Functions and Divisions of the Nervous System
1. List the basic functions of the nervous system.
2. Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.
Histology of Nervous Tissue
3. List the types of neuroglia and cite their functions.
4. Define neuron, describe its important structural components, and relate each to a functional role.
5. Differentiate between a nerve and a tract, and between a nucleus and a ganglion.
6. Explain the importance of the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the central and
peripheral nervous systems.
7. Classify neurons structurally and functionally.
8. Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis.
9. Compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials.
10. Explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons.
11. Define absolute and relative refractory periods.
12. Define saltatory conduction and contrast it to conduction along unmyelinated fibers.
13. Define synapse. Distinguish between electrical and chemical synapses by structure and by the way
they transmit information.
14. Distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
15. Describe how synaptic events are integrated and modified.
Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors
16. Define neurotransmitter and name several classes of neurotransmitters.
Basic Concepts of Neural Integration
17. Describe common patterns of neuronal organization and processing.
18. Distinguish between serial and parallel processing.
Developmental Aspects of Neurons
19. Describe how neurons develop and form synapses.
1. Describe the process of brain development.
2. Name the major regions of the adult brain.
3. Name and locate the ventricles of the brain.
4. List the major lobes, fissures, and functional areas of the cerebral cortex.
5. Explain lateralization of hemisphere function.
6. Differentiate between commissures, association fibers, and projection fibers.
7. Describe the general function of the basal nuclei (basal ganglia).
8. Describe the location of the diencephalon, and name its subdivisions and functions.
9. Identify the three major regions of the brain stem, and note the functions of each area.
10. Describe the structure and function of the cerebellum.
11. Locate the limbic system and the reticular formation, and explain the role of each functional system.
Higher Mental Functions
12. Define EEG and distinguish between alpha, beta, theta, and delta brain waves.
13. Describe consciousness clinically.
14. Compare and contrast the events and importance of slow-wave and REM sleep, and indicate how
their patterns change through life.
15. Compare and contrast the stages and categories of memory.
16. Describe the relative roles of the major brain structures believed to be involved in declarative and
Protection of the Brain
17. Describe how meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood-brain barrier protect the CNS.
18. Describe the formation of cerebrospinal fluid, and follow its circulatory pathway.
19. Indicate the cause (if known) and major signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular accidents,
Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease.
The Spinal Cord
20. Describe the embryonic development of the spinal cord.
21. Describe the gross and microscopic structure of the spinal cord.
22. List the major spinal cord tracts, and classify each as a motor or sensory tract.
23. Distinguish between flaccid and spastic paralysis, and between paralysis and paresthesia.
Diagnostic Procedures for Assessing CNS Dysfunction
24. List and explain several techniques used to diagnose brain disorders.
Developmental Aspects of the Central Nervous System
25. Indicate several maternal factors that can impair development of the nervous system in an embryo.
26. Explain the effects of aging on the brain.
1.Define peripheral nervous system and list its components.
PART 1: SENSORY RECEPTORS AND SENSATION
2. Classify general sensory receptors by structure, stimulus detected, and body location.
Sensory Integration: From Sensation to Perception
3. Outline the events that lead to sensation and perception.
4. Describe receptor and generator potentials and sensory adaptation.
5. Describe the main aspects of sensory perception.
PART 2: TRANSMISSION LINES: NERVES AND THEIR STRUCTURE AND REPAIR
Nerves and Associated Ganglia
6. Define ganglion and indicate the general body location of ganglia.
7. Describe the general structure of a nerve.
8. Follow the process of nerve regeneration.
9. Name the 12 pairs of cranial nerves; indicate the body region and structures innervated by each.
10. Describe the formation of a spinal nerve and the general distribution of its rami.
11. Define plexus. Name the major plexuses and describe the distribution and function of the peripheral
nerves arising from each plexus.
PART 3: MOTOR ENDINGS AND MOTOR ACTIVITY
Peripheral Motor Endings
12. Compare and contrast the motor endings of somatic and autonomic nerve fibers.
Motor Integration: From Intention to Effect
13. Outline the three levels of the motor hierarchy.
14. Compare the roles of the cerebellum and basal nuclei in controlling motor activity.
PART 4: REFLEX ACTIVITY
The Reflex Arc
15. Name the components of a reflex arc and distinguish between autonomic and somatic reflexes.
16. Compare and contrast stretch, flexor, crossed-extensor, and Golgi tendon reflexes.
Developmental Aspects of the Peripheral Nervous System
17. Describe the developmental relationship between the segmented arrangement of peripheral nerves,
skeletal muscles, and skin dermatomes.
18. List the changes that occur in the peripheral nervous system with aging.
Voltage (V) –
Potential difference –
Current (I) –
Resistance (R) –
Passive, or leakage, channels –
Chemically gated channels –
Voltage-gated channels –
Mechanically gated channels –
Resting Membrane Potential (Vr)
Action Potentials (APs)
Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
Inhibitory Postsynaptic (IPSP)
Words for Chapters 12 and 13 A&P 1
Reticular Formation: RAS and Motor Function
Types of Brain Waves
Brain Waves: State of the Brain
Types of Sleep
Importance of Sleep
•Conus medullaris –
•Filum terminale –
•Denticulate ligaments –
•Nonspecific Ascending Pathway
Descending (Motor) Pathways
Extrapyramidal (Multineuronal) Pathways
–Flaccid paralysis –
•Simple Receptors: Unencapsulated
•Simple Receptors: Encapsulated
•From Sensation to Perception
•Spinal Nerves: Roots
•Hierarchy of Motor Control
•Stretch and Deep Tendon Reflexes
•The Golgi tendon organs
•Golgi Tendon Reflex
•Crossed Extensor Reflex