Introduction - the Coolamon Shire

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    Reporting Period
  July 2010 - June 2011

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 2
  CONTEXT OF THE REPORT................................................................................. 3
  ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ............................................... 4
PRESSURE CHAPTER ............................................................................................. 6
STATE CHAPTER ..................................................................................................... 7
  LAND ...................................................................................................................... 7
  WATER ................................................................................................................ 10
  AIR ....................................................................................................................... 11
  NOISE .................................................................................................................. 11
  BIODIVERSITY .................................................................................................... 12
    VEGETATION ................................................................................................... 12
    FAUNA .............................................................................................................. 13
  WASTE................................................................................................................. 14
    LIQUID WASTE................................................................................................. 14
    SOLID WASTE .................................................................................................. 15
  ABORIGINAL HERITAGE..................................................................................... 16
  NON-ABORIGINAL HERITAGE ........................................................................... 17
RESPONSE CHAPTER ........................................................................................... 18
  LAND .................................................................................................................... 18
  AIR ....................................................................................................................... 19
  WATER ................................................................................................................ 19
  NOISE .................................................................................................................. 19
  BIODIVERSITY .................................................................................................... 20
  WASTE................................................................................................................. 22
  HERITAGE, ABORIGINAL AND NON - ABORIGINAL ......................................... 23
APPENDIX 1 ........................................................................................................... 27
APPENDIX 2 ........................................................................................................... 28
APPENDIX 3 ........................................................................................................... 29

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                                                           Page 1

This report is the 15th State of Environment Report prepared by Coolamon Shire
Council. The Report has been prepared as a Comprehensive State of the Environment
Report (SOE) covering the period July 2009 to June 2010. A comprehensive report
must address the eight environmental sectors of; land, air, water, biodiversity, waste,
noise, Aboriginal heritage and non-Aboriginal heritage. It must report on all major
environmental impacts and related activities, including management plans relating to
the environment, special Council projects relating to the environment and the
environmental impact of Council activities.

This Report cannot be considered in isolation, it needs to be considered in conjunction
with Council‟s Community Strategic Plan (see Figure 1) which illustrates how this Local
Environmental Plan combines with Council‟s resourcing strategy Delivery Programme
and Operational Plan together with the Annual Report. The report continues to build
upon the information presented in previous reports on Council and reference is made
within the report to information previously provided.

                           Figure 1: Integrated Planning and Reporting

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                  Page 2

Section 428A of the Local Government Act 1993 requires Council in the year of which
an Ordinary Election of Councillors is to be held to include a report (a State of the
Environment Report) as to the state of the environment in the local government area in
relation to such environmental issues as maybe relevant to the environmental objective
established by Council‟s Community Strategic Plan.

Guidelines published by the Department of Local Government to assist Councils in
preparing their SOE Reports identify the role of the report in the management planning
cycle of Council and refer to the report as primarily a management tool of the Council.
Council within its Community Strategic Plan has adopted a number of objectives in an
attempt to sustain the environmental qualities of the Shire. The objectives and the
strategy on how Council intends to maintain the environmental qualities of the Shire are
provided below:

Objective 2.1: Adaptation to climate variability.

2.1.1    Monitor and strategically manage environmental risks and impacts of climate

2.1.2    Develop community leadership on becoming leaders in resource use, reuse and

Objective 2.2: Our rich heritage and natural environment character conserved.

2.2.1    Protect natural landscapes and systems in particular our native vegetation,
         biodiversity and Murrumbidgee River catchment through sharing regional
2.2.2    Encourage and ensure high quality planning and urban design outcomes.

2.2.3    Protect local heritage and residential amenity, including protection of significant
         architecture, Indigenous heritage and the natural environment.

2.2.4    Reduce our waste to landfill through effective waste management & recycling.

This report will provide details of the performance of Council in pursuant of its
objectives and strategies as outlined in Council‟s Community Strategic Plan.

The preparation of SOE reports has been an evolving concept as both the
sophistication and depth of Councils management planning processes and outcomes
have developed. Previous SOE‟s have utilised the “Pressure-State-Response” (PSR)
model to identify the key features in both the positive and negative impacts upon
environmental performance. The PSR model has some acknowledged shortcomings in
that the implied cycle of cause and effect is simplistic and often there is no clear
evidence linking pressures with changes in environmental state. However, this Report
continues the use of the PSR Model, but presents the eight environmental sectors
within the separate Pressure, State and Response Chapters.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                       Page 3

Council, in its custodial role for the environment, is now dealing with the broader issues
involved in the considerations of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD). The
depth of involvement with local government and ESD is outlined in Table 1 that is an
excerpt from the State of the Environment Guidelines published by the Department of
Local Government.

The challenge of ESD is to maintain the growth expectations of a community whilst
maintaining natural resource bases to ensure that future generations will enjoy the
same opportunity as the current generation.

Ecological Footprint

A method used to express the concept of ESD is the Ecological footprint tool. The
Ecological Footprint of a population is defined as the land that is needed exclusively to
produce the natural resources and assimilate the waste it generates indefinitely. While
it is still an evolving concept that requires further technical development and
refinement, it highlights the supply and demand relationship between land use and
long-term sustainability.

It is estimated that the total productive land of the earth approximates 13 billion
hectares. If 1 billion hectares is taken for reserves, that leaves 12 billion hectares for
consideration as part of the ecological footprint of the human race. If the area is
divided equally amongst the approximately 6.2 billion people (2001 estimate) this
equates to 1.9 hectares available for each person to live sustainably. Projected world
population growth will see the world's population increase to 10 billion people in 2050,
which will mean that only 1.2 hectares will be available for every person. When current
resource consumption rates are considered, the Australian average ecological footprint
per person is 10 hectares.

To     determine    your     own    ecological    footprint,   visit    the  website and examine the effects
that your consumption habits have upon the sustainable future of our planet.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 4
                             Table 1: ESD and Local Government.

Legislative Requirements

The Local Government Act now makes specific reference to the application of ESD principles in
the following matters:

    Section 7 (purpose of the Act) requires Councils, councillors and employees to have
     regards to ESD principles in carrying out all of their responsibilities;
    Section 8 (council‟s charter), making it clear that ESD is made a fundamental role of local
    Section 89, which provides that councils must have regard to the principles of ESD when
     determining applications for approval; and
    Section 4.3 – Resourcing Strategy:
     (i) A Council must have a long-term strategy (called its resourcing strategy) for the
         provision of the resources required to implement the strategies established by the
         community strategic plan that the Council is responsible for.
     (2) The resourcing strategy is to include long-term financial planning, workforce
         management planning and asset management planning.

Under the ESD regulation, the Council must consider its most recent comprehensive SOE
report when preparing the part of its Resourcing Strategy dealing with environmental protection

Definition of ESD in the Local Government Act

Ecologically sustainable development requires the effective integration of economic and
environmental considerations in decision-making processes.       Ecologically sustainable
development can be achieved through the implementation of the following principles and

a)   The precautionary principle namely, that if there are threats of a serious or irreversible
     environmental damage, lack of scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for
     postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation.

      In the application of the precautionary principle, public and private decisions should be
      guided by:

      (i)  careful evaluation to avoid, wherever practicable, serious or irreversible damage to the
           environment, and
      (ii) an assessment of the risk-weighted consequences of various options,

b)   Inter-generational equity namely, that the present generation should ensure that the health,
     diversity and productivity of the environment is maintained or enhanced for the benefit of
     future generations,

c)   Conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity, namely, that conservation of
     biological diversity and ecological integrity should be a fundamental consideration,

d)   Improved valuation, pricing and incentive mechanisms namely, that environmental factors
     should be included in the valuation of assets and services, such as:

     a.     polluter pays, that is, those who generate pollution and waste should bear the costs of
            containment, avoidance or abatement,
     b.     the users of goods and services should pay process based on the full life cycle of
            costs providing goods and services, including the use of natural resources and assets
            and the ultimate disposal of any waste,
     c.     environmental goals, having been established, should be pursued in the most cost
            effective way, by establishing incentive structures, including market mechanisms, that
            enable those best placed to maximise benefits or minimise costs to develop their own
            solutions and responses to environmental problems.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                              Page 5

Incorporating the eight environmental sectors.

As has been consistently identified within Coolamon Shire State of Environment
reports, the most significant pressure exerted upon the environment is that associated
with the population growth of the shire and associated human activities.

As populations grow, the demands for infrastructure, such as housing, energy, water,
transport, industry and waste disposal also increase. Supplying this infrastructure
results in land-use changes and other impacts on the environment through the
consumption of natural resources1. In view of the economic importance of the rural
areas within the Shire it is imperative that Council control the fragmentation of rural
lands for development purposes such as rural residential purposes. Council has
identified areas suitable for rural/residential in its Local Environmental Plan. To this
end the preparation of a new Local Environmental Plan to comply with the new State
Legislation has been completed.

The pressure exerted by population growth has been stable as the population of the
Shire has effectively remained neutral. The report “Comparative Information on NSW
Local Government Councils 2008-2009” published by the Department of Local
Government presents a 5 year averaged marginal growth rate of 0.40%. Projections
for regional population in the Murrumbidgee region, of which Coolamon Shire is a part,
are for an expected increase in population of about 10,200 through the period 2004-
2031. This growth is expected to occur in the regional cities of Wagga Wagga and
Griffith with the other local government areas expected to experience declining
population. The 2006 Census indicated a Shire population of 4176. Coolamon Shire is
predicted to have a population total of 4,090 in 20312. Coolamon township, because of
its proximity to Wagga is expected to have an increased population.

During the reporting period, 66 Development Applications (inclusive of 50 Complying
Development Certificates) were approved representing a value of approximately $3.37
million. Of these applications, 10 were for new dwelling construction and 3 for
subdivisions (inclusive of 1 boundary adjustment). The approved subdivisions created
a total of 2 lots for future development. Subsequent Development Applications
associated with the uptake of these lots will require appropriate development control to
ensure the potential impact that they have upon the environment is limited.

As highlighted within the State Chapter of this report, the predominantly rural nature of
the council presents the most significant pressure on the environment. From European
settlement agricultural practices have shaped the historical changes to the environment
experienced within the Coolamon Shire local government area (LGA). Previous SOE
reports have highlighted these changes and that pressure remains as the
environmental issues such as salinity emerge. The challenge for Council in its
environmental stewardship role is to effectively recognise and act to relieve this

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                    Page 6

The general state of the natural environment within the Coolamon Shire has altered
little over the 12-month period of this report, or from the commencement of State of the
Environment reporting. Accordingly, summary information is provided under the
heading of the eight themes and previous SOE‟s should be referenced for the
comprehensive information provided.


Alluvium and granite predominantly cover the Shire Area. Low hills occur in some
areas where older rocks rise above the alluvium. Three - (3) main geological
subdivisions have been identified as Alluvium, Devonian Granites and Ordovician
Metamorphosed Sediments

The landscape character of an area, or region, is a function of its distinguishing visual
characteristics. The Coolamon Shire is located in a generally flat landscape type. The
visual characteristics of the area include:

 A complex intermittent stream network of braided channels.

 Small towns and settlements at regular intervals along the main traffic routes.
  These towns have highly modified cultural landscapes and townscape character.

 Large areas of agricultural activity.

The Shire is generally dominated with land, which slopes less than 3% to land, which
slopes between 3 to 10%.

The majority of the land within the Shire is used for agriculture with approximately
83.5% of the land under agricultural production. Major products include wheat, barley,
canola, wool and livestock.

The urban areas of the various townships and villages occupy approximately 2 to 3% of
the land area whilst State Forests, Reserves, railways and roads make up the balance
with 13.7%.

The Coolamon Shire Council, with an area of 2,494 km2 and a population of 4176 as
indicated in the 2006 Census forms part of the Riverina Eastern Region Organisation of
Council's (REROC) within NSW, a region that stretches from the Great Divide to the
edge of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation plains. The major activity undertaken within this
Shire revolves around agricultural enterprises. However, the things that are of greatest
value to the Shire also give rise to some problems. The agricultural activities, for
example, is a major economic asset, but there is a need to cater for the increasing
pressures placed on the land by agricultural activities within the Shire to ensure that it
will not degrade this asset.

The Department of Local Government classify Coolamon Shire as a Group 9 Council,
typically defined as a medium rural Agricultural Council using the Australian
Classification of Local Governments (ACLG) system that classifies according to their
socio-economic characteristics and their capacity to provide services to the
community3. This classification is used for comparative purposes when examining
service provision of similar Councils.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 7
Mixed farming enterprises dominate the agricultural section in the Shire Council area
and farms occupy the majority of rural land. There are over 288 operating agricultural
establishments in the Shire, on farm units that range in size from 100 hectares to over
1000 hectares, although there are notable exceptions such as small intensive farms
and hobby farms located around the various rural communities. Major products of the
Shire include wheat, barley, canola, wool and livestock (sheep and cattle).

Rural planning within the Shire is of considerable importance in a regional context
because the Shire is both productive and under pressure from competing land uses.
The importance of the rural input to the Shire‟s and regions economy is reflected in the
fact that in the 2001/2002 statistical year the gross value of agricultural commodities
produced within the Coolamon Shire was $69,169,000.

In the 2006 Census, 495 (30%) people were employed as Managers. There were 190
(11%) employed as professional, and 211 (13%) people employed as technicians and
tradesmen. Community/personal workers comprise 141 (8%) and administrative
workers comprise 174 (10%) of people employed. In the sales area of employment
118 (7%) were employed as sales workers, drivers and operators comprised 120 (7%)
and 207 (12%) of people were employed as labourers.

The road system within Coolamon Shire is like most within the nation, under ongoing
stress. The total road length has approximately 247km‟s of sealed urban and rural
roads and 1,028km‟s of unsealed urban and rural roads. The majority of all of these
roads were constructed in excess of 28 years ago and generally to a standard suitable
to that era. Of the total length of the Shire‟s roads approximately 146 km are classified
as Regional Roads of which all are sealed. Like the local roads these roads too are
showing signs of stress and require a regular cycle of rehabilitation. Most have been
constructed for more than 20 years. The road network of Coolamon Shire was
designed on an approximate 30 year life cycle however, current funding limitations
necessitate that reconstruction is likely to be carried out over double that period.

Contamination of land occurs when the environmental impacts of human activity occur
unchecked. These contaminated sites are regulated through a series of Acts.
Under the Contaminated Land Management Act 1997, the EPA may:

   Declare land to be an investigation area "if it has reasonable grounds to believe
    that the land is contaminated with a substance in such a way as to present a
    significant risk of harm" (section 15); or a remediation site where "the land has, ...,
    been found to be contaminated in such a way as to present a significant risk of
    harm." (section 21).

   Issue investigation orders (section 17) or remediation orders (section 23).

   Enter into voluntary investigation or remediation agreements (sections 19 and 26
    respectively) on land which poses a significant risk of harm to human health or the

Records are also kept regarding land subject to notices issued under section 28 of the
Act to maintain remediation.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                      Page 8
Under the former sections 35 and 36 of the Environmentally Hazardous Chemicals Act
1985, the EPA issued notices on sites which were considered to be environmentally
degraded and required formal regulation. These sections of the Environmentally
Hazardous Chemicals Act have now been repealed. Current notices have been
brought forward as orders under the Contaminated Land Management Act. Where the
Environmentally Hazardous Chemicals Act notice has been complied with, the notice
has been revoked and the historical existence of the notice is retained on the publicly
available database of sites regulated under the Contaminated Land Management Act.
Unhealthy Building Land
Unhealthy Building Land (UBL) are sites that have been gazetted under the Unhealthy
Building Land Act 1990 (or previously under the Public Health Act 1901) because it is
believed that it would be "prejudicial to health" if a building was erected on that land.
Examples include:

        Closed landfills. Issues such as landfill gas emissions, contaminated leachate
         and possible surface soil contamination need to be considered in any
         investigation of such sites or consideration of the land for other uses.

        Some land affected by nightsoil (faecal waste), chemical contaminants,
         sawdust, asbestos or radioactivity.

        Remediate land where erection of a structure would affect the remediation.

At present there are no registered contaminated sites or unhealthy building land within
the Shire. Potentially contaminated sites include;

 Waste Disposal Sites - a total of four (4) sites.       All four sites are currently in

 Service stations - there are seven (7) operating in the Shire and typically a service
  station will store in the vicinity of 20,000 litres of flammable liquids. In addition to
  the service stations there are number of motor repair shops/garages some of which
  have petrol outlets.

