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					This project work has been created under:

The educational project EU Socrates



K a t e ř i n a   K a p r a s o v á   &   B a r b o r a   L u d v í k o v á

        Students of:

                           The College of

          International and Public Relations




1)   Geographical introduction
     1A) Landscape
2)   Historical background
3)   The people
     3A) Population
     3B) German language
     3C) National minorities
     3D) Religious communities
     3E) Education
4)   Federal states
     4A) Berlin
     4B) Baden – Württemberg
         4Ba) Stuttgart
     4C) Free state of Bavaria
         4Ca) Munich (München)
     4D) Brandenburg
     4E) Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
         4Ea) Bremen
     4F) Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
         4Fa) Hamburg
     4G) Hesse
     4H) Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
     4I) Lower Saxony
         4Ia)       Hannover
     4J) North Rhine – Westphalia
         4Ja) Düsseldorf
     4K) Rhineland – Palatinate
     4L) Saarland
         4La) Saarbrücken
     4M) Saxony– Anhalt
         4Ma)       Magdeburg
     4N) Free State Of Saxony
     4O) Schleswig – Holstein
     4P) Free State of Thuringia
         4Pa) Erfurt
5)   World heritage list of Germany– UNESCO
6)   Economy
     6A) Germany‟s position in the world economy
         6Aa)Foreign trade
     6B) Most important business sectors
         6Ba) Automobile industry
         6Bb)Aerospace industry
         6Bc) Mechanical engineering and plant construction
         6Bd)Other important branches of industry
         6Be) Employment, Unemployment
     6C) Environmental protection
7)  Political system
    7A) Government
    7B) Laws, Court
8) Foreign relations
9) Few words on the end
10) Sources

1) G E O G R A P H I C A L I N T R O D U C T I O N
Germany (officially The Federal republic of Germany – Bundesrepublik Deutschland-BRD ) , one of the most
densely-populated states in Europe, is located in the centre of Europe. It lays from German Alps to North Sea
and Baltic Sea and borders The Netherland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France on the west, Switzerland and
Austria on the south, the Czech Republic and Polland on the east, and Denmark on the north .
The Federal Republic of Germany is the fifth biggest country in Europe because it covers an area of 357 022
square kilometres, the highest mountain is located in Bavarian Alps and measures 2962 metres. The longest
rivers hat flow through Germany is Elbe and Dunaj.
The Landscape
German landscapes are very diverse. You can find low and high mountains, elevated plains, hilly and
mountainous regions, lake lands and wide-open lowlands. From north to south, Germany can be divided into five
major landscape types:
The North German Plain boasts hilly landscapes with many lakes, is interspersed with heats, and moors as well
as fertile land. It stretches down as far as the edge of Central Uplands Range. The lowland bays here comprise
the Lower Rhenish Bight, the Westphalian Bight and the Saxon Thuringian Bight, located off the coast of this
region in the North Sea. Are numerous islands, such as Borkum, Norderney, Sylt and Helgoland. Situated in
Baltic Sea are Rügen, Hiddensee and Fehmarn. Some parts of the Baltic coast have flat, sandy shores, others
steep cliffs. Between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, lies an area of low hills known as Holstein Switzerland
(Holsteinische Schweiz).
The Central Upland Range divides northern and southern Germany. The central Rhine Valley and the Hessian
depressions serve as natural north-south traffic arteries.

Location                     Central Europe
Geographical coordinates     51°00'N, 9°00'E
total                        357 022 km²
land                         349 223 km²
water                          7 798 km²
Climate                      Temperate and marine,
                             cool, cloudy, wet winters
                             and summers
Terrain                      Lowlands in North,
                             uplands in centre, Bavarian
                             Alps in south
Elevation extremes
Lowest point                 Freepsum lake (-2 m)
Highest point                Zugspitze (2 962 m)
Land boundaries
Total                        3 621 km
Border countries             Austria, Belgium,
                             Czech Republic,
                             Denmark, France,
                             Luxemburg, Netherlands,
                             Poland, Switzerland,
Coastline                    2 389 km
Land use
Arable land                  33%
Permanent crops                1%
Permanent pastures           15%
Forests and woodland         31%
Other                        20%
Natural resources            Iron ore, coal, potash,
                             timber, lignite, uranium,
                             copper, natural gas, salt,
                             nickel, arable land

Germany remains a key member of the continent‟s economic, and defence organisations. European power
struggles immersed the country into devastating World Wars in the half of the 20th century and left country
occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and The Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent
of the Cold War, to German states were formed in 1949; the Western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and
the Eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The Democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western
economic and security organisations, the EC, which become to the Europe Union and NATO, while the
Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet – led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end
of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds
to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to western standards. In January 2002, German and 11 other
EU countries introduced a common European currency, the euro (EUR/€).

       Germany has a population of 82,6 million people. Around 7,3 millions citizens do not have their origin
in Germany (this equals to 8,9 percent of total population). And this creates diversity, which is made by migrants
living in Germany, the ethnic minorities, the regions and different states with their own traditions and dialects.

        Approximately one third of inhabitants (around 25 million people) live in 82 large towns of Germany. Fifty
and half million people live in towns between 2 000 and 100 000 inhabitants and around 6,4 million have homes
in villages with up to 2 000 inhabitants. Berlin has experienced rapid growth since the German Unification, so this
city and the area around it has more than 4,3 millions of inhabitants. The region on Rhine and Ruhr rivers, which
is strongly industrialised and where towns merge into another without boundaries is home to more than eleven
millions people (around 1 100 p./ square kilometre). These regions contrast with very thinly populated regions like
Mecklenburg – Western Pomerania and Brandenburg.
        With a population density of 230 persons per square kilometre, Germany is one of the most densely
populated countries in Europe, although there are big differences between former West Germany and what was
once the GDR. In the new federal states and east Berlin the density stands at 140 persons per square kilometre and
in the west at 267 p./km².
        With nine births per one thousand inhabitants per year, Germany has one of the world‟s lowest birth-rate.
Most women do not have their children until they are in their thirties and on average each woman has 1,3 children
but the population of Germany has remained on its stable level. The deficit births is compensated by 3 millions
of migrants. However, there is an increasing life expectancy – currently 74,4 for a new born boy and 80,6 for
a new born girl. Experts say that in 2030 there will be about 23-30 percent more of over-60.years-old than today.

Population                         82 424 609       Total Fertility rate        1,38 children/woman
Age structure                                       Median age
-0-14 years                              14,7%      Total                       41,7 years
-15-64 years                               67%      Male                        40,4 years
-65 years and over                       18,3%      female                      43,2 years
Population growth rate                   0,02%      Net migration rate          2,18mig./1000 population
Birth rate                    8,45 births/1000 p.   Death rate                  10,44 deaths/1000 pop.
Infant mortality rate                               Life expectancy at birth
Total                         4,2 /1000 live b.    Total population            78,5 years
Male                          4,6 /1000 live b.    Male                        75,56 years
female                        3,7 /1000 live b.    female                      81,68 years
Sex ratio                                           Religions
At birth                      1,06 males/female     Protestant                  34%
Under 15 years                1,05 males/female     Roman Catholic              34%
15-64 years                   1,04 males/female     Muslim                      3,7%
total population              0,96 males/female     Unaffiliated or other       28,3%
Ethnic groups                                       Literacy                    Aged 15 and over can read and
German                                   91,5%                                  write
Turkish                                   2,4%      total population            99%
other                                     6,1%

German language
       German comes from the large group of Indo-Germanic languages and is related to Danish, Norwegian and
Swedish, Dutch and Flemish, and also to English. There were lots of regional written languages at the end of the
Middle-Ages. Uniform written language became established, based largely on the written language of Saxony (the
written language of Meissen) with the Luther‟s Bible translation.
Germany is wealth of dialects. Usually, a person‟s dialect or accent lets you immediately know where he or she
comes from. It is said that if two people, one from Lower Saxony for example and second one from Bavaria were
to hold a conversation, each in their dialects, they would have great problems to understand each other. Long ago,
there were various different tribes in the area of today‟s Germany. Today, these tribes do not exist in their original
form, but their traditions and dialects live on in regions.
       German is also the native tongue of Austria, Liechtenstein, the majority of Switzerland, South Tirol
(northern Italy), northern Schleswig (Denmark) and in small areas of Belgium and Louxembourg along their
borders with Germany. German is the native tongue of more than 100 million people and every tenth worldwide
published book is written in this language.

