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VTCT Level 3 Diploma in Infant and Child Massage _QCF_

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					VTCT Level 3 Diploma in Infant
and Child Massage (QCF)

Accreditation start date:                   1 September 2011
Credit value:                               100
Guided learning hours (GLH):                360 - 390
Qualification number:                       600/3118/9

Statement of unit achievement
By signing this statement of unit achievement you are confirming that all learning outcomes,
assessment criteria and range statements have been achieved under specified conditions and that
the evidence gathered is authentic.

This statement of unit achievement table must be completed prior to claiming certification.


                                          Learner             Assessor            IV signature
 Unit code            Date achieved
                                          signature           initials            (if sampled)
 Mandatory units
 UC30322
 UC30321
 UC30320
 UC30323
 UC30324
 UV30812
 UV30813
 Additional unit
 UC30331




AC30267F_v4
        The qualification

      Introduction                                         National Occupational Standards (NOS)

    The VTCT Level 3 Diploma in Infant and Child         Units in this qualification have been mapped
    Massage (QCF) will provide you with the              to the relevant NOS (where applicable). This
    knowledge required to teach infant and child         qualification is accredited on the Qualifications
    massage to parents and guardians for use on          and Credit Framework (QCF).
    their own children using a demonstration doll.
                                                         This qualification is approved and supported
    An important part of this service is to facilitate   by Skills for Health, the sector skills council for
    and encourage bonding between the child and          health.
    parent/guardian. Massage also has a soothing
    and reassuring effect on babies and young
    children.

    You will also gain knowledge of anatomy,
    physiology and pathologies, business practice,
    health, safety and hygiene, and healthy eating
    and wellbeing for complementary therapies.




2
    Progression

When you have successfully completed this
qualification you will have the opportunity
to progress to the following VTCT specialist
vocationally related qualifications:

•    Level 3 Diploma in Complementary
     Therapies (QCF)
•    Level 3 Diploma in Complementary
     Therapy Techniques (QCF)
•    Level 3 Diploma in Aromatherapy (QCF)
•    Level 3 Diploma in Aromatherapy
     Techniques (QCF)
•    Level 3 Diploma in Reflexology (QCF)
•    Level 3 Diploma in Reflexology Techniques
     (QCF)




                                                 3
      Qualification structure


      Total credits required - 100
    All mandatory units must be completed.

    Mandatory units -        100 credits
    VTCT unit     Ofqual unit
                                Unit title                                 Credit value   GLH
    code          reference
                                Health, safety and hygiene for
    UC30322       K/501/9256                                                    4         30
                                complementary therapies
                                Business practice for complementary
    UC30321       H/501/9255                                                    12        60
                                therapies
                                Principles and practice of complementary
    UC30320       Y/501/9253                                                    13        30
                                therapies
                                Knowledge of anatomy, physiology and
    UC30323       T/501/9101                                                    38        90
                                pathology for complementary therapies
                                Knowledge of less common pathology for
    UC30324       D/501/9111                                                    4         30
                                complementary therapies
                                Provide infant and child massage for
    UV30812       D/600/5302                                                    19        100
                                complementary therapies
                                Reflective practice for infant and child
    UV30813       F/600/5244                                                    10        20
                                massage


    Additional unit -     6 credits
    VTCT unit     Ofqual unit
                                Unit title                                 Credit value   GLH
    code          reference
                                Healthy eating and well being for the
    UC30331       H/501/9630                                                    6         30
                                complementary therapy client




4
                      Guidance on assessment

This book contains the mandatory units that make up this qualification. Optional units will be
provided in additional booklets (if applicable). Where indicated, VTCT will provide assessment
materials. Assessments may be internal or external. The method of assessment is indicated in
each unit.

  Internal assessment                                Assessment explained
  (any requirements will be shown in the unit)

Assessment is set, marked and internally           VTCT courses are assessed and verified by
verified by the centre to clearly demonstrate      centre staff. Work will be set to improve your
achievement of the learning outcomes.              practical skills, knowledge and understanding.
Assessment is sampled by VTCT external             For practical elements, you will be observed
verifiers.                                         by your assessor. All your work must be
                                                   collected in a portfolio of evidence and cross-
                                                   referenced to requirements listed in this record
                                                   of assessment book.
  External assessment
  (any requirements will be shown in the unit)
                                                   Your centre will have an internal verifier whose
                                                   role is to check that your assessment and
Externally assessed question papers                evidence is valid and reliable and meets VTCT
completed electronically will be set and marked    and regulatory requirements.
by VTCT.
                                                   An external verifier, appointed by VTCT, will
Externally assessed hard-copy question papers      visit your centre to sample and quality-check
will be set by VTCT, marked by centre staff and    assessments, the internal verification process
sampled by VTCT external verifiers.                and the evidence gathered. You may be
                                                   asked to attend on a different day from usual if
                                                   requested by the external verifier.

                                                   This record of assessment book is your
                                                   property and must be in your possession when
                                                   you are being assessed or verified. It must be
                                                   kept safe. In some cases your centre will be
                                                   required to keep it in a secure place. You and
                                                   your course assessor will together complete
                                                   this book to show achievement of all learning
                                                   outcomes, assessment criteria and ranges.




                                                                                                      5
        Creating a portfolio of evidence                  Case studies

    As part of this qualification you are required to   To achieve this qualification you must carry out
    produce a portfolio of evidence. A portfolio will   and document evidence of the following case
    confirm the knowledge, understanding and skills     studies:
    that you have learnt. It may be in electronic or
    paper format.                                       UV30812 - Provide infant and child massage
                                                        for complementary therapies: You must carry
    Your assessor will provide guidance on how to       out and document evidence for at least one
    prepare the portfolio of evidence and how to        treatment demonstrated on a doll to at least five
    show practical achievement, and understanding       parents/guardians, either in a group or one to
    of the knowledge required to successfully           one session.
    complete this qualification. It is this booklet
    along with the portfolio of evidence that will      UV30813 - Reflective practice for for infant
    serve as the prime source of evidence for this      and child massage: You must carry out and
    qualification.
                                                        document evidence for at least nine treatments
                                                        demonstrated on a doll to parents/guardians,
    Evidence in the portfolio may take the following
                                                        either in a group or one to one session.
    forms:

    •   Observed work
    •   Witness statements
    •   Audio-visual media
    •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
    •   Written questions
    •   Oral questions
    •   Assignments
    •   Case studies

    All evidence should be documented in the
    portfolio and cross referenced to unit outcomes.
    Constructing the portfolio of evidence should not
    be left to the end of the course.

    Many frequently asked questions and other
    useful information are detailed in the VTCT
    Candidate’s Handbook, which is available on
    the VTCT website at www.vtct.org.uk/students.
    Other questions should be addressed to the
    tutor, lecturer or assessor.




6
                    Unit assessment methods

This section provides an overview of the assessment methods that make up each unit in this
qualification. Detailed information on assessment is provided in each unit.

 Mandatory units
                                                    External                Internal
 VTCT unit                                           Question                      Portfolio of
               Unit title                                        Observation(s)
 code                                                paper(s)                       evidence

               Health, safety and hygiene for
 UC30322       complementary therapies                  1                             
               Business practice for
 UC30321       complementary therapies                  0                             
               Principles and practice of
 UC30320       complementary therapies                  0                             
               Knowledge of anatomy, physiology
 UC30323       and pathology for complementary          1                             
               therapies
               Knowledge of less common
 UC30324       pathology for complementary              0                             
               therapies
               Provide infant and child massage
 UV30812       for complementary therapies              0                             
               Reflective practice for infant and
 UV30813       child massage                            0                             

 Additional unit
                                                    External                Internal
 VTCT unit                                           Question                      Portfolio of
               Unit title                                        Observation(s)
 code                                                paper(s)                       evidence

               Healthy eating and well being for
 UC30331       the complementary therapy client         0                              




                                                                                                  7
     Unit glossary

                     Description
    VTCT product     All units are allocated a unique VTCT product code for identification purposes.
    code             This code should be quoted in all queries and correspondence to VTCT.
    Unit title       The title clearly indicates the focus of the unit.
    National
    Occupational     NOS describe the skills, knowledge and understanding needed to undertake a
    Standards        particular task or job to a nationally recognised level of competence.
    (NOS)
                     Level is an indication of the demand of the learning experience, the depth
                     and/or complexity of achievement and independence in achieving the
    Level
                     learning outcomes. There are 9 levels of achievement within the Qualifications
                     and Credit Framework (QCF).
                     This is the number of credits awarded upon successful achievement of all unit
    Credit value     outcomes. Credit is a numerical value that represents a means of recognising,
                     measuring, valuing and comparing achievement.

    Guided           GLH is an estimate of the time allocated to teach, instruct, assess and
    learning hours   support learners throughout a unit. Learner initiated private study, preparation
    (GLH)            and marking of formative assessment is not taken into account.
                     This indicates the minimum number of observations required to achieve the
    Observations
                     unit.
                     The learning outcomes are the most important component of the unit, they set
    Learning         out what is expected in terms of knowing, understanding and practical
    outcomes         ability as a result of the learning process. Learning outcomes are the results
                     of learning.
    Evidence         This section provides guidelines on how evidence must be gathered.
    requirements

    Maximum          The maximum time in which a particular service or practical element must be
    service times    completed.
    Observation      An observation outcome details the practical tasks that must be completed to
    outcome          achieve the unit.
                     A knowledge outcome details the theoretical requirements of a unit that must
    Knowledge        be evidenced through oral questioning, a mandatory written question paper or
    outcome
                     portfolio of evidence.
                     Assessment criteria set out what is required, in terms of achievement, to meet
    Assessment       a learning outcome. The assessment criteria and learning outcomes are the
    criteria         components that inform the learning and assessment that should take place.
                     Assessment criteria define the standard expected to meet learning outcomes.
                     The range indicates what must be covered. Ranges must be practically
    Range
                     demonstrated in parallel to the unit’s observation outcomes.




8
UC30322
Health, safety and hygiene for
complementary therapies
It is the aim of this unit to provide you with the knowledge,
understanding and skills to work safely and hygienically
within the complementary and integrated healthcare sector.




UC30322_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        4
GLH




        30
Observation(s)




        2
External paper(s)




        1
Health, safety and hygiene for
complementary therapies

     Learning outcomes                                  Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:               1.    Environment
                                                         Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Be able to maintain a healthy and safe
                                                         real or realistic working environment.
     environment
2.   Be able to apply hygiene procedures for       2.    Simulation
     complementary therapy treatments                    Simulation is not allowed in this unit.