 Fuel Depot Storage Facilities - Two (2) fuel storage depots exist within the Shire,
  which store large quantities of fuel for distribution to the various service stations,
  farmers‟ etc.

 Agricultural chemicals are stored and used on rural land in association with farming

 Ardlethan Tin Mine - this site is located near the community of Ardlethan. Tin
  Mining operations recommenced at this site, however, the operations closed down
  in August 2004. There are still a number of significant issues relating to
  decontamination of the site to be addressed. The rehabilitation of part of this site
  has been completed, however, the rehabilitation of the remaining area is subject to
  ongoing discussions between the various Government Departments.

Council presently does have a register of potentially contaminated sites due to previous
uses. This register is in accordance with the Managing Land Contamination, Planning
guidelines by DIPNR. This register indicates a potential contamination from past uses
only and does not infer that contamination exists.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 9

The average rainfall for the Coolamon Shire is 510mm per year with the wettest month
being October and the driest June. The Coolamon Shire, although it does not contain
any permanent rivers, creeks and/or similar is located within the Murrumbidgee Basin.
The Murrumbidgee Basin covers an area of approximately 84,000km2 and includes
7200km2 of land that is inundated in major floods. The Murrumbidgee Valley is
recognised as a unique area of significant environmental, industrial, social and
economic value, containing some of the most important agricultural land in Australia,
an asset to both the State and Nation. Located in south-western NSW the valley drains
an area of some 84,000km2, which includes Australia's largest inland city of Canberra.
The region has a population of approximately 520,000 the area population is growing at
a rate of 1.7% per annum. The valley is hydrologically defined as river basin 410.

Major water storages in the valley are Burrinjuck Dam, the Murrumbidgee River and
Blowering Dam on the Tumut River, these are controlled by the Department of
Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources.

Although the natural environment of the valley has been extensively modified through
the development of the region there remains significant areas of high conservation
value. Recreation, tourism and nature conservation, which depends on these areas, is
becoming increasingly important in the region.

The challenge remains to ensure that future development in this region continues
without detrimental effects on the natural aquatic environment.

There are two (2) creeks located within the Shire, which are considered as major
tributaries to the Murrumbidgee down stream of Burrinjuck Dam, these being Boggy
Creek (running through the centre of Ganmain) and Mirrool Creek (running adjacent of

As mentioned previously these two creeks are intermittent creeks which only flow
during periods of heavy rainfall. However, Boggy Creek has a permanent water supply
located within the township of Ganmain. This water does not flow and is very similar to
an agricultural farm dam.

Over the years a number of studies have been carried out and reports prepared
dealing with the environment of the Murrumbidgee River and its riparian lands and from
these, controls and policies aimed at addressing many of the pressures on the river
have been implemented.

The Murrumbidgee Valley is a highly developed and valued area of NSW with the
dependency on assured water supplies of good quality for its prosperity. A number of
key water resource issues have arisen in the valley over recent years, which need to
be addressed.

The Murrumbidgee Valley Strategic Water Management Plan, under the auspices of
the Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority (MCMA), provides a clear
indication of the status of the water resource issues, and management decisions based
on the resource capability assessment. The major issues of the Murrumbidgee Valley
are identified and proposals made as to how the Government and the community will
resolve these issues as an input to the catchment planning process.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                 Page 10

Little quantitative data is available regarding the measured air quality for Coolamon
Shire. Given the predominant agricultural nature of the shire it is anticipated that the
highest pollutant levels would be found in the area of dust particulates and pollen levels
during the dryer periods of the year.

The weather station located at the Wagga Wagga Airport records maximum/minimum
temperatures, rainfall, cloud cover, evaporation rates, and wind speed and direction.
Readings from the station are recorded on a daily basis.

A temperate climate exists with the average summer temperatures ranging from 12C
to 32.4C and average winter temperatures of 2.6C to 14.9C. The average rainfall is
around 510mm per year in the Coolamon Shire.

Dust is generated through best, as well as less than optimum management practices,
especially in times of drought and atmospheric instability, particularly in the rural areas.
Farming practices including the clearing of vegetation cover, the ploughing of fields,
mustering of stock and normal operations give rise to dust emissions.

Besides the rural industry dust is generated from a number of sources including traffic
movement along unsealed roads, road maintenance and construction works, quarry
operations, and industrial development.

Smoke arises through a number of sources, the burning of fuel in solid fuel home
heating/cooking appliances, the practice of agricultural burnoffs, bush fires, incinerators
and industrial activities.

During the cooler winter months when wind speeds are in the range of 0-5km per hour
(virtually stable atmospheric conditions), temperature inversions are likely to occur
resulting in the inability of smoke emissions from the many urban solid fuel heating
appliances to be dispersed. This smoke build-up in the urban areas during periods of
inversions is evident.

The most evident examples of air pollution detected by the community are generally
odours that are emitted from activities. During the reporting period no complaints were
received by council in respect of air pollution, with no odour complaints and no dust


Noise pollution can be defined as unwanted offensive noise that unreasonably intrudes
on daily activities. Amenity may be affected by the annoyance caused by noise. The
level of annoyance or discomfort depends upon a number of factors, including the type,
timing, duration and frequency of noise, or if the disturbance is out of the ordinary, that
it differs from the background.

The prevailing noise amenity within the Shire is consistent with a blend of rural and
residential uses. With a lower background noise level it is not difficult for some noise
sources to take on offensive characteristics without necessarily being of a “loud” nature
in themselves. Major noise sources within the Shire include the keeping of animals,
building work, occasional loud music and specific industries such as the movements of
heavy vehicles through the urban areas during the early morning and late evening
hours, particularly the movement of grain within the Shire. This traffic involves the

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                      Page 11
heavy vehicle movement of grain to and from the silos and train movements throughout
the year.

There were no noise complaints registered with Council during the reporting period.


Between 60,000 and 100,000 hectares of native vegetation are estimated to have been
cleared each year in NSW. The loss and decline of native vegetation can lead to
substantial reduction in terrestrial habitats and is a major threat to biodiversity. As
many areas have already been extensively cleared, even small amounts of additional
clearing can have a relatively high impact on biodiversity.

Roadside vegetation is very varied with several road sections supporting a good mix of
trees and shrubs, and other quite devoid of both. Understandably, tree and shrub
cover is greatly influenced by soil type and topography, with roadsides through pine
country supporting denser and more varied vegetation than those where Grey box is a
major tree species. Although vegetation on some of the roadside provides excellent
corridors there is presently little continuity between these and any of the better clumps
on private land.

A report undertaken by Greening Australia relating to roadside vegetation within the
Coolamon Shire indicates that the Shire still holds many good remnant areas worthy of
conservation and preservation, evident by the majority of high and medium value

There is a core group of trees and shrubs which are present across the whole Shire,
namely, white Cyprus pine, Grey box, yellow box, white box, kurrajong, western silver
wattle and lightwood.

The central and northern parts of the Shire hold plants which dwindle in number, or
may not be present at all towards the eastern boundary such as hakia wattle, malley
wattle, bimble box, blake, hotbush, centrebush, milgee, myell, kangaroo thorn, varnish
wattle, climbing saltbush, purple burr daisy, hooked needleweed, sugarwood,
rosewood and emubush. The eastern extremes do contain northern silver wattle and
chinese scrub bush which continue on through the Junee and Cootamundra regions.
The top square of the Shire has some area specific plants also, including fernleaf
hotbush, grooved damperia, rusty spider flower, common fringe myrtle, mugger
ironbark, gargeloo, inland tea tree, nodding blue lilly and yellow rush lilly. Some of
these can be found growing in similar communities in areas south of Wagga Wagga,
usually allied with mugger ironbark which suggest similarities in soil types.

