Brainstorming_ Note Collecting by malj

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									                                                           Writing Goals

       Philosophy for Writing Goals:
             We believe that all students should be writing independently and rigorously for 30 minutes by the end of summer school. We reset this goal yearly as
              the students transition with a new teacher. By 7th grade, students should also be able to use thesauri, editing pens, and other writing tools independently
              as part of this thirty minute or more time.

             We believe that teachers should give immediate feedback in the form of conferences at least twice a week. Teachers should keep a log of these
              conferences. The types of logs can vary according to what works best with teachers.

             We believe that students should be introduced to different writing genres throughout the year. These genres can be introduced in any class, not
              necessarily in writing. While there are genre specific strategies, we believe that most strategies are pertinent to all types of writing. Therefore, the
              piece of writing is assessed according to how the strategies are used. Students must show mastery of all different types of genres by the end of 8th grade
              independently and distinguish between the different genres.

        We believe that all students should perform at a certain benchmark in on demand writing scenarios. They should therefore be able to go through the writing
        process independently in these on demand scenarios. The scenarios assess different types of genres fluidly. The assessment is called the Quarterly Writing
        Assessment (QWA).
   
                                                                          Writing Goals

                                  Grade 5                       Grade 6 (spiral gr5)               Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)              Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)
Independent          write daily for a sustained,         write daily for a sustained,        write daily for a sustained,
writing/day          rigorous 30-minute period            rigorous 30-minute period           rigorous 30-minute period
Major goals             love writing                        write with clarity for             write sophisticated, world
                        write clear, concise short             extended responses                  class commentary while
                           answers across content            brainstorm, outline, draft            still maintaining clarity
                           areas by January                     and revise independently         value unique,
                        to confer with a teacher at            for on-demand and at                controversial and ―risky‖
                           least twice a week                   home assignments                    approaches to writing
                        internalize the writing             master gr6 compare and             master gr6 editing
                           process by doing it                  contrast writing genre by           standards by January
                           independently in on-                 January                          master 3 genres of
                           demand and process                practice 6 genres of                  writing: personal essay,
                           writing                              writing: memoir, book               report and literary essay
                        master gr5 editing                     review, how to, prompt,
                           standards by January (see            research and literary essay
                           grammar standards)
                        practice 6 genres of
                newspaper                        monologue                        children’s book
                                                                                    poetry
                                                                                    DBQ
Quarterly       short answer expository      Research article                  Personal Essay: Describe a
Writing         short answer narrative       Memoir                             time where you’ve had to
Assessment      short answer response to     Response to literature             overcome an obstacle. What
                 literature                                                       did you learn from the
                                                                                  experience?

                                                                                     Literary Essay (based on
                                                                                          NYS Regents)
                                                                                          Students choose from
                                                                                          one of five
                                                                                          inspirational quotes.
                                                                                     Do you agree/disagree with
                                                                                     the quote? Using a book
                                                                                     from a list provided, create
                                                                                     a unique thesis statement
                                                                                     and composition answering
                                                                                     your question.




                  Differentiation

                  Must Do: write for 30 minutes daily

                     Can Do: write on a computer, storyboard with pictures, do invented spelling, speak into dictation program
                                                              D. Writing process
                                                       1. Brainstorming, Note-taking, and Outlining
                 Grade 5                                 Grade 6 (spiral gr5)                Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)              Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)
Brainstorming                                    Brainstorming (strategies for        Brainstorming
1. Accountable talk                              gathering ideas)                     18. listing
        generate ideas before writing           4. Think of Different Writing
         independently (everyday, all genres
                                                                                      19. generating lists based on lists
                                                     Audiences                            (growing)
         all throughout the unit)
                                                 5. Make Lists                        20. webs and generating new ideas
2.   Make a list
        list ―first times‖ or ―last times‖      6. Observe Your Surroundings             from webs
         memories and then write a story             (look at objects)                21. looping
        list ―people we care about‖ and then
         write a story that is connected to      7. Ask Questions (talk to others)
         that person                             8. Experience Strong Emotions        Note-taking
3.   Make a web                                      (listen to music)
                                                                                      22. Cornell notes
        [insert example—maybe clarify           9. Recall Firsts and Lasts (family          On right side of the column,
         what kinds of brainstorming this is
         best for?]                                  traditions)                              students write down details,
                                                                                              citations
4.   Free-write                                  10. Read (newspaper, fiction, non-          Left side of the column includes
        Write non-stop about one idea for 8         fiction)                                 generated sub topics
         min, without letting the pencil leave                                               Symbols include fun facts and
         the page, and producing at least one                                                 interesting information
         page of writing.                        Brainstorming (strategies for
        ―Lift a line‖ from a free write that
                                                                                      23. three column note collecting
                                                 growing ideas)                              middle column details, citations
         calls ―say more, say more.‖ Write a
         page about that one idea.               11. Free-write                              left side subtopics
                                                                                             right side commentary
                                                 12. List
Note-taking                                      13. Web
5. Important facts vs. fun facts                 14. Ask Journalistic Questions       Outlining
        [insert example that makes clear e.g.                                        24. Alpha-numeric outlines based on
         what genres this is for?]                                                        accordion outlines
                                                 Note-taking
6.   Paraphrase important facts                                                       Thesis
        Read twice, cover up the                15. Fact collecting sheet
          information with your hand, then                (for nonfiction studies) Students        I.
          retell the information on paper                    collect 10 facts that represent
7.   The information goes into their                         subtopics that they have already      A.
                                                             generated. After collecting the 10    i.
     brainstorm                                              facts per subtopic, they paraphrase
8.   Note-taking while listening                             the facts.
        For the listening section of a                                                            II.
         standardized test, write down
         everything you can, abbreviating           Outlining
                                                                                                   A
         common words and phrases and                                                              B.
         making appropriate marks to                16. Outlining is predominantly done
         prioritize information.                        by looking at the brainstorm, and          i
                                                        on the brainstorm using symbols            ii
Outlining                                               to organize their prewriting
1. Accountable talk                                 17. Teacher gives graphic organizers           b. Thesis:
        verbally explain ―plans‖ to a partner          that are pertinent to the genre to
         and receive feedback/support                   help outline                                Sub-  Proof Commentary
2.   Short answer outline format
        Flip it, answer it, support it, close it                                                   Topic
        Thesis, prove, support, zip
3.   Accordion outlines for
     paragraphs
        for paragraphs and extended
         response


                                                                                                   25. Is the paragraph clear?
                                                                                                   26. Does it prove your point?
                                                                                                   27. Are your examples pertinent?
                                                                                                   28. Are your examples weighted?
                                                                                                   29. Does your audience understand
                                                                                                       your examples, or do they need
                                                                                                       clarification?
                                                                                                   30. Are your examples explicit or
                                                                                                       implicitly explained?
                                                                                                   31. Which details take away from
                                                                                                       the coherence of the paragraph?
                                                                                                   32. How can you vary your
                                                                                   paragraph with narrative
                                                                                   strategies (anecdotes, sensory
                                                                                   details, etc)?
                                                                               33. Do you need to re-gather for
                                                                                   more examples?
                                                                                      Have you gone back to your resources
                                                                                        to cite? Do your citations need
                                                                                        more explanation?




Philosophy for Pre-Writing Goals:
    We believe that all students should note take, brainstorm and outline before they start writing. This should happen with all genres. The way students
     note take, brainstorm and outline horizontally and vertically. Teachers can assess these skills in isolation and part of the entire writing process.




Differentiation

Must Do : go from note taking, to brainstorm, to outline, to draft to publish independently by QWA4 in fourth quarter.

Can Do : use scaffolded graphic organizers for each stage, get pre-planning help during conferences, use check-lists as a self-
reflected guide, give rubrics for each stage, brainstorm using pictures and write using all the scaffolds in ―Writing Goals
Differentiation.‖
                                                    2.       Basic Organizational Development
            Grade 5                           Grade 6 (spiral gr5)        Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)             Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)
Topic/Thesis                          Topic/Thesis                   Topic/Thesis
34. State the subject and what        16. Occasion/ Position         28. 7th implicit thesis statements
    will be explained                     statements                 29. clearly defined
35. List method                       17. However statements         30. one main idea
       All college students need
        money, friends,
                                      18. The Smack Down             31. balance between too
        encouragement, and support.   19. Past to Present                specific and general
36. Imagine a world…                  20. What’s Wrong               32. Two Nouns and a Comma
37. Rhetorical question                                                  thesis
                                      Introduction
Introduction                          21. including necessary
38. Leads                                 background information     Introductions
       use a quote                   22. using appropriate tone     33. Incorporate thesis statement
       ―Imagine…‖
                                                                     34. Provide commentary for
39. Seed idea alone                                                      thesis
                                      Conclusion
                                      23. wrapping up                35. Provide background
Conclusion                                                               information
                                      24. providing bigger picture
40. ―Some people say‖ followed            commentary                 36. Hook the reader
    by counter-argument
41. ―[Topic] is important to me                                      Conclusions
    because..‖
                                                                     37. restate thesis in different
42. ―I’ve realized that…‖                                                words
                                      Ideas
                                                                     38. add ―world‖ commentary
Ideas                                                                      include ―so what‖
43. Write stories with
                                      Which examples are
    beginning, middle, end            pertinent?                     Ideas
44. Write stories that matter-        Do you need to re-gather       39. Using Description
                                      for more examples?                    What needs to be defined?
    that have significant
                                                                            How can you incorporate
    meaning to the author                                                    imagery?
                                                                            What needs to be defined, but
                                                                                needs further research?
45. Go through the steps of          Clarity
    writing process-gather, pick,    25. Read out loud for complete
    draft, revise, edit.                                                40. Using Persuasion
                                         thoughts                              What position do you want to
46. Publish stories that are at      26. Every sentence makes sense             take toward your subject?
    least one page long                                                        How much background do
                                         to the reader                          you need?
47. Write ―small moment‖             27. Includes details so that the          What arguments can the
    stories                              reader is fully informed               reader bring against your
                                                                                assertion?
48. Vary between ―story‖ and
                                                                               What examples can you think
    ―summary‖, relying more on                                                  of to illustrate your topic?
    actual storytelling than on                                                How can you appeal to your
    summary. At least 50%                                                       readers’ emotions?
    story                                                                      How can you use example,
                                                                                comparison, or description to
49. Use and 3 places where                                                      strengthen your logic?
    ―cracking open a sentence‖                                                 What tone is most appropriate
    was used to revise their                                                    to the kind of appeal you want
                                                                                to emphasize?
    work.
50. Use and identify 3 places
    where dialogue was used.                                            Clarity
51. Use and identify 3 places                                           41. Discovering a thesis
    where twin sentences with                                           42. Subtopics
    action/dialogue were used.                                          43. Rethinking subtopics after
52. Writers use an action or                                                gathering information
    dialogue lead                                                       44. Smooth-reading paragraphs
53. Use and identify at least 2                                             (paragraph unity)
    places where ―show don’t                                            45. Paragraph coherence
    tell‖ was used to revise their                                          (transitions)
    work.
                                                                        46. Smooth-reading sentences
54. Show characters’ inner
                                                                        47. Adequate length paragraphs
    thought 2-3 times
                                                                        48. Revising to clarify
55. Use one of the strategies
    below to add ―visual‖ words                                         49. Editing purposefully
    to their text:                                                      50. Providing adequate
       Similes                                                             examples and details
       Setting cues
       Adjectives that describe                                        51. When writing complex
         people and things               sentences, follows up with a
                                         clarifying sentence
Clarity                              52. All citations fully supported
1. Read aloud for clarity            53. All ideas/reasons/details
2. Sequential                            link up to subtopic or thesis
       to give instructions
                                     54.
3.  revise writing to locate and
    strengthen the hearts of our
    stories (use checklist for
    guidance)
4. revise language/word choice
    to incorporate vocabulary
5. revise for clarity, fiction and
    nonfiction aspects, thesis
    quality, format, word
    choice, vocabulary words
    we know, etc.
6. revise persuasiveness, voice,
    audience, vocabulary words
    we know, etc.
7. revise for informational
    content, details, voice,
    vocabulary words we know,
    etc
8. revise for voice, sensory
    details, character
    development, and
    vocabulary words we know,
    etc.
9. edit for clarity – quotation
    marks, conjugated verbs,
    contractions, paragraph
    form, spelling words we
    know etc.
10. revise for facts and fiction,
      character development,
      details, background
      knowledge, vocabulary
      words we know, etc.
11.   revising for strong verbs
12.   revise for voice, quality,
      word choice, vocabulary,
      interest
13.   voice – creates mental
      images for our readers
14.   descriptive words. Use
      senses to access sensory
      words, rich descriptions
15.   tell stories from other points
      of view, matching correct
      pronouns throughout the
      piece
Philosophy of Basic Organizational Development:
    We believe good writers revise.
    We believe that writing should be clear. In order to make the writing clear, students are given strategies scaffolded by grade.
    We believe that writing should pertain to the audience for which it is written.
    We believe development of ideas isn’t genre specific. Eg, good writers write with figurative language, imagery, description and persuasion no matter
     the genre. Even narrative features can and should show up in non-narrative genres.
     Repeated, frequent publishing across classes develops independent writers faster. Students publish once every two weeks in both writing and
     nonfiction. The same writing development techniques are assessed across subjects.
    Spiraling of development ideas should happen frequently.
    New revision strategies should build off of old development ideas UNTIL those ideas are mastered as shown in the QWA.




            Differentiation

            Must Do : rewrite old work that they published prior, use ideas across genres

            Can Do : use mentor texts as models, work in partnerships to get ideas, get ideas from online resources, use checklist to track mastery of
                ideas(both teacher and student), use scaffolded worksheets for introductions and conclusions,

                                                                                
                                                       Development of Ideas
                Grade 5                               Grade 6 (spiral gr5)                  Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)                       Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)
                                                                                                                                   78.
Word Choice/ Craft                            Transitions                             Transitions
55. Use and 3 places where ―cracking          59. to make a point                     73. to explain a problem
    open a sentence‖ was used to              60. to show how things are alike        74. to explain a cause or an effect
    revise their work.
                                              61. to show how things are different
56. Use and identify 3 places where
                                              62. to indicate time
    dialogue was used.
                                              63. to show a place or location         Compare and Contrast
57. Use and identify 3 places where                                                          What are the similarities?
    twin sentences with                       64. to conclude                                 Differences?
    action/dialogue were used.                                                               Should you emphasize similarities
                                                                                              or differences?
58. Use one of the strategies below to        Word Choice/ Craft                             What examples will work best?
    add ―visual‖ words to their text:         65. Repeating a word                           What other modes (spiraling
       Similes                                                                               back) are appropriate?
       Setting cues                          66. Using pictures of symbols in text          What is your point? Your
       Adjectives that describe people and   67. Sound words                                 purpose?
        things                                                                               What type of organization will fit
                                              68. Alliteration                                your purpose best?
                                              69. Writing a word in a special way            What persona do you want to
                                                                                              create?
                                              70. Listing                             75. Narration
                                              71. Parallel phrases                             Anecdotes
                                                                                               What senses can you appeal to?
                                              72. Alternate sentence length
                                                                                               Show/Don’t Tell
                                              ―every word counts‖                              What concrete details can you
                                                                                                use?
                                                                                               How can you vary your narrative?
                                                                                               What can your audience identify
                                                                                                with? Similes? Metaphors?
                                                                                                Allusions?
                                                                                               Engaging voice
                                                                                               Original Word Choice
76. Explanation and Argument
    Examples from other sources
        Listing examples
        Are examples pertinent?
        Are examples of equal weight?
         Are any unimportant?
        Do you need to re-gather for more
         examples?
        How have you gone back to your
         resources to cite? Does your
         example make sense? Do you
         need explanation?
        How familiar is your audience
         with each example?
        Do all examples support the point
         that you are trying to teach?
77. Critical Thinking
        What unique ideas are you
         providing?
        Incorporating dense questions
         prior to writing thesis (see reading
         7th grade standards)
        Making careful generalizations
         about the world or rhetorical
         criticism
Figurative Language
     Evidence of figurative
      language (see 7th grade
      reading)
Philosophy of Development of Ideas

     Good writers write uniquely, with an emphasis on creative and creative thinking.
     Good writers choose words carefully as if each word stands alone.
     Good writers emulate the style of other good writers.
     Good writers try new things and take risks.