3.   Be able to understand the health and          3.    Observation outcomes
     safety procedures and policies required for         Competent performance of ‘Observation’
     complementary therapy                               outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                         assessor on at least two occasions,
                                                         and must be completed in a commercially
                                                         acceptable time.

                                                   4.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                         There must be evidence that you possess
                                                         all the knowledge and understanding listed
                                                         in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.
                                                         In most cases this can be done by your
                                                         assessor questioning you orally. However,
                                                         other techniques, such as projects,
                                                         assignments and/or reflective accounts may
                                                         also be used.

                                                   5.    External paper
                                                         There is one external paper that must be
                                                         completed. A pass mark of 70% must be
                                                         achieved.

                                                   6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                         You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                         on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                         unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                                   7.    Case studies
                                                         There is no case study requirement for this
                                                         unit.




                                                                                    UC30322             11
       Achieving observations
       and range

       Achieving observation outcomes                    Achieving range
     Your assessor will observe your performance       There are no range statements that apply to this
     of practical tasks. The minimum number            unit.
     of observations required is indicated in the
     evidence requirements section of this unit.

     Criteria may not always naturally occur during
     a practical observation. In such instances you
     will be asked questions to demonstrate your
     competence in this area. Your assessor will
     document the criteria that have been achieved
     through oral questioning.

     Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
     criteria have been competently achieved.




12           UC30322
                                                  Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to maintain a healthy and safe environment

You can:
a.   Follow procedures and policies to contribute
     to a healthy and safe working environment
b.   Assess any potential risks within own area
     of responsibility
c.   Report any hazards within area of own
     responsibility that need to be referred
d.   Demonstrate safe handling and use of
     products, materials, tools and equipment
e.   Demonstrate correct maintenance and
     storage of products, materials, tools and
     equipment




*May be assessed through oral questioning.
Observation                                       1      2
Date achieved
Criteria questioned orally
Portfolio reference
Assessor initials
Learner signature

                                                         UC30322   13
       Outcome 2

     Be able to apply hygiene procedures for complementary
     therapy treatments
     You can:
     a.   Use hygiene procedures required for a
          range of treatments




     *May be assessed through oral questioning.
      Observation                                 1   2
      Date achieved
      Criteria questioned orally
      Portfolio reference
      Assessor initials
      Learner signature

14            UC30322
                                       Developing knowledge


  Achieving knowledge outcomes

You will be guided by your tutor and assessor        Where possible your assessor will integrate
on the evidence that needs to be produced.           knowledge outcomes into practical observations
Your knowledge and understanding will be             through oral questioning.
assessed using the assessment methods listed
below:

    •     Observed work
    •     Witness statements
    •     Audio-visual media
    •     Evidence of prior learning or attainment
    •     Written questions
    •     Oral questions
    •     Assignments
    •     Case studies




  Achieving the external paper

The external paper will test your knowledge of all criteria in the knowledge section of this unit. A
pass mark of 70% must be achieved.

Your assessor will complete the table below when the 70% pass mark has been achieved.

 Paper           Date achieved                              Assessor initials

 1 of 1




                                                                                    UC30322            15
     Knowledge

       Outcome 2

     Be able to apply hygiene procedures for complementary
     therapy treatments
                                                                            Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                            Assessor initials*

      b.   Explain the professional standards of personal presentation
           required

      c.   Evaluate hygiene procedures required for a range of treatments


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




16            UC30322
  Outcome 3

Be able to understand the health and safety procedures and
policies required for complementary therapy
                                                                        Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                        Assessor initials*

 a.   Evaluate the relevant health and safety legislation relating to
      complementary therapies

 b.   Review methods of complying with health and safety legislation

 c.   Explain the health, safety and security procedures and policies

 d.   Examine the employer’s and employee’s health and safety
      responsibilities


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                              UC30322           17
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


       Outcome 1: Be able to maintain a healthy and safe environment


       Follow health and safety procedures:                Correct maintenance and storage:
       Working practices, emergency first aid,             Following legislation requirements,
       accident, fire evacuation, security, personal       following manufacturer’s guidelines,
       protective equipment, hygiene, conduct              treatment equipment (e.g. treatment couch,
       self in accordance with policies and                additional support), storage of treatment
       procedures.                                         products (temperature, sealed containers,
                                                           location, expiry date), dealing with
       Assess potential risks and report
                                                           breakages and spillages, stock control and
       hazards: Hazards (e.g. trailing wires,
                                                           security, follow maintenance schedules,
       faulty equipment and electrical appliances,
                                                           maintain up to date record sheets.
       spillages, slippery surfaces, obstructions,
       handling and storage of equipment,
       products and chemicals, inadequate
       ventilation, inadequate fire prevention,
       dangerous working practices), risks
       (e.g. slips, trips, falls, adverse reactions,
       electrocution, fire, contamination, cross
       infection, personal injury, death, damage to
       property), assess the risks (high, medium,
       low), identify control measures, deal
       with hazards or risks within own limits of
       responsibility (safely, promptly), referral
       of hazards, procedures for reporting and
       recording accidents, risk assessment
       review.
       Safe handling and use: Following
       instructions and guidelines given with
       equipment, tools, materials and products,
       hygienic and safe use of equipment,
       tools, materials and products, use of PPE
       (personal protective equipment) when
       appropriate.




18           UC30322
Outcome 2: Be able to apply hygiene procedures for complementary
therapy treatments

Hygiene procedures: Principles of
hygiene, principles of infection control
(bacterial, fungal, viral, parasitic),
sanitisation of surfaces, tools and
equipment, use of sterilisation products,
hygienic preparation of the therapist and
client, hand washing, laundry procedures
(towels, gowns, headbands, sponges), safe
disposal of waste (general waste, waste
chemical products, contaminated waste),
advantages and disadvantages of hygiene
methods for treatments.
Personal presentation: According to
organisation’s requirements, professional
work wear (e.g. clean pressed uniform,
low-heeled and fully enclosed footwear,
socks with trousers, natural colour tights
with skirts), suitable or natural make-up,
short and clean finger nails free from polish
or enhancements, no overpowering odours
(e.g. perfume, body odour, bad breath),
clean and tidy hair tied back off the face,
no jewellery other than a plain wedding
band and stud earrings, no chewing gum
or sweets, importance of good personal
presentation.




                                                         UC30322   19
     Outcome 3: Be able to understand the health and safety procedures and
     policies required for complementary therapy

     Relevant health and safety legislation:         Employer’s and employees’
     Compliance with legislation relating to free    responsibilities: Employer (e.g. insurance,
     precautions, health and safety at work, first   staff training and development, provision
     aid, manual handling, use of equipment,         of Personal Proctective Equipment (PPE),
     control of substances hazardous to health,      electrical safety, emergency and fire
     electricity at work, reporting of injuries,     procedures, health and safety policies and
     diseases and dangerous occurances. This         procedures, safe working environment,
     list is not exhaustive. Further information     employee (e.g. adherence to polices
     should be sought from the Health and            and procedures, accident reporting, risk
     Safety Authority, and/or local authorities.     assessment).
     Methods of complying with legislation:
     Health and safety monitoring, risk
     assessment, storage of equipment and
     materials, safe working practices, security,
     how to comply with legislation, importance
     of compliance to legislation.
     Health, safety and security procedures
     and policies: Health and safety
     requirements (e.g. fire evacuation, Portable
     Appliance Testing, manual handling,
     personal protective equipment, incident
     recording), security (e.g. premises,
     therapists, clients, visitors, belongings,
     stock), working practices (e.g. client care,
     length of treatments, record keeping,
     confidentiality, equality and diversity,
     working hours, employee rights and
     responsibilities), codes of practice (e.g.
     FHT), conduct and ethics developed by
     the industry and professional associations,
     importance of procedures and policies,
     impacts of procedures and policies.




20        UC30322
UC30321
Business practice for
complementary therapies
It is the aim of this unit to provide you with the knowledge,
understanding and skills to research, plan, maintain and
market a business in the complementary therapy industry.
You will also learn to communicate effectively with clients
and colleagues.




UC30321_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        12
GLH




        60
Observation(s)




        0
External paper(s)




        0
Business practice for
complementary therapies

     Learning outcomes                              Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:           1.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                     There must be evidence that you possess
1.   Understand the key business criteria
                                                     all the knowledge and understanding listed
     required for complementary therapy
                                                     in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.
2.   Be able to research a business concept          In most cases this can be done by your
3.   Be able to plan, prepare and maintain a         assessor questioning you orally. However,
     business plan                                   other techniques, such as projects,
                                                     assignments and/or reflective accounts may
                                                     also be used.

                                               2.    External paper
                                                     There is no external paper requirement for
                                                     this unit.

                                               3.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                     You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                     on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                     unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                               4.    Case studies
                                                     There is no case study requirement for this
                                                     unit.




                                                                              UC30321              23
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
     Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




24           UC30321
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Understand the key business criteria required for
complementary therapy
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

 a.   Explain the legal requirements of running a business

 b.   Explain how marketing and public relations are used in successful
      businesses

 c.   Describe the employment opportunities within complementary
      therapies industries

 d.   Evaluate communication techniques and describe how to
      communicate effectively with clients and colleagues

 e.   Explain how to promote complementary therapies practices and
      produce promotional material


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                UC30321           25
       Outcome 2

     Be able to research a business concept
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

      a.   Compare and contrast different business types

      b.   Design and research a potential business opportunity using a
           range of sources

      c.   Research potential premises, staff, products and resource
           requirements


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




26            UC30321
  Outcome 3

Be able to plan, prepare and maintain a business plan
                                                                            Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                            Assessor initials*

 a.   Plan and prepare an appropriate business plan for a potential
      business

 b.   Review premises, staff and resource requirements to maintain a
      business plan, including professional services that may be required

 c.   Calculate costs of treatments, products and services offered

 d.   Estimate start up and running costs


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                  UC30321           27
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.

       Outcome 1: Understand the key business criteria required for
       complementary therapy

       Legal requirements: Applicable                     verbal (active listening techniques, body
       national/local legislation relating to the         language, gestures, eye contact, facial
       workplace, for example health and safety,          expressions), use of visual aids, barriers
       equality and diversity, data protection,           to effective communication, importance
       employment, consumer protection,                   of communication and rapport with others
       workplace regulations, manual handling,            (clients, working team, other therapists,
       use of work equipment, liability insurance,        suppliers), advantages and disadvantages
       employees, professional indemnity,                 of communication techniques.
       control of substances hazardous to health,
                                                          Promotion of practices: Promotional
       handling, storage, disposal and cautions
                                                          methods (posters, leaflets, mail shots,
       of use of products, fire precautions,
                                                          business cards, website, newspaper
       occurances, hygiene practice, disposal of
                                                          advertisements, TV or radio press release,
       waste, environmental protection. Further
                                                          gift vouchers, referrals, word of mouth,
       information should be sought from the
                                                          presentations and demonstrations, open
       relevant authorities.
                                                          events, promotional materials, loyalty
       Marketing and public relations:                    cards, special price offers, packages,
       Importance of marketing and public                 point of sale displays, merchandising,
       relations, market research and                     endorsement, networking, client feedback
       segmentation, customer needs and wants,            and questionnaires), advantages and
       promotion of products and services.                disadvantages of different promotional
                                                          methods, the importance of corporate
       Employment opportunities: Self-
                                                          image in production of promotional material
       employed (renting a room, room in own
                                                          (business cards, price lists, stationery,
       home, mobile therapist, owning a clinic),
                                                          posters, forms).
       employed (spa, salon, clinic, health care,
       hotels, fitness centres, cruises, education,
       agency), full-time and part-time, career
       progressions (e.g. junior therapist,
       therapist, senior therapist, manager),
       roles and responsibilities, advantages and
       disadvantages of different employment
       opportunities (e.g. location, pay, conditions,
       progression routes, development).
       Communication techniques: Verbal
       (language, tone of voice, clarity, use
       of open and closed questioning), non-


28           UC30321
Outcome 2: Be able to research a business concept


Different business types: Type of                 Potential business requirements:
business (partnership, limited company,           Premises (e.g. location, size, costs), staff
franchise, sole trader, mobile), examples         (e.g. job roles, qualifications, pay and
of specific complementary establishments,         conditions), products, resources (e.g.
advantages and disadvantages of different         consumables, equipment, furniture).
business types (e.g. products and services,
costs, operation, success).
Potential business opportunities: Use
research methods (qualitative, quantitative,
market research, data analysis,
questionnaires, and survey), use research
sources (e.g. websites, newspapers,
magazines, business reports), strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats
analysis.




Outcome 3: Be able to plan, prepare and maintain a business plan


Business plan: Mission statement, market          Service costs: Selling prices for
research and segmentation, competitor             treatments, services and products, staffing
analysis, premises and location, products,        costs, commercially acceptable treatment
services and prices, fixed and variable           times, profits.
costs, staffing requirements, strengths,
                                                  Start-up and running costs: Fixed
weaknesses, opportunities and threats
                                                  costs, variable costs, premises, rent,
analysis, risk analysis, insurance,
                                                  equipment and stock, staff, advertising
marketing and publicity, finance and
                                                  and promotional materials, insurance, tax,
accounting systems, cash flow forecast,
                                                  licensing, travel expenses, professional
security and data protection.
                                                  association fees, methods of estimation
Business requirements for plan: Review            (spreadsheets, calculations, profit and
premises, staff and resources to maintain         loss).
a business plan, professional services
that may be required (e.g. accountant,
solicitor, product suppliers, public relations,
administration).



                                                                                UC30321          29
                                     Notes
         Use this area for making notes and drawing diagrams




30   UC30321
UC30320
Principles and practice of
complementary therapies
It is the aim of this unit to provide you with the knowledge,
understanding and skills to enable you to practice
complementary therapies.




UC30320_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        13
GLH




        30
Observation(s)




        3
External paper(s)




        0
Principles and practice of
complementary therapies

     Learning outcomes                                 Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:              1.    Environment
                                                        Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
1.   Know the key aspects of good clinical
                                                        real or realistic working environment.
     practice
2.   Understand the key historical factors and    2.    Simulation
     theoretical background for complementary           Simulation is not allowed in this unit.
     therapies
                                                  3.    Observation outcomes
3.   Know the main influences on working within         Competent performance of ‘Observation’
     the complementary therapy industry                 outcomes must be demonstrated to your
                                                        assessor on at least three occasions,
                                                        and must be completed in a commercially
                                                        acceptable time.

                                                  4.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                        There must be evidence that you possess
                                                        all the knowledge and understanding listed
                                                        in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.
                                                        In most cases this can be done by your
                                                        assessor questioning you orally. However,
                                                        other techniques, such as projects,
                                                        assignments and/or reflective accounts may
                                                        also be used.

                                                  5.    External paper
                                                        There is no external paper requirement for
                                                        this unit.

                                                  6.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                        You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                        on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
                                                        unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

                                                  7.    Case studies
                                                        There is no case study requirement for this
                                                        unit.




                                                                                   UC30320             33
       Achieving observations
       and range

       Achieving observation outcomes                    Achieving range
     Your assessor will observe your performance       There are no range statements that apply to this
     of practical tasks. The minimum number            unit.
     of observations required is indicated in the
     evidence requirements section of this unit.

     Criteria may not always naturally occur during
     a practical observation. In such instances you
     will be asked questions to demonstrate your
     competence in this area. Your assessor will
     document the criteria that have been achieved
     through oral questioning.

     Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
     criteria have been competently achieved.




34           UC30320
                                                Observations

  Outcome 1

Know the key aspects of good clinical practice

You can:
a.   Collate information from clients that is
     necessary for assessment and treatment
     planning
b.   Demonstrate how to accurately record
     information, store records and ensure
     confidentiality




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                             1          2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                        UC30320   35
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
     Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




36           UC30320
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Know the key aspects of good clinical practice
                                                                           Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                           Assessor initials*

 c.   Evaluate appropriate referral procedures and protocols to use with
      clients and others involved in integrated healthcare

 d.   Identify effective communication skills when dealing with clients
      and colleagues in maintaining good practice


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                 UC30320           37
       Outcome 2

     Understand the key historical factors and theoretical
     background for complementary therapies
                                                                          Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                          Assessor initials*

      a.   Examine the history and origins of complementary therapies

      b.   Analyse definitions and theories of commonly available
           complementary therapies

      c.   Evaluate the theory of techniques used in commonly available
           complementary therapies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




38            UC30320
  Outcome 3

Know the main influences on working within the
complementary therapy industry
                                                                           Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe legislative requirements and working practice within
      complementary therapies

 b.   Summarise the legal obligations of working with clients and the
      general public

 c.   Explain the codes of practice and ethics relating to complementary
      therapies

 d.   Analyse the roles of professional associations and organisations
      relating to complementary therapies

 e.   Evaluate the process of registration and regulation of
      complementary therapies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                 UC30320           39
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


       Outcome 1: Know the key aspects of good clinical practice


       Referral procedures and protocols:                  Record keeping and confidentiality:
       Working within the limits of own                    Methods of recording and storing
       responsibility and qualifications,                  information (e.g. written, computer
       importance of recommending appropriate              database), importance of accurate
       treatments for clients condition, methods           record keeping, ensuring confidentiality,
       of referral, when to refer, to whom to refer        adherence to legislation (e.g. Data
       (e.g. GP, counsellor, other complementary           Protection), following professional codes of
       therapist, member of the social care or             conduct, disclosure of information to others
       nursing team, Social Services, Citizens             (e.g. non-disclosure, referral).
       Advice Bureau).
       Communication skills: Verbal
       (language, tone of voice, clarity, use
       of open and closed questioning), non-
       verbal (active listening techniques, body
       language, gestures, eye contact, facial
       expressions), use of visual aids, barriers
       to effective communication, importance
       of communication and rapport with others
       (clients, working team, other therapists,
       suppliers).
       Collating information for assessment
       and treatment planning: Consultation
       (client positioning to minimise barriers,
       privacy and comfort, verbal and non-verbal
       communication, medical history, lifestyle
       questionnaire, client expectations and
       preparation), review of assessment to plan
       treatment programme, agree treatment
       with client, obtain written consent, prepare
       a treatment record sheet, refer the client
       if necessary, ensuring confidentiality,
       adhering to data protection.




40           UC30320
Outcome 2: Understand the key historical factors and theoretical
background for complementary therapies

History and origins: Body massage,
aromatherapy, reflexology, history and
development from ancient times to modern
day (e.g. Ancient Egypt, China, India,
Ancient Greece, Rome, Persia, Europe and
the Americas), the history and development
of other therapies (e.g. acupuncture,
Alexander technique, aromatherapy, Bach
flower, Bowen technique, shiatsu, reiki,
remedial massage, kinesiology, herbalism,
hypnotherapy).
Definitions and theories: Massage
(Swedish massage movements, physical
effects and benefits, psychological effects),
definitions and theories of aromatherapy
(the uses of essential oils, physical
effects and benefits, psychological
effects), definitions and theories of
reflexology (reflex points, zones and their
relationship to body systems, physical
effects and benefits, psychological
effects), concept of holism, holistic health,
concept of balance and harmony, effects
of physical environment on health and
wellbeing, effects of social, economic
and environmental factors on health and
wellbeing.
Theory of techniques: Body massage,
aromatherapy, reflexology, other therapies
e.g. acupuncture, Alexander technique,
aromatherapy, flower essences, Bowen
technique, shiatsu, reiki, remedial
massage, kinesiology, herbalism,
hypnotherapy, the value of different
theories.




                                                             UC30320   41
     Outcome 3: Know the main influences on working within the complementary
     therapy industry

     Legislative requirements and working              Process of registration and regulation:
     practice: Applicable national/local               Statutory Regulation of the profession (e.g.
     legislation relating to the workplace, for        Criminal Records Bureau (CRB), voluntary
     example health and safety, equality and           regulation, Complemetary and Natural
     diversity, data protection, employment,           Healthcare Council (CNHC).
     consumer proctection, workplace
     regulations, manual handling, use of
     work equipment, liability insurance,
     employees, professional indemnity,
     control of substances hazardous to health,
     handling, storage, disposal and cautions
     of use of products, fire precautions,
     occurances, hygiene practice, disposal of
     waste, environmental protection. Further
     information should be sought from the
     relevant authorities.
     Legal obligations: Working with clients
     and the general public, duty of care,
     disclosure, insurance (e.g. employer’s
     liability, personal accident), confidentiality,
     importance of meeting legal obligations to
     clients.
     Codes of practice and ethics: Definition
     of codes of practice, definition of ethics,
     importance of codes of practice and ethics,
     codes of practice and ethics developed by
     the industry and professional associations
     (e.g. FHT).
     Roles of professional associations and
     organisations for example: Federation
     of Holistic Therapists (FHT) aims,
     objectives, roles, activities and functions of
     professional associations. For more details
     see National Occupational Standards
     (Skills for Health).