There were no discoveries of officially declared rare plants, there were several that
should be noted as locally rare within the Shire as they were often sited in one location
only, or were not present in significant numbers anywhere, only as isolated plants.
Worth noting and looking at are the rosewood, tick and hill indeo, gargeloo, fern leaf
hotbush, yellow rush lilies, yarren, moona, groove, damperia, rusty spider flower, native
black thorn – sweet basaria and amula. Quantitative information regarding the impact
of clearing practices from European settlement can be found in the 1999-2000
comprehensive SOE report.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                   Page 12
It is estimated that over 2800 introduced plant species have become naturalised in
Australia. Approximately 25% of these are significant or potentially significant
environmental weeds. A list of weeds declared to be noxious in the Coolamon Shire is
provided in Appendix 1. The majority of costs and vigilance associated with Category 1
weeds, in the Shire are spent on: St John‟s Wort, Silverleaf Nightshade, Bathurst Burr,
Tree of Heaven, Spiny Burr Grass, Wild Radish, Sweet Briar, Johnson Grass,
Galvanised Burr, Scotch Thistle and Horehound. All of these weeds have invasive

There are a number of dedicated State Forests within the Shire, under the control of
the Forestry Commission of New South Wales although they are relatively small in
comparison to those other parts of the State. Nevertheless, they contribute to the
recreation and landscape value of the surrounding environment as well as yielding
limited timber supplies. The dominant vegetation in these forests is white Cyprus pine
with eucalyptus such as Grey, yellow and white box.

Introduced animal species place substantial pressure on society, the economy and the
environment in NSW. They have caused extensive damage to native ecosystems and
contributed to extinctions and the decline of many native taxa by preying on wildlife
and competing with native species. In addition, the presence of introduced species can
significantly degrade and reduce habitats, by damaging soil and watercourses,
spreading weeds, and carrying diseases. These disturbed environments may become
even more vulnerable to invasion by other exotic species.4 The following table
identifies the main vertebrate pests and their impact upon the environment.

                     Table 2 - Main Vertebrate pests and their impacts

Pest                    Main Impacts
Rabbits                 Soil erosion and land degradation; negative impacts on
                        agricultural production
Feral Pigs              Soil erosion and land degradation; risk of exotic disease; impact
                        on pasture production
Foxes                   Predation of wildlife and lambs; risk of exotic disease
Feral goats             Impacts on native vegetation; competition for pasture; risk of
                        exotic disease
Wild Dogs               Predation of native wildlife and livestock
Feral cats              Predation of native wildlife

The New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service have compiled a document
which explains that Western New South Wales contains the diversity of habitat, from
arid plains to wetter slopes, and as a consequence, is a home to a wide range of fauna
and flora species. It covers some 56,300,000 hectares (72% of the State) and
constitutes the Western Zone of the National Parks & Wildlife Service. A list of the
Threatened Species within the Coolamon Shire Council is provided at Appendix 2.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 13
The distribution and abundance of fauna and flora in the western zone has changed
considerably since European settlement. For many species this has meant regional
extinction, while others have become extinct nationally.

Of the 658 vertebrae fauna species known to have occurred within the Western Zone
since European colonisation, 19.8% are threatened, (Table 3). A closer look confirms
what has long been known, that mammals have undergone the greatest reduction in
numbers, with 58% of species present within western New South Wales being
threatened. In comparison, 8% of frogs, 13% of reptiles and 14% of birds present in
the zone are threatened.

                      Table 3 – Status of Fauna in Western New South Wales.

       Taxon                     Threatened     Non-Threatened           Total
      Mammals                        55               40                   95
       Birds                         53              327                  380
      Reptiles                       19              130                  149
     Amphibians                       3               31                   34


The generation and management of waste has a number of potential environmental
impacts. High levels of waste generation may be unsustainable, particularly if finite
natural resources are being used. Industry generates 68% of the waste disposed of in
NSW, while the remainder is generated domestically or in public places and is typically
managed by local government.5

The three elements of addressing the impact within the waste environmental sector are
to reduce consumption, re-use resources where possible for their complete effective
life and to recycle those resources that can be broken down to their components and
redeployed. The community has embraced the challenges of re-use and recycle,
leaving the reduction in consumption of resources as the major challenge in reducing
impact in this environmental sector.

The Coolamon Sewerage System was constructed in 1965 to service the need for
disposal of liquid waste generated by the Coolamon community. The sewage
treatment plant (STP) is operated by Council and licensed with the Department of
Environment and Conservation as a sewage treatment plant processing less than
10,000 ML per year. The system has been periodically upgraded or extended on a
needs basis, in October 2001 Council identified an area on the western boundary of the
Coolamon township which required sewerage augmentation. Additionally, an area to
the south and south west of Coolamon was identified for sewerage augmentation. This
augmentation was completed in December, 2004.

Annual compliance reports are required to be submitted for the STP to ensure that all
licence conditions are complied with in terms of discharge limits and monitoring.

The Ganmain community is serviced by the Ganmain Sewerage System that was
commissioned in June, 1998. Whilst both STP‟s require capital expenditure to maintain
the efficiency of the systems, they are operating satisfactorily and adequately meet the
needs of communities.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                    Page 14
Many residents within the Coolamon Shire local government area (LGA) dispose of
liquid waste with on-site sewage management facilities (OSMF). Council maintains a
register of the location of OSMF‟s to enable inspection to ensure that they are operated
in accordance with the appropriate standards.


As described in previous SOE reports, Coolamon Shire Council aims to serve the
needs of the Shires population. Council operates waste disposal facilities at
Coolamon, Marrar, Ganmain and Ardlethan.

All of Council's landfill sites are fenced and manned when in operation. At all of
Council's landfill sites recycling activities are undertaken in order to separate the
various types of waste.

On the 1 July, 2007 Council introduced a Co Mingled Recycling Service throughout all
towns and villages of the Shire. The service provides for a domestic waste collection
service on a weekly basis which allows each residential property to place out a 120 litre
wheelie bin for collection. The recycling service is provided on a fortnightly basis which
provides for each residential property to place out a 240 litre wheelie bin for collection.

The introduction of Co Mingled Recycling is having the effect of reducing waste going
to landfills.


Council in conjunction with Junee, Gundagai and Cootamundra Shires propose to
introduce an organic recycling trial for 200 residences in August 2011 for a period of six

An evaluation at the end of this period will be carried out and if the trial is successful
this service may be expanded to other areas of the Shire. This being a further
expansion of the service in trying to reduce the amount of waste being delivered to
Council‟s landfills.

Council will continue to look for innovative and sustainable methods of operating waste
streams to reduce the impact on landfill sites.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 15

The Coolamon Shire LGA falls within the South Western Slopes Bio-region. The South
Western Slopes was traditionally Wiradjuri country, the largest Aboriginal language
group in NSW. The Wiradjuri people travelled to the alpine regions of the South
Eastern Highlands and Australian Alps bioregions for the annual summer feasts of
bogong moths. Wiradjuri means „people of the three rivers‟, these rivers being the
Macquarie, Lachlan and Murrumbidgee. For the Wiradjuri people, the three rivers were
their livelihood and supplied a variety of consistent and abundant food provisions
including shellfish and fish such as Murray Cod. In dry seasons the food from the
rivers was supplemented with kangaroos and emus hunted for their meat, as well as
fresh food gathered from the land between the rivers, including fruit, nuts, yam daisies,
wattle seeds and orchid tubers.

Evidence of the presence of the Wiradjuri people is common along the Macquarie and
Lachlan Rivers in the northern half of the bioregion, but less so along the
Murrumbidgee in the south, even though the Wiradjuri people lived on both sides of the
Murrumbidgee. Surviving carved trees are numerous in the northern part of the
traditional Wiradjuri range, whereas there are only 3 of these surviving near the
Murrumbidgee. The reason for this is not clear, although the original presence of such
carved trees is not necessarily indicated by their present-day distribution.

The Wiradjuri people generally moved around in small groups, using the river flats,
open land and waterways with some regularity through the seasons as indicated by
debris that has accumulated in these areas.6

In NSW the principle laws which deal with Aboriginal heritage are:

 National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974

    The National Parks and Wildlife Act provides statutory protection for all Aboriginal
    objects and places in NSW. Areas are gazetted as Aboriginal places if the Minister
    is satisfied that there is enough evidence to show the area is, or was, of special
    significance to Aboriginal culture.

 Heritage Act 1977

    The Heritage Act protects the State's natural and cultural heritage. Aboriginal
    places or objects that are recognized as having high cultural value are listed on the
    State Heritage Register.

 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979

    The Environmental Planning and Assessment Act provides protection by
    considering impacts on Aboriginal heritage in land use and planning decisions. The
    three main areas are:

        Planning Instruments allow particular uses for land and specify constraints.
         Aboriginal heritage is a value which should be assessed when determining land
        Section 90 of the Act lists impacts which must be considered before
         development approval is granted. Aboriginal heritage is one of these possible

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                   Page 16
        State Government Agencies act as the determining authority on the
         environmental impacts of proposed activities and must consider a variety of
         community and cultural factors, including Aboriginal heritage, in their decisions.

A register of Aboriginal objects, places and other heritage values across NSW,
including Coolamon Shire, is available on the Department of Environment, Climate
Change and Water‟s website in the Aboriginal Heritage Information Management


The Heritage of a community includes all of the written and oral histories and the
traditions of that community. It includes all the artefacts, the built environment, the
cultural landscapes and the transport routes of the distant and recent past. The
heritage of a community is the sum of these parts, and their loss reduces the
connection of the community to its heritage. Heritage sites can include landscapes
such as gardens and particular rural settings, transport routes - old road alignments
and railways, industrial sites and structures, sites of agricultural activity and related
buildings and cemeteries. Some sites of former activity have few visible traces but have
potential archaeological interest. Heritage sites are not restricted to the abodes of the
rich and famous; the humble cottage dwelling from the great depression is as evocative
of our past as the imposing town residence, and the simple station hut can be as
important as the large homestead. Heritage sites do not have to be pure and unaltered,
or frozen in time to have value, in fact, sites with many successive alterations can tell
us more about changing local needs.

The primary beneficiaries of heritage conservation are the local community. Heritage
sites reflect triumphs and failures, they can be beautiful or forlorn but they are part of
everyone's surroundings and contribute to the community's sense of belonging or
feeling at home. The decision to keep heritage is the responsibility of the community

Appendix 3 details a list of the items of environmental heritage that have been
identified with the Coolamon Shire LGA.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 17

At the commencement of this report, reference was made of the role of the State of the
Environment Report as a management tool for Council use in setting its management
plan objectives. Coolamon Shire Council has consistently embraced its custodian role
for the environment and has included specific responses in its Community Strategic
Plan to address the pressure and state of the environment within the local government
area. These responses are provided later in this document.

In the report “Comparative Information on NSW Local Government Councils 2008/09”
published by the Department of Local Government information is provided in respect of
the amount spent on environmental management and health per person. Table 5
highlights the growing contribution Council is making to environmental management
and the above average commitment to environmental health management and

            Table 5 – Spending On Environmental Management and Health

 Coolamon         2006-2007          2007-2008   2008-2009   Group Avg      NSW Avg
   Shire                                                     2008-2009      2008-2009
Spending             $63.81            $67.87     $71.82       $88.35         $37.00
per capita

In respect of the identified pressure the following responses are those identified.


As identified within the Pressure Chapter, Councils primary response is to control
development to protect both the nature of land-use and the potential environmental
impacts of development.

The Coolamon Local Environmental Plan 2011 (LEP) provides sufficient land zoned
residential to cater for significant population growth in the six communities located
within the Shire. The residential zones provide for single dwelling development as well
as medium density housing.

The fragmentation of productive agricultural land within the Shire is controlled by the
LEP's rural objectives of (amongst others);

   To encourage sustainable primary industry production by maintaining and
    enhancing the natural resource base.

   To encourage diversity in primary industry enterprises and systems appropriate for
    the area.

   To minimise the fragmentation and alienation of resource lands.

   To encourage tourist and visitor accommodation that does not have an adverse
    impact on agricultural activities.

In order to achieve the objectives specific revisions relating to subdivision, dwellings
and development of rural land have been incorporated into the LEP.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 18
With the adoption of the Coolamon Local Environmental Plan 2011 which has
reassessed and upgraded the planning controls within the Shire, this document is seen
to deal adequately with emerging issues such as salinity, enviornemntal protection and
water sensitive urban design.

Council is continuing down the path of preparing the various Development Control
Plans to further enhance the operation and activity of the Local Environmental Plan.


Council will continue to be pro-active in addressing potential air pollution sources
including effective complaint investigation.


Council will continue to implement appropriate actions identified in documents such as
the Stormwater Management Plans for the Coolamon, Ganmain and Ardlethan
Townships and the Murrumbidgee Valley Strategic Water Management Plan. Where
necessary, these actions are costed and considered in capital works expenditure by
the Council and reported as part of Councils Annual report.

Potential water pollution sources, including run-off from liquid waste disposal systems
such as the sewage treatment plant and on-site sewage management facilities, are
being addressed through a system of inspection and improvement of facilities as

Water management is becoming a critical issue given the recent climatic conditions
experienced within NSW. Council has considered this issue and implemented water
conservation practices through the re-use of suitably treated effluent from the sewage
treatment plants. This reclaimed water is being used to irrigate areas such as the
Coolamon Golf Club and associated sporting fields and pastoral lands at Ganmain.
The storage capacity for recycled water is currently 50 mega litres.


Council will continue to be pro-active in addressing potential air pollution sources
including effective complaint investigation.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                 Page 19

In recognizing the value of native vegetation and the continuing pressure that it is
under Council, together with other agencies, introduced a number of measures aimed
at its protection. These measures were included in the State Environmental Planning
Policy 46 (SEPP 46).

However, following extensive consultation with community groups, industry and
landowners, the New South Wales Government enacted the Native Vegetation
Conservation Act to create a streamlined approach to native vegetation management
by combining a range of policies and regulations into one package.

The new Act replaces SEPP 46 and incorporates native vegetation clearing controls
previously contained in the Soil Conservation Act 1938, the Crown Lands Act 1989 and
the Forestry Act 1916. The Act also overrides the Coolamon Shire LEP in certain

The main features of the Act relate to the preparation of Regional Vegetation
Management Plans (RVMP) which are, to be signed off by the Minister for Land &
Water Conservation, and include more than one Local Government area.

In areas with an improved RVMP clearing that is consistent with the plan will not
require development consent. In areas without an RVMP, clearing can only be carried
out with the consent of the Department of Land & Water Conservation.

Council has entered into Agreements with the National Parks & Wildlife to undertake a
Voluntary Conservation Agreement for both the Marrar and North Berry Jerry
Cemeteries. These Agreements highlight the conservation of grassy white box
woodlands being these two important (2 of 19) eco systems identified throughout

Council has continued its programme of the establishment of tree corridors throughout
the Shire in conjunction with the Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority.
The last corridor to be finalised was established between Coolamon and Ganmain.

Landcare Groups – Council will continue to support the number of communities
throughout the Coolamon Shire that have developed Landcare Groups including
Ganmain, Coolamon, Marrar and various other small Committees. These Committees
have been successful in the past in obtaining funding from the National Heritage Trust
to carry out rehabilitation works for a variety of projects. Such projects include the
planting of trees along the Boggy Creek banks, corridor planting, and the reduction of
salinity and lowering of the water table on rural properties adjacent to Marrar.

In addition to the funds received many voluntary hours of work will be provided by the
group members and other interested parties to ensure completion of all projects.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                 Page 20
Noxious Weeds -         Council will continue to maintain its constant program of
identification, suppression and control of noxious weeds and as a result is
reducing/controlling the quantities of noxious weeds within its boundaries.

In recognising the importance of roadside vegetation Council had a study of vegetation
status of roads within the Shire carried out. The survey classified each Shire Road into
one of three classifications, high, medium or low conservation value.

As a result of the study Council may investigate the feasibility of implementing the
following three policies.

i)       The felling of trees, either dead or alive, or the ringbarking of trees on roadside
         reserves be prohibited.
ii)      That the ploughing of fire breaks on roadside reserves be subject to
         development consent being obtained from Council.

iii)     The linking of the roadside reserves to the various State Forest locations
         throughout the Shire.

The New South Wales National Parks & Wildlife Service have provided a list of those
species that are considered to be either threatened or vulnerable within the Coolamon

Where proposed development is likely to impact upon one of the listed species of fauna
then a Fauna Impact Statement (FIS) is required to be prepared and considered before
development consent can be granted. It could well be the case that in the light of the
impact identified in the FIS, consent to the development would be refused.

State Environment Planning Policy No. 44 – Koala Habitat Protection applies to the
Coolamon Shire. Council in considering an application for consent to carry out
development must take into account whether or not the area is a potential koala
habitat, which is defined as:

“An area of native vegetation where the trees and the types listed in Schedule 2
constitute at least 15% of the total number of trees in the upper or lower strata of the
tree component”.

In order to reduce the level of risk to endangered fauna, when the RLPB undertakes
vertebrae pest control the following procedures are to be followed:

i)       Avoid accidental poisoning of scavenging species such as the square tailed kite
         and tiger quails, all poison carcasses of target species, particularly rabbits –
         should be collected and disposed of by deep burying as soon as possible after
         the completion of the program.

ii)      If poisoning rodents in areas where superb parrot or turquoise parrots occur;
         grain should be placed in bait stations designed to prevent access by birds.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                      Page 21
iii)     In the event that feral pigs need poisoning, oats will be the only grain used.
         This is to protect parrots and cockatoos which de-husk oats and are therefore
         unlikely to congest lethal does of 1080.

iv)      When baiting for foxes, all fox baits will be buried to minimise the risk to tiger


With sufficient capacity existing within the Ganmain and Coolamon Sewage Treatment
Plants, Council is committed to maintaining the facilities so that they operate in an
environmentally satisfactory manner.

With the completion of the Ganmain Sewerage System and the extension of the
Reticulation System in Coolamon, the ongoing connection of septic tank systems to
Council's Sewerage Reticulation Systems is being achieved, to reduce the amount of
water contamination to land in both Coolamon and Ganmain through effluent

Additionally, Council has also implemented a Recycling Programme for scrap metal at
all waste landfill sites.

Recycling of waste is one strategy that assists in the minimisation of waste for disposal
at landfills. Within the Shire there is one drop off recycling centre located within the
township of Coolamon. This caters for such materials as glass and cardboard.

On the 1st July, 2007 Council implemented a fortnightly kerbside recycling service in all
towns and villages throughout the Shire.

Whilst Council does not, as a general rule, permit the disposal of hazardous material
into landfills, it has in the past received and disposed of stabilised asbestos in
accordance with the EPA guidelines.

Additionally, Council has implemented a waste oil recycling programme at Coolamon
and Ardlethan Landfills. In the past clinical waste from the Coolamon Hospital was
disposed of at the Coolamon Landfill, with all special clinical waste being collected by
the Greater Murray Regional Health Department Contractor and transported to
Leechville in Victoria for disposal.

In order to reduce the number of herbicide containers throughout the Coolamon Local
Government area Council has implemented the Drummuster Programme at its
Ardlethan and Coolamon Landfill sites.

With growing awareness of the implications of not disposing of waste in a safe and
controlled manner, and the knowledge that the landfill depots do not have an infinite
working life, Council will continue to investigate its options for disposal of waste in
future years.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                     Page 22

To date no archaeological study has been undertaken covering the Shire as a whole,
but rather, studies have been site specific relative to a number of major developments
that have taken place. With a known presence of aboriginals inhabiting the area in the
past and acknowledging that only a few sites have been located within the Shire, there
is a need for the following safeguards to be applied.

Developers should be made aware of their obligations under the National Parks &
Wildlife Service Act 1974, especially where development is to take place in the
identified risk areas.

If any material suspected of being an aboriginal relic is unearthed during construction
works then the construction work or activity should cease and the National Parks &
Wildlife Service contacted for an inspection.

Coolamon Shire contains many reminders of European occupation and settlement
(items of the Environmental Heritage) which began last Century and has left a legacy of
fine old buildings (most notably in the Coolamon township itself).

It is widely accepted that our built past should be afforded some protection and Council
believes that an assessment should be made of any items of environment heritage
prior to development. This Council‟s policy is in affect, expressing existing State
Government policy in New South Wales regarding development of items of
environmental heritage.

Council‟s powers over development of the Shire‟s heritage and historical items are
primarily contained in the Coolamon Local Environment Plan (LEP) 2011 as amended.
In addition, the Environmental Planning & Assessment Act 1979 and Regulations, of
the Heritage Act also provide supplementary controls over development involving
heritage items.

The LEP provides Council with the power to control all development in the Shire and
this includes development involving identified heritage items. These items are defined
in the LEP as an area of land of Heritage significance and identified in Schedule 5 of
the LEP.

Clause 5.10 of the LEP sets out how Council must consider and assess development
that is located on or near heritage listed land.

To supplement the controls of the LEP, and in particular the Coolamon Conservation
Area which covers the original nucleus of the settlement, Council is drafting a
Development Control Plan as provided for under the EPA Act. The Development
Control Plan has the following general objectives: -

   To set out matters that Council will consider in determining development
    applications which might affect the environmental heritage of an area;

   To provide development guidelines to assist applicants in meeting the amenity
    criteria which is related to the particular considerations for the urban conservation

   To protect and enhance the character of Coolamon Shire and, in particular, that of
    the conservation area.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                   Page 23
To assist Council in determining proposals within the Coolamon Conservation areas,
Council has obtained a grant from the New South Wales Heritage Department and now
contracts on a part time basis a Heritage Adviser.

Council has also supported the establishment of a Local Heritage Fund in conjunction
with the New South Wales Heritage Department. The Heritage Fund provides money
for the maintenance and restoration of Heritage buildings within the Coolamon Shire.

Council will continue to implement its responsibilities as outlined in an effective and
responsible manner.


2.1:     Adaptation to climate variability.

2.1.1    Monitor and strategically manage environmental risks and impacts of climate

         Progress Report:

            Council has completed a Draft Climate Change Strategy in conjunction with
             Statewide Mutual. This strategy to be considered by Council at its July
             2011 Meeting.

2.1.2    Develop community leadership on becoming leaders in resource use, reuse and

         Progress Report:

            Solar energy panels have been installed at the Coolamon Shire Council

            Effluent re-use water is currently being distributed to sporting organisations
             in the township of Coolamon.

            Some computer systems have been installed to control Council‟s irrigation
             of its parks and gardens.
            Mapping of the underground water supplies in conjunction with REROC
             Strengthening the Basins Communities Project is currently under way.

            Council has advertised in its monthly Newsletter the availability of grants for
             water tanks through DECCW.

            Council has also advertised in the monthly Newsletter the information about
             the solar energy systems Government assistance available.

            A report has been completed on the possibility of water recycling in the
             parks and gardens of Coolamon. A decision not to proceed was taken by

2.2      Our rich heritage and natural environment character conserved.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                      Page 24
2.2.1    Protect natural landscapes and systems in particular our native vegetation,
         biodiversity and Murrumbidgee River catchment through sharing regional

         Progress Report:

            Council continues to maintain the service agreement in conjunction with the
             Temora and Junee Shire for the control of noxious weeds.

            The ongoing spraying of noxious weeds has been carried out on the various
             areas identified with infestations.

            Staff continue to follow up the connection of premises within Ganmain to the
             Ganmain sewerage system.

            There has been no environmental damage reported from construction sites
             in the area.

            Council continues to maintain its appropriate licences for its mining

            Council has in place two voluntary conservation agreements for the
             preservation of native vegetation. Council continues to comply with these

            Tree planting of road corridors in conjunction with the Murrumbidgee
             Catchment Management Authority have been carried out.

2.2.2    Encourage and ensure high quality planning and urban design outcomes.

         Progress Report:

            The gazettal of the new Local Environmental Plan (LEP) has been
             completed. The ongoing preparation of a comprehensive Development
             Control Plan to supplement the new Local Environmental Plan is
             proceeding, and should be completed by the 31 December, 2011.

            Council has power saving kits available at the Coolamon Library to enable
             residents to identify potential energy savings within their homes, thus
             helping the environment.

            Council has received no complaints in relation to building activity carried out
             within the area.

            Inspections are carried out and the assessment and approval time is
             meeting expectations.

2.2.3    Protect local heritage and residential amenity, including protection of significant
         architecture, Indigenous heritage and the natural environment.

         Progress Report:

            Consultations with the indigenous community have been held during the
             LEP process.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                      Page 25
            Council continues to allocate funding under the local heritage program for
             restoration and improvements to heritage assets in the towns and villages of
             the Shire.

            Grant funding has been received for the continued employment of a
             heritage advisor.

