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Chapter 3 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS The fundamental units

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Chapter 3 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS The fundamental units Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 3            MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

1. The fundamental units of the nervous system are nerve cells, called __________.
   a. axons
   b. neurons
   c. neurotransmitters
   d. dendrites

2. Neurons are able to communicate over relatively great distances within the body because
   they have
   a. long axon
   b. a large cell body
   c. many dendrites
   d. a variety of neurotransmitters

3. The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron‘s cell body are called
   __________.
   a. axons
   b. terminal buttons
   c. glial fibers
   d. dendrites

4. An axon is a:
   a. neuron‘s cell body
   b. branch-like fiber extending in clusters from a neuron‘s cell body
   c. support cell in the nervous system
   d. long, tube-like structure extending from a neuron‘s cell body

5. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses
   when one neuron communicates with another?
   a. dendrite  axon  cell body
   b. dendrite  cell body  axon
   c. axon  cell body  dendrite
   d. axon  dendrite  cell body

6. Electrical wires are generally protected by a coating of plastic. A similar insulating function
   is performed in the nervous system by:
   a. myelin
   b. glial cells
   c. terminal buttons
   d. somas
7. Terminal buttons are found at the ends of:
   a. cell bodies
   b. dendrites
   c. axons
   d. glial cells

8. Another name for the cell body of a neuron is
   a. soma
   b. dendrite
   c. axon
   d. terminal button

9. Within neurons the communication is _____; Between neurons the communication is _____.
   a. chemical; electrical
   b. mechanical; electrical
   c. electrical; mechanical
   d. electrical; chemical

10.     A synapse is a(n):
   a.   chemical
   b.   signal
   c.   joint
   d.   gap

11. An action potential is a sudden ______ change in the electrical charge of a neuron‘s
   _________.
   a. positive; axon
   b. positive; soma
   c. positive; dendrites
   d. negative; axon

12.     As an action potential occurs, the neuron‘s electrical charge:
   a.   changes from negative to more negative
   b.   changes from neutral to positive
   c.   changes from neutral to negative
   d.   changes from negative to positive

13. You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gunfire
   and a toilet‘s flush follow the __________ law.
a. this-or-that
b. is-or-ain‘t
c. all-or-none
d. binary response
14. An action potential is followed by a brief _________ period, when the neuron regains its
   _______ charge.
a. refractory; negative
b. refractory; neutral
c. active; positive
d. resting; neutral

15. In general, a given nerve cell has synaptic connections with:
a. only one other neuron
b. several other neurons
c. dozens of other neurons
d. thousands of other neurons

16. The chemicals that relay signals across the synapses between neurons are called
   _________.
a. neurosignals
b. neurotransmitters
c. synaptic messengers
d. action potentials

17. Cocaine causes the neurotransmitter dopamine to remain at the site of the synapse longer
   than it normally would. Cocaine thus inhibits the process termed __________.
a. recycling
b. reabsorption
c. reuptake
d. reuse

18. Methamphetamine increases the release of dopamine from an axon‘s terminal button.
   Curare blocks the release of acetylcholine. Methamphetamine is a dopamine ________;
   curare is an acetylcholine __________.
a. facilitator; inhibitor
b. stimulator; antagonist
c. stimulator; inhibitor
d. agonist; antagonist

19.           The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in:
a. motivation and emotion
b. Parkinson‘s disease
c. schizophrenia
d. All of the above

20. Which of the following is most common neurotransmitter?
a. glutamate
b. acetylcholine
c. GABA
d. Dopamine
21. The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain is __________.
a. glutamate
b. acetylcholine
c. GABA
d. Dopamine

22. The pons serves to:
a. regulate arousal
b. relay sensory information
c. control movement
d. consolidate memories

23. Which of the following brain structures coordinates voluntary movement?
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. corpus callosum
d. reticular formation

24. Which of the following brain structures relays signals to higher brain levels?
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. corpus callosum
d. reticular formation

25. Which of the following brain structures controls heart rate and breathing?
a. cerebellum
b. thalamus
c. corpus callosum
d. medulla

26. Which of the following brain structures performs many functions, including regulating
   hunger and sexual behavior?
a. cