Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts
1. An acid produces _____ ions in solution.
a. oxygen b. hydronium c. hydroxide d. sulfur
2. A base produces _____ ions in solution.
a. oxygen b. hydronium c. hydroxide d. sulfur
3. What is the formula of the salt formed when a solution of nitric acid is added to a solution of
calcium hydroxide? Hint: this is a double replacement reaction,
Ca(OH)2 + 2HNO3 _______ + 2 H(OH)
a. Ca(NO3)2 b. Ca(OH)2 c. NH4 d. CaH2
4. An antacid relieves an overly acidic stomach because antacids are
a. acidic b. neutral c. basic d. dilute
5. Which of the following ionic equations best represents a neutralization reaction?
a. Na + H2O → Na+ + OH− + H2
b. 2OH− + NH4Cl → Cl− + H2O + NH3
c. OH− + H3O+ → 2H2O
d. HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3-
6. An increase in the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration of a solution _____ the pH.
a. raises b. lowers c. doesn’t affect d. doubles
7. Which one of these materials found in the kitchen is not acidic?
a. baking soda b. lemon juice c. vinegar d. vitamin c
8. When an acid dissolves in water, which type of ion is among the products formed?
a. hydronium b. electrolyte c. hydroxide d. antacid
9. A mystery substance is found to be a very strong base. What will its pH most likely be?
a. 0 b. 4 c. 8 d. 12
10. Two acidic solutions are tested for conductivity. If solution A conducts electric current much better
than solution B does, what can be concluded about the two solutions?
a. Solution A has a higher concentration of hydronium ions than solution B does.
b. Solution A has a higher concentration of hydroxide ions than solution B does.
c. More acid was dissolved in solution A than in solution B.
d. The pH of solution A is higher than the pH of solution B.
11. Explain how you can use litmus paper to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or
12. Explain why a strong acid or a strong base is also a strong electrolyte in solution.
13. How can you use the pH of a solution to determine how basic the solution is?
14. What is a neutralization reaction? When would the product of a neutralization reaction have a
pH of 7? (Hint: Would the acid be strong or weak? Would the base be strong or weak?) When
would the product of a neutralization reaction have a pH of less than 7? When would the product of
a neutralization reaction have a pH of greater than 7?
15. How can you use the pH of a solution to determine how basic the solution is?
16. What are two ways that your body uses salts?
17. If you wish to change the pH of a solution very slightly, should you add a strong acid or a weak
acid? Explain your answer.
18. The graph below shows how the pH of a solution changes during the course of a titration of an
acid with a base. Use the graph to answer the following questions.
a. What is the pH at the equivalence point?
b. What is the approximate pH of the solution after 25 mL of base is added? Is the solution acidic
or basic at this point?
c. Classify both the acid and the base in this neutralization reaction as either weak or strong.
Hint: What’s the pH of the solution before base was added? After all 100mL of base was added?
19. What is the pH of a 0.001 M solution of hydrobromic acid, HBr, a strong acid?
20. What is the molar concentration of hydronium ions in a solution with a pH of 6?
21. The concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+) in the first acid solution is 100 times the
concentration of hydronium ions in a second acid solution. If the second solution has a pH of 5,
what is the pH of the first solution?
Reading Skills. Read the passage below, then answer the questions that follow.
In the 1800s, the Industrial Revolution introduced large-scale manufacturing. It also
introduced the widespread burning of fossil fuels. One of the negative consequences of
this burning was acid rain, which remains an environmental issue to this day.
Acid rain is usually defined as any precipitation that is more acidic than normal. Ordinary
precipitation tends to be slightly acidic; it ranges from a pH of about 5.6 to a pH of
about 5.0. A drop in the pH of precipitation to below 5.0 usually means that pollution
has entered the atmosphere and combined with other substances in the atmosphere.
The resulting compounds increase the acidity of the precipitation that falls to the ground.
Coal is a fossil fuel that gives off pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides,
when burned. Other fossil fuels, such as gasoline and oil, release similar pollutants.
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides dissolve very easily in water and can be carried very
far by the wind. All of these compounds can increase the acidity of precipitation.
22. What is a likely pH reading for acid rain?
a. 4 b. 6 c. 7 d. 9
23. Which pollutants contribute to acid rain?
a. sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
b. nitrogen and hydrogen dioxide
c. sulfur and oxygen
d. nitrogen oxides
24. What can individuals do to reduce the acidity (increase the pH) of precipitation?
Interpreting Graphics. The graphics below each show an acid being titrated with a base. Use
these graphics to answer questions 25−26.
25. What type of reaction is occurring?
a. decomposition b. neutralization c. combustion d. synthesis
26. Which of the graphs describes a titration in which the base is stronger than the acid?
Explain how you know?