National minorities and foreigners in Germany
       In Germany, there are four important national minorities: the Danish minority, the Friesian minority, the
German Sinti and Roma and the Sorbs. All four groups are under the Protection of National Minorities (ratified
in 1997) and their languages (Danish, North and Sater Friesian, Romany, and Lower and Upper Sorbian) are
under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ratified in 1998).
Since Denmark was defeated in war in 1864 German Danes have been a minority in the Schleiswig region. Today
there are about 50 000 members of this minority. The Friesians settled in North Fesia in about 7th century and
in the Saterland region between 1 100 and 1 400 .
Sinti and Roma have been mentioned in German
historical documents since 14th century. There are
70 thousands of Sinti and Roma-German national
who live both in large cities as well as smaller
towns through whole Germany. Sorbs settled in the
region to the east of the Elbe and Saale rivers,
which were abandoned by German people, in the
6th century. Nowadays there are 20 thousand Lower
Sorbs living in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg) and
about 40 thousand Upper Sorbs in Upper Lusatia
(Free State Of Saxony).

All four minorities enjoy a rich, cultural life, which is financially and politically supported by the
federal and state governments.
      Today there are about 7,3 millions of foreigners living in Germany. As it was already said, this
number equals to 8,9 percent of the total population.
      Many foreign workers came to Germany between the middle of 50ties and the end of 1973.
Many of them remained in Germany and sent for other members of the ir family. At the end of 2003
one third of foreigners has been living in Germany for longer than 20 years and about two thirds for
more than eight years. More than two thirds of foreign children were born in the Germany and since
2000 children born in Germany to foreign parents are allowed to accept German nationality (if they
meet certain conditions). Meanwhile, the majority of foreigners living here has integrated into
German society; many of them are in the top positions or have started their own busines s. Since 1970
around 3,2 million foreigners have accepted German nationality.

Religious communities
      In Germany 55 million people (or we can also say almost two thirds of population) consider
themselves as members of Christian faith. There are 26,6 million Roman Catholics, 26,3 million
Protestants, and two million people belonging to other Christian churches. The remaining third
of population belongs either to none, or the non -Christian religious community like Muslim (In
Germany there are about 3,5 million Muslims from 41 countries. Turkish Muslims are the largest
group, followed by group of Muslims from former Yugoslavia, the Arabian states, and from South -
east Asia.) or Jewish community. The Basic Law guarantees freedom of faith and opportunity
to practise one‟s faith. In Germany, there is no established state church and the relation between state

and churches can be called partnership because there is no state control over the churches and state
finances certain institutions run by the church like schools or Kindergartens.
In 1933 there were 530 000 Jews living in Third Reich. After the war there were left only few
thousand of people of Jewish belief. Today there are almost 100 000 members of Jewish community
and between 40 000 and 80 000 Jews who are not members of the community. It is expected that the
number of members will continue to rise. Over the past few years, many Jews emigrated to Germany
from the former Soviet Union. The largest Jewish community is in Berlin (over 12 000 members),
followed by community in Munich and Frankfurt (about 7 000 members). Because of German
historical responsibility government supports organisations which develop understanding and
dialogues between Christians and Jews and supports central establishment which belong to Je wish
       Germany is known as a country which values education, research and science. From this
country come winners of Nobel Prize, there is a huge support of international projects, students from
all over the world study here (224 000 foreign students in 2002) and the science and research is on
       Every child in Germany aged between three and six can be placed in a kindergarten, which are
existing to provide education and care for children until the time they enter primary schools .
As a rule, children attend kindergarten only during the morning.
       Children are legally required to attend schools from the age of six. Attendance at all public
sector schools are free of charge. Educational material is usually provided at no cost, but so me
federal states may levy a charge for educational materials or the full payment.
       As a rule children attend primary school in general period of four years, but in Berlin and
Brandenburg for six years. For the first two years the children‟s work is not gr aded and they receive
just a report about their successes and failures. In 2002/2003 there were over 3,1 millions of children
attending the primary schools. Since 1997 the number of pupils have been failing and experts expect
this to continue to 2015.
       In 2002/3 about 1,1 million children started attending a secondary general school after they had
finished primary school. This type of school offers a basic education including artistic, political and
psychological education.
       The intermediate school can be described as something between secondary general school and
grammar school. In 2002/2003 there were around 1,3 million
children attending this type of school. It is a more
comprehensive education, which involves six years
of schooling.
       As a rule grammar school is a nine-year secondary
school and in 02/03 there were around 2,3 millions of pupils
in this type of school, which is something like gymnasium,
and which‟s main purpose is to give a deeper general
education. Upper secondary education at grammar school
ends up with the “Abitur”, an examination from at least four
and at most five subjects.
       Children and youngsters with disabilities, because of
which they can not attend “normal schools” are attending
“Sonderschulen” or special schools. There are specia l schools
for various kinds of disabilities. Some disabled children and
youngsters visit integrated classes in regular schools.
In 02/03 430 000 of pupils attended this type of school.
       In the Federal Republic there are specially trained
teachers for each type and level of school. All must have
completed a course of study at the higher education
institution, but each course is different. Teachers for primary
and secondary school usually study for seven semesters,
a longer study of nine semesters is required for the teachers
for intermediate schools, special schools, grammar school and
vocational school. To complete their studies, teachers must
pass a state examination, which is followed by a two years
of practical training.

4) F E D E R A L S T A T E S
               Germany is divided into sixteen federal states, each of them is responsible for its own government,
some of them with long tradition. Germany has been divided into federal states since ever, but during the centuries
its appearance on the map was changed. The states existing today were established in 1945 but they have kept
their old traditions, characteristics and their history.
   Federal state       Capital city      Area       Population       Density
Baden-                Stuttgart        35 752 km²       10,6 mil.   294 p./ km²
Bavaria               Munich           70 549 km²     12,330 mil.    173 p./ km²
Berlin                Berlin              892 km²      3,388 mil.   3793 p./ km²
Brandenburg           Potsdam          29 467 km²      2,593 mil.     88 p./ km²
Free Hanseatic City   Bremen              404 km²       0,66 mil.   1633 p./ km²
Of Bremen
Free and Hanseatic    Hamburg             755 km²      1,726 mil.   2,27 p./ km²
City Of Hamburg
Hessen                Wiesbaden        21 114 km²      6,078 mil.   287 p./ km²
Mecklenburg-          Schwerin         23 173 km²      1,760 mil.    77 p./ km²
Western Pomerania
Lower Saxony          Hannover         47 616 km²      7,956 mil.   166 p./ km²
North-Rhine           Düsseldorf        3 482 km²     18,052 mil.   528 p./ km²
Rhineland-            Mainz            19 847 km²      4,049 mil.   203 p./ km²
Saarland              Saarbrücken       2 569 km²      1,066 mil.   416 p./ km²
Free State Of         Dresden          18 413 km²      4,384 mil.   240 p./ km²
Saxony-Anhalt         Magdeburg        20 447 km²     2, 581 mil.   128 p./ km²
Schleswig-Holstein    Kiel             15 761 km²      2,804 mil.   177 p./ km²
Free State Of         Erfurt           16 172 km²      2,411 mil.   150 p./ km²

                        Berlin has been the capital of Germany since 2000 and it is both a home to famous and
              important scientific and cultural institutions and one of the biggest economic centres in Europe.
              It covers an area of 883,3 square kilometres and almost a quarter of it is area is made by woods and
              lakes. Berlin‟s modernisation of traditional sectors like electrical engineering, car construction,
              chemicals and pharmaceuticals, mechanical sectors with a help of first-class infrastructure has
              brought an economical growth.
Population        3,388 mil.             In a comparison with other European cities Berlin can be consider with its
Area                892 km²    less than 800 years as a quite
Density           3 793 km² young city. The two founding
                               towns Cölln and Berlin became
united in 1307. Elector Friderich II. Made these twin town his
residence in 1451 and in 1701, after a coronation of Friderich
                       III Berlin became a Royal Capital and
                       Residence Town.
                                The humorist Jerome Klapka
                       Jerome has written in his book Three
                       men on the bummel that “Almost
                       everything that Berlin can boast with
                       can be found somewhere else and better
                       made…”. But he wasn‟t right. Berlin has much offer.
                                Berlin used to be a sad, grey, dust covered city that reminded the war time with its
                       strange coldness. But it has all began when the Berlin wall was torn down. After thirty
                       years the citizens had taken the wall in pieces and it just disappeared. The city came alive
                       and started to change. The fragments of the wall can be bought by tourists as a souvenir,

but Berliners say that they are mostly false. The wall has reduced to only a red line, linking to the east and the
Brandenburg gate.
         The main tourist attractions are still the Brandenburg gate, Reichstag, the
square Alexanderplatz and Friedrich Strasse. The Brandenburg gate used to be the
symbol of divided Germany and later became a symbol of new, united Germany.
It opens into a charming Prussian road Unter den Linden. The Reichstag building was
destroyed by a fire in 1933. Then it was rebuilt to a parliament, which is beautified
with the glass dome by Norman Fosters. Nowadays the government is seated here. The
                              dominant of square Alexanderplatz is the Fernsehturm
                              (the TV tower), which is with its 368 metres the highest
                              building in Berlin. Worth seeing is also the Prussian
                              summer residence – palace Sansoucci, to which leads 132
                              stairs and which has amazing rococo halls and
                              magnificent gardens. When you are in Berlin you also shouldn‟t miss the new
                              Jewish museum, a great example of Berlin‟s contemporary architecture. This steel-
                              cold building, which has a windowless exterior was designed by one of the front
                              architects, Daniel Libeskind, into a shape of broken star of David.

Baden- Württemberg
                        This state borders in the west onto the France, in the south onto the Switzerland as well
               as, across lake Constance, onto Austria. It is the third largest federal state with regard to its
               35 752 km² and its population over ten million inhabitants.
                        Baden- Württemberg boasts a large number of scenic regions. The Black Forest, lake
               Constance, the river valleys of the Rhine, Danube and Neckar are popular holiday destinations.
                           Every year, more tourists come to Baden- Württemberg than this state has
Population      10,6 mil.
Area          35 752 km²
                                    At the same time, Baden- Württemberg is an important business location
Density       294p. / km²  and one of Germany‟s top export states – not only because of global companies
located here (like Daimler-Chrysler, Bosh, Porsche, SAP and IBM), but also thanks to hundreds of small and
medium businesses that manufacture specialized products demanded all over the world.

The roots of Stuttgart date back to the 10th century. In those days Stuttgart
was a stud farm for Herzog Luidolf to rare his horses, named Stutengarten.
Indeed Stuttgart takes it´s name and City‟s coat of arms, a black steed from
this stud farm.
The earliest dated records of “Stuotgarten” are from the year 1229. In the
13th century Stuttgart obtained it´s City status. The boost to the up until then
unknown settlement came within the 14th century, when the Count of
Württemberg took up residency within The Old Palace Stuttgart.
However, it wasn‟t until 1488 when Stuttgart became the official capital
                                  and residence of Count Eberhard. The next
                                  century, within which Stuttgart was for a
                                  short time in the hands of Austria, was
                                  characterised by political and scientific
                                  unrest. Throughout history the City of
                                  Stuttgart was often tested very hard, especially during the 30 years war.

Free State of Bavaria
                         The term “free state” means that Bavaria is a republican state and not a monarchy. The
               state and its inhabitants are proud of their history, which dates back into the 6 th century. Bavaria is
               a tourist centre for its rich cultural and historical heritage and beautiful nature – the Alps, the Alpine
               foreland with its amazing lakes, national park Bavarian Forest, the Fichtel Hills and other scenic
               regions offering recreation and enjoying the nature.
               Bavaria was originally an agrarian state but now it has become a modern industrial centre oriented
Population 12,330 mil.          particularly at the major future-fields. This state is home to such well-known
Area          70 549 km²        concerns as Siemens, BMW, Audi, Dasa-Aerospace and MAN. Today, about
Density       173 p./ km²       35 percent of the state‟s gross domestic product comes from industry and more than
                                half from the services sector. With 26 universities of higher education Bavaria also
has an outstanding research infrastructure. The capital of Bavaria Munich (1,3 million inhabitants) has much
to offer in the way of education and culture .
Every year here is passing off an Oktoberfest, but there is not only a place of beer celebrations, there is also
lot of historical monuments. The first mention is about the three town‟s gates.
Isator gate and Sendlinger gate from 14 th century and the last one- Charles‟
gate is from 18th century. There are also two town halls – The Old Town Hall
and The Old Town Hall. The Old Town Hall is built in Gothic style. The New
Town Hall was built 1867 - 1909 in neo-gothic style typical for area
of Flanders. The most popular monument is Hall of fame. There are also some
monuments inscribed in some protection programmes.
                         Because of its poor sandy soil Brandenburg was known in past as the “sandbox of the
               Holy Roman Empire”. The state‟s economy used to be agrarian (traditional crops of rye and
               oilseed) but nowadays, there are many important industries like vehicle construction, mechanical
               engineering, the chemical and food industries and the film industry in Potsdam with its film and
               television studios and the Academy Of Films and Television.
                         The Brandenburg capital Potsdam (129 320 inhabitants) is famous for its castles and
Population       2,593 mil. gardens from the era of Frederick the Great and its lakes on the Havel river.
Area            29 467 km²
Density          88 p./ km²
Potsdam is a capital town of Brandenburg. It lies about 30 km on southwest from Berlin.
Potsdam fits in with the attractive countryside along the River Havel. In the city and its surrounding areas there
are delightful lakes, woods and parkland which the horticulturist Lenné included in his landscaping to form
a harmonious unity of architecture and nature. It is the castles, palaces and gardens as a whole, the extensively
shaped cultural landscape which UNESCO named a World Treasure
Free Hanseatic City Of Bremen
                      Together with Hamburg and Saxony FHCO Bremen is one of the federal states that existed
             before 1945 and consists of the city Bremen itself and of the city Bremerhaven, located
             65 kilometres down the river Weser. The territory between those two cities belongs to Lower
             Saxony. This Federal state is the smallest in Germany because Bremen and Bremerhaven are
             together covering an area of only 400 square kilometres, but it is still the second most important
Population       0,66 mil.    trade location. The best known products from Bremen are coffee, chocolate, flour,
Area              404 km²     milk products, spices, fish products and beer. Bremen is international seaport and
Density       1633 p./km²     trading centre right near the North sea. It is important location for automobile
                              manufacture, steel, shipbuilding, aerospace, high-tech and electronic industries.
In 787 Bremen was raised to the status of a diocesan town under Charlemagne.
Aroundn two hundred years later Emperor Otto I granted Bremen market
privileges – and this created basis for the development of town trade. When the
old German Empire was dissolved in 1806, Bremen finally became an
independent, sovereign free state and called itself a Free Hanseatic City. Together
with the sovereign princes and other free cities in Germany, the Free Hanseatic
City of Bremen entered into the German Alliance in 1815. And, as a Free

Hanseatic City, Bremen became a federal state of the new German Empire in 1871.
Free and Hanseatic City Of Hamburg
                       The FAHCO Hamburg, one of the 16 states of federation, is the second largest city
             in Germany with its 1, 7 million inhabitants. In this sense it is a city as well as a state. The municipal
             area with its 755 km² is seven times the size of Paris and 2,5 times that of London. With 30 m²
             living space per person, Hamburg enjoys the largest average of personal living space of all big cities
             in the world. Hamburg is considered on of the Germany‟s greenest cities. Forty percent of its total
             area consists of arable land and garden plots, parks and publics gardens and woodlands. Landscape
Population      1,726 mil. reserves and nature reserves cover 28 percent of the city area.
Area              755 km²              Hamburg is the second largest German city and the principal seaport and
Density       2, 27p./ km²   the largest overseas trade centre, with for example hundreds of companies from
                             China and Japan maintaining offices. All in all, there are more than 3 000 firms
intended on import and export business. Main industries here are connected to port, like for example, shipyards
and refineries.
         The founding of Lübeck on the Baltic coast, allowed Hamburg to become its port on the North Sea. It was
in 1188 over the next century, Hamburg‟s economic importance grew with the development of the Hanseatic League,
founded in Lübeck. In 1459, the last Schauernburg count of Holstein death. He was princely rights past to the Danish
Crown. On of the Middle ages, the Hanseatic League began to decline and Hamburg began to make its own way and
development. The Hamburg Stock Exchange was founded in 1558, the Bank of Hamburg in 1619 and a protective
convoy system started in 1662.Hamburg was able to become a member of the new German Confederation and after
1819 was known as “The free and hanseatic city of Hamburg”.

