sometimes we think we
   know more than we
     actually know.
                               Anagram
How long do you think it
would take to unscramble    WREAT   WATER
   these anagrams?
                            ETYRN   ENTRY
People said it would take
                            GRABE   BARGE
 about 10 seconds, yet on
average they took about 3
minutes (Goranson, 1978).
                                            9
                Overconfidence



Now try this word scramble!       Anagram

                               OCHSA   CHAOS

                              ICSCRU   CIRCUS

                              LPNTEEAH ELEPHANT



                                            10
      The Point to Remember
• Hindsight bias and overconfidence often
  lead us to overestimate our intuition. But
  scientific inquiry, fed by curious skepticism
  and by humility can help us sift reality from
  illusions.




                                              11
        Psychological Science
1. How can we differentiate between
   uniformed opinions and examined
   conclusions?
2. The science of psychology helps make
   these examined conclusions, which leads
   to our understanding of how people feel,
   think, and act as they do!


                                          12
        The Scientific Attitude

 The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity
(passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting
and questioning) and humility (ability to accept
          responsibility when wrong).




                                                    13
             Critical Thinking
 Critical thinking does
 not accept arguments




                                               Courtesy of the James Randi Education Foundation
and conclusions blindly.

       It examines
 assumptions, discerns
     hidden values,
evaluates evidence and
  assesses conclusions.

                           The Amazing Randi

                                               14
          Scientific Method
  Psychologists, like all scientists, use the
scientific method to construct theories that
    organize, summarize and simplify
               observations.




                                            15
     VIDEO

   DISCOVERING
   PSYCHOLOGY:
RESEARCH METHODS


                   16
                 Theory
A Theory is an explanation that integrates
  principles and organizes and predicts
           behavior or events.

For example, low self-esteem contributes to
               depression.



                                             17
              Hypothesis
A Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often
  prompted by a theory, to enable us to
    accept, reject or revise the theory.

People with low self-esteem are apt to feel
            more depressed.



                                              18
       Research Observations
 Research would require us to administer
    tests of self-esteem and depression.
Individuals who score low on a self-esteem
 test and high on a depression test would
          confirm our hypothesis.




                                         19
Research Process




                   20
      Operational Definitions
• To reduce bias psychologists report their
  research with operational definitions.
• An operational definition states how the
  variable is observed and measured.
• Operational definitions allows others to
  replicate (repeat) the observations.



                                              21
   OPERATIONAL DEFINTIONS
          ACTIVITY
• Determine an operational definition for
  each underlined variable.

• Remember an operational definition is
  observable and measurable.




                                            22
    TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS
•   Make an observation
•   Describe the behavior
•   Detect correlations that predict the
    behavior
•   Design research

•   Develop a hypothesis about North Penn
    student behavior
                                            23
Description: Starting point of any
             science.
                    Case Study
    A technique in which one person, group, or
situation is studied in depth to reveal underlying
               behavioral principles.




                                            Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers
              Is language uniquely human?                                     24
            CASE STUDY
• Long tradition in clinical work, Freud’s
  theory of psychoanalysis
• Can include tests, interviews, analysis of
  letters, or transcripts




                                               25
             CASE STUDY
• EXAMPLES: Freud, Piaget, chimp
  studies, Phineas Gage
• Advantages:
  – Depth of information
  – Appropriate for new, rare, or complex cases,
• Disadvantages:
  – Individual may be atypical or unrepresentative
  – Anecdotal information can overwhelm general
    truths
                                                   26
                    Case Study
                     Clinical Study


A clinical study is a form of
  case study in which the
 therapist investigates the




                                      http://behavioralhealth.typepad.com
problems associated with a
   client. Example: Oliver
   Sack’s “The Man Who
Mistook His Wife for his Hat”


                                                                            27
                  Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported
  attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people
usually done by questioning a representative,
          random sample of people.




                                    http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org
                                                                       28
                SURVEY
• Use interviews or questionnaires to ask
  about behavior, attitudes, opinions, beliefs,
  or intentions




                                             29
                  Survey
              Wording Effect

Wording can change the results of a survey and
            thus affect validity.

 Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography be
allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)



                                                  30
       WORDING EFFECTS
• The Statistical Assessment Service
  nominated the following 1937 British
  Gallup Poll question as a leading
  candidate for the “Worst Poll Question of
  All Time”.
• “Are you in favor of direct retaliatory
  measures against Franco’s piracy?”
• Why? Modern example?
                                              31
PROBLEMS WITH QUESTION
1.   It is not balanced.
2.   It assumes knowledge
3.   It does not use everyday language.
4.   It employs a perjorative.
5.   It is vague




                                          32
      WORDING EFFECTS


• Women with young children should be
  able to work outside the home.

  – 8 in 10 Americans agreed



                                        33
      WORDING EFFECTS

• Women should stay at home if they have
  young preschool children.

    • 7 in 10 Americans agreed




                                           34
      WORDING EFFECTS
• The problems faced by blacks have been
  brought on by blacks themselves




                                           35
• With a white interviewer: 62% of whites
  agreed

• With a black interviewer: 46% of whites
  agreed




                                            36
       WORDING EFFECTS
• Not allowing vs forbidding
• More restrictions vs government
  censorship
• Aid to needy vs welfare
• Affirmative action vs preferential treatment




                                             37
                         Survey
                  Random Sampling
      If each member of a
    population has an equal
  chance of inclusion into a
sample, it is called a random
    sample (unbiased). If the
 survey sample is biased, its
   results are not valid. Only
  those who want to make a
       point may respond          The fastest way to know about the
                                    marble color ratio is to blindly
                                 transfer a few into a smaller jar and
                                              count them.              38
   Random Sampling Exercise
• Various Scenarios
• Basketbally Activity




                              39
               SURVEY
• People may be reluctant to admit
  undesirable or embarrassing things about
  themselves.
• Or they may say what they think they
  should say..
• Examples



                                             40
      Naturalistic Observation
Examples: Observing and recording the behavior
  of animals in the wild; recording self-seating
  patterns in a multiracial school lunch room.




                               Courtesy of Gilda Morelli


                                                           41
 NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
• Describes, does not explain
• Often used by ethologists such as Jane
  Goodall
• Behavior changes when you know you are
  being watched
• Observations may be distorted by what the
  experimenters expect to see.
• Other advantages, disadvantages?
                                          42
      Descriptive Methods
              Summary

Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic
   observation describe behaviors.




                                          43
            CORRELATION
• Correlation = relationship between
  variables
• Variables = the specific factors or
  characteristics that are manipulated and
  measured in research
• Evidence should be evaluated in terms of
  reliability and validity
    • Reliability: repeatable (replication)
    • Validity: accurately assesses topic

                                              44
           CORRELATION
• Scatterplots: represent the values of two
  variables; indicates correlation or
  relationship between the variables

• Measured by the correlation coefficient, a
  statistical measure of relationship. The
  extent to which two factors vary together,
  and thus of how well either factor predicts
  the other.
                                              45
                 Scatterplots




                    Perfect positive
                   correlation (+1.00)

Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are
generated by values of two variables. The slope of
the points depicts the direction, while the amount
 of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship.
                                                    46
                      Scatterplots




     Perfect negative               No relationship (0.00)
    correlation (-1.00)


 The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation,
while the one on the right shows no relationship between
                    the two variables.
                                                             47
                   Data
Data showing height and temperament in people.




                                             48
                Scatterplot
   The Scatterplot below shows the relationship
between height and temperament in people. There
    is a moderate positive correlation of +0.63.




                                               49
          CORRELATION
• POSITIVE CORRELATION: A direct
  relationship. Two variables increase or
  decrease together.

• NEGATIVE CORRELATION: An inverse
  relationship. As one variable increases,
  the other decreases.


                                             50
                    Correlation
When one trait or behavior accompanies
  another, we say the two correlate.
                                      Indicates strength
                                        of relationship
                                         (0.00 to 1.00)


   Correlation
   coefficient                    r = + 0.37

Correlation Coefficient is a
 statistical measure of the     Indicates direction
relationship between two          of relationship
          variables.           (positive or negative)      51
            CORRELATION
• Strength of the relationship is indicated by
  the number.
  – The closer it is to zero, the weaker the
    relationship
  – The closer it is to one (plus or minus), the
    stronger the relationship
  – Interpret:
     • +.8, -,2, -.9, +.3


                                                   52
Correlation does not mean
       causation!!!




           or




                            53
   Supplemental Correlational
          Examples
• Bald Men/Marriage
• High School Students/Attitude




                                  54
              Correlation

•The Point To Remember:

•A correlation coefficient helps us see the
world more clearly by revealing the
extent to which two things relate.