42         UC30320
UC30323
Knowledge of anatomy,
physiology and pathology for
complementary therapies
It is the aim of this unit to develop your knowledge and
understanding of anatomy, physiology and pathology.




UC30323_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        38
GLH




        90
Observation(s)




        0
External paper(s)




        1
Knowledge of anatomy,
physiology and pathology for
complementary therapies
                                                         A minimum of four pathologies (conditions)
     Learning outcomes                                   for each body system (learning outcomes
                                                         2-12) must be evidenced in your portfolio,
On completion of this unit you will:                     this equates to a total of forty four
                                                         pathologies for this unit.
1.    Know the organisation of the body
2.    Know the skin, hair and nails and common     2.    External paper
      pathologies                                        There is one external paper that must be
                                                         completed. A pass mark of 70% must be
3.    Know the skeletal system and common
                                                         achieved.
      pathologies
                                                         This multiple-choice examination assesses
4.    Know the muscular system and common
                                                         anatomy and physiology only. Pathology is
      pathologies                                        not assessed.
5.    Know the nervous system and common
                                                   3.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
      pathologies
                                                         You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
6.    Know the endocrine system and common               on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
      pathologies                                        unit. All outcomes must be achieved.
7.    Know the respiratory system and common
                                                   4.    Case studies
      pathologies
                                                         There is no case study requirement for this
8.    Know the cardiovascular system and                 unit.
      common pathologies
9.    Know the lymphatic system and common              Guidance on pathology
      pathologies
10.   Know the digestive system and common         To achieve this unit you must provide evidence
      pathologies                                  for a minimum of four pathologies per outcome.
                                                   These must be different to those evidenced in
11.   Know the urinary system and common
                                                   Unit UC30324 – Knowledge of less common
      pathologies
                                                   pathology for complementary therapies. The
12.   Know the reproductive system and             unit content section of this book provides
      common pathologies                           suggestions for study, however this list is not
                                                   definitive or exclusive.
  Evidence requirements
1.    Knowledge outcomes                           Your tutors and assessors have been advised to
      There must be evidence that you possess      place emphasis on those pathologies that relate
      all the knowledge and understanding listed   to the context in which you are learning (i.e.
      in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.     aromatherapy, reflexology, massage etc).
      In most cases this can be done by your
      assessor questioning you orally. However,    There are many conditions that can affect
      other techniques, such as projects,          different systems (i.e. cancer), which can be
      assignments and/or reflective accounts may   discussed in general. It is not recommended
      also be used.                                that cancer is studied for both systems.



                                                                                  UC30323              45
             Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor        Where possible your assessor will integrate
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.           knowledge outcomes into practical observations
     Your knowledge and understanding will be             through oral questioning.
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

         •     Observed work
         •     Witness statements
         •     Audio-visual media
         •     Evidence of prior learning or attainment
         •     Written questions
         •     Oral questions
         •     Assignments
         •     Case studies




       Achieving the external paper

     The external paper will test your knowledge of all criteria in the knowledge section of this unit. A
     pass mark of 70% must be achieved.

     Your assessor will complete the table below when the 70% pass mark has been achieved.

      Paper           Date achieved                              Assessor initials

      1 of 1




46             UC30323
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Know the organisation of the body
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the organisation of the body, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                UC30323           47
       Outcome 2

     Know the skin, hair and nails and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the skin, hair and nails, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




48             UC30323
  Outcome 3

Know the skeletal system and common pathologies
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the skeletal system, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                 UC30323          49
       Outcome 4

     Know the muscular system and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the muscular system, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




50             UC30323
  Outcome 5

Know the nervous system and common pathologies
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the nervous system, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                 UC30323          51
       Outcome 6

     Know the endocrine system and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the endocrine system, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




52             UC30323
  Outcome 7

Know the respiratory system and common pathologies
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the respiratory system, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                 UC30323          53
       Outcome 8

     Know the cardiovascular system and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the cardiovascular system, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




54             UC30323
  Outcome 9

Know the lymphatic system and common pathologies
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the lymphatic system, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                 UC30323          55
       Outcome 10

     Know the digestive system and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the digestive system, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




56             UC30323
  Outcome 11

Know the urinary system and common pathologies
                                                           Portfolio reference/
 You can:
                                                           Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the urinary system, including:

 • type

 • location

 • structure

 • function

 • growth

 • repair

 • pathologies


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                 UC30323          57
       Outcome 12

     Know the reproductive system and common pathologies
                                                                Portfolio reference/
      You can:
                                                                Assessor initials*

      a.   Describe the reproductive system, including:

      • type

      • location

      • structure

      • function

      • growth

      • repair

      • pathologies


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




58             UC30323
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Know the organisation of the body


  Organisation of the body: Simple                   Planes: Frontal, sagittal, transverse,
  chemicals (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide),           longitudinal, oblique.
  nutrient chemicals (e.g. carbohydrates,
                                                     Structure and function of cells:
  lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre,
                                                     Components (cell membrane, nucleus,
  water), complex chemicals (e.g. ATP,
                                                     nucleolus, cytoplasm, vacuoles, vesicles,
  DNA), cells, tissues, organs, systems,
                                                     centrioles, centrosome, organelles,
  organisms.
                                                     golgi, lysosome, ribosome, mitochondria,
  Major tissue types and locations:                  endoplasmic reticulum), process
  Epithelial tissue (protective, secretory),         of transport across cell membrane
  simple epithelial tissue (squamous,                (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion,
  cuboidal, columnar, ciliated), stratified          active transport, dissolution, filtration,
  epithelial tissue (keratinised, non-               phagocytosis, pinocytosis).
  keratinised, transitional), connective
                                                     Cell growth and repair: Process of
  tissue (fibrous, areolar, adipose, lymphoid,
                                                     mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase,
  cartilage, bone), blood (red blood cells,
                                                     telophase, interphase).
  white blood cells, platelets, plasma),
  muscular tissue (skeletal, smooth, cardiac),       Growth and repair: Cells, tissues, bone
  nervous tissue (neurones, neurological             formation, homeostasis, influencing factors,
  cells), membranes (serous, mucous,                 hormones, nutrition, environmental,
  synovial).                                         pathologies.

  Anatomical regions of the body:                    Pathologies: Viral, bacterial, fungal,
  Definitions and locations (abdominal,              congenital, hormonal, allergic.
  axillary, brachial, buccal, calcaneal, carpal,
  celiac, cephalic, cervical, costal, cranial,
  crural, cubital, cutaneous, femoral, forearm,
  frontal, gluteal, groin, inguinal, lumbar,
  mammary, ophthalmic, orbital, palmar,
  patellar, pectoral, pedal, pelvic, perineal,
  pericardial, plantar, popliteal, sacral, tarsal,
  thoracic, umbilica).
  Directional terms: Definitions and
  examples (superior, inferior, medial, lateral,
  superficial, deep, anterior, posterior,
  proximal, distal, parietal, visceral).



                                                                                  UC30323             59
     Outcome 2: Know the skin, hair and nails and common pathologies


     Location, structure and function of skin:         growth cycle (nail formation in matrix,
     Epidermis layer (stratum corneum/horny,           layers, keratin), factors affecting nail growth
     stratum lucidum/clear, stratum granulosum/        (e.g. health, age, diet, medication).
     granular, stratum spinosum/prickle,
                                                       Pathologies of the skin: Causes, signs
     statum germinatium/basal), dermis layer
                                                       and symptoms, infestations (e.g. scabies,
     (papillary, reticular, subcutaneous, blood
                                                       mites, pediculosis pubis, pediculosis
     capillary, lymphatic capillary network, hair,
                                                       corporis), bacterial infections (e.g.
     sebaceous gland, sweat glands, sensory
                                                       impetigo, conjunctivitis, acne vulgaris,
     and motor nerve endings, collagen),
                                                       acne rosacea, boils, folliculitis), viral
     subcutaneous layer (adipose), glands
                                                       infections (e.g. herpes simplex, herpes
     (sebaceous, sebum, eccrine, apocrine).
                                                       zoster, verrucae or warts), fungal diseases
     Location, structure and function of               (e.g. tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea
     hair: Components of hair (hair follicle,          pedis), allergies (e.g. dermatitis, eczema,
     hair shaft, inner root sheath, outer root         urticaria), pigmentation disorders (e.g.
     sheath, arrector pili muscle, keratin, cuticle,   vitiligo, albinism, chloasma, ephilides,
     cortex, medulla, dermal papilla), hair types      lentigo, naevae, leucoderma, erythema),
     (lanugo, vellus, terminal).                       general disorders (e.g. sensitive skin, ultra
                                                       violet damage, pustules, papules), skin
     Location, structure and function of
                                                       cancers (melanoma, carcinoma).
     nails: Nail bed, hyponychium, eponychium,
     paronychium, mantle, lateral nail fold, nail      Pathologies of the nails: Causes, signs
     grooves, matrix, lunula, cuticle, nail plate,     and symptoms (e.g. leukonychia, hang nail,
     free edge.                                        paronychia, onychorrhexis, onycholysis,
                                                       transverse ridges, vertical ridges, tinea
     Functions of the skin, hair and nails:
                                                       unguium, pitting).
     Skin (secretion, heat regulation, absorption,
     protection, excretion, sensation, vitamin
     production, melanin formation), hair (heat
     regulation, protection), nails (protection,
     manual dexterity).
     Growth and repair: Skin growth cycle (cell
     formation, keratinisation, desquamation,
     healing), definition and appearance
     of skin types (mature, young, dry, oily,
     combination, sensitive, balanced), factors
     affecting skin condition (age, diet, nutrition,
     smoking, alcohol, ultra violet, stress,
     climate), hair growth cycle (anagen,
     catagen, telogen), factors affecting hair
     growth (congenital, hormonal, topical,
     systemic, non-systemic, medication), nail


60        UC30323
Outcome 3: Know the skeletal system and common pathologies


Functions of the skeleton: Shape and           rotation, adduction, abduction, pronation,
support, muscle attachment and leverage,       supination, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion,
joints for movement, production of red         eversion, inversion).
blood cells, storage of calcium, protection.
                                               Growth and repair: Definition and function
Location, structure and function               (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts),
of bones: Skeletal system (axial,              process of ossification.
appendicular), bones of the head (frontal,
                                               Pathologies: Causes, signs and
parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid,
                                               symptoms, fractures, breaks, osteoarthritis,
ethmoid, nasal, zygomatic, maxillae,
                                               rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoporosis,
mandible), bones of the neck (cervical
                                               repetitive strain injuries (e.g. tendonitis,
vertebrae, atlas, axis), bones of the spine
                                               bursitis, carpal tunnel syndrome), spinal
(thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae,
                                               injuries (e.g. whiplash, slipped disc),
sacral vertebrae, coccygeal vertebrae,
                                               postural defects (e.g. lordosis, kyphosis,
intervertebral discs), bones of the torso
                                               scoliosis), foot problems (e.g. bunions,
(ribs, sternum, clavicle, scapula, pelvic
                                               hammer toe, plantar fasciitis), artificial
girdle), bones of the pelvic girdle (ilium,
                                               joints, systemic lupus erythematosus,
ischium, pubis), bones of the upper limbs
                                               synovitis, rickets, ankylosing spondilitis,
(humerus, radius, ulna), bones of the
                                               spondylosis, Paget’s disease.
hands (carpals, metacarpals, phalanges),
bones of the lower limbs (femur, patella,
tibia, fibula), bones of the feet (tarsals,
metatarsals, phalanges), arches of the foot
(medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal,
anterior transverse, posterior transverse),
types of bones (compact, cancellous,
long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid),
components of long bone (diaphysis,
epiphysis, cartilage, articular cartilage,
medullary cavity, periosteum).
Location, structure and function
of joints: Classifications (fibrous/
immovable, cartilaginous/slightly
moveable, synovial/freely moveable),
synovial joint (joint capsule, ligaments,
synovial fluid, articular cartilage, bone),
types of synovial joint (gliding, ellipsoid,
hinge, saddle, pivot, ball and socket),
range of movement associated with joint
types (flexion, extension, circumduction,



                                                                           UC30323            61
     Outcome 4: Know the muscular system and common pathologies


     Functions of the muscular system:                pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, thenar
     Movement of skeleton, maintenance of             and hypothenar eminence), muscles of the
     posture, generation of heat.                     abdominal region (external and internal
                                                      obliques, rectus abdominis, transversus
     Structure and function: Muscle types
                                                      abdominis, quadratus lumborum),
     (voluntary/skeletal, involuntary/smooth,
                                                      muscles of the hip (iliopsoas, piriformis,
     cardiac), characteristics of muscle
                                                      gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus
     (contractibility, elasticity, excitability,
                                                      minimus, tensor fasciae latae), muscles
     extensibility), structure of skeletal muscle
                                                      of the thigh (sartorius, rectus femoris,
     (origin, insertion, tendon, aponeurosis,
                                                      vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus
     epimysium, endomysium, perimysium,
                                                      medialis, biceps femoris, semitendonisis,
     fascicles, muscle fibres, myofibrils, actin
                                                      semimembrainosis, gracilis, adductors
     and myosin, sarcoplasmic reticulum), types
                                                      longus, brevis, magnus), muscles of the
     of muscle contraction during movement
                                                      lower leg and foot (gastrocnemius, soleus,
     (isotonic concentric, isotonic eccentric,
                                                      tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, extensor
     isometric), muscle roles during movement
                                                      digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus,
     (agonist, antagonist, synergist, fixator).
                                                      extensor hallucis longus).
     Location and action of skeletal muscles:
                                                      Growth and repair: Process of muscular
     Muscles of the scalp and face (frontalis,
                                                      hypertrophy (e.g. increased muscle fibre
     occipitalis, orbicularis oculi, corrugator
                                                      diameter, myofibril production, increased
     (supercilii), nasalis, orbicularis oris,
                                                      mitochondria).
     zygomaticus, risorius, mentalis), facial
     muscles of mastication (buccinators,             Pathologies: Causes, signs and
     masseter, temporalis), neck muscles              symptoms (e.g. cramp and spasm, fatigue,
     (platysma, sternocleidomastoid), muscles         inflammatory conditions, sprains, muscle
     of anterior thorax (pectoralis major and         strains, rheumatism, atrophy, tetanus,
     minor, external and internal intercostals,       torticollis, fibrositis, fibromyalgia, muscular
     diaphragm, serratus anterior), muscles of        dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, spasticity,
     posterior thorax (erector spinae, trapezius,     myositis, myopathy).
     latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae,
     rhomboids major and minor, rotator cuff,
     supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor,
     subscapularis, teres major), muscles of
     upper arm (deltoid, biceps brachii,
     coraco-brachialis, brachialis, triceps
     brachii), muscles of lower arm and hand
     (pronator teres, brachioradialis, flexor carpi
     radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi
     digitorum, longus, brevis, extensor, carpi
     ulnaris, extensor carpi digitorum, abductor



62        UC30323
Outcome 5: Know the nervous system and common pathologies

Function of the nervous system:                   matter, grey matter, dura, arachnoid, pia
Detection of stimuli, process and                 mater, cerebrospinal fluid), generation
interpretation of stimuli, response to stimuli.   of nerve impulses, growth and repair of
                                                  nerves.
Location, structure and function: Central
Nervous System (brain, spinal cord),              Pathologies: Causes, signs and
Peripheral Nervous System (cranial nerves,        symptoms (e.g. stress, sciatica, neuralgia,
spinal nerves, brachial plexus, lumbar            myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue
plexus, sacral plexus), Autonomic Nervous         syndrome, referred pain, epilepsy, cerebral
System (sympathetic, parasympathetic),            palsy, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia,
types of neurone (motor, efferent,                strokes including transient ischaemic
afferent), structure of a motor neurone           attacks, Bell’s palsy, Parkinson’s disease,
(axon, dendrites, cell body, myelin sheath,       motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis,
neurilemma, axon terminals, synapse,              myasthenia gravis, meningitis, paralysis,
nodes of ranvier, grey matter, white matter),     poliomyelitis, deafness, earache, glue ear,
brain (meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal        tinnitus, vertigo, cataract, conjunctivitis,
fluid, cerebrum, cerebellum, pons varolii,        glaucoma).
medulla oblongata, hypothalamus,
thalamus, brain stem), spinal cord (white


Outcome 6: Know the endocrine system and common pathologies

Functions of the endocrine system:                hormone, luteinising hormone, lactogenic
Hormone secretion into the blood stream,          hormone, antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin,
maintenance of homeostasis, control of            melatonin, thyroxine T3, calcitonin,
body’s functions (stimulation/inhibition of       parathormone, insulin, glucagon,
growth, induction/suppression of cell death,      aldosterone, cortisone, testosterone,
inhibition of immune system, regulation           oestrogen, progesterone, adrenalin,
of metabolism, preparation for new                noradrenaline), relationship of endocrine
activity, preparation for new phase in life,      system with other body systems (nervous,
controlling reproductive cycle).                  circulatory, digestive, reproductive,
                                                  integumentary), growth and repair.
Location, structure and function:
Endocrine glands (hypothalamus, pituitary,        Pathologies: Causes, signs and
pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus,             symptoms (e.g. thyrotoxicosis,
pancreas, adrenal, ovaries, testes),              myxoedema, goitre, addison’s syndrome,
associated hormones and hormone                   cushing’s syndrome,diabetes mellitus,
actions (thyroid stimulating hormone,             diabetes insipidus).
adrenocorticotrophic hormone, human
growth hormone, follicle stimulating


                                                                              UC30323            63
     Outcome 7: Know the respiratory system and common pathologies


     Functions of the respiratory system:               muscular), growth and repair.
     Oxygen supply to body tissues, carbon
                                                        Pathologies: Causes, signs and
     dioxide removal from body tissues.
                                                        symptoms, obstructive (e.g. emphysema,
     Location, structure and function:                  bronchitis, asthma), other (e.g. pneumonia,
     Respiratory system (mouth, nose, nasal             tuberculosis, hay fever, rhinitis, whooping
     cavity, larynx, pharynx, epiglottis, trachea,      cough, sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis).
     primary bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli,
     lungs, pulmonary capillary network, pleural
     membranes, diaphragm, intercostals
     muscles), mechanism of inhalation
     and exhalation, gaseous exchange,
     composition of inspired and expired air,
     process of internal and external respiration,
     control of respiration (chemical, nervous),
     process of pulmonary circulation,
     relationship of respiratory system with
     other body systems (circulatory, nervous,


     Outcome 8: Know the cardiovascular system and common pathologies

     Functions of the cardiovascular                    iliac, inferior mesenteric, left iliac, vertebral,
     system: Transportation (nutrients, gases,          axillary, brachial, left and right ulnar, left
     hormones, antibodies, waste products),             ulnar, left and right radial, left and right
     heat regulation, protection and immunity,          deep palmar arch, left and right superficial
     blood flow distribution, clotting.                 palmar arch, external iliac, left and right
                                                        femoral, left and right popliteal, left and
     Location of blood vessels: Arteries of
                                                        right anterior tibial, left and right posterior
     the head and neck (innominate, common
                                                        tibial, plantar arch, digital arteries), veins
     carotid, internal carotid, external carotid,
                                                        of the body (inferior vena cava, pulmonary,
     facial, occipital, superficial, temporal), veins
                                                        right hepatic, hepatic portal, splenic, right
     of the head and neck (posterior external
                                                        renal, left and right iliac, left and right
     jugular, occipital, superficial, temporal,
                                                        axillary, left and right brachial, left and
     maxillary, anterior facial, common facial,
                                                        right basilica, left and right cephalic, left
     internal jugular, external jugular), arteries
                                                        and right subclavian, long saphenous, left
     of the body (coronary artery, ascending
                                                        and right short saphenous, dorsal venous
     and descending aorta, left and right
                                                        arch, left and right femoral, left and right
     common carotid, left and right subclavian,
                                                        popliteal, left and right posterior tibial, left
     intercostal, pulmonary, right hepatic,
                                                        and right anterior tibial).
     splenic, renal, superior mesenteric, right


64         UC30323
Outcome 8: Know the cardiovascular system and common pathologies
(continued)

Location, structure and function:                blood pressure measurements and
Blood (plasma, erythrocytes, leucocytes,         classifications, blood pressure regulation,
thrombocytes), blood vessels (arteries,          factors affecting blood pressure (e.g. force
arterioles, veins, venules, capillaries),        of the heart beat, volume of blood, blood
heart (superior vena cava, inferior vena         flow resistance in the arteries, viscosity
cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right       of the blood, elasticity of vessel walls),
ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary            causes of blood pressure change (e.g. diet,
artery, septum, pulmonary veins, left            exercise, stress, medication).
atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aorta,
                                                 Growth and repair: Process of blood
aortic arch, endocardium, myocardium,
                                                 clotting (thrombocytes, thromboplastin,
pericardium), cardiac cycle (diastole, atrial
                                                 prothrombin, calcium, thrombin, fibrinogen,
systole, ventricular systole), electrical
                                                 fibrin).
conduction in the heart (sino atrial node,
atrioventricular node), type of circulation      Pathologies: Causes, signs and
(pulmonary, systemic, portal, coronary),         symptoms (e.g. anaemia, aneurysm,
definition of heart rate, heart rate values      arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, coronary
(males, females), heart rate control             thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis,
(nervous system, hormonal), definition           hypertension, hypotension, varicose veins,
of blood pressure (systolic, diastolic),         palpitations, high cholesterol).



Outcome 9: Know the lymphatic system and common pathologies

Functions of the lymphatic system:               natural immunity, allergy triggers and
Transportation (excess fluid, foreign            the body’s response), relationship with
particles, fats), purification (waste and        other body systems (muscular, digestive,
toxins), protection (antibodies for defence).    immune), growth and repair.
Location, structure and function:                Pathologies: Causes, signs and
Lymph (leucocytes, lymphocytes, waste            symptoms (e.g. cancer, fever, cellulitis,
products), lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic      rheumatoid arthritis, oedema, Hodgkin’s
vessels, lymphatic nodes (superficial and        disease, lymphoedema).
deep cervical, submandibular, axillary,
supratrochlear, iliac, inguinal, popliteal),
lymphatic ducts (general, thoracic duct,
right lymphatic duct, cisterna chyli),
lymphoid tissue (spleen, thymus, tonsils,
appendix, Peyer’s patches), immunity
(antigens, antibodies, acquired immunity,



                                                                             UC30323            65
     Outcome 10: Know the digestive system and common pathologies


     Functions of the digestive system:                churning), process of chemical digestion
     Ingestion, mechanical and chemical                (proteases, lipases, amylases), process of
     breakdown of food, digestion, absorption of       absorption of nutrients (proteins, peptones,
     nutrients, defaecation.                           polypeptides, amino acids, carbohydrates,
                                                       monosaccharides, disaccharides,
     Location, structure and function:
                                                       polysaccharides, fats, fatty acids,
     Mouth, buccal cavity, lips, teeth, tongue,
                                                       glycerol), relationship with other body
     pharynx, epiglottis, oesophagus, salivary
                                                       systems (circulatory, endocrine, lymphatic,
     glands, stomach, cardiac sphincter, pyloric
                                                       muscular, nervous), growth and repair.
     sphincter, oblique muscle layer, small
     intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum,              Pathologies: Causes, signs and
     villi), large intestine (ileocaecal valve,        symptoms (e.g. heartburn, indigestion,
     caecum, ascending colon, transverse               irritable bowel syndrome, constipation,
     colon, descending colon, rectum, anus,            diarrhoea, gall stones, coeliac’s disease,
     anal sphincter), accessory digestive              ulcer).
     organs (gastric glands, pancreas, intestinal
     glands, liver, gall bladder), process of
     physical digestion (mastication, peristalsis,


     Outcome 11: Know the urinary system and common pathologies

     Functions of the urinary system:                  urine composition (urea, uric acid/
     Distribution of intracellular and extracellular   ammonia, salts, water), relationship with
     fluid, balance fluid intake with fluid output,    other body systems (circulatory, endocrine,
     general electrolyte composition and               skeletal, integumentary), growth and repair.
     balance, maintain pH values of the body’s
                                                       Pathologies: Causes, signs and
     fluid systems, regulation of blood pressure.
                                                       symptoms (e.g. cystitis, incontinence, renal
     Location, structure and function:                 failure, kidney stones, bladder stones,
     Kidneys (capsule, cortex, medulla,                nephritis).
     pyramids, calyces), nephron (afferent and
     effect arterioles, glomerulus, Bowman’s,
     glomerular capsule, proximal coiled
     tubule, loop of Henle, distal coiled tubule,
     collecting duct), ureters, bladder, urethra,
     urine production (filtration, reabsorption,
     active secretion), factors affecting urine
     production (cold and hot weather, activity
     and inactivity, stress, water consumption),



66         UC30323
Outcome 12: Know the reproductive system and common pathologies


Functions of the reproductive system:
Production of sperm and ova, meiosis,
mitosis, cytokinesis.
Location, structure and function:
The female reproductive tract (ovum,
ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix,
vulva, vagina, labia, clitoris, vestibule
and greater vestibular glands, mammary
glands), function of female sex hormones
(e.g. oestrogen, progesterone), male
reproductive tract (testes, scrotum, vas
deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles,
prostate, urethra, penis), function of male
sex hormones (e.g. testosterone).
Growth and repair: Define female
reproductive stages (puberty, pregnancy,
menopause), effects of female puberty,
menstrual cycle (menstruation, follicular
phase, ovulation, luteal phase), stages of
pregnancy (fertilisation, post-fertilisation,
cell division, embryo formation, foetal
development, parturition, lactation), effects
of female menopause (e.g. cessation of
menses, mood swings, hot flushes, bone
loss, atrophy of reproductive organs), male
reproductive stages (puberty, menopause),
effects of male puberty, effects of male
menopause (e.g. fatigue, weakness,
depression, and sexual dysfunction).
Pathologies: Causes, signs and symptoms
(e.g. infertility, mastitis, amenorrhoea,
dysmenorrhoea, pre-menstrual syndrome,
sexually transmitted diseases, polycystic
ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, pelvic
inflammatory disease).




                                                       UC30323    67
                                     Notes
         Use this area for making notes and drawing diagrams




68   UC30323
UC30324
Knowledge of less common
pathology for complementary
therapies
It is the aim of this unit to provide you with the knowledge
and understanding of less common pathologies in order to
practice complementary therapies.




UC30324_v10
Level




        3
Credit value




        4
GLH




        30
Observation(s)




        0
External paper(s)




        0
Knowledge of less common
pathology for complementary
therapies
     Learning outcomes                                 Guidance on less common
                                                       pathology
On completion of this unit you will:                 To achieve this unit you must provide
1.   Be able to identify the signs and symptoms      evidence for a minimum of two ‘less common
     of less common pathologies                      pathologies’. These must be different to those
                                                     evidenced in Unit UC30323 – Knowledge
                                                     of anatomy, physiology and pathology for
     Evidence requirements                           complementary therapies. The unit content
                                                     section of this book provides suggestions
1.    Knowledge outcomes                             for study, however this list is not definitive or
      There must be evidence that you possess        exclusive.
      all the knowledge and understanding listed
      in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.       Your tutors and assessors have been advised
      In most cases this can be done by your         to place emphasis on pathology that relate
      assessor questioning you orally. However,      to the context in which you are learning (i.e.
      other techniques, such as projects,            aromatherapy, reflexology, massage etc).
      assignments and/or reflective accounts may
      also be used.
      A minimum of two less common
      pathologies (conditions) must be evidenced
      for each body system in your portfolio, this
      equates to a total of twenty less common
      pathologies for this unit (10 body systems
      covered in this unit).
2.    External paper
      There is no external paper requirement for
      this unit.

3.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
      You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
      on how to achieve learning outcomes in this
      unit. All outcomes must be achieved.

4.    Case studies
      There is no case study requirement for this
      unit.




                                                                                     UC30324             71
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor     Where possible your assessor will integrate
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.        knowledge outcomes into practical observations
     Your knowledge and understanding will be          through oral questioning.
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




72           UC30324
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Be able to identify the signs and symptoms of less common
pathologies
                                                                  Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                  Assessor initials*

 a. Describe, in relation to the body the signs and symptoms of
     less common pathologies of:

 • the skin

 • skeletal system

 • muscular system

 • nervous system

 • respiratory system

 • cardiovascular system

 • lymphatic system

 • digestive system

 • urinary system

 • reproductive system


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                        UC30324           73
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.

       Outcome 1: Be able to identify the signs and symptoms of less common
       pathologies

       The skin: Definitions, signs and                    atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, heart
       symptoms of less common pathologies                 disease, palpitations, tachycardia,
       (bromidrosis/osmidrosis, anhidrosis,                bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia,
       hyperhydrosis, scleroderma, systemic                intermittent claudication, pulmonary
       lupus erythematosus, malignant tumours,             embolism).
       burns, pressure sores/bed sores).
                                                           The lymphatic system: Definitions, signs
       The skeletal system: Definitions, signs             and symptoms of less common pathologies
       and symptoms of less common pathologies             (myalgic encephalomyelitis, Hodgkin’s
       (fractures, osteomalacia, osteogenesis              disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
       imperfect, osteoporosis, cervical stenosis,         leukaemia, lymphoma).
       whiplash, rickets).
                                                           The digestive system: Definitions, signs
       The muscular system: Definitions, signs             and symptoms of less common pathologies
       and symptoms of less common pathologies             (inflamed gall bladder, pernicious anaemia,
       (muscular dystrophy, fibromyalgia, shin             colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease,
       splints, tetanus).                                  diverticulosis, diverticulitis, colon cancer,
                                                           coeliac disease, enteritis, gastritis).
       The nervous system: Definitions,
       signs and symptoms of less common                   The urinary system: Definitions, signs
       pathologies (Alzheimers disease,                    and symptoms of less common pathologies
       peripheral neuropathy, spina bifida,                (renal failure, nephritis, renal colic,
       poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s          uraemia, dysuria, enuresis, incontinence,
       disease, motor neurone disease, myalgic             nephroblastoma).
       encephalomyelitis, meningitis, myasthenia
                                                           The reproductive system: Definitions,
       gravis).
                                                           signs and symptoms of less common
       The respiratory system: Definitions,                pathologies (testicular cancer, prostate
       signs and symptoms of less common                   cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer,
       pathologies (fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pleurisy,       endometriosis, sexually transmitted
       chronic obstructive airways disease,                diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease,
       chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder,             impotence, ovarian cysts).
       cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, bronchiolitis,
       pertussis, pneumothorax).
       The cardiovascular system: Definitions,
       signs and symptoms of less common
       pathologies (myocardial infarction,



74           UC30324
UV30812
Provide infant and child
massage for complementary
therapies
The aim of this unit is to provide you with the skills and
understanding to teach parents and guardians how to apply
infant/child massage and also in certain circumstances
to apply infant/child massage in the presence of parents/
guardians, with their consent. Instructing parents/guardians
how to provide infant/child massage for their own children
is preferred.

An important function of infant/child massage is to
encourage bonding with the parent or guardian.
Additionally, massage has a soothing and reassuring effect
on babies and young children. At the end of this unit you
will be able to deliver one to one infant/child massage
instruction and group classes by demonstrating on a
substitute doll.