      Must Do:
      Revise for sophistication using a rubric or checklist, use transition words appropriately for meaning

       Can Do:
      Use thesauri, rhyming dictionaries, mentor texts, common idiomatic phrases, use transition words from 5-7 grade if necessary to scaffold (ie- less
         advanced transition words are in fifth, more advanced are in 7 th)
                                                                         Editing, Proofreading, and Publishing

                                      Grade 5                            Grade 6 (spiral gr5)              Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)              Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)

                                                                    Proofreading                       Proofreading
                    Proofreading                                                                       Using partners to gain
                                                                        1. using thesauri and
                    79. proofread work for small mistakes and                dictionaries              multiple perspectives in
                        typos
                                                                        2. reading out loud for        order to better
                    80. create a final draft based on editing and            clarity                   commentary
                        revision changes
                                                                    3. using a partner purposefully

                    Publishing
                                                                    Publishing
                      publish pieces to get them ready to
                         share with an audience                     1. use computers
                      share / provide feedback to talk about       2. Writer’s share with members
                         our own writing and the writing            of the community
                         presented by other writers in our
                         community


                     Philosophy of Editing, Proofreading, and Publishing

                          We believe good writers edit, and make changes based on self edits, teacher edits or peer edits
                          We believe that students should be accountable to only the grammar and syntax skills they have learned during grammar (see grammar)
                          We believe that students should publish frequently, at least twice a month
                          We believe that all writing should be celebrated


    Must Do
    Publish twice a month , use editing checklists

   Can Do
 Set up individual editing goals with individual students and hold them accountable to their goals, color code editing skills, use spell check on the computer
                                               Self-critique and peer feedback

              Grade 5                      Grade 6 (spiral gr5)                Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)               Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)
   learn to provide constructive     1)    Reading work out loud to         Giving different perspectives     
    peer feedback to make our              catch errors!                      to thesis statement in order to
    writing stronger                  2)    Share/reflections at the          provide alternate commentary
   learn to talk about our own            end of class re: challenges       Using checklist as a form of
    writing                                faced during independent           self-reflection and critique
   while listening to peers, take         writing and                       Identifying strengths and
    notes on reactions in order to         strategies/solutions               weaknesses of yearly
    provide meaningful feedback       3)    Reading a teammate’s              objectives, and incorporating
    based on facts and opinions            work and sharing specific          weakness into writing in
   norms for sharing writing, e.g.        ways to improve                    order to master objectives
    accountable talk                  4)    Reading own work out
   set goals for next writing             loud to entire class –
    assignment (what did I do well?        thinking aloud about ways
    what do I want to improve?)            that you could improve
   are active members of a writing   5)    Going public through
    community                              publishing parties, bulletin
   give and receive feedback              board work, and
                                           discussing areas of growth
                                           in particular units
Philosophy of Self-Critique and Feedback

We believe that good writers are reflective. This needs to be modeled by the teacher.

We believe that in the upper grades, students can apply their creative and critical thinking skills to their own self-criticism.

We believe that students must get immediate feedback.

We believe that teachers should limit their feedback to 3-4 strategies a student can work on in order to track mastery o

those strategies and not overwhelm the student.

We believe that positive descriptive praise is as essential as critical feedback.
F. Grammar
                   Grade 5                              Grade 6 (spiral gr5)                 Grade 7 (spiral gr5-6)           Grade 8 (spiral gr5-7)

Intro to parts of speech                          Nouns and articles                   Capitals
1. Introduction                                   95. transitions between              103. Proper nouns
2. Nouns, noun markers, proper nouns, verbs,           paragraphs                      104. Names of streets
    adjectives, pronouns, prepositions            96. higher level conjunctions with   105. Towns and cities
3. Verbs, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections         subordinate phrases
                                                                                       106. Names of countries
4. Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or)       97. precise words
                                                                                       107. Names of people
                                                  98. sentence openers
                                                                                       108. Days of the week
Nouns and articles                                99. adding to the middle
                                                                                       109. Holidays
5. Common vs. proper nouns                        100. adding sentence closers
                                                                                       110. Names of nationalities
6. Singular vs. plural nouns                      101. combining with conjunctions
                                                                                       111. Names of organizations
7. Irregular plurals                                                                   112. Academic courses
8. Use correct article (a/an) based upon noun     Sentences
                                                                                       113. Acronyms
    beginning with a consonant or a vowel          End punctuation
                                                                                       114. Book titles
9. Write plurals for words by adding s             Run-on sentences
                                                                                       115. Titles before a name
10. Write plurals for words by adding es          ● Fragments
                                                                                       116. Proper adjectives
11. Write plurals for words by changing
    spelling – man to men                         Nouns
                                                  ● Capitalization                     Sentence Endings
12. Write plurals for words that end in y by
    adding es                                      Regular plural                     117. Question
                                                                                              who, what, when, where, why,
13. Write plurals for words that end in an f by                                                do, will, can, is
    changing to a v and adding es                  Irregular plural                   118. Periods: statements, commands
                                                                                       119. Exclamations: interjections,
Capitalization                                     Singular possessive                     strong emotions
1. Capitalize the pronoun I                       ● Plural possessive
2. Capitalize first word of each sentence                                              Commas
3. All proper nouns are capitalized               Pronouns                             120. Use a comma before the
                                                                                            conjunction and, but, or, nor,
4.    Streets are capitalized                               ● Subject pronouns                 and so in a compound sentence
5.    Towns and cities                                      ● Object pronouns             121. Commas to separate words in a
6.    Names of countries                                    ● I and me                         series (not two words)

7.    Names of people and pets                              ● We and us                   122. Commas to separate phrases in
                                                                                               a series
8.    Days, months, and holidays                            ● Possessive pronouns
                                                                                          123. Commas in dates
9.    Names of nationalities
                                                            Verbs                         124. Do not separate just a month
10.   Book titles (not the little words)                                                       and a year with a comma
                                                            ● Past, present, and future
11.   Titles before a name                                                                125. If a phrase with the date begins
                                                            tense of regular verbs
                                                                                               the sentence, it is often
                     b.   Define and use capitalization     ● Past, present, and future        followed by a comma
                          rules: in titles, proper nouns,   tense of irregular verbs      126. Commas to separate parts of a
                          first word in a sentence
                          (reinforce)                                                          place name
                     e.   Titles of respect
                     f.   Names of places & specific
                                                                                          127. Do not use a comma if the
                          buildings                          Subject-verb agreement           place name is followed by a
                     g.   Title of relative (sometimes                                         preposition such as: on, in, to,
                          aunt, uncle, mom, dad)                                               at, or for
                                                            Adjectives and Adverbs        128. Commas to set apart phrases,
                                                                                               clauses and expressions
Comma                                                                                     129. If a subordinate (or dependent)
                                                             Comparing adjectives             clause comes before the main
12. Commas in a compound sentence: use a
    comma before and, but, or, nor and so                    Adverbs                          clause, use a comma after the
13. Commas to separate words in a series                     Comparing adverbs                clause
                                                                                          130. Do not use a comma if the
14. Commas in dates
                                                            Homophones                         main clause comes first
15. Commas to separate parts of a place
16. Commas after an introduction                             Double negatives            131. Commas after an introduction
                                                                                               like yes, no, a mild interjection
         ―Yes, I would like more bread.‖
                                                                                               or a long introductory phrase
17. Commas to set apart many clauses, phrases               Commas
                                                                                          132. Use a comma to set-off some
    and expressions                                          Commas in a series               phrases in the middle of a
18. If a subordinate or dependent clause comes                                                 sentence
    before the main cause, use a comma after                 Commas in direct address    133. Do not use commas to separate
    the clause
                                                                                               a defining clause
19. NOT using a comma before a prepositional
    phrase at the end of a sentence                         Quotation Marks           134. Do not use a comma before a
20. Use commas to set off most phrases in the                Punctuating dialogue         prepositional phrase at the end
    middle of a sentence                                                                   of a sentence