2.2.4    Reduce our waste to landfill through effective waste management & recycling.

         Progress Report:

            Council continues to collect household garbage from within all defined areas
             of the towns and villages of the Shire. No complaints of a substantial nature
             in respect of this service have been received.

            Licensing conditions are being complied with at Council‟s landfill sites.
             Recycling at the landfill sites has been extended with waste being deposited
             in the designated areas. Landfill sites are manned when operating.

            An organic recycling trial is to be implemented over 200 sites within the
             township of Coolamon, this trial is being organised through the REROC
             Organisation of Councils.

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                    Page 26
                                                          APPENDIX 1


                                                                                                                Action for Noxious
        Botanical name                                           Common name
                                                                                                                 Weed Categories
Acacia karoo                                   Karoo thorn                                                               1
Alternanthera philoxeroides                    Alligator weed                                                            1
Chromolaena odorata                            Siam weed                                                                 1
Eichhornia crassipes                           Water hyacinth                                                            1
Equisetum spp.                                 Horsetail                                                                 1
Erythroxylum coca                              Coca leaf                                                                 1
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides                     Senegal tea plant                                                         1
Kochia scoparia                                Kochia                                                                    1
Lagarosiphon major                             Lagarosiphon                                                              1
Parthenium hysterophorus                       Parthenium                                                                1
Pistia stratiotes                              Water lettuce                                                             1
Prosopis spp.                                  Mesquite                                                                  1
Salvinia molesta                               Salvinia                                                                  1

Cuscuta spp.                                   Dodder                                                                         2
Hypericum perforatum                           St John's Wort                                                                 2
Ibicella lutea                                 Devil's claw (yellow flower)                                                   2
Lycium ferocissimum                            African boxthorn                                                               2
Onopordum spp.                                 Scotch/Illyrian/Stemless thistles                                              2
Papaver somniferum                             Opium poppy                                                                    2
Probocsidea louisianica                        Devil's claw (purple flower)                                                   2
Raphanus raphnistrum                           Wild radish                                                                    2
Rosa rubiginosa                                Sweet briar                                                                    2
Sclerolaena birchii                            Galvanized burr                                                                2
Sorghum halapense]                             Johnson grass                                                                  2
Sorghum spp. hybrid cv.                        Silk forage sorghum                                                            2
Sorghum x almum                                Columbus grass                                                                 2
Toxicodendron succedaneum                      Rhus tree                                                                      2
Xanthium spp.                                  Bathurst/Noogoorna/Californian/Cocle                                           2
                                               burrs.                                                                         2
Blue Hiliotrope                                Heliotropium amplexicaule                                                      2

Prairie Ground Cherry                          Physalis Viscosa/Virginiana                                                    3
Ailanthus altissima                            Tree of heaven                                                                 3
Echium spp.                                    Paterson's curse, Vipers/Italian bugloss                                       3
Marrubium vulgare                              Horehound                                                                      3
Solanum elaeanifolium                          Silverleaf nightshade                                                          3

Cenchrus incetus                               Spiny burrgrass                                                               4e
Cenchrus longispinus                           Spiny burrgrass                                                               4e
Harrisia spp.                                  Harrisia cactus                                                               4f
Opuntia spp.                                   Prickly pears                                                                 4f
Cabomba spp.                                   Cabomba                                                                       4g
Salix spp.                                     Willows                                                                       4g
                                          GLOSSARY - ACTION FOR NOXIOUS WEED CATEGORIES
 W1       Weed must be notified to local Council then fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed.
 W2       Weed must be fully and continuously suppressed and destroyed.
 W3       Weed must be prevented from spreading and its numbers and distribution reduced.
 W4f      Shall not be sold, propagated or knowingly distributed occupier must implement biological control or other control program directed
          by the Local Control Authority.

 Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                                                                 Page 27
                                                APPENDIX 2


                                  Common Name                     Botanical Name
 Amphibians                       Southern bell frog              Litories raniforrns

 Mammals                        Spotted-tailed quoll             Dasyurus maculatus
                               Stripe-faced dunnart             Sminthopsis macroura
                                         Bilby                     Macrotis logotis
                                         Koala                  Phascolarctos cinereus
                             Brush-tailed rock-wallaby           Petiogale penicillata
                                    Little red bat               Chalinolobus picatus
                              Greater long-eared bat            Nyctophilus timoriensis

 Birds                          Red tailed tropicbird            Phaethion rubricauda
                                Australasian buttern             Botaurus poiciloptilas
                                   Magpie goose                Anseranas semipalmata
                                   Freckled duck                  Stictonetta naevosa
                                  Blue billed duck                  Oxyuro australis
                                       Osprey                     Pandium haliaetus
                                 Square-tailed kite                Lophoictinia isura
                              Black-breasted buzzard          Hamirostra melanosternon
                                     Grey falcon                   Falco hypoleucos
                                     Mallee fowl                    Leipoa ocellata
                                       Brolga                       Grus rubicundus
                                 Australian bustard                Ardeotis australis
                                  Plains-wanderer                Pedienorus torquatus
                                  Bush thick-knee               Burhinus magnirostris
                                    Painted snip               Rostratula benghalensis
                                 Black tailed godwit                 Limosa limosa
                             Red-tailed black cockatoo       Calyptorhynchus magnificus
                              Glossy black-cockatoo            Calyptorhynchus lathami
                                   Pink cockatoo                 Cacatua lead beateri
                              Purple-crowned lorikeet        Glossopsitta porphyrocephala
                                   Superb parrot                  Polytellis swainsonii
                                     Swift parrot                  Lathamus discolor
                                  Turquoise parrot               Neophema pulchella
                                    Masked owl                   Tyto novaehollandiae
                                     Pink robin                  Petroica rodinogaster
                                  Gilberts whistler             Pachycephala inornata
                                    Calamanthus                 Sericornus fuliginosus
                                Regent honey eater               Xanthomyza phrygia
                                Painted honey eater                  Grantiella picta
                                  Pied honey eater              Certhionyx variegatus

 Plants                        Lepidium aschersonii               Spiny peppercress
                              Lepidium hyssopifoluim                 Peppercress
                                 Stipa wakoolica

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                           Page 28
                                                APPENDIX 3

                            ITEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HERITAGE

Part 1 Heritage Items

    Locality          Item Name               Address         Property description     Significance   Item No
 Ardlethan       Corner        Garage      Ariah Street       Lot 215, DP 750867          Local          11
 Ardlethan       PJ Kirby and Co Store     Ariah Street       Lot 19, Section 1, DP       Local         17
 Ardlethan       Railway signal box        Ariah Street       SRA219                      Local        118
 Ardlethan       Soldiers Memorial Hall    Ariah Street       Lot 16, Section 11, DP      Local         13
 Ardlethan       Bank of New South         28 Ariah Street    Lot 20, Section 1, DP       Local        122
                 Wales                                        758028
 Ardlethan       Newsagency                39 Ariah Street    Lots 1 & 2, DP              Local         12
                                                              319568; Lot 1, DP
 Ardlethan       Cooke‟s Business          62-64     Ariah    Lot 13, Section 1, DP       Local         15
                                           Street             758028
 Ardlethan       St Marks Evangelist       Barellan Street    Lots     11-14,     DP      Local         14
                 Parish   Presbytery,                         6758028
                 Rector,      Manse,
 Ardlethan       Uniting Church and        Hawthorn           Lots 4, 9 & 7, DP           Local        112
                 Hall                      Parade        &    758028
                                           Bygoo Street
 Ardlethan       London Hotel              10       Mirrool   Lot 1, DP 367864            Local        117
 Ardlethan       House, Old Hospital       22       Mirrool   Lots 4 & 5, Section 2,      Local        116
                                           Street             DP 5822
 Ardlethan       Our Lady of Help          Mithul Street      Lot 3, DP 1003673           Local         16
                 Christians Church
 Ardlethan       School, St Josephs        Mithul Street      Lot 264, DP 750867          Local         18
                 Catholic       Church
 Ardlethan       Convent                   Mithul Street      Lot 2, DP 1003673           Local         19
 Ardlethan       Presbytery                Mithul Street      Lot 1, DP 1003673           Local        110
 Ardlethan       Residences        and     3       Stewart    Lots 2 & 3, DP              Local        121
                 business                  Street             226561
 Ardlethan       CWA Hall                  35 Warri Street    Lot 5, Section 1, DP        Local        119
 Ardlethan       Shops (former)            46-48     Warri    Lots 1 & 2, DP              Local        120
                                           Street             515374
 Ardlethan       Court House, Police       Yithan     and     Lot 1, Section 3, DP        Local        111
                 Station and residence     Warri Streets      758028
 Ardlethan       Palace Hotel              Yithan Street      Lots 17-20, Section 2,      Local        113
                                                              DP 758028
 Ardlethan       Youth and Community       6 Yithan Street    Lot 1, DP 223509            Local        114
 Ardlethan       Post Office               10       Yithan    Lot 1, DP 818232            Local        115
 Beckom          Uniting Church            Ariah Street       Lots 2 & 4, DP              Local        123
 Beckom          Beckom Hotel              Ariah Street       Lot 1, DP 110570            Local        125
 Beckom          CBC Bank                  Ariah Street       Lots 8, 9 & 11, DP          Local        126
 Beckom          Hall and Soldiers Club    Deakin Street      Lots 1-3, DP 5799           Local        124
 Coolamon        Convent                   56       Bruce     Lot 2, DP 1067665           Local        155
 Coolamon        Fire Station              Cowabbie           Lot 1, DP 1099329           Local        145
 Coolamon        Old            Coolamon   Cowabbie           Lot 4, DP 337903;           Local        151
                 Hospital                  Street             Lots 1 & 25, DP
 Coolamon        WWI     and       WWII    Cowabbie           Road Reserve                Local        157
                 Memorial                  Street
                                           Loughnan     &
                                           Mann Streets)
 Coolamon        Administration            55 Cowabbie        Lot 9 & 10, Section         Local        150