UV30812_v5
Level




        3
Credit value




        19
GLH




   100
Observation(s)




        3
External paper(s)




        0
Provide infant and child
massage for complementary
therapies
                                                     7.   Tutor/Assessor guidance
     Learning outcomes                                    You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                          on how to achieve learning outcomes and
On completion of this unit you will:                      ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
1.    Be able to prepare for an infant and child          must be achieved.
      massage treatment                              8.   Case studies
                                                          You must carry out and document evidence
2.    Be able to provide infant and child massage
                                                          for at least one treatment demonstrated
      treatment
                                                          on a doll to at least five parents/guardians,
                                                          either in a group or one to one session.

     Evidence requirements

1.    Environment
      Evidence for this unit must be gathered in a
      real or realistic working environment.

2.    Simulation
      Simulation is not allowed in this unit.

3.    Observation outcomes
      Competent performance of ‘Observation’
      outcomes must be demonstrated to your
      assessor on at least three occasions,
      and must be completed in a commercially
      acceptable time.

4.    Range
      All ranges must be practically demonstrated
      or other forms of evidence produced to
      show they have been covered.

5.    Knowledge outcomes
      There must be evidence that you possess
      all the knowledge and understanding listed
      in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.
      In most cases this can be done by your
      assessor questioning you orally. However,
      other techniques, such as projects,
      assignments and/or reflective accounts may
      also be used.

6.    External paper
      There is no external paper requirement for
      this unit.

                                                                                    UV30812               77
       Achieving observations
       and range

       Achieving observation outcomes                     Maximum service times
     Your assessor will observe your performance        The following maximum service times apply to
     of practical tasks. The minimum number             this unit:
     of observations required is indicated in the
     evidence requirements section of this unit.        Instruction                        20 minutes

     Criteria may not always naturally occur during
     a practical observation. In such instances you
     will be asked questions to demonstrate your
     competence in this area. Your assessor will
     document the criteria that have been achieved
     through oral questioning.

     Your assessor will sign off an outcome when all
     criteria have been competently achieved.




       Achieving range
     The range section indicates what must
     be covered. Ranges should be practically
     demonstrated as part of an observation. Where
     this is not possible other forms of evidence may
     be produced. All ranges must be be covered.

     Your assessor will document the portfolio
     reference once a range has been competently
     achieved.




78           UV30812
                                                    Observations

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for an infant and child massage treatment

You can:
a.   Prepare self, client and work area in
     accordance with current legislation and
     working practice requirements
b.   Consult with clients to clarify their
     requirements
c.   Provide clear recommendations to the client
d.   Identify contra-indications and take
     appropriate action*
e.   Refer the client to another health care
     practitioner if necessary or decide that the
     infant and child massage treatment is not
     appropriate*




*May be assessed through oral questioning.

 Observation                                 1          2       3
 Date achieved
 Criteria questioned orally
 Portfolio reference
 Assessor initials
 Learner signature

                                                            UV30812   79
          Outcome 2

     Be able to provide infant and child massage treatment

     You can:
     a.    Perform and adapt the infant and child
           massage treatment, where necessary,
           within a commercially acceptable time
     b.    Demonstrate how infant and child massage
           techniques can be adapted to suit the
           physical characteristics of the infant/child
     c.    Implement working methods that meet with
           professional and legal requirements
     d.    Perform the treatment to the satisfaction of
           the parent/carer
     e.    Select, use and store materials and
           equipment effectively, correctly and safely
     f.    Communicate and behave in a professional
           manner throughout treatment
     g.    Position self and parent/carer throughout
           the treatment to ensure privacy, comfort
           and wellbeing
     h.    Record treatment and store information
           securely in line with current legislation
     i.    Provide after and home care advice




     *May be assessed through oral questioning.
      Observation                                 1       2   3
      Date achieved
      Criteria questioned orally
      Portfolio reference
      Assessor initials
      Learner signature

80             UV30812
                                                                    Range

  *You must practically demonstrate that you have:

 Used a minimum of 1 massage support                                     Portfolio reference
Couch
Floor
Lap
 Demonstrated for all types of clients                                   Portfolio reference
Individual
Groups
 Used all types of massage medium                                        Portfolio reference
Oil
Cream
 Used all types of massage movements                                     Portfolio reference
Effleurage
Petrissage
Gentle stretching
Gentle joint movement
 Provided all of the aftercare advice                                    Portfolio reference
Rest and fluid intake
Future treatment needs




*It is strongly recommended that all range items are practically demonstrated. Where this is not
possible, other forms of evidence may be produced to demonstrate competence.




                                                                                 UV30812           81
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.
     Your knowledge and understanding will be
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




82           UV30812
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Be able to prepare for an infant and child massage treatment
                                                                           Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                           Assessor initials*

 f.   Evaluate desirable characteristics of an appropriate treatment
      environment

 g.   Summarise objectives and describe the contra-actions that may
      result from treatment and how to respond appropriately to contra-
      actions

 h.   Identify influencing factors

 i.   Evaluate known contra-indications or cautions that may restrict or
      prevent treatment


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                 UV30812           83
       Outcome 2

     Be able to provide infant and child massage treatment
                                                                                 Portfolio reference /
      You can:
                                                                                 Assessor initials*

      j.   Summarise the history, philosophy and role of the massage
           therapist and other massage traditions

      k.   Evaluate the uses of the classical massage movements and the
           physiological and psychological effects of massage on the infant/
           child’s body systems

      l.   Explain the uses, application and origin of different massage media

      m. Critically compare the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of
           an infant and child massage treatment

      n.   Evaluate the results of the treatment

      o.   Evaluate the philosophy of reflective practice and its relevance to
           the massage therapist

      p.   State after and home care advice


     * Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




84            UV30812
    Unit content

This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


  Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for an infant and child massage treatment


  Preparation of a treatment environment:            positive/cheerful expression, feedback,
  Suitable sanitised work area, atmosphere,          non-verbal communication, visual aids,
  temperature, noise levels, ventilation,            professional rapport, questioning (open/
  lighting, soft music, appropriate massage          closed), silence, verbal (tone, pitch,
  support (couch, floor mat, lap or                  speed), infant/child’s relevant physical and
  bed), clean linen, couch roll, hygiene,            emotional background, parent in relation
  techniques, sanitising products, treatment         to bonding or where applicable postnatal
  medium, waste disposal.                            depression, consultation form, signatures,
                                                     record keeping, treatment planning/
  Preparation of self: Personal hygiene
                                                     recommendations, establish expectations,
  (no body odour, fresh breath, clean hair,
                                                     treatment evaluation and review.
  washed and sanitised hands, nails),
  professional (no perfume or chewing),              Examples of possible contra-actions to
  full clean pressed uniform, no jewellery           treatment: Increased micturition, increased
  (except a smooth wedding band), neat               defecation, altered feeding pattern, altered
  hair (tied back/fringe secured), flat closed       sleeping pattern.
  footwear, nails (short, smooth, no varnish/
                                                     Consultation records: Data protection,
  extensions), correct posture.
                                                     record of consent, confidential, accurate,
  Preparation of client/infant: Remove               up-to-date, written, appointment book,
  all jewellery and sanitise hands (parent/          consultation form, name, address, contact
  guardian), respect the infant/child’s              numbers, age of infant/child, treatment
  modesty throughout, sanitise the infant/           nature and extent of the parent/guardian/
  child’s hands/feet before and after                infant/child needs, psychological and
  treatment, communicate effectively with            physiological state, emotional issues,
  parent/carers, appropriate use of supports         muscular/postural problems, chronic
  to ensure infant/child’s comfort throughout.       illness, medical history, treatment plan,
                                                     massage mediums, contra-indications,
  Legislation and working practices:
                                                     contra-actions.
  National legislation or local regulations
  relating to massage treatments, health             Therapist recommendations and
  and safety, equality and diversity, mental         treatment planning: Only working within
  health, children, cosmetic products, data          own scope of practice and expertise as a
  protection, criminal record bureau (CRB).          infant and child massage therapist, only
                                                     recommend treatments which are relevant
  Consultation techniques: Professional,
                                                     and appropriate to the infant/child, infant/
  private comfortable area, active listening,
                                                     child suitability, timing the massage, age of
  body language, discussion, positioning of
                                                     the infant/child, time of day, feed times and
  the parent/guardian (no barriers between
                                                     sleep times, conditions for which massage
  yourself and parent/guardian, eye contact,
                                                     is appropriate.


                                                                                  UV30812             85
     Outcome 1: Be able to prepare for an infant and child massage treatment
     (continued)


     Special caution/modifications to                encephalitis, cancer, diabetes, fever,
     treatment may be required for treatment         contagious or infectious diseases, skin
     in the following areas (some treatment          disorders, recent immunisation (48 hours),
     areas may be inappropriate): Front              seborrhoeic dermatitis (cradle cap), cuts,
     of neck and throat, orbital area, back of       bumps, after a meal, when the infant/child
     neck, spine, axilla, front and back elbow,      cannot settle.
     brachial region (upper arm), upper lumbar
     (over kidney area), umbilical area, femoral
     triangle, popliteal fossa, inguinal area.
     Consent to treatment: Parent or
     authorised guardian/carer must provide
     signed consent to treatment and remain
     present/participate in treatment throughout
     the session, importance of gaining consent
     from the person who is acting in the best
     interests of the infant/child (when the
     parent/guardian is unable or not of an
     age to make the decision for themselves),
     meaning of informed parent/guardian
     consent and the guidance given by the
     practitioner’s professional association (e.g.
     FHT), particularly where there is a need
     for written consent, methods of obtaining
     consent and how to confirm that parent/
     guardian have been given sufficient
     information on which to base their own
     judgment, agreements are in the infant/
     child’s best interests, ensure that parent/
     guardian signs the consultation form to
     consent to treatment, ensure due regard
     for the parent/carers right to choose and
     participate in treatment e.g. massage
     movement, the level of undress of the
     infant/child or the type of massage medium
     being used.
     Examples of contra-indications that
     may restrict or prevent treatment:
     Recent operation/surgery, congenital
     heart condition, congenital dislocation of
     the hip, spastic conditions, dysfunction
     of the nervous system, epilepsy, asthma,