Quotation Marks and Apostrophes                             Conjunctions              Other Punctuation
21. If a person speaking comes before the                   ● Comma use               135. quotation marks : Mary asked
    words being spoken or written, put a                                                   Bill, ―What time is it?‖
    comma before the quotation mark.                                                  136. ―What time is it?‖ asked Mary.
                                                             Advanced conjunctions
22. If the words spoken or written come before                                             ―I don’t know,‖ replied Bill.
    the speaker ―What time is it?‖ asked Mary.              102.
                                                                                      137. ―I don’t know what time it is,‖
    ―I don’t know,‖ replied Bill.                                                          Bill replied, ―because I lost my
23. ―I don’t know what time it is,‖ Bill replied,                                          watch.‖
    ―because I lost my watch.                                                         138. apostrophe: possession
24. Apostrophe: possession                                                            139. apostrophe: contraction
25. Apostrophe: contractions                                                          140. colon
                                                                                      141. semi colon
Pronouns
26. agreement of pronouns in number and                                               Pronouns
    gender
                                                                                      142. agreement of pronouns in
27. pronoun as an object                                                                   number and gender
       me, us, you, him, her, it, them
                                                                                      143. a pronoun as the subject of a
28. possessive pronouns                                                                    sentence.
       mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs
                                                                                      144. A pronoun as an object
                    a.   Subjective pronouns (I, you, he,
                                                                                      145. Possessive pronouns
                         she, it, we, they)                                           146. There, their, they’re
                    b.   Objective pronouns (me, you,
                         him, her, it, us, them)                                      147. It’s, its
                    c.   Possessive pronouns (mine,                                   148. You’re, your
                         yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)
                    d.   Pronouns before and after verbs                              149. Each, anyone, everyone


Verbs                                                                                 Verbs
29. Verb tense                                                                        150. Past, present and future tense
       past, present, future
                                                                151. Third person present, add s if
30. Third person of present-tense verbs                              the subject is singular
       To make the present tense of a verb third person,
        add s if the subject is singular. Sam rides the         152. Add ed to make past tense for
        bus to school.                                               regular verbs
31. Common irregular past tense verbs                           153. Irregular verbs past tense:
       began, broke, came, gave, lay, rose, sang, took,                  Begin/began
        threw                                                             Break/broke
                                                                          Come/came
32. Present perfect tense
                                                                          Give/gave
       He has taken his medicine. She has eaten her
        dinner. She has gone to sleep. They have eaten                    Lie/lay
        their dinner.                                                     Rise/rose
                                                                          Sing/sang
33. Verbs must be consistent.                                             Take/took
34. Troublesome verb pairs                                                Throw/threw
       leave/let, learn/teach, raise/rise, sit/set, lie/lay    154. Present perfect tense
35. Active/Passive Verbs                                        155. Verb tenses must be consistent
       He cut the grass/ The grass was cut. He ate the
        cake/ The cake was eaten.                               156. Troublesome verb pairs:
                                                                     leave/let, learn/teach, rise/raise,
                      a.   Past, present, and future tense of
                                                                     sit/set, lie/lay
                           the verb to be.                      157. Active vs. passive voice
                      b.   Conjugating verbs – past,
                           present, future, past participle     158. Verbals are words or phrases
                      c.   Irregular verbs                           made from verbs
                      d.   List, identify, and use action
                           verbs
                                                                159. Infinitive is formed by using to
                      e.   Verb tenses: present, future, past        and the present tense of the
                      f.   Regular vs. Irregular Past Tense          verb. Infinitives can act as
                           Verbs (to teach, to buy, to drink,        nouns, adjectives or adverbs:
                           to bring, to go, to do, to see, to
                           have)
                                                                     They learned to paint well.
                      g.   Action verbs vs. Linking verbs.
                                                                Adjectives and Adverbs
Subject Verb Agreement                                          160. a/an
36. Subject-verb agreement                                      161. adding er/est/ to adjectives
       A singular subject refers to one person, place or
        thing.
                                                                162. more most
       A plural subject consists of more than one              163. not most favorite, more perfect
        person, place, or thing.
                                                                164. than/then
37. Interrupting words: interrupting words and
      phrases do not change the subject from               165. adverbs
      singular to plural
                                                           166. good/well
38.   If there sentence starts with there or here,
                                                           167. double negatives
      look elsewhere for the subject.
                                                           168. not, none, not any, none
39.   Indefinite pronouns: Anybody, anyone,
      each, either, everyone, someone, no one,
      nobody= singular                                     Preposition
40.   Both, many, several, few- plural                     169. prepositions
41.   All, any, some and none can be singular              170. do not put a comma before a
      and plural                                                prepositional phrase
42.   Glasses, pants, pliers and scissors are              171. usually a short prepositional
      singular                                                  phrase at the beginning or in
                                                                the middle of a sentence is also
                                                                not set off with commas, but
                     a.     Identify compound subject
                                                                long phrases may require a
                     b.     Identify singular and plural        comma to make the meaning of
                            pronouns, then check                the sentence clear.
                            subject/verb agreement
                                                           172. Coordinating conjunctions
                                                           173. Subordinating conjunctions
Adjectives/ Adverbs
                                                           174. Interjections
43. a/an
44. Descriptive adjectives
                                                           Sentences
45. Comparative and superlative adjectives
         er/est/most/more
                                                           175. Subject and predicate
         more perfect, most favorite, more unique         176. Simple sentence
         than/then
                                                           177. Compound sentence
46. Adverbs
         adverbs with ly
                                                           178. Complex sentences
47. well/good                                              179. No comma is used before the
                                                                conjunction joining two nouns,
48. double negatives ―He won’t never                            pronouns, or verbs in the
    succeed.‖                                                   compound subject or predicate
49. None/any                                                    of a simple sentence
50. After the verb ―to be‖ and other linking               180. Put a comma after the
    verbs, use an adjective, not an adverb. For                 dependent clause if it comes
    ex.: He felt quite sickly. He felt quite sick.            first in a complex sentence
                                                         181. Incomplete sentences
                                                         182. Run-on sentences
Other Parts of Speech                                    183. Subject verb agreement
51. The preposition tells about position or              184. Interrupting words and phrases
    place                                                     do not change the subject from
52. Do not put a comma before the final                       singular to plural.
    prepositional phrase                                      Prepositional phrases do not
                                                              change the subject for purposes
53. Coordinating junctions
                                                              of subject-verb agreement
54. Subordinate conjunctions
                                                         185. If a sentence starts with there,
55. Interjections                                             or here, look elsewhere in the
       short words that express a strong emotion: Oh,
        no!
                                                              sentence for its subject
                                                         186. Anybody, anyone, each, either,
                                                              everyone, someone, no one,
                                                              nobody= singular verb
Quotation Marks and Apostrophes                          187. Both, many, several, few =
56. If a person speaking comes before the                     plural verb
    words being spoken or written, put a                 188. Pronouns all, any, some and
    comma before the quotation mark.                          none may be singular or plural.
57. If the words spoken or written come before                If they refer to a singular
    the speaker                                               person or thing, they are
       ―What time is it?‖ asked Mary. ―I don’t know,‖        singular. If they refer to
        replied Bill.
       ―I don’t know what time it is,‖ Bill replied,
                                                              several people or things, they
        ―because I lost my watch.                             are plural. If they refer to a
58. Apostrophe for possession                                 quantity or something not
                                                              countable (like water), they are
59. Apostrophes for contractions                              singular.
                                                         Glasses, pants, pliers, scissors:
End marks and types of sentences                              singular
60. Identify kinds of sentences (declarative,
    interrogative, exclamatory) and punctuate            Sentence Fluency
    with correct end mark.
                                                         189. Appositives
                                                         190. Independent work marker
Sentence Fluency                                             191. Dependent word marker
61. Write complete sentences with a subject.                 192. Past participle phrases
       The subject is WHO does the action or WHAT
        the sentence is about.
                                                             193. Present participle phrases
       Identify subject as a person (ex. I, you, The Diaz   modifiers
        family)
       Identify subject as a place or thing (ex. dancing,
                                                             194.
        pets)
       Identify subject as ―it‖ (It is beautiful!)
       Command sentences have no subject, subject
        (you) is implied.
       Identify sentences with and without a subject
        (fragments with no subject)
       Correct sentences without a subject.
       Independently write sentences with a subject.


62. Write complete sentences with a verb.
       The verb is the action/doing word in the
        sentence.
       Identify the verb in a sentence.
       Correct sentences without a verb (fragments
        with no verb)

63. Write complete sentences with a subject, a
    verb and a complete thought.
       (Eliminating fragments)
       Identify sentences with and without a complete
        thought.
       Correct sentences that do not have a complete
        thought or other crucial words.
       Independently write sentences with a subject,
        verb, and a complete thought (short-mid length
        sentences) without error.
       Edit notebooks.