                        With a size of 21 114 square kilometres Hessen is one of the most compact German states
              but it is also centrally located. Nearly two-thirds of the population live in the Rhein Main Region,
              Hessen‟s most important economic centre.
                        Hessen has been the strongest economic state in Germany for years now. There are four
              main branches of industry – chemicals, vehicles, mechanical engineering and the electrical
Population     6, 078 mil.    industry.
Area           21 114 km²
Density        287 p/ km²
Wiesbaden is attractive to tourists because of its architecture. Wiesbaden‟s main sights
are the spa assembly rooms and casino, built in 1907 under a patronage of Kaiser
Wilhelm. Other important sights are the Hessian State Theatre, the historical quarter, the
old town hall, which was built in 1610 and is the oldest building in Wiesbaden, the neo-
gothic Market Church and baroque Biebrich Palace, three-winged residence, built
between 1700 and 1750 directly on the banks of river Rhine.

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
                        The “state of thousand lakes” is well-known for its primarily agrarian character and its
               unspoilt nature. Agriculture here plays a more important role than in other states. Principal crops
               are grain, oilseed (rape), and potatoes. Eighty percent of the total 1,3 million hectares of land used
               for agriculture is worked y farms of more than 500 hectares in size.
               The most important branches of economy are the shipbuilding industry, the food, luxury food and
Population     1, 760 mil.   beverages industry, the construction industry, mechanical engineering and the wood
Area           23173 km²     industry. Tourism is an important economic factor here. The best-known tourist magnet
Density        77 p./ km²    is Rügen, Germany‟s largest island. But Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania takes
                             particular care to ensure that growing tourism doesn‟t damage the environment too much.
283 nature reserves, 110 landscape reserves, three national parks and two biosphere reserves attest the importance
which state binds to the nature and environmental protection. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania also attracts tourists
with its charming castles, manor houses and its summer music festivals.

Shwerin is famous for its almost fairytale castle, which is typical neo-
renaissance monument situated on an island in lake Schwerin and can boast with
amazing chapel. This castle is surrounded by gardens, in which renovated
Orangery takes place. Another important sight is Alter Garten square, which is
with the neo-baroque buildings like Mecklenburg State Theatre and State
Museum, the towering Victory Column and the Old Palace one of the most
beautiful squares in this part of Germany. The historical centre is the Market
square with its Old Town Hall and the Schwerin Cathedral.

Lower Saxony
                         Lower Saxony is the second largest state in the Republic. It lies from the North Sea
               Island of Borkum with its maritime climate to the Harz Mountains with their winter sports regions
               and guaranteed snow.
                         But even if two thirds of the state‟s area is agricultural, Lower Saxony can not be
               classified as an agricultural state. Alongside the traditional industries such as shipbuilding, steel
Population      7,956 mil. and chemicals, it is now a home to the electronics and computer industry, as well as
Area          47 616 km² the car industry, the most important sector, with Volkswagen AG, the state‟s biggest
                             employer, located in Wolfsburg and the VW Foundation, the largest private German
Density       166 p./ km²
                             foundation that sponsors the sciences.
        Millions of guests come to relax on the seven East Friesian Islands, in the Harz Mountains, in the
Wesser Hills, the Teutoburg forest or the Lüneburg Heath. Also popular with the tourists is the “Altes Land”,
Europe‟s largest fruit-growing region just outside Hamburg, especially when the apple orchards are in blossom.

The town of Hanover was founded in the early middle Ages as a small settlement nearby River Leine
at the crossing of two important ancient trading routes.
Duke Otto granted the town the rights of a borough. Hannover was already a thriving community of confident
traders and craftsmen. In the 14th century the city was fortified with a solid city wall. There were three gates
in the wall: the Leintor, Aegidientor and Steintor. Three gothic churches were b uilt in the same century.
In 1636, the Thirty Years War the Duke of Calenberg decided that
it was better to live in a well-fortified city and made Hannover his
residence. The old monastery by the river was converted into the
duke‟s castle.
After the Seven Years War the embankments were pulled down
and the city started growing again.
In the 19th century, after the Napoleonic Age was over, Hannover
became to a kingdom and when the union with England was
finished, it had its own king, Ernst August. At the same time, the
city really started growing. Villages on the fringe were
incorporated, but industrialization did not get going before 1866,
when the Kingdom of Hannover was annexed by the Prussians.

North Rhine Westphalia
                         North Rhine Westphalia borders Belgium, Netherlands and the German states of Lower
                Saxony, Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate.
                This is the most heavily populated federal state from all and Ruhr, Europe‟s largest industrial
                area is located here, consisting of the cites Essen, Dortmund, Duisburg, Bochum and
                Gelsennkirchen. The industry is focused on the field of environmental protection and is also

Population       18, 052 mil.   an important insurance, financial and trade fair location.
Area               34 82 km²
Density          528 p./ km²

Different than most cities with a Roman origin, Düsseldorf lies on the right bank of the Rhine. Five bridges
connect the city to its older neighbour, the city of Neuss, on the opposite river bank. Originally, Düsseldorf was
nothing more than a small village (German: Dorf) on the Düssel river,
an affluent of the Rhine.
It received municipal rights in 1288. In the 14 th century it became the
capital of the Dukes of Berg and from 1614 it was the capital of the
Palatine. The town owes much to Duke Johann Wilhelm (called
Jan Wellem) who lived here in 1690-1716. Like Cologne, but to a lesser
extent, Düsseldorf started to attract writers, artists and musicians.

                       Rhineland-Palatine has countless beautiful landscapes, like for example, the Rhine
              Valley. There are also wine-growing regions, with their typical charm.
                       Not only is Rhineland-Palalatine a wine-growing centre (two thirds of German wines
              come from here), but it is also a major centre of chemical industry (Badische Anilin and Soda-
              Fabrik in Ludwigshafen is the biggest chemical factory complex in Europe) and a leading wood
              producer. Other important industries are the gemstone industry in Idar-Obstein, ceramic and glass
Population       4,049 mil. products from the Westerwald and the leather industry.
Area            19 847 km²
Density         203 p./ km²
Mainz has a long and rich history, documented by Roman remains dating back 2,000 years and the magnificent
buildings bequeathed by the elector of the Baroque period. In the 17 th century the princes transformed the face
of the city, commissioning the best architects and sculptors to build unique royal palaces and new churches.
The lose interrelationship of church and city history is documented by the imposing cathedral, which dominates
the Mainz‟s striking skyline

              Saarland, with its 2 600 km² the smallest federal state of Germany, is located between Lorraine,
              Luxemburg, and Rhineland-Palatine.
                       The most important branches of industry are glass and ceramics (those have a great
              tradition), mechanical engineering, metal processing and chemicals. And there is also a large
              development of information and communication technologies, materials research, electrical
              engineering and medical technology.
Population        1,066 mil.
Area              2 569 km²
Density          416 p./ km²

Saarbrücken was strongly influenced by France, which is a stone‟s throw away. This town is over 1000 years old
and its face was given to it by Fridrich-Joachim Stengel, the great
baroque architect, who has designed the three prettiest places in
Saarbrücken, the Schlossplatz, Ludwigsplatz and the St.Johanner
Market. St.Johhaner Market is with its countless pubs and restaurants
the hearth of Saarbrücken
          Ludwigskirche, is one of town‟s royal architecture sights and
is well known as one of the prettiest protestant baroque churches in
Germany. Together with Ludwigsplatz it constitutes a remarkable
baroque centre. On opposite site of the river we can find the square Schlossplatz with baroque chateau, old Town
Hall and the gothic church Schlosskirche. Worth further mentioning is the Town Hall, built in 18th century by
Georg J. von Hauberriser, who has also designed the Town Halls in Munich and Wiesbaden. This one is
interesting with its sandstone statues representing the main crafts of middle Ages. A miner, a farmer, a brewer, a
merchant and a shepherd. There are also statues of St.George and dragon, which symbolize the fight between
evil and good.

                       Through this federal state flows the river Elbe in a distance of over 300 km. Therefore,
              Saxony-Anhalt has an ample agriculture. The main crops here are grain, potatoes, sugar beet
              and vegetables.
                               Saxony-Anhalt is also a location attractive to many German and non-German
              companies (Bayer produces its world-famous aspirin tablets in Bitterfield, US glass manufacturer
              Guardian Industries in Wolfen). Saxony-Anhalt has attracted the most foreign investments of all
Population     2, 581 mil. the states from former Eastern Germany. There is
Area          20 447 km² a long tradition of chemical industry, the food
Density       128 p./ km² industry and the automobile industry.
Magdeburg is a modern city with long history. The Magdeburg Cathedral – first
gothic cathedral built on a German soil takes place here and houses the tomb
of Kaiser Otto the Great. One of the oldest city buildings, the Town Hall was built
in 13th century and completely destroyed two times. First, in 1631 by Tilly‟s army
and then, in January 1945 during an air raid- like many other buildings in town,
but it was rebuild from 1965 to 1969 and has returned to its former beauty.
Another cultural heritage with similar destiny- Magdalena Chapel, was built in
1315 in High-gothic style on the banks of river Elbe and was also destroyed two
times (during Thirty year war and in 1945).