86        UV30812
Outcome 2: Be able to provide infant and child massage treatment


Infant and child massage instruction:           Henrik Ling, present day.
Demonstrate infant and child massage            Classical massage movements for
techniques – all movements are                  infant and child massage: Effleurage,
demonstrated to the parent/carer by the         light tapotement (tapping), light petrissage
therapist via the medium of a substitute        (milking), gentle friction, gentle vibration,
doll; ensure the infant/child is correctly      gentle stretching, rocking.
supported, ensure the infant/child is
                                                Physical development of infants:
warm and appropriately covered, select
                                                Average weight of a new born, rate of
the appropriate massage medium, safely
                                                growth, muscle development, development
and hygienically, movements should be
                                                of curvature of the spine, eye focus, co-
adapted to produce a massage suitable
                                                ordination, moro reflex, rooting reflex,
for the infant/child’s needs, movements
                                                sucking reflex, grasp reflex, physical
should be performed correctly and on
                                                features of the unsettled newly born/infant,
areas appropriate for the movement e.g.
                                                physical milestones of development in the
effleurage, petrissage (milking) tapotment
                                                first 9 months.
(tapping), maintaining contact throughout
treatment (where appropriate), performing       Possible physiological, psychological
and adapting the treatment relevant to          benefits of massage movements
infant/child’s physiological and physical       on infant/child: Relaxation, sense of
requirements, abilities, disabilities, time     wellbeing, increased mobility of joints
restrictions, applying the massage at a         and muscles, improved sleep patterns,
pressure appropriate to the infant/child’s      increased energy levels, emotional
needs, checking infant/child’s satisfaction     contentment, improved skin condition,
and comfort throughout treatment                aid digestive problems, aid respiratory
with the use of verbal and non-verbal           problems, encourage co-ordination,
communication, encouraging parent/carer         bonding with parent/guardian.
to express their feelings/requirements          Examples of massage mediums that
during the treatment, noting infant/            can be used for infant/child massage:
child’s reactions and making appropriate        Calendula oil, grapeseed oil, cream.
adjustments during treatment, noting infant/    Blended essential oils should not be used.
child/parent/guardian’s reactions and any
findings/feedback at end of treatment,          Selection, storage and use of mediums,
removing the massage medium at the end          materials and equipment: Use and
of the treatment if appropriate, working        storage of treatment equipment required,
through treatment in a commercially             bottles, jars, floor mat, cushions,
acceptable time (approx 20 minutes), work       sourcing, selection, use and storage of
within code of professional practice relating   treatment media, away from extremes of
to infant and child massage laid down by        temperature, tightly sealed bottles, out
professional association (e.g. FHT).            of reach of children, methods of dealing
                                                with breakages/spillages in the treatment
History of massage therapy: China               environment, product data sheets, stock
3000BC, Japanese Shiatsu, Indian                control/rotation, shelf life of massage media
Ayurvedic medicine, Greeks, Romans, Per


                                                                             UV30812            87
     Outcome 2: Be able to provide infant and child massage treatment
     (continued)


     and treatment products, legislative controls       Records of parent/carer feedback: At
     and guidelines for the use of massage              the end of each treatment the parent/
     products.                                          guardian’s feedback should be recorded
                                                        on the consultation form and any reactions
     Communicate with and instruct parents/
                                                        noted together with recommendations for
     carers: Checking consultations and contra-
                                                        ongoing treatment and self treatment.
     indications, explaining the treatment to the
     parent/carer, positioning the infant/child         Immediate aftercare advice: Allowing
     correctly, sanitising infant/child’s hands/        infant/child/parent/guardian time to revive,
     feet as appropriate, sanitising own hands          allow the infant/child a drink or a feed,
     as appropriate throughout treatment,               ensure infant/child is kept warm, allow the
     protecting the infant/child’s modesty at all       infant/child to sleep or relax, adequately
     times, ensure due regard for the parent/           protect infant/child from direct sunlight,
     guardian’s right to choose the level of            monitor infant/child’s response to the
     undress of the infant/child or the type of         massage.
     massage medium being used, ensuring                Home care advice: At the end of each
     that the infant/child is comfortable, by use       treatment the client should be advised of
     of verbal and non-verbal communication             home and aftercare to prolong treatment
     throughout the treatment, using appropriate        benefits, plenty of fluids, fresh air for
     covered supports, adapting the treatment           parent/guardian/infant/child, avoid direct
     techniques to suit the needs of the infant/        sunlight, ensure the infant/child is kept
     child, infant and child massage therapist          warm, allow the infant/child to sleep or
     maintaining correct posture, hygiene and           relax, generally helping parent/guardian
     professionalism throughout treatment.              and families to identify options to improve
     Evaluate the effectiveness of an infant            infant/child’s health and social wellbeing in
     and child massage treatment: Review                terms of massage treatment, monitor the
     the massage treatment/class, at the                infant/child’s response to the massage.
     end of each treatment the infant/child’s
     psychological and physiological reactions
     should be recorded and evaluated,
     outcomes achieved, effectiveness of the
     treatment, choice of massage media
     used, treatment techniques, whether the
     treatment met the needs of the infant/
     child and parent/guardian’s expectations,
     longer term needs of the parent/guardian,
     therapist self reflection in relation to infant/
     child/parent/guardian and treatment
     performed, infant/child/parent/guardian
     treatment progression, review of ongoing
     treatment plan.




88         UV30812
UV30813
Reflective practice for infant and
child massage
It is the aim of this unit to provide you with the knowledge,
understanding and skills required to undertake reflective
practice to operate as a professional practitioner.




UV30813_v4
Level




        3
Credit value




        10
GLH




        20
Observation(s)




        0
External paper(s)




        0
Reflective practice for infant and
child massage

     Learning outcomes                                 Evidence requirements

On completion of this unit you will:              1.    Knowledge outcomes
                                                        There must be evidence that you possess
1.   Be able to apply and understand reflective
                                                        all the knowledge and understanding listed
     practice
                                                        in the ‘Knowledge’ section of this unit.
                                                        In most cases this can be done by your
                                                        assessor questioning you orally. However,
                                                        other techniques, such as projects,
                                                        assignments and/or reflective accounts may
                                                        also be used.

                                                  2.    External paper
                                                        There is no external paper requirement for
                                                        this unit.

                                                  3.    Tutor/Assessor guidance
                                                        You will be guided by your tutor/assessor
                                                        on how to achieve learning outcomes and
                                                        ranges in this unit. All outcomes and ranges
                                                        must be achieved.

                                                  4.    Case studies
                                                        You must carry out and document evidence
                                                        for at least nine treatments demonstrated
                                                        on a doll to parents/guardians, either in a
                                                        group or one to one session.




                                                                                 UV30813               91
            Developing knowledge


       Achieving knowledge outcomes

     You will be guided by your tutor and assessor
     on the evidence that needs to be produced.
     Your knowledge and understanding will be
     assessed using the assessment methods listed
     below:

        •   Observed work
        •   Witness statements
        •   Audio-visual media
        •   Evidence of prior learning or attainment
        •   Written questions
        •   Oral questions
        •   Assignments
        •   Case studies




92           UV30813
Knowledge

  Outcome 1

Be able to apply and understand reflective practice
                                                                              Portfolio reference /
 You can:
                                                                              Assessor initials*

 a.   Describe the elements of reflective practice

 b.   Reflect on own attitudes, beliefs, interests, priorities and values
      in relation to personal growth as as infant and child massage
      therapist

 c.   Describe how own self-awareness impacts on personal and
      professional life

 d.   Describe how to record evidence of own knowledge and practical
      experience

 e.   Evaluate own knowledge and practice in relation to professional
      codes of conduct and current working practices

 f.   Identify strengths and remove limitations in order to best serve self
      and client

 g.   Identify lifelong learning opportunities

 h.   Describe how to plan for self development


* Assessor initials to be inserted if orally questioned.




                                                                                    UV30813           93
         Unit content

     This section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable you
     to achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have the
     opportunity to cover all of the unit content.


       Outcome 1: Be able to apply and understand reflective practice


       Elements of reflective practice: Open               impact on personal life (relationships,
       mind, awareness, questioning, asking                satisfaction), impact on professional life
       about others, choices, options and                  (clients, colleagues, professionalism).
       possibilities, comparing and contrasting
                                                           Recording evidence: Own knowledge
       results, in depth understanding, viewing
                                                           and practical experience, written (journals,
       practice from different perspectives,
                                                           experience logs, mentor feedback,
       seeking/gaining feedback from others,
                                                           portfolio, case studies), video, audio
       resolving problems, identifying limitations.
                                                           records (own comments, mentor feedback,
       Reflect: Own attitudes, beliefs, interests,         clients’ comments), comply with data
       priorities and values, reflection as a              protection.
       process, reflection in action, reflection on
                                                           Own knowledge and practice: In relation
       action, methods of reflection (reflective
                                                           to current codes of conduct and working
       journals, peer review, mentoring feedback,
                                                           practices, evaluate (compare to codes
       case study work, reading logs, portfolio
                                                           of conduct, compare with recommended
       development).
                                                           working practices, make informed
       Reflection for personal growth: Reflect             judgements).
       upon training, professional incidents
                                                           Evaluation of self: Self evaluation forms,
       and experiences, analyse what has
                                                           journals, tests, reviewing, assessing,
       occurred, why it occurred, and how it can
                                                           revising, comparing own standards to
       be prevented or repeated, think about
                                                           industry standards, discussions, asking
       the strengths and weakness of your
                                                           questions (What did I learn? How well did
       training/professional experiences, learn
                                                           I learn it? What should I do next?), setting
       something from thinking, analysing and
                                                           new goals based on new knowledge.
       writing, occurrences can be described and
       reflected upon, followed by a solution or           Strengths and limitations, for example:
       series of solutions emerging, learn from            Knowledge and understanding, working
       your reflection upon these incidents and            practices, practical skills, maintain
       experiences, develop your personal growth           strengths, remove limitations.
       for the future.                                     Lifelong learning opportunities: CPD
       Impacts of self awareness: Self                     (Continuous Professional Development),
       awareness (attitude and beliefs,                    training courses, independent study,
       knowledge and understanding, practical              periodical reviewing, using knowledge to
       skills, compare and contrast choices,               inform practice, development of personal
       understanding, rationale, adaptability,             skills, development of personal values,
       interpersonal skills, communication),               professional association membership,


94           UV30813
Outcome 1: Be able to apply and understand reflective practice (continued)


identifying progression pathways.
Self development plan: PDP (Personal
Development Plan) documentation,
reflection, identify learning gap (Where
am I now? Where do I want to be?),
establish goals (short, medium, long term),
on-going review and updates of plans and
documentation, areas for improvement in
practice, aims and objectives for practice,
targets and associated timescales, CPD
requirements, training and courses (title,
dates), further work-based experience,
opportunities for mentoring.




                                                              UV30813        95
                                     Notes
         Use this area for making notes and drawing diagrams




96   UV30813

				
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