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                                         Page 29
                 Building and Council     Street             26, DP 758277
                 Chambers (Coolamon
                 Shire Council)
 Coolamon        Coolamon Post Office     88 Cowabbie        Lot 1, DP 833885         Local    144
 Coolamon        Up-to-Date Store and     127-129            Lot 6, Section 9, DP     State    146
                 Garth          Jones     Cowabbie           758277
                 Collection of farm       Street
 Coolamon        RSL Building             Loughnan           Lot 2, DP 224841         Local    147
 Coolamon        Church                   32 Loughnan        Lot 2, DP 588984; Lot    Local    160
                                          Street             52, DP 599796
 Coolamon        Manse    –     Uniting   36 Loughnan        Lot 51, DP 599796        Local    159
                 Church Precinct          Street
 Coolamon        Old Methodist Church     37 Loughnan        Lot 2, DP 627024         Local    158
 Coolamon        Police Station           56 Loughnan        Lots 2 & 8, DP           Local    162
                                          Street             758277
 Coolamon        Crane                    Mann Street        State Rail land          Local    143
 Coolamon        Court House              Methul Street      Lots 2 & 8, DP           Local    161
 Coolamon        Presbytery               Methul Street      Lot 2, DP 1067665        Local    154
 Coolamon        School – St Michael‟s    Methul Street      Lot 2, DP 1067665        Local    153
                 Catholic precinct
 Coolamon        Residence      –    St   71       Mirrool   Lots 9 & 10, Section     Local    148
                 Andrew‟s      Anglican   Street             22, DP 758277
 Coolamon        Platform and Station –   Wade Street        SRA303                   Local    141
                 Railway Station
 Coolamon        Church and Hall          Wade Street        Lots 9 & 10, Section     Local    149
                                                             22, DP 758277
 Coolamon        Coolamon Hotel           Cnr Wade &         Lot 1, DP 626087,        Local    156
                                          Cowabbie           Lots 10 & 21, DP
                                          Streets            758277
 Coolamon        Stationmaster‟s          46       Wade      Lot 1, DP 807823         Local    142
                 Residence                Street
 Coolamon        Hospital (former)        53-55    Wade      Lot 1, DP 330997         Local    152
 Ganmain         Red Cross Rooms          63 Ford Street     Lot A, DP 365239         Local    136
 Ganmain         Ganmain Hall             92 Ford Street     Lot 2, DP 217741         Local    137
 Ganmain         Ganmain Hotel            57 lake Street     Lot 1, DP 217741         Local    138
 Ganmain         Public School site       23-41              Lots 1-5 & 12, DP        Local    131
                                          Langham            758428; Lots 192 &
                                          Street             194, DP 820588
 Ganmain         Police Station and       44    Langham      Lots 18 & 20, DP         Local    133
                 Court House              Street             758428
 Ganmain         Infants and Primary      46-50              Lots 1-5, 10, 14 & 20,   Local    128
                 School                   Langham            DP 758428
 Ganmain         Presbytery    –   St     47    Langham      Lots 8-10, Section 19,   Local    127
                 Brendan‟s      Roman     Street             DP 758428
                 Catholic Church
 Ganmain         Church                   47    Langham      Lots 8-10, Section 19,   Local    129
                                          Street             DP 758428
 Ganmain         Presentation Convent     47    Langham      Lots 8-10, Section 19,   Local    130
                                          Street             DP 758428
 Ganmain         Uniting Church           51-53              Lots 6 & 19, DP          Local    135
                                          Langham            758428
 Ganmain         St Peter‟s Anglican      45-47              Lot 60, DP 5363; Lot     Local    132
                 Church,    Hall and      Menangle           1, DP 6702
                 Rectory                  Street
 Ganmain         Ganmain      Hospital    Waterview          Lot 11, DP 758428        Local    134
                 (former)                 Street
 Ganmain         Royal Hotel              27 Waterview       Lots 11 & 14, DP         Local    139
                                          Street             758428
 Ganmain         Meakers Store            29 Waterview       Lot A, DP 375415;        Local    140
                                          Street             Lots X & Y, DP
                                                             401254; Lots 11 &
                                                             13, DP 758428
 Marrar          Marrar Public School     Centenary          Lot 209, DP 720587       Local    163
                 – Teacher‟s residence    Drive
 Marrar          Roman         Catholic   47-51     Lime     Lot 166, DP 750847       Local    165
                 Church                   Street

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                                 Page 30
    Marrar        Anglican Church         Webb Street        Lot 1, DP 974666        Local       166
    Marrar        Uniting Church          York Street        Lots 1 & 3, DP          Local       164
    Marrar        Marrar Hotel            11 York Street     Lot 1, DP 112691; Lot   Local       167
                                                             1, DP 186712
    Matong        Matong Public School    Matong Street      Lots 1 & 16, DP         Local       168
    Matong        Farmer‟s Home Hotel     Matong Street      Lots 4-6, DP 758657     Local       170
    Matong        St Patrick‟s Catholic   Wood Street        Lots 9-11, DP 758657    Local       171
    Matong        Uniting Church          Yanco Street       Lots 11, 19 & 20, DP    Local       169

Part 2 Heritage Conservation Areas

      Locality          Name of Heritage                   Identification on Heritage    Significance
                       Conservation Area                               Map
    Ardlethan      Ariah Street Conservation               Labelled “C1” and shown           Local
                   Area                                    by a red outline with red
    Coolamon       Cowabbie Street                         Labelled “C2” and shown           Local
                   Conservation Area                       by a red outline with red
    Ganmain        Ford Street Conservation                Labelled “C3” and shown           Local
                   Area                                    by a red outline with red
    Ganmain        Langham Street                          Labelled “C4” and shown           Local
                   Conservation Area                       by a red outline with red
    Ganmain        Waterview Street                        Labelled “C5” and shown           Local
                   Conservation Area                       by a red outline with red
    Marrar         Marrar Conservation Area                Labelled “C6” and shown           Local
                                                           by a red outline with red
    Matong         Matong Street Conservation              Labelled “C7” and shown           Local
                   Area                                    by a red outline with red

      NSW State of the Environment 2003; Department of Environment and Conservation; October 2003.
      New South Wales State and Regional Population Projections 2001-2051; DIPNR; 2004
      “Comparative Information on NSW Local Government Councils 2005-06”; Department of Local
      NSW State of the Environment 2003; Department of Environment and Conservation; October 2003
      NSW State of the Environment 2003; Department of Environment and Conservation; October 2003
      Group 9 medium Rural Councils as classified by Department of Local Government.
      Information from website

Coolamon Shire Council - 2010/2011 SOE Report                                                   Page 31

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