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									Histology SSN                                                             October 25, 2004

                                                           Nadia Goodwin – ng2021
                                                           Rebecca Nardi – ran2101

I. Organization
    A. General
     Muscle fibers run parallel and straight
     Muscle tissue has many fasciculi
     A fasciculus has many myofibers
     A myofiber has many myofibrils
        Myofiber = muscle cell
        “Muscle fiber” is really a syncytium of small myoblasts
           that fused to form a large multinucleated cell
        Polygon-shaped in cross section
        nuclei pushed to outer edge of cell by the myofibrils
     A myofibril is composed of many myofilaments (thick and thin)

    B. Surrounding connective tissue
       1) Endomysium
         Loose connective tissue that surrounds each
           muscle fiber
         Reticular fibers
         Contains the smallest capillaries and neuronal
       2) Perimysium
         Connective tissue + fat + blood vessels and nerves
         Group fibers into fascicles
       3) Epimysium
         Dense connective tissue that surrounds muscle groups. Large vessels and
           nerves penetrate this to reach muscle fibers

II. Myofilaments & Striations
    A. Types:
        1) Thick: myosin
        2) Thin: actin
    B. Sarcomere = Basic Contractile Unit
    C. Striations: Diagramed in sarcomere. Seen in entire muscle b/c myofibrils and
       myofibers are in register.
         H-band = myosin not overlapping actin
         A-band = all myosin (both overlapping and non-)
         I-band = actin not overlapping myosin
         Z disc = disc in center of I band from which actin extends

Histology SSN                                                             October 25, 2004

III. Function Tidbits
     A. Musculotendinous junction = to dense regularly-arranged connective tissue
        (tendon) i.e. collagen type I.
     B. Triad = functions to deliver intracellular Ca++ to initiate contraction.
        (2 triads/sarcomere)
            1. (1) Transverse (T) Tubule = in-pocketing of plasma membrane
            2. (2) cisternae of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum
     C. Motor unit = neuron + muscle cells it innervates.

I. Organization
      Fiber = one, mononuclear cell
      Central nucleus (can be seen in cross section too)
      Columns of cells are branched
II. Intercalated discs
     A. Gap junctions
          Lateral portion
          Important for ionic continuity, to
             coordinate contraction
     B. Fasciae adherens
          Transverse portion
          Holds cells together at their ends
     C. Desmosomes
          Lateral and transverse portions
          Keeps cells together
** Tight Junction = Zona occludans is not found in cardiac muscle
III. Functional
     A. intrinsic rhythm - does not need ACh or norepinephrine for contraction

Histology SSN                                                            October 25, 2004

I. Characteristics
         Surrounds the walls of ducts, blood vessels, GI tract, etc.
         Function to give an imprecise squeeze (staggered sheets of cells)
         Nuclei
            cigar-shaped
            lie in the middle of the fiber
            appear wrinkled or “puckered”
         Plane of section determines visibility of nuclei, cell width
         No striations because of diffuse contractile elements
         Gap junctions allow for united contractions
         Basal Lamina (Collagen IV) and Reticular Fibers (Collagen III) surround
           individual fibers

II. Smooth muscle vs. Dense irregularly-arranged connective tissue
     A. Color
         Smooth muscle is more purple because of combination of actin/myosin and
            RNA (red + blue = purple)
         Connection tissue is more red because of purity of collagen
     B. Nuclei
         Smooth muscle nuclei are inside cell
         Fibroblast nuclei are in between collagen fibers
     C. Homogeneity
         Smooth muscle is composed only of muscle
         Connective tissue contains fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, etc., and
            will therefore have a ragged appearance

                             Skeletal Muscle        Cardiac Muscle         Smooth Muscle
 Striated                    Yes                    Yes                    No
 T Tubule Location           A-I junction           Z disk
 Sarcoplasmic Reticulum:     2 cisternae in Triad   Anastamosing
                             w/ T tubule            network
 Electrically coupled via    No                     Yes                    Yes
 Gap Junctions?
 Can regenerate?             Yes (limited)          No                     Yes
 Level of Ca2+ regulation    thin filaments         thin filaments         thick filaments
 Location of Nucleus         Peripheral             Central                Central

Histology SSN                                                                October 25, 2004


1)      Which of the following statements is FALSE?
        a. The band marked “A” does not include actin filaments.
        b. The M line is found in the band marked “A”.
        c. During contraction, the length of the band marked “A” remains the same.
        d. During contraction, the length of the band marked “B” is shortened.