Eliminate run-on sentences
64. Eliminate ―double subject‖ run-on
    sentences
       She is so nice she is so pretty.
65. Eliminate ―so then‖ sentences
       So then she helped him so then he was glad so
        then.
66. Comma with coordinating conjunction
       Write compound sentences correctly by joining
        two complete sentences with ―and‖ ―but‖ ―or‖
        ―so‖ or other conjunctions, and a comma.
67. Identify conjunctions
68. Add a comma before the conjunction in a
    compound sentence.
69. Independently write compound sentences.
70. Identify sentences using ―and‖ that DO
    NOT need a comma.
71. Edit notebooks for missing commas in
    conjunctions.

Commas
72. Commas in a compound sentence: use a
    comma before and, but, or, nor and so
73. Commas to separate words in a series
74. Commas in dates
75. Commas to separate parts of a place
76. Commas after an introduction- Yes, I
    would like more bread.
77. Commas to set apart many clauses, phrases
    and expressions
78. If a subordinate or dependent clause comes
    before the main cause, use a comma after
    the clause
79. NOT using a comma before a prepositional
    phrase at the end of a sentence
80. Use commas to set off most phrases in the
    middle of a sentence
Conjunctions
81. Using, not abusing ―and‖
82. Eliminate writing sentences starting with
    ―and‖
83. Never use more than one ―,and‖ in a
    sentence (very rarely two)
84. Edit notebooks for ―and‖ abuse

Sentence Fluency
85. Using precise words
       The mountain climber breathed vs. The
        mountain climber gasped for air.
86. Expanding with modifiers
       The exhausted climber gasped for air vs. The
        exhausted climber noisily gasped the thin, cold
        air.
1. Usage: proper transitions, review
   conjunctions and commas, verb
   tense and adjectives
87. Adding sentence openers
       On the stage, Emil felt extremely nervous.
       Shaking and perspiring, he searched the room
        for an exit.
       In the end, Emil was much happier in the
        audience.
       Although her opponent was tall and strong,
        Felicia was not afraid.
       After four years of training, she was ready to
        earn her black belt.


88. Adding to the middle
       Liz, forgetting her manners, hollered across
        the table.
       The principal, offended, frowned at her.
       Liz blushed, completely embarrassed, and
        quietly apologized.
89. Adding sentence closers
       Stan went the beach every day last summer.
       He swam a lot, becoming stronger and faster.
       He plans to be a lifeguard when he turns 18.


90. Combining with conjunctions
       Nicholas usually dresses smartly, but today his
        socks did not match.
       You should hurry, or you will be late.
       Although they argue quite a bit, Sheela and
        Shawna are best friends.
       Dan’s lunch will be nothing special because he
        lost his wallet.
91. Writers paint pictures in their writing by
    adding ―visual‖ words
92. Similes
93. Twin sentences using action and dialogue
94. Setting cues
                                Scope and Sequence (see standards for more description)
 5th                                         6th                                                 7th

 Summer School:                              Summer School:                                      Summer School:

 Personal Narrative Assessment:             Gathering and Growing Ideas                              to identify qualities of good writing
  a. 3 days to gather, draft and publish a                                                            to identify a writer’s specific focus in
     raw writing sample: to start building        Thinking of possible audiences                      compositions
                                                  Making a list                                      to identify patterns of organization in
     community, build stamina/urgency,
                                                  Strong emotions                                     compositions
     and assess                                   Observing surroundings                             to evaluate the clarity of essays other than
  b. Celebrate with author’s chair                Recall firsts and lasts                             one’s own
                                                  Reading                                            to evaluate technique, organization and
 Developmental Spelling Assessments:              Brainstorming                                       sentence complexity
                                                                                                     Literary Essay on demand diagnostic
 a. test all four levels in Ganske’s book,         Freewrite
    group kids for September spelling             Listing
                                                  Webbing
    instruction
                                                  Asking questions
 b. test commonly misspelled words
    from Cunningham’s Month By                     Developmental Spelling Assessment (see 5th)
    Month Phonics

 Do-nows
  a. Consonants and vowels review (to
     prepare for September’s spelling
     program)
  b. Character strength exercises (write
     about a time you had to have grit,
     love, hope, self-control, etc.)
  c. End punctuation, capitals
  d. Commonly misspelled words?
Capitalization
    Capitalize I
    Always begin the first word of
       each sentence with a capital letter
    All proper nouns are capitalized
    Streets are capitalized
    Towns and cities
    Names of countries
    Names of people
    Days of the week
    Holidays
    Names of nationalities
    Book titles (not the little words)
    Titles before a name


 Building a Storytelling Community:

Accountable talk:
 a. partner rules and management
 b. rug rules

Brainstorming:
  listing ―first times‖ memories and
     writing a story
  listing ―last times‖ memories and
     writing a story
  listing ―people we care about‖ and
     writing a story that is connected to
     that person
**writing true stories that matter from our
own lives=our lives are worth telling
about**

Picking a Seed:
  a. pick a seed idea that ―calls you‖ the
     most to it

Drafting:
 a. come out of notebook onto loose-leaf

Editing:
 a. self-edit with a checklist
 b. every sentence has a period
 c. every sentence starts with a capital
     letter
 d. All names are capitalized
 e. Other

Publish:
 a. illustrate cover pages
 b. celebrate in Writer’s Circle
 c. display
    Students will write for 30 minutes
 Unit 1 : students publish multiple short     Unit 1 Studying Mentor Texts for            Unit 1 : Students will brainstorm for a
     answers both narrative and non-              Writing Craft                           literary essay
                                                                                         Good writers gather ideas by making lists.
     narrative
                                                 Parallel phrases                       Good writers grow ideas by listing.
                                                                                          (narrowing a large subject)
Grammar:                                         Repeating a word
                                                                                         Good writers grow ideas by looping.
                                              
    Eliminate unnecessary capitals:              Using pictures or symbols in text
                                                                                         Good writers gather ideas by mapping.
                                                 Sound words
          Write all letters correctly in        Alliteration
                                                                                         Good writers grow ideas by cubing.
               lower and upper case.               Writing words in a special way        Good writers evaluate whether or not a topic
              Correct words that have             Lists                                  needs to be narrowed, then grow that
                                                   Metaphors                              narrowed topic.
               unnecessary capitals aNd,
                                                   Similes
               SisteR                              ―long distance‖ parallel phrases
              Master tricky letters such as
               b vs. d, D, : bed-letters look
               like a bed
              J vs. j P vs. p r vs. R,
               others you see in their
               writing
              Write ―similar‖
               upper/lower cases correctly
               by keeping lower case
               letters on the line, upper
               case taller.
              NEATNESS!!!!
              Edit notebooks
              Proper capitalization rules

   Identify and correctly punctuate four
               kinds of sentences:
             Question
             Statement
             Command
             Exclamation
             Use four types of end
               punctuation (.) (!) (?) (…)
               at appropriate times (see
               ―Punctuation Power‖
               sheet).
              Edit notebooks

   Write complete sentences with a
             subject. The subject is
             WHO does the action or
             WHAT the sentence is
             about.
            Identify subject as a person
             (ex. I, you, The Diaz
             family)
            Identify subject as a place
             or thing (ex. dancing, pets)
            Identify subject as ―it‖ (It is
             beautiful!)
            Command sentences have
             no subject, subject (you) is
             implied.
            Identify sentences with and
             without a subject
             (fragments with no subject)
            Correct sentences without a
             subject.
            Independently write
             sentences with a subject.

   Write complete sentences with a verb.
              The verb is the action/doing
              word in the sentence.
            Identify the verb in a
              sentence.
             Correct sentences without a
              verb (fragments with no
              verb)

   Write complete sentences with a
              subject, a verb and a
              complete thought.
              (Eliminating fragments)
            Identify sentences with and
              without a complete thought.
            Correct sentences that do
              not have a complete
              thought or other crucial
              words.
            Independently write
              sentences with a subject,
              verb, and a complete
              thought (short-mid length
              sentences) without error.
            Edit notebooks.

   Eliminate run-on sentences:
            Master: ―Double subject‖
               run-on sentences (She is so
               nice she is so pretty.)
            ―Double it‖ run on
               sentences (It is a nice day it
               is hot.)
            ―So then‖ sentences (So
               then she helped him so then
               he was glad so then..)