                                        55
     Correlation and Causation

• Very important to remember:



  Correlation does necessarily
        prove causation!


                                 56
Reaction Time Activity




                         57
           Experimentation
          Exploring Cause and Effect

  Like other sciences, experimentation is the
backbone of psychology research. Experiments
        isolate causes and their effects.




                                                58
       Exploring Cause & Effect
Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments
(1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other
        factors are kept under (2) control.

 Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate
          cause and effect relationships.




                                                    59
         Independent Variable
 An Independent Variable is a factor manipulated
by the experimenter. The effect of the independent
         variable is the focus of the study.
For example, when examining the effects of breast
  feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the
              independent variable.




                                                60
          Dependent Variable
A Dependent Variable is a factor that may change
   in response to an independent variable. In
 psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental
                     process.

For example, in our study on the effect of breast
  feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the
              dependent variable.



                                                    61
            IV/DV Activity
• Identify the Independent/Dependent
  Variable.




                                       62
       CONTROLING OTHER
          VARIABLES
• An experiment has at least two different
  conditions:
     • control condition
     • experimental condition


• Random assignment of subjects between
  conditions equates the conditions.
  Basketball example.

                                             63
 CONFOUNDING AND RANDOM
       VARIABLES
• Types of Confounding Variables:
  – Random Variables
  – Participants Expectations
  – Experimenter Bias




• Random assignment is presumed to distribute
  impact of uncontrolled variables randomly and
  probably equally across groups.

                                                  64
OTHER METHODS OF CONTROL
• Eliminating confirmation bias
• Eliminating order effects
• Matching conditions to eliminate
  confounding variables
• Double blind
• Eliminate experimenter bias
  – Experimenter expectancies (maze bright)
  – Confirmation bias

                                              65
         Experimentation
A summary of steps during experimentation.




                                             66
            Comparison
Below is a comparison of different research
                methods.




                                              67
      ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
• Established by the American
  Psychological Association
  – Obtain informed consent of potential
    participants
  – Protect subjects from harm and discomfort
  – Treat information about subjects confidentially
  – Fully explain the research afterward (debrief)
  – Institutional Review Boards (IRB) should
    screen research proposals
                                                  68
        Making Inferences
A statistical statement of how frequently an
 obtained result occurred by experimental
         manipulation or by chance.




                                               69
            Making Inferences
    When is an Observed Difference Reliable?


1. Representative samples are better than biased
   samples.
2. Less variable observations are more reliable
   than more variable ones.
3. More cases are better than fewer cases.



                                                   70
            Making Inferences
        When is a Difference Significant?


    When sample averages are reliable and the
difference between them is relatively large, we say
     the difference has statistical significance.

  For psychologists this difference is measured
       through alpha level set at 5 percent.


                                                  71
                      FAQ
   Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate
                everyday life?

Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to
study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to
find underlying principles that govern behavior.




                                                   72
                    FAQ
  Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture?

Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors
   vary across cultures, as they often do, the
   underlying processes are much the same.




                                  Ami Vitale/ Getty Images
                                                             73
                     FAQ
      Q3. Does behavior vary with gender?

Ans: Yes. Biology determines our sex, and culture
 further bends the genders. However, in many
  ways woman and man are similarly human.




                                                74
                            FAQ
    Q4. Why do psychologists study animals?

Ans: Studying animals gives us the understanding
of many behaviors that may have common biology
          across animals and humans.




                                                               75
                 D. Shapiro, © Wildlife Conservation Society
                      FAQ
    Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Ans: Yes. To gain insights to devastating and fatal
 diseases. All researchers who deal with animal
research are required to follow ethical guidelines
           in caring for these animals.




                                                  76
                    FAQ
   Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?

Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any
kind of physical or psychological harm beyond
normal levels encountered in daily life may be
                  carried out.




                                                 77
                     FAQ
  Q7. Is psychology free of value judgments?

Ans: No. Psychology emerges from people who
  subscribe to a set of values and judgments.




                                                78
                 © Roger Shepard
                    FAQ
  Q8. Is psychology potentially dangerous?

  Ans: It can be, but it is not. The purpose of
psychology is to help humanity with problems
 such as war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family
               dysfunction, etc.




                                                  79

				
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