Free State Of Saxony
              Saxony is the most populous and densely populated federal state of the east Germany and boasts
              a long industrial tradition. Before WWII, the triangle of cities Dresden, Liepzig and Chemnitz was
              the industrial hearth of Germany.
                       Today, Saxony is attractive location for companies engaged in developing
              and distributing technical products and systems, especially in the field of nano- and micro-
Population        4,384 mil. electronics. Companies in the high-technology sector located here are Infineon,
Area             18 413 km² AMD and Wacker Siltronic AG Freiberg.
Density         240 p./ km²
Dresden, capital of FSO Saxony is located on the left bank of the river Elbe. Because of the devastation during
the air-raid in 1945, the Old city part of Dresden was rebuilt, in a try to return to its former beauty. The most
famous symbol of the reconstruction in the city centre is the Frauenkirche (The Church Of Our Lady), the
baroque dome, which is dominating to the cityscape.
In the Old city, there is also the Semper‟s Opera
House, which was built between 1838-1841 by
Gottfried Semper. Thirty years later, it was destroyed
in a fire and rebuilt to High Renaissance style. It is
the only theatre in Germany that is named after its
architect. Worth seeing is also the Zwinger Palace,
a perfect example of German late-baroque style built
in 18th century by the architect Pöppelman. Inside
of it there are two main collections. You can visit
here the Old masters Gallery, which houses the
paintings of such great artists like Raphael,
Rembrandt and Rubens and there is also the biggest
collection of porcelain in the world.

              Schleswig-Holstein is the only German federal state bordered by two seas, North Sea and Baltic
              Sea, and also the only one in which three languages are spoken: not only German, but also Danish
              and Friesian. The Friesian ethnic group numbers 40 thousand people and can be find mainly
              along the west coast and in the north of this state live about 50 thousand of Danes.
                       Schleswig Holstein used to be agriculture and fishing state, but it has transformed into
              a location of business, industry and technology. Even if some parts of this state are still used for
Population      2, 804 mil. agricultural purposes, the future belongs to technologies like marine and medical
Area           15 761k m² technologies, production of software and energy and environment protection
Density        177 p./ km² technology. It is worth to say that Schleswig-Holstein is the biggest Germany‟s
                              user of wind power.
Kiel is a harbour on the Baltic Sea. Therefore, the city has maritime atmosphere. Large part of the city was
destroyed during WWII and has never returned to its former townscape. One of
the main sights in the old town centre is the old Nicolas‟s Church, which is built
in late-gothic style and above the main entrance has the plastique named “The
Fighting Spirit”, from Ernst Barlach. Kiel also has a castle Schloss, from which,
after 1945 has remained only the west baroque wing. Worth mentioning is the
Maritime museum, which is located in former fish auction hall and is focused
mainly on shipping. Kiel is a living city in which, since 1882, the “Kieler
Woche”, a famous sailing event with cultural framework is held. In 1936 and
1972, when Olympic games were held in Germany, in Kiel were held the
Olympic yachting competitions.

Free State Of Thuringia
                        Forests, fields, romantic valleys and gorges make this state, which is at the geographic
               centre of Germany and borders five other federal states, the „green heart” Germany. One half
               of Thuringia is given to agriculture and some of its farmlands are of those with highest quality.
               Important crops are grain, rapeseed, potatoes and sugar beet.
                        Mining (potash), porcelain, glass, toys, machine tools and
               optical industry have a long tradition in Thuringia. Nowadays, this
Population      2,411 mil. state is trying to attract future oriented technologies.
Area           16 172 km²              Culture and history of Thuringia has wealth
                             of castles, palaces, museums, theatres and galleries.
Density        150 p./ km²
                             Architectural monuments from the Bauhaus era and
such places like the Kyffhauser attract thousands of visitors every year. And
of course, there are names associated with Thuringia like Bach, Wieland, Schiller
and Goethe, as well as the city Weimar, the cradle of German Classicism and the
first home of Bauhaus.

The capital of Thuringia, with the population of almost 2 000 people has numerous architectural monuments that
are worth visiting. One of them is the Mariendom- Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the St.Severus
Church. This great example of German gothic architecture is the
dominant of cityscape. Inside the cathedral there is a seria of thirteen
coloured stained-glass windows, which are about 13 metres high and
present the greatest work of medieval stained-glass art.
One of the front Erfurt sights is also the Merchant‟s bridge, made
of stone in 1325, which is surrounded with 32 still habited narrow
houses from 16th century. Also important is the neo-gothic Town
Hall, which was built between 1870 and 1874 and inside which are
numerous wall painting describing Thuringia‟s history and legends
and scenes from Luther‟s life.

6) U N E S C O – T H E W O R L D H E R I T A G E            LIST    OF GERMANY
Aachen cathedral
This amazing town, which is 63 km from Köln over Rhine near the border with Belgium and Netherlands, has
                                                     about 250 000 people. In the town centre, there is one
                                                     historical monument, which is on the The World
                                                     Heritage UNESCO. The Aachen‟s cathedral was
                                                     wrote on the heritage list in 1978 as the first historical
                                                     monument from the Germany.
                                                     The oldest part of the dome is octagonal, two storey
                                                     chapel, which was built by Charlemagne on break
                                                     8th and 9th century. It is one of the most significant
                                                     building from Charlemagne period.
                                                     Today‟s looking was finished with the 74 metres high
                                                     tower on the west of complex at end of 19th century.

Speyer cathedral
Dome in Speyer it is not only imposing building on World Heritage Unesco list, but there are also tombs
of many significant kings, emperors, and many others
interesting figures, down in the crypts. For example,
there is an empress Beatrice (wife of emperor
Frederick Bar Barossa), there is also their son;
a tombstone of Rudolph Hapsburg too. Works on the
cathedral was started in 1025 and it was ended
in 1966 ( in 1689 was burned by dictate of Ludwig
XIV; in 18th century was building restored in baroque
style; in 19th century was the cathedral rebuilt
in ancestral style).

Würzburg Residence
This magnificent Baroque palace, one of the largest and most beautiful in Germany, surrounded by wonderful
                                                        gardens, was created under the patronage of the
                                                        prince-bishops Lothar Franz and Friedrich Carl
                                                        von Schönborn. It was built and decorated in the
                                                        18th century by an international team of architects,
                                                        painters (including Tiepolo), sculptors and stucco-
                                                        workers, led by Balthazar Neumann, one of elite
                                                        Europe‟s masters.
                                                        He was one from the best that Europe ever had.
                                                        Many people say that is palace of palaces; maybe
                                                        it was one from the reasons to write it on the list.

Pilgrimage Church of Wies
Wies is a special place, it is a typical Bavarian slight town. The rococo style, in which is the church built is also
characteristic it is called Bavarian Rococo. Great
architect, designer Dominique Zimmermann from
1745 to 1754 built the church, and he put this
masterstroke into wonderful nature. Pilgrimage
Church of Wies is leading down marvellous Alpine
valley. Actually, the most important on this building
is the interior, concretely the altar. It is made from
cherry, white and of course black marble. Church is
florid by many ornaments and excellence statues.
Through the centuries church was not rebuilt
as much. It was only repaired, whis is fascinating.

Augustusburg and Falkenlust Castles at Brühl
Brühl is a little town near Cologne particularly famous for its amusement park with these two castles.
                                                            They were developed in the 18th century for Clemens
                                                            August, the archbishop, who ruled a large part
                                                            of northwestern Germany. One of his hobbies, besides
                                                            hunting, was building castles. It cost him so much
                                                            money that after his death all the furniture had
                                                            to be sold to settle debts. Nevertheless, the fine
                                                            rococo palaces are still standing. In Augustusburg you
                                                            should see the staircase, by which Clemens August
                                                            supposed to impress the humble visitors that came
                                                            to see him. The baroque garden was created according
                                                            to French tradition. Nearby lies the hunting lodge
                                                            Falkenlust, on the edge of, there is a little forest.

