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Anatomy..Lab by linzhengnd


									                                                                               Kiran Dhaliwal

                                  Anatomy Lab
1. Skeletal muscle is just another form of striated muscle tissue. The muscle fibers are
   cylindrical, long, and multinucleated cells. The muscle fibers consist of actin and myosin
   myofibrils. The human body consists of three major muscles, one of them being skeletal
   muscle. They are movable and they also support the skeleton. This muscle links two
   bones across the bones connecting joint. When skeletal muscles contract or shorten the
   bone it is linked to moves. These muscles are consciously controlled by us. This muscle is
   made to relax or contract by voluntary control. Skeletal muscle has a very smooth
   texture. This muscle is strong and stretchable for support and to allow us to be
   moveable. On the other hand ligaments are fibrous tissues. The function of these tissues
   is to prevent contact of the bones or the cartilage. In other words the tissues prevent
   bones and the cartilage from rubbing against each other which can be very painful. They
   are short bands of very tough but flexible connective tissue. They help to certify
   alignment of the bones and are composed of collagen fibers. They prevent abnormal
   movements of the bones aside from preventing contact. Ligaments are hard and strong,
   extensible but very difficult to break. Ligaments are white with a woven texture. Skeletal
   muscle and ligaments have similar purposes which include preventing abnormal
   movement, keeping joints in place, and movement in general.

2. Hypertrophy refers to excessive growth. More generally it is the abnormal enlargement
   of a part or organ in the body. The abnormal enlargement occurs from the increase in
   muscle cells. An example would be cardiac Hypertrophy which is the thickening of the
   heart muscle and typically occurs in the bottom chambers of the heart, known as the
   ventricles either being the right or left. Cardiac Hypertrophy occurs from increased
   stress on the heart. Atrophy is the decrease in size or wasting away from the body, part
   or organ. More specifically failure of growth. The cause of atrophy is nerve damage or
   defective nutrition. An example of Atrophy includes pathological atrophy which occurs
   in muscles due to motor nerve diseases, or muscle tissue diseases.

3. Isotonic exercise is when opposing muscles contract and the movement is controlled.
   The tension is constant while the muscle lengths are changing. An example of an
   isotonic exercise would be lifting free weights. The isotonic muscle contraction is what
   helps strengthen or tone muscles and improve joint mobility in the body. Isometric
   exercise is a muscle building exercise. This type of exercise includes muscular
   contractions against resistance but without any movement. In other words the muscles
   contract leaving the length of the muscles the same and unchanged. Isometric exercise
   is used to strengthen many different muscles in the body by pushing two parts of the
                                                                                 Kiran Dhaliwal

   body against each other (two hands) or against an object. This way the muscles become
   strongly stressed and are only stretched slightly, and this produces strength in the
   muscles which helps maintain toned muscles. An example of isometric exercise would
   be the plank which can be used to improve strength of the abdominal muscle. In order
   to perform the plank start lying flat on the floor, raise body off of ground using toes and
   forearms, keeping the back flat, and the abdominal muscles firm.

4. In order to prevent injury to the back muscle from lifting a heavy load a worker should
   follow the following steps: Test the load before lifting to determine how heavy the load
   is, make sure the weight is balanced and won’t become unbalanced when lifting, grip
   the object tightly before lifting, and use a ladder when you’re lifting something from
   over your head or if below then do not arch your back but instead do the work with your
   arms and legs. The best way to lift a heavy load is by using slow and smooth
   movements, keep your body facing the load while lifting or keep load close to your
   body, lifting with your legs can be done if you are able to straddle the load (bend your
   knees not your back, keep your back straight not bent), and try to carry the load
   between your shoulder and waist space which puts less strain on your back.

5. Professional baseball pitchers have one arm which is more muscular than the other
   mainly because that one arm is used more often to pitch the ball. The constant use of
   this arm helps strengthen muscles in the arm leading it to appear more muscular than
   the other. In order to pitch the ball, the player steps backwards with the opposite leg of
   whichever hand is used to pitch, then the hip is slightly rotated so that he/she is
   towards the catcher, then the arm is extended and the ball is thrown with great force
   and strength. While the player turns to face the catcher rotation occurs since the hips
   are rotated to the forward position. Flexion also occurs since the two muscles are being
   brought closer together (brachioradialis the elbow flexor, and biceps). At the ball release
   flexion occurs when the elbow is flexed ready for the ball to be thrown, extension also
   occurs when the arm is extended to release the ball. Rotation in the deltoids and arm
   occurs when the arm begins rotating forward to generate speed. Plantar flexion occurs
   when the leg is moved from the back to get into the forward position and dorsiflexion
   also occurs at this time. Abduction is also occurring when the pitcher has his/her arm
   rotated in a full circle.

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