2)      Which of these statements is FALSE about the muscle type at the pointer?
        a. The cells in this muscle type are electrically coupled.
        b. This muscle type utilizes a T-tubule system for calcium delivery.
        c. This muscle type is not capable of regeneration.
        d. Calcium regulation occurs at the level of thick filaments.

3)      Which figure(s) demonstrates smooth muscle?
        a. Figure A&C
        b. Figure A&D
        c. Figure B&C
        d. Figure B&D

4)      The structure at the pointer is composed of all of the following except:
        a. desmosomes
        b. tight junctions
        c. gap junctions
        d. fascia adherens

5)      The structure at the pointer is a:
        a. site of calcium-binding protein (calsequestrin) and a Ca2+-activated-ATPase.
        b. site of glycogen storage and degradation to glucose
        c. site from while Ca2+ is passively transported during muscle relaxation
        d. site into which calcium is released during muscle relaxation
        e. form of rough endoplasmic reticulum

Histology SSN                                                                October 25, 2004


1)      a. This is skeletal muscle. A marks the A band and B marks the I band. The A
           band consists of myosin and some actin that overlaps the myosin. Thick
           filaments of myosin anchor at the M line, which is found in the middle of the
           H zone. The figure below demonstrates how the length of the A band stays the
           same during contraction, while the I band gets shorter.

2)      d. This is cardiac muscle. The cells are electronically coupled via gap junctions,
           thus allowing contractile signals to pass from cell to cell and allowing cardiac
           muscle to behave as a syncytium. T tubules are used for calcium delivery in
           both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle cells have no T tubule
           system. Cardiac muscle is not capable of regeneration (mature cardiac muscle
           cells do not divide). If injury to cardiac muscle tissue leads to death of cells,
           fibrous connective tissue forms (scarring) with consequent loss of cardiac
           function. Since tropomyosin and troponin wind around the actin filaments,
           calcium regulation does not occur at the level of the thick filament.

3)      b. A is smooth muscle and B is skeletal muscle (from the esophagus). C is an EM
           of skeletal muscle and D is an EM of smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle has
           striations whereas smooth muscle does not. The EM in Figure C shows a
           higher magnification of the H band, A band, I band, and Z line in a striated
           muscle fiber. Figure C also shows a triad of T tubules and flanking terminal
           cisternae, which is only found in skeletal muscle. Whereas skeletal muscle has
           multiple, peripherally-located nuclei, smooth muscle has a single, centrally
           located nucleus, as seen in Figure D.

4)      b. Pointer is at an intercalated disc. An intercalated disc does not have tight
           junctions. The desmosomes are on both the transverse and lateral components
           of the intercalated disc, while the fasciae adherens are on the transverse. Note

Histology SSN                                                              October 25, 2004

            from Dr. Rothman: Gap junctions can also be a component of the transverse
            portion of the disc but they are not as prevalent as on the lateral.

5)      a. This is an EM of skeletal muscle. The pointer is at the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
           The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) provides a mechanism for the muscle cell to
           regulate the concentration of cytosolic calcium. It is a modified smooth
           endoplasmic reticulum that serves alternatively as a storage site and a source
           of cellular calcium. Calcium is actively transported from the cytosol to the SR
           through the activity of a Ca2+-dependent ATPase. Calsequestrin is a calcium-
           binding protein found in the SR that, as it’s name implies, functions in the
           sequestion of calcium. Calcium is released from the SR during muscle
           contraction and stored during relaxation. Glycogen is stored as particles or
           droplets in the cytoplasm, which contains the enzymes required for the
           synthesis and breakdown of glycogen.


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