St Mary‟s Cathedral and St Michael‟s Church at Hildesheim
St. Michael‟s Church was built between 1010 and 1020, following a shapely plan with two apses, characteristic
of Romanesque art in Old Saxony. Its interior
is created of the wooden ceiling and painted stucco-
work. Along with the treasures of St. Mary‟s
Cathedral, well known for its doors and Bernward
bronze column, are an outstanding testimony to
the Romanesque churches of the Holy Roman

Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier
Trier is a miniature town in southwest Germany, close by Luxemburg. It was founded in 16 BC under Caesar
                                                        Augustus as “Augusta Treverorum” and it is
                                                        the oldest city in Germany It has perfect location near
                                                        the famous Moselle River. At the end of
                                                        the 3rd century, it became one of the capitals
                                                        of the Tetrarch. Trier grow into the second Rome,
                                                        with many important monuments; several of them
                                                        have survived until the present days. Like the large
                                                        Dome of course, and the baths. Quite out of the city
                                                        centre, we can find a huge Amphitheatre.

Hanseatic city of Lübeck
The medieval air and historically monuments, cultural and interesting places shape the face of the Lübeck.
The pictorial oval Old Town, surrounded by water,
contains some of the most important brick gothic
buildings. The towers of the seven churches have
dominated the city skyline since the middle Ages. The
Holsten Gate, the former western gate in the city
walls, is known all around the world. Now it became
to the symbol of the city. Lübeck was the first Old
Town in the Germany, which was set on heritage site.

Palaces and parks of Potsdam
The cultural landscape of Potsdam is the most extensive of all Germany‟s world heritage sites (include Berlin‟s
parks and palaces. The parks, which have been created in hundreds years (under Prussia‟s supremacy) are
unique. Impression of great architects, famous artists, landscape designers is everywhere. Sophisticated gardens
                                                            and many buildings are connected together
                                                            in countless ways. The Berlin and Potsdam world
                                                            heritage site consists of Sanssouci Park, the New
                                                            Garden, Babelsberg Park and Glienicke Park, which,
                                                            together with their own palaces, form harmonious
                                                            entities. Also included are the village of Klein-
                                                            Glienicke, Glienicke Hunting Lodge, Peacock Island
                                                            and Sacrow Palace and Park with the Church of the
                                                            Redeemer, as well as plenty of other areas
                                                            of Potsdam. For instance they are the Pfingstberg,
                                                            Lindstedt Palace, the Russian colony of
                                                            Alexandrowka and the estate of Bornstedt.

Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch
The famous Carolingian gate house in Lorsch, (known as the Königshalle), is one of the most important
Pre-romanesque architectural relics in Germany. Despite we do not know the date of the construction,neither
the original function of the Carolingian building.
The splendour of the decoration on its facade
and upper floor give an indication of the quality
of the lost buildings of one of the greatest and most
eminent monasteries in the Central Europe,
the Lorsch Abbey. The first mention dates back to
764. Abbey survived until the Reformation in 1556.
However, it was completely destroyed in the Thirty
Years War. In Lorch was resided a very important
library. It was one of the prominent centres of
education and learning. One of the most well known
manuscripts coming from Lorsch is            so-called
Lorscher Arzneibuch (Lorsch pharmacopoeia), which
is regarded as indicating a beginning of medicine
based on science.

Mines of Rammelsberg and historic town of Goslar
Goslar is situated nearby river Gose, a tributary of the river Oker. Emperor Heinrich I founded Goslar in 922.
The town soon gained significance due to the prosperous silver mines in the Rammelberg. Emperor Heinrich II
                                                            founded the legendary Kaiserpfalz (Imperial
                                                            residence) in the 11th century. Emperor Heinrich III,
                                                            who made this town one‟s of his favourite residences
                                                            and he has enlarged it. That was the way to Goslar
                                                            became one of the most important places in the
                                                            Empire; German kings and emperors visited the town
                                                            a hundred times. Goslar became an important trading
                                                            town and received the status of a Free Imperial City
                                                            in 1290. Mining progressed in the 15th century.
                                                            In 1802, Goslar lost its status as Free Imperial City
                                                            and became part of Prussia. It was renovated from
                                                            1868 to 1897.

Bamberg Old Town
Spread over seven hills and situated at the heart of the Franconia cultural landscape is Bamberg, the former
centre of episcopal and imperial power. The town‟s
position of importance can be found back to its
patron Emperor Heinrich II. Along with architectural
jewellery like a cathedral, old town hall, New
Residence and St. Michael‟s monastery, the River
Regnitz with its many watercourses and bridges
shapes the face of the town and features
the atmosphere of town. Bamberg has substantially
developed into a baroque town. Practically untouched
by war, Bamberg‟s old town is now the largest
complex of buildings, which is preserved in its own
state .

Maulbronn Monastery complex
The former Cistercian Abbey is completely protected monastery complex on the north of the Alps, because of its
                                                       perfect undamaged medieval architecture. Works on
                                                       abbey began in 1147, on the church, a Romanesque
                                                       basilica with three naves, was sanctified to Virgin
                                                       Mary, Mother of God, in 1178.The men„s chancel had
                                                       been ornated with oak stalls. At the beginning of the
                                                       13th century, was finished majority part in a
                                                       transitional style between Romanesque and Gothic,
                                                       with wide opens double arches. The monastery was
                                                       growing; it had built commercial buildings and living
                                                       quarters. The monks were building it for 390 years..
                                                       In 1556, the abbey was converted into a Protestant
                                                       monastery school, whose former students were for
                                                       example Johannes Kepler, Hermann Hesse and
Friedrich Hölderlin.

Historic town of Quedlinburg
On the castle-hill, a steep sandstone-rock, approximately 25m over the roofs of the city Quedlinburg, rise the
towers of the Romance seminary church
St. Servatius. Together with the residential premises
of the ladies convent they form a group of buildings
of great significance and architectural charm. The
Quedlinburger seminary church was used from 936
until 1803 as a place of worship for the secular ladies
convent. History of Quedlinburg goes back up to the
10th; century Henry I (Henry the Fowler) fortified
one of the oldest German cities, Quedlinburg in 922.
It was the capital of the East Franconian German
Empire it later became a member of the Hanseatic
League (1698, the city passed to Brandenburg), it has
been a prosperous trading town since the middle
Ages. Most of the buildings were scrupulously restored to their original condition in 1803. Half-timber,
medieval European buildings and residences cover whole town. The rest of historic structures in Quedlinburg
due to 14th century it is the fortification and several early Gothic churches; and a 17 th century city hall. The city
is the birthplace of the poet Klopstock (1724) and the geographer Karl Ritter (1779).

Völklingen ironworks
The ironworks, which cover 6 hectares, dominate the city of Völklingen, in Saarland. Although they have
                                                     recently gone out of production, they are the only
                                                     unbroken example, in the whole western Europe and
                                                     North America, of an integrated ironworks that was
                                                     built and equipped in the 19th and 20th centuries and
                                                     has remained practically untouched. They were
                                                     founded in 1873 and became the largest Ironwork in
                                                     Germany. They were one of the most advanced
                                                     industrial plants in Europe.

Grube Messel fossil deposits
The area 70 hectares lies down in the northern foothills of the Odenwalk, south of Frankfurt am Main, near the
city of Darmstadt. The Messel site was actively mined from 1859 to 1971. Hessian government let the mines
investigate by scientist, who found many fossilises.
The oil shale in the pit is a historical mineral resource, which makes it part of the cultural heritage as defined in
the Heritage Protection Act of Hesse.

Cologne Cathedral
The monumental Cologne Cathedral is 144 metres long, 86 metres wide and with 157-metre tall spires. It stands
                                  on a flat-topped hill that has been a place of worship since the city‟s
                                  history. Fist was the early Christian church, which was probably extended
                                  in the 6th century and replaced to a Carolingian Cathedral in the 9 th century.
                                  In the mid of 13th century, the cathedral chapter resolved to build a
                                  cathedral in the French style High Gothic as a sepulchral church. On
                                  August 15th 1248, Archbishop Konrad of Hochstaden laid the firs stone. By
                                  1320, the choir, including all the interior furnishing and decoration, was
                                  finiched. Before the dedication of the choir in 1322, was this section closed
                                  by temporary wall. In 1560, when the following had been completed: St.
                                  Peter‟s portal adorned with statues, the southern nave built roughly up to
                                  the capital height also its second storey with bell chamber, seven vaults in
                                  the northern side aisle with stained-glass Renaissance windows. The rest of
                                  the nave and part of the transept were provided with roofs. For over 300
                                  years, the city panorama was dominated by the mighty torso with a
                                  uncompleted southern spire. Then, at the beginning of the 19 th century, an
                                  unprecedented wave of enthusiasm for the Middle Ages swept across
                                  Europe bringing up with it the Neo-Gothic style. The unfinished Cathedral
                                  became the symbol of German art. The king Friedrich Wilhelm IV in 1842,
                                  had let the cathedral complete. In 1880, the great enterprise was concluded
                                  at a cost of 27 million marks, faithfully following the original plans of the
                                  13th century master builder.

Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau
Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionized
architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices,
it occupied culture, architecture, design, art and new
media. The buildings started on the Modern
Movement, which constituted much of the
architecture of the 20th century.
One of the first colleges of design, it brought together
a number of the most outstanding contemporary
architects and artists and was not only an innovative
training centre but also a place of production.

Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg
These places in Saxony-Anhalt are all associated with the stories about life of Martin Luther and his fellowand
                                                         reformer Melanchthon. They include Melanchthon‟s
                                                         house in Wittenberg, the houses in Eisleben where
                                                         Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546, in his
                                                         room in Wittenberg,
                                                         The Luther‟s ideas, which launched the Reformation,
                                                         also started a new era of the religious and political
                                                         history of the Western world.

Classical Weimar
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the small Thuringian town of Weimar witnessed a remarkable cultural
flowering, attracting many writers and scholars,
notably Goethe and Schiller. This development is
reflected in the high quality of many of the buildings
and of the parks in the surrounding area.
The German cultural leading figures, of this era, lived
and worked here. For example composer Johann
Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), writer Johann Wolfgang
Goethe (1749-1832), the dramatist Friedrich Schiller
(1759-1805), the philosopher and theologian Johann
Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) and the poet Christoph
Martin Wieland (1733-1813), a few decades later the
composer Franz Liszt (1811-1886) resided in Weimar
as well.
Of course, they have some houses here, thereare also
artistic treasures, and many of them were signed on Heritage list, concretely Goethe‟s house, Schiller‟s house,
Wittums Palais and many others. On picture is Belvedere, which is inscribed either.

The Wartburg castle
Wartburg Castle blends superbly into its forest neighbourhood and it is a special mix of Romanesque, Gothic,
                                                         Renaissance and Historicism.
                                                         Although it has retained some original sections from
                                                         the feudal period, the form it acquired during the 19 th-
                                                         century reconstitution gives a good idea of what this
                                                         fortress might have been at the height of its military
                                                         and seigniorial power. It was during his exile at
                                                         Wartburg Castle that Martin Luther translated the
                                                         New Testament into German.

Berlin‟s museum island
The world-famous Museumsinsel (Museum Island) lies between the Spree and Kupfergraben. Unique collected
buildings housing archaeological finds and 19 th
century art. Concentrated in an area of less than
one square kilometre, over a period of 100 years
from 1830 to 1930, the island in the middle of the
River Spree evolved into a temple to the arts,
presenting six thousand years of the history of man
in five museums. It all started with the completion
of the Old Museum designed by Schinkel in 1830.
Friedrich August Stüler, Schinkel´s student, drew
up the first overarching building plan for
Museumsinsel in 1841 and his plans were used to
build the New Museum in 1859 and the Old
National Gallery in 1876.

Dessau – Wörliz garden kingdom
Prince Leopold III Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau (1740–1817) was the father of this “garden” idea, he
sought, with his many reforms, to create a harmonious union between man and nature. He set the Garden
                                                      Kingdom in a landscape defined by rivers and
                                                      meadows. Palaces, gardens and tree-lined alleys, park
                                                      buildings, follies and other small architectural gems
                                                      blend naturally into this environment.
                                                      The classical Luisium Palace with its English garden,
                                                      the rococo Mosigkau palace and park, the
                                                      Grosskühnau country park and the Georgium, whose
                                                      palace houses the Anhalt Art Gallery, surrounded by
                                                      the town of Dessau. They form a seamless whole with
                                                      the baroque town, palace and park of Oranienbaum
                                                      and the most important part of the Garden Kingdom,
                                                      the Wörlitz Park.

Monastic island of Reichenau on Lake Constance
On the Lake Constance is lying a Reicheneu island. In the Middle Ages Benedictine monastery settled down on
the island. We can find here three Romanesque
churches, which are outstanding examples of monastic
architecture between the 9th and 11th centuries, and their
wall paintings reveal that, during the 10 th and 11th
centuries. Reichenau was a cultural centre of major
significance for the history of European art.
A Benedictine monastery was founded in 724, by the
bishop Pirmin. Under direct imperial control, it
flourished from the 8th century to the 11th century and
developed into one of the great intellectual centres.
The famous monastery school, where highly respected
teachers gave classes, produced brilliant theologians,
politicians, scientists, writers and musicians.

The Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
The Zollverein mine in Essen was the biggest and most modern coal complex in the world. On this project
                                                     worked architects Fritz Schupp and Martin Kremmer,
                                                     who designed every detail. The two axis industrial
                                                     mining complex harmonise with the principles of
                                                     symmetry and geometry, creating a unique model
                                                     The surface plant, which had preserved in its original
                                                     condition, houses the Zollverein Museum.

Historical tows of Stralsund and Wisimar
They are both typical examples medieval architecture. They are also the Hanseatic towns at the peak of their
development during the prime of the Hanseatic League in the 14 th century.
The original buildings, many of these distinctive
monuments, serve to illustrate the political influence
and the emergency wealth of the medieval Baltic
towns. Wismar is the most authentically preserved
Hanseatic town on the southern Baltic. On the other
hand, Stralsund is characteristic island location
between the Strelasund and the 13th century lagoons.

Upper middle Rhine valley
The 65km-stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley, with its castles, historic towns, and vineyards, graphically
illustrates the long history of human involvement with a dramatic and varied natural landscape.

Muskauer Park
Muskauer Park is an exceptional illustration of a landscape park. The park was built between 1815 and 1845.
                                                           Hermann Fürst von Pückler-Muskau, a landscape
                                                           gardener, prince and travel writer, drew up plans.
                                                           Later, works on the park were continued with a regard
                                                           to original plans..

          Germany has an important position in world economy, it takes third place in export worldwide. This
country is an attractive location for foreign investors, because it offers developed infrastructure and qualified
work force. German companies make almost one third of their profits through export and almost one of four jobs
are depending on the foreign trade.
          German foreign trade takes ten percent of the world volume. The export of goods and services totalling
                                                            661 billions euro (2003) has offset the imports (totalling
                                                            532 billions of euro). Most important trading partners of
                                                            Germany are the western industrialized countries. The
                                                            closest relations are with EU member states, from which
                                                            comes more than a half of whole foreign trade. In 2003
                                                            Germany exported goods from EU members for
                                                            56,5 billion euro and imported goods from these states for
                                                            a value of 57,3 billion euro The main partner in import was
                                                            in 2003 France, followed by Netherlands, United States
                                                            and Great Britain. In the export, situation is almost the
                                                            same, but we should say that the Czech Republic continues
                                                            to be one of the main markets for German goods and
                                                            services in central and east Europe like Poland and
          Industry is one of the main sectors of German economy. Its share of economy is quite large, if we
compare it to other EU member states or the United States. In 2001 the sales totalled about 1,35 trillion euro,
almost 6,4 million people were employed in this sector and there were about 50 000 industrial businesses and
corporations. 2,6 millions of workers in Germany are employed by such large companies, which are known
worldwide and have branches or research facilities overseas, like the carmakers Volkswagen, BMW, Daimler-
Chrysler, chemical companies like Aventis, Bayer and BASF, the manufacturer of electrical equipment
Siemens AG and by the Bosch Group.
          The automobile industry is one of the most important German economic branches. Germany is the third
largest producer of automobiles in the world, following USA and Japan. 2002 there were 5,12 million of cars
made in Germany and more than 70% was exported.
          In Germany, there are lot of firms engaged in mechanical engineering and plant construction. More than
80 percent of them are small, but highly specialized companies with less than 200 employees. The spectrum of
internationally offered products is amazing. German firms offer more than 20 000 different items – from
agricultural              GDP                                                  GDP
machinery, consoles Purchasing power parity                    $2,271 trillion Real growth rate                    0,1%
and           printing                                                                                             17,7% of
                          GDP per capita                       $27 600         Investment (gross fixed)
machines to machine                                                                                     GDP
tools.                    GDP-composition by
                                                                               Inflation rate                      1,1%
          Worth                                                 1%
further mentioning is industry                                 31%
                                                                               Unemployment rate                   10,5%
also the aerospace services
industry, a small but Public debt                                              Industrial production –
                                                         64,2% of GDP                                              0,2%
                                                                               growth rate
important branch of Electricify production             544,8 billion kWh       Electricify consumption         506,8 billion kWh
German economy. In Electricify exports                  439 billion kWh        Electricify imports                44 billion kWh
proportion to sales,                                                                                     Iron,steel,coal,cement,
                                                    Potatoes, wheat, barley,
in this industry is Agricultural products            fruit, cabbages, cattle,  Industries
spend much, much                                                                                          electronics, food and
                                                   pigs, poultry, sugar beets
                                                                                                         beverages, shipbuilding
more money on the
research and development than in all other branches. That‟s because Aerospace industry has to combine almost
all of the high-techs, like electronics, robotics, measuring and control technology and regulatory technology. In
2002 there were sales of 15,3 billion euro generated by almost 70 000 employees.

          Other important branches of industry are the food industry, the chemical industry, making products for
sectors like health-care, the automobile industry and the construction industry and playing a leading role in
Europe, the textile and clothing industry, including the leather industry, metal-processing industry, mining and
optical industry.

         Increased number of natural disasters has made Germany heighten the environmental protection. In past
few years Germany has made big steps to keep the nature for future generations by introducing the ecological tax
reform, opting out Germany‟s atomic energy program, greater using of regenerative energies and the reduction
of CO2. The Federal Ministry Of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety are responsible for
environmental protection at the federal level. Several of the federal states have their own ministries of
         More than two thirds of employment are people working in service sector, about one fifth working in
industry, there are 34,1 million of people working for someone else and four million self-employed. In 2003 in
Germany were more than four million of people without a job, this equals to 10,5 percent of total population and
means that every tenth person able to work is unemployed. In west Germany, the rate of unemployment was in
2003 at 8,4 percent and in the eastern parts at 18,5 percent. Still it works that the fewer qualifications candidates
have, the smaller chances they have in finding a job. There are about forty percent of unemployed people, who
do not have any vocational qualification. Unemployed people have to be registered at the Federal Agency For
Employment, which pays unemployment insurance contributions for twelve months.

7) POLITICAL            SYSTEM OF           GERMANY
We can gather from the official name- Federal Republic of Germany, what is the political system of this country.
It is the democratic and socially responsible country. The nationwide constitutional order of the Basic Law is
expressed in the country‟s constitutional bodies, in the country‟s federalism, in the legal order and in the
electoral system.
     German Coat of Arms    German Flag

In accordance with the Basic Law, the Federal Republic of Germany is a democratic and social federal state. It is
also a constitutional state, and its role is to guarantee justice and security on the basis of law, as well
as controlling the activities of the state by means of laws and rights. Germany consists of 16 federal states with
their own sovereignty as regards legislation, administration and jurisprudence. This democratic state order
is based on the principle of popular sovereignty. The constitution says that all public authority proceeds from the
people. Here, the Basic Law assumes that the state is based on an indirect form of representative democracy with
elements of direct democracy. For example, the Federal President
and the Federal Chancellor are elected indirectly. Bundestag (Lower
Chamber of Parliament) elections combine majority elections and
proportional representation. Unlike the constitutions of some
countries, the Basic Law uses forms of direct democracy such as
plebiscites or referenda in the event of state boundaries requiring
          The Federal Chancellor and the federal ministers together
form the Federal Government, the Federal Cabinet. The Federal
Chancellor occupies an independent, elevated position surrounded by
the Federal Government and the federal ministers. He is on the top of
the Federal Cabinet, he alone is entitled to choose the Cabinet. He is
also decides upon the number of ministers and determines their
responsibilities. The main reason for the Chancellor‟s strong position
is the fact, that it is he who lays down the plan of government policy.
The Bundestag can only express its lack of confidence in the Federal
Chancellor by electing a successor by majority vote.
The Federal Chancellor can ask parliament to pass a vote of
confidence. If this is refused him, he can ask the Federal President to
dissolve the parliament.
This procedure was introduced by the authors of the Basic Law in                                           Bundestag
deliberate contrast to the Weimar constitution.

The Basic Law
After the war, Germany has developed into the freest and most consistable state that has ever existed on German
territory. The constitution, the Basic Law, has made a fundamental contribution to this. It guarantees the
individual extensive personal liberties and rights of freedom as well as social security.
The Basic Law has been accepted by citizens of Germany to a far greater extent than any other German
constitution before it. It was drawn up in 1949 and its aim was to provide public life with a new, free and
democratic order “for a transitional period”.
These are responsible for criminal matters, civil matters, matrimonial or family proceedings and non-contentious
legal proceedings, for instance, guardianship matters. There are four levels: the local court (Amtsgericht), the
regional court (Landgericht), the higher regional court (Oberlandesgericht) and the Federal Court of Justice
In criminal cases, each of the first three courts may have jurisdiction, depending on the nature and seriousness
of the crime.
Labour courts
These handle disputes under private law happening from employment contracts and between management
and labour force, as well as matters covered by the Works Constitution Act. Here, there are three levels
of appeal. The labour courts decide, for instance,if an employee has been dismissed fairly or unfairly.
Administrative courts
The jurisdiction of the administrative courts extends to offer legal protection against all administrative acts
and other administrative proceedings. The administrative courts handle all trials under public administrative law
that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the social and finance courts or, in exceptional cases, the ordinary courts,
or do not involve disputes which fall under constitutional law. Administrative courts also have three levels .
Social and financial courts
The social courts rule on disputes from all areas of social security. They also can be divided into three levels of
appeal. With only two levels, the financial courts deal with taxation and related matters.
Separate from the above-mentioned five types of court is the Federal Constitutional Court, which rules
on constitutional disputes. There are also state constitutional courts which handle disputes regarding
the interpretation of the state constitutions. Even in such cases, appeals to the Federal Constitutional Court are
not automatically excluded.
There are approximately 21,000 professional judges, most of them appointed for life. More than three quarters of
all judges are assigned to the ordinary courts. In exercising their profession, they are bound only by the spirit and
the letter of the law. At local court level, most non-contentious legal proceedings are handled by judicial officers,
who are not judges but higher intermediate-level civil servants in the judicial service. In several types of court,
lay judges also sit with the professional judges. Their specialist knowledge in certain fields such as labor and
welfare matters contributes to allowing the courts to make realistic decisions. They are also a manifestation of
every individual citizen‟s direct responsibility for the administration of justice

Germany has close relations with the United States, membership in NATO, supporting peace through collective
security, and also supports the integration of current members of the EU, and expansion of European Union into
central and southern Europe. Worth mentioning is either the Franco-German cooperation.
Germany strongly supports the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE), which‟s main purpose is to reduce tensions and tighten relations between the European nations, the
U.S., and Canada.
FRG tried to improve its relations with Eastern Europe, in the postwar era, at first by creating trade agreements
and than by tightening up the diplomatic relations. German relations with new states in central and Eastern
Europe fortified with unification of Germany.
The treaty confirming the Oder-Neisse line was signed by Germany and Poland in 14 th November 1990. One
year later, they also concluded a cooperation treaty. Germany also concluded four treaties with the Soviet Union

which ensured their relation ship, relations in economy, retreation of Soviet soldiery from the area of former
GDR. Russia, as a successor of Soviet Union accepted duties brought by these treaties.
Germany economically supports states in central and Eastern Europe and the development of democratic


We have learnt a lot during working on this project. We were glad to do it, no matter how it is going to end up
for us.
To be more concrete – working up this theme was for us really good experience about how to do things in
cooperation between each other in our team, and of course some knowledge about quite wide theme which was
given to us.
And, on the end, we would like to show you how it looked like, while we were working on this ending. Here you
have one small dialogue to illustrate:

                 K: “So... we have to write few words at the end...?”
                 B: “Yes, we have mean ...few words about what ?”
                 K: ”Don’t know... maybe how hard it was to finish this project. ”
                 B: “Well... it was hard...really hard.”

                                                                                                20th February 2005


Magazín STYLE, leden 05
Jerome Klapka Jerome, Tři muži na toulkách, Železný, Praha, 1992
Všechno o Zemi; Reader‟s Digest Výběr;2000
Ilustrovaná encyklopedie; Encyklopedický dům; Praha 1995
Německo, průvodce do zahraničí, Olympia; Praha 1999

We personally obtained informations from:
German tourist information centre in Prague and The German embassy in Prague


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