   Write compound sentences correctly
       by joining two complete sentences
       with ―and‖ ―but‖ ―or‖ ―so‖ or other
       conjunctions, and a comma.
            Identify conjunctions in a
               sentence.
            Add a comma before the
               conjunction in a compound
               sentence.
            Independently write
               compound sentences.
            Identify sentences using
               ―and‖ that DO NOT need a
               comma.
            Edit notebooks for missing
               commas in conjunctions.

       Commas in a compound sentence:
        use a comma before and, but, or,
        nor and so
       Commas to separate words in a
        series
       Commas in dates
       Commas to separate parts of a
        place
       Commas after an introduction-
        Yes, I would like more bread.
       Commas to set apart many clauses,
        phrases and expressions
       If a subordinate or dependent
        clause comes before the main
        cause, use a comma after the clause
       NOT using a comma before a
        prepositional phrase at the end of a
        sentence
       Use commas to set off most
        phrases in the middle of a sentence


   Using, not abusing ―and‖
             Eliminate writing sentences
               starting with ―and‖
             Never use more than one
               ―,and‖ in a sentence (very
               rarely two)
             Edit notebooks for ―and‖
               abuse

   Writers regularly read their written
       work out loud-3 times weekly in
       WW and 2 times at home to check
       for clarity. “It has to look right
       AND SOUND RIGHT” as a
       general rule of thumb.
 Unit 2: Memoir                                Unit 2: Writing with Clarity                         Unit 2: Students will publish 3 literary
                                                                                                    essays
Beginning writers writing process goals:          Using correct capitalization
                                                  Using end punctuation                           Good writers sort their brainstorms into
                                                                                                   topics.
      Write stories with beginning,               Avoiding run-on sentences (orally and in
                                                                                                   Good writers use an appropriate number of
                                                   written work)
       middle, end                                Avoiding sentence fragments (orally and in       instances and examples when writing
      Write stories that matter-that have         written work)                                    paragraphs. There are a variety of ways to
       significant meaning to the author          Paragraphing                                     organize instances and examples when
                                                                                                    outlining a composition.
      Go through the steps of writing            Transition words
                                                                                                   Good writers, using their outlines, draft
       process-gather, pick, draft, revise,       Use exact nouns and verbs
                                                                                                    paragraphs.
                                                  Complex sentences
       edit.                                                                                       Good paragraphs always link back to both
      Publish stories that are at least one                                                        aspects of the thesis and conclude with how
                                                                                                    the subtopic is a good example of the thesis
       page long
                                                                                                   Good writers lift qualities of an exemplar in
      Write ―small moment‖ stories                                                                 their own writing.
      Vary between ―story‖ and                                                                    Good writers identify patterns of errors
       ―summary‖, relying more on actual                                                            within each rubric category. They change
       storytelling than on summary. At                                                             their composition accordingly.
       least 50% story
      Use and 3 places where ―cracking
       open a sentence‖ was used to
       revise their work.
      Use and identify 3 places where
       dialogue was used.
      Use and identify 3 places where
       twin sentences with
       action/dialogue were used.
      Writers use an action or dialogue
       lead

Developing writers writing process goals:
      All the above plus-
      Use and identify at least 2 places
       where ―show don’t tell‖ was used
       to revise their work.
      Publish 1-1.5 pages in length
       minimum

Advanced writers writing goals:
    All the above plus-
    Use twin sentences 5 times to
      revise their work
    Show characters’ inner thought 2-3
      times
    Use one of the strategies below to
      add ―visual‖ words to their text:
          o Similes
          o Setting cues
          o Adjectives that describe
              people and things
    Publish 1.5+ pages in length

Quotation Marks and Apostrophes
    If a person speaking comes before
       the words being spoken or written,
       put a comma before the quotation
       mark.
    If the words spoken or written
       come before the speaker ―What
       time is it?‖ asked Mary. ―I don’t
      know,‖ replied Bill.
    ―I don’t know what time it is,‖ Bill
      replied, ―because I lost my watch.
    Apostrophe: possession
    Apostrophe: contractions
Pronouns
    agreement of pronouns in number
      and gender
    pronoun as an object (me, us, you,
      him, her, it, them)
    possessive pronouns: (mine, yours,
      his, hers, ours, yours, theirs)

Verbs
    The tense of a verb (past, present,
      future)
    To make the present tense of a verb
      third person, add s if the subject is
      singular. Sam rides the bus to
      school.
    Common irregular past tense
      verbs: began, broke, came, gave,
      lay, rose, sang, took, threw
    Present perfect tense: He has taken
      his medicine. She has eaten her
      dinner. She has gone to sleep.
      They have eaten their dinner.
    Verbs must be consistent.
    Troublesome verb pairs: leave/let,
      learn/teach, raise/rise, sit/set,
       lie/lay
      Active/Passive Verbs: He cut the
       grass/ The grass was cut. He ate
       the cake/ The cake was eaten.

Sentence Fluency
   2.Using precise words
     a. The woman breathed.
     b. The mountain climber breathed.
     c. The mountain climber gasped for
         air.

   3.Expanding with modifiers
     a. The exhausted climber gasped
        for air
     b. The exhausted climber noisily
        gasped the thin, cold air.


 Unit 3: Test Prep (see grammar)          Unit 3: Powerful Paragraphs                      Unit 3: Students will publish 3
                                                                                               personal essays
                                             Introduction hooks the reader and sets a
                                              purpose for writing                            1. Good writers identify elements of a
                                             Details support the thesis statement              great personal essay
                                             Detals are made clear with evidence,
                                              examples and explanation
                                                                                             2. Good writers utilize the best pre-
                                             Varied sentence structure                         writing strategy for the topic at
                                             High level vocabulary                             hand
                                             Conclusion makes an inference, connection,     3. Good writers gather to best support
                                              or action plan                                    their thesis and the questions
                                             Spelling, grammar, and punctuation are            within the prompt
                                              nearly perfect
                                                                                             4. Good writers outline so their
                                                                                           writing is clear
                                                                                        5. As good writers draft, they write
                                                                                           complex sentences with
                                                                                           conjunctions
                                                                                        6. As good writers draft, they use
                                                                                           adjectives to decorate their writing
                                                                                        7. The comma, the period, the dash
                                                                                           and the semi-colon. Good writers
                                                                                           choose their punctuation.
                                                                                        8. Good writers use transition words
                                                                                           thoughtfully, and not generically.


 Unit 4: Narrative and Non-Narrative       Unit 4: Oral Language                      Unit 4: Students will publish a
     Paragraphs inspired by Black                                                         research paper and project for
     History                                  Speak with conviction                      nonfiction exhibition
                                              Avoid like and um
                                           
Narrative Paragraphs:                          Cite factual information
                                                                                           Discovering a thesis
                                              Listen and respond
                                              Use complete sentences                      Prewriting/ Organization/
Immersion in narrative genre:                 Use strong vocabulary                        subtopics
                                              Think before you speak                      Define what the key words or
   Writers identify these reasons             Use appropriate volume                       subject means
why/when paragraphs are used:                 Make sense (know what you’re talking        Examples from your own
                                               about)
                                                                                            experience
   a. Change in/describe an action                                                         Examples from other sources
   b. Change in speaker (dialogue)                                                         Listing examples
   c. Change in/describe setting (time,
                                                                                           Are examples pertinent?
      weather, day, month, year etc.)
                                                                                           Are examples of equal weight?
   d. Describe/introduce a new character
                                                                                            Are any unimportant?
      into the scene/story
   e. Explanations                                                                         Do you need to re-gather for more
     f. Background information                          examples?
     g. What kids infer                              How have you gone back to your
                                                        resources to cite? Does your
Writing Narrative Paragraphs:                           example make sense? Do you need
                                                        explanation?
Write a minimum of 6-8 sentences in each             How familiar is your audience with
paragraph:                                              each example?
     a. Describe a setting                           Does the audience understand the
     b. Dialogue-multi-paragraph 1.5                    sequence at which the evidence
             pages                                      was taken?
     c. Describe an action                           Any evidence that you have in the
     d. One sentence paragraph < 6-8                    paper, it has to be something that
             sentences of course                        can be taken apart two ways.
     e. Publish a story prompt that                     (Multi-faceted quotes)
             includes all the above in             Do all examples support the point that
             alternation 1.5 pages min.             you are trying to teach? Good research
                                                    paper writers start brainstorming to
Writing Non-Narrative Paragraphs:                   choose a topic by evaluating their own
                                                    personal interests and the audience
1.        The writing process:                      familiarity.
     a.   Pick a topic and/or write to a           Good research paper writers collect as
          prompt                                    many facts, details and other relevant
     b.   Brainstorm a web of ideas                 information that they can by note
     c.   Outline ideas using topic sentence,       taking and citing their sources. In
          prove it/explain, closing sentence        order to do so they need to brainstorm
     d.   Transitions                               as many resources as possible in order
     e.   Distinguishing between fun facts          to make their research cycle
          and important information                 successful.
     f.   Revise/edit using checklist and
                                                   Good research paper writers ask the
          teacher feedback                          right question. In order to do so they
     g.   Publish in portfolio
                                                  ask questions about their questions.
Topic sentence development/paragraph            Good researchers stay updated with
leads                                             their bibliographies.
        i. quotes                               Good research writers create
       ii. imagine a world                        categories for their inquiry question.
     iii. posing idea as a question               They then start compiling the research
      iv. stating idea plain and simple           they have within each category.
                                                Good research writers emulate language
Clarity:                                            they love.
    1. paragraphs are smooth
    2. paragraphs are organized
         sequentially, causally, main idea
         and details
    3. using partners to assess for clarity
    4. checking for sentence coherence

Sentence Fluency:
          1. Combining with
              conjunctions
          b. Nicholas usually dresses
              smartly, but today his
              socks did not match.
          c. You should hurry, or you
              will be late.
          d. Although they argue quite
              a bit, Sheela and Shawna
              are best friends.
          e. Dan’s lunch will be nothing
              special because he lost his
              wallet.
   2.Writers paint pictures in their writing
   by adding ―visual‖ words
          f. Similes
          g. Twin sentences using
              action and dialogue
          h. Setting cues



 Unit 5: Persuasion                            Unit 5: Writing for a test                         Unit 5 :Critically Thinking

 Accountable talk:                               Read the question first                          1. to develop a critical question about
  a. Partners help us brainstorm more for         Underline support in text                           the text: A Tree Grows in
     our ideas by stating why they agree                                                               Brooklyn
                                                                  Short response
     or disagree with our idea.                   Answers the question
                                                                                                    2. to develop an argument (like in
  b. Writers use conversational prompts           Uses at least 2 RIA details (see nonfiction         ―The Great Debaters‖) that
     to say more about their ideas or              studies)                                            answers the question
     really, just explore their thinking          Makes complete sense                             3. to utilize the best pre-writing
     about something.                             Sounds smart (inferences and vocabulary)            strategy for the argument (spiraled)
                                                                                                    4. to write an organized, efficient and
                                                                 Paired Passage Essay
 Brainstorming                                   Uses 4-5 details from each passage
                                                                                                       high quality outline
  a. List people in your life. List ideas         Paraphrases details                              5. in outline, develop commentary
      about them as individuals or about          Explains details and shows how they answer          that is rhetorically critical
      your relationship to them.                   the question                                     6. develop controversial or unique
  b. ―                       ― Free-write         Makes connections between passages                  commentary
      min of one page ―‖                          Addresses every part of the question and all     7. to stick to the
                                                   bullet points
  c. Brainstorm a web of ―issues‖. Free-          Uses compare and contrast transition words
                                                                                                       point/argument/thesis in your
      write about or grow/list of ideas that                                                           composition (spiraled)
      come out of those issues.                                                                     8. to use quotes and examples from
  d. An idea has two parts: a subject                                                                  the text to support your
      and what you want to say about                                                                   argument/thesis
      the subject.                                                                                  9. to comment on the
         Subject: My sister What I want              examples/quotes from the text
to say: ..is a role model to me                  10. to publish a critical essay about A
   e. ―Lift a line‖ from a free write that           Tree Grows in Brooklyn
       calls ―say more, say more.‖ Write a    to present the argument/critical essay
       page about that one idea.                   orally to a group
   f. Timed free writes: write non-stop
       about one idea for 8 min without
       letting the pencil leave the page.

 Creating a seed idea (thesis statement):

    1. Writers create claims that are
        opinions or ideas, not facts i.e.
       Wrong= My father picks me up
    after school.
       Right = My father may be very
busy, but he tries his best to show me he
cares.

   2. A seed can go two ways: An idea
supported by three reasons OR an idea
with three parts.

 Outlining:
  a. Writers will use an outlining booklet
      to create topic sentences, add
      supporting details and write close it
      sentences for each paragraph.
  b. Writers use mini-stories with a
      B/M/E to support topic sentences.
  c. Writers collect relevant ―proof‖ in
      the form of facts, statistics or other
      details and add them to the outline.

 Drafting:
   a. Write in paragraphs
   b. Skip lines (optional) for revision
   c. Add transition words from topic
       sentences to mini-stories and from
       mini-stories to supporting details

 Introduction paragraphs

 a. leads:
     use a quote
     ―Imagine…‖
 b. seed idea alone
    i. State the subject and state what will
 be explained.
    ii List method All college students
 need money, friends, encouragement and
 support.

 Conclusion paragraphs
   b. ―Some people say... (counter-
       argument)‖
   c. ―______ is important to me
       because..‖
   d. ―I’ve realized that…‖

Grammar:
           1. Usage: proper transitions,
               review conjunctions and
               commas, verb tense and
               adjectives Adding sentence
               openers
    a.   On the stage, Emil felt
         extremely nervous.
    b.   Shaking and perspiring, he
         searched the room for an exit.
    c.   In the end, Emil was much
         happier in the audience.
    d.   Although her opponent was tall
         and strong, Felicia was not
         afraid.
    e.   After four years of training, she
         was ready to earn her black belt.

           2. Adding to the middle
  a. Liz, forgetting her manners,
       hollered across the table.
  b.The principal, offended, frowned at
       her.
  c. Liz blushed, completely
       embarrassed, and quietly
       apologized.
  e. Adding sentence closers
           1. Stan went the beach every
              day last summer.
           2. He swam a lot, becoming
              stronger and faster.
He plans to be a lifeguard
 Unit 6: Poetry                                  Unit 6: Report                                   Unit 6: Critical Thinking

                                                    Lead grabs readers attention (question,         Brainstorming about the question, collecting
                                                     imagine, right to the point)                     quotes that have to do with the question OR
 Good writers immerse themselves in the             Introduction sets purpose for writing            two questions…
                                                    Subtopic selection supports development of      Looping on concepts/perspec-
    language and joy of poetry before
                                                     topic                                           tives/etc. from bird’s eye view. Keeping
    attempting to emulate favorite                  Paragraphs include topic sentence,               mind open about multiple answers to each
    writers.                                         paraphrased and logically ordered details,       question
                                                     and transitions                                 Outline…
 Good writers identify the rhyme, rhythm            Explanations, examples, and inferences add                      possible answer/thesis
    and repetition in poems                          depth and meaning                                               connect to concept and how
                                                    Every sentence has clarity and correct                          concept is introduced in the
 Good poets know that the most powerful              grammar, spelling and punctuation                               book
     poems come from the heart.                     Writing includes complex sentences, high                        author’s perspective on
                                                     level vocabulary, and writing craft                             concept (projected)
                                                                                                                     more proof with commentary
Good poets rely on their five senses and vivid                                                                       more proof with commentary
memories to get their poems going.                                                                                   conclusion
                                                                                                  ARE ALL PARTS OF THE QUESTION
                                                                                                  ANSWERED?
 Poets can use shape, font and creative
                                                                                                                    Evaluating outline. Are all
 word spacing to express the meaning                                                                                parts of the question answered?
 and feelings behind the words they write.                                                                          Do you have enough proof to
                                                                                                                    make this argument fly? Is all
 Poets can “climb inside an object” by writing                                                                      proof coming with world
     an “inside this” poem.                                                                                         class commentary?

 Writers will use line breaks to revise their                                                        Paragraph drafting: focus on great
     poems, knowing that line breaks                                                                  commentary for all proof and sticking to the
     indicate a pause in the poem.                                                                    subtopic of each paragraph.
                                                                                                     Continue breaking down into subtopics/argu-
Poets read poems out loud to hear where the                                                           ments/
natural pauses are.                                                                                  Quote collecting
                                                                                                     ―How is this true?‖
Poets added missing parts that are important.                                                     Revision: balancing sophisticated
                                                                                                   commentary and clarity
Poets add punctuation to their poems.                                                             Editing: evaluating sentence complexity,
                                                                                                   sophisticated grammar and clarity of
Writers will show LOVE and SOCIAL                                                                  commentary.
INTELLIGENCE by giving compliments and
feedback to their peers during the Writers’
Circle.

Writers will show BRAVERY by reading their
work out loud with confidence and zest.


 Unit 7: Letter Writing                          Unit 7: Book Reviews                          Unit 7 : Open Cycle

o Distinguish between business and               Introduction                                  Students will publish 2 compositions of
  friendly letters                                                                                 their choice, showing mastery of
                                                    States title and author                       every strategy learned over the
o Identify features of business and                 Mentions author’s awards or other books       course of the year.
  friendly letters and use those                    Introduces main character
                                                    Introduces conflict
  conventions in their letter writing
                                                    Gives mini-opinion
o Create business and friendly letters
  paying particular attention to voice          Summary
                                                  Describes main and secondary characters
o Convey similar meanings with                    Gives plot summary (without giving away
  business and friendly letters, but                the ending)
  change the tone and format.                     Explains conflict

                                                Opinion
o Letters are for a particular audience           Compares to other books
  and good letter writers understand their        Suggests reading audience
  audience in order to convey their               Describes character development
                                                  Asks questions
message.       Examines author’s writing techniques
               Mentions feelings evoked
               Cites evidence from the text


            Unit 9: Literary Essays                          Unit 8: Open Cycle

           1 – immersion in qualities of lit essay
           2 – organizational chart (review from reading
           class)
           3 – adding set-up to quotes to give context
           4 – adding explanations and opinions after text
           evidence
           5 – selecting detailed evidence
           6 – proving thesis statements – rethinking the
           wording
           7 – revising subtopics to prove thesis (Mike
           and I found they need this)
           8 – writing introductory paragraphs – inverted
           pyramid
           9 – writing concluding paragraphs
** Nonfiction studies heavily teaches writing. In this classroom, the teacher spirals the writing strategies previously taught by the
    writing teacher. However, the teacher immerses students in different genres of writing.

  5th                                                    6th                                         7th

  Ongoing                                                Ongoing                                     Ongoing
  Writing and speaking in complete sentences
  and thoughts. (after Native American unit)             Question:                                   Students will brainstorm, outline, draft and
  Finding proof in the text (after test prep unit)
  Paraphrasing (during and after nonfiction                                                          publish one document based essay
  inquiry unit)                                          Select a meaningful topic                   following each chapter of their text book.

  Sentences under Native Americans                       Create an inquiry question                  Students write sophisticated sentences
  Students will identify complete sentences.                                                         with appositives, dependent word markers,
  Students generate complete sentences using             Tap your prior knowledge                    independent word markers and transitions.
  the flip it answer it technique.
             -    Flip it = Echo parts of the            Brainstorm using a graphic organizer
                 question                                                                            Historical Diary from Colonial Life in
             -    Answer it = answer the question                                                    America
  Students will rewrite incomplete sentences to          Collect:
  form complete sentences.                                                                           Students will draft 7-10 diary entries from
                                                         Decide where to look                        the voice of a British journalist traveling to
  Short Answers under Native
  Americans/Weather
                                                                                                     Colonial America.
                                                         Use TOC
  Students will learn the flip it, answer it, prove it
  technique for short responses                                                                      Draft will have appropriate historical facts
                                                         Find the RIA (related important accurate)
                                                                                                     and will use language that is reminiscent
  Students will find evidence in the passage to
                                                         facts
                                                                                                     of the time period.
  use for their “prove it” sentence.
                                                         Cite source information correctly
                                                                                                     Debate between a Patriot and Loyalist
  Students will make sure that proof supports
  the flip it, answer it sentence.                       Use online search engines effectively
                                                                                                     Dialogue will present a conflict and a
  Writing Question and Answer Essays/                    Sift and Sort                               solution between a patriot and loyalist.
  Nonfiction Inquiry Project
                                                         Sift between relevant and fun fact          Dialogue will surround one central conflict
Student will brainstorm a list of possible      information                                   with historical accuracy.
topics they want to research by thinking
about books they have already read in           Shape facts into your own thoughts            Picture Book of the Declaration of
class                                                                                         Independence
Students will narrow topics by how              Sort facts into related sub topics
researchable a topic is in the student                                                        Using excerpts from the Declaration of
library (for lower level readers) and online    Know when enough info has been                Independence, students will create a
(only for higher level readers)                 collected                                     picture book paraphrasing the language
Students will learn to find reliable                                                          into simpler ―kid friendly‖ language.
                                                Synthesize:
resources online (lesson only given to
higher level readers, given to lower level      Organize your findings. What have you
readers when researching pictures to use)       discussed?
Students will cite three different sources in
a bibliography                                  Identify and discard irrelevant information
Students will create one obvious question
(What is (insert topic)) and 3 good             Create new questions where info is
questions they have about their topic           needed.
Students will chunk paragraphs and
paraphrase each paragraph.                      Use partner/group to assist understanding
Students will paraphrase a subsection of a
book.                                           Analyze
Students will paraphrase an entire book.
Students will learn to utilize a flipbook to    Did you find the answer to your question
organize their information by completing
                                                Do you need to revisit the cycle
their question 1. (on shared KIPP server)
(finish rest in class/ Saturday school)         Present:
Students will answer their questions in
short answer response form.                     Share your findings with the community
Students will learn how to add a closing
sentence (i.e. create a small paragraph)        Respond to spontaneous questions
Students will choose nonfiction text
features that are appropriate for each             Receive Peer Feedback
question.
Students will create an introduction for           Biography and Oral Language Summer
their essay.                                       Session
Students will create a conclusion for their
essay.                                             Students present an oral presentation,
Students will revise their work.                   using notes, about a biography of their
Students will peer-revise their work for           choice
new ideas and additions.
Students will learn how to make their              Ancient Egypt:
published work aesthetically pleasing.
                                                   Students will create a mobile showcasing
Aesthetics 101
                                                   their research about Ancient Egypt. (see
                                                   gather and collect)
Perfect Paragraphing – Solar System
                                                   Human Body:
Students will learn how to read an article and
take FQR notes.                                    Students will create a research inquiry
Students will learn to generate an original        report on a display board
topic sentence from an article.
Students will learn how to generate an original
topic sentence from a book.                        Ancient Greece
Students will brainstorm topics for their solar
system inquiry project from books they have        Students will create a debate between two
read.                                              Grecian citizens showing accurate
Students will narrow down topics according to      knowledge of historical details
interest and availability of books in the
classroom library (or online if they are reading
on a higher level)
                                                   Nonfiction Winter Exhibition
Students will read their book and take FQR
notes on the book.                                 (see writing)
Students will generate an original topic
sentence from their book.                          Mezo America
Students will learn how to support their topic
sentence in an outline (fill in facts section)
Students will create explanations of their facts/      Students will create an A-Z picture book.
reasons/ details by answer possible questions
a student might ask of their facts/reason/             Geology:
details.
Students will complete their outline with an
original closing sentence (move away from              Students will create a research report.
And these are the reasons etc.)
Students will write a first draft of their
paragraph using transition words.
Students will self-revise their first draft using
their checklist.
Students will publish by making their final draft
look presentable (using word art and page
borders)


Government Mini Unit
Students will create an original topic sentence
from their independent reading book.
Students will outline their topic sentence (on
computer) adding more space for reasons or
explanations or deleting explanations all
together if not necessary.
Students will focus on fluidity in their first draft
(not overusing transitions and making it sound
like a book)
Students will revise their first draft using a
checklist.
Students will publish their paragraph by
making their final draft look presentable (using
double spacing techniques and pasting in clip
art)


Writing Essays – Washington DC Unit

Errr haven’t done this yet…I can try to put
something together it would look like this

Students will brainstorm topics based on what
they have read
Students will narrow the topics depending on
availability of resources (books or online)
Students will outline three different subtopics
Students will create original topic sentences
from each subtopic
Students will outline each paragraph
Students will peer revise outlines
Students will write a rough draft
Students will revise using a checklist
Students will publish by making their final draft
look presentable
Benchmark Student Work




 Table of Contents:

                         I.     5th Grade On Demand nonfiction paragraph

                         II.    5th Grade On Demand answer to the prompt: What don’t we know about you?

                         III.   6th Grade Memoir, April

                         IV.    7th Grade U.S. History Document Based Essay, March

                         V.     7th Grade Literary Essay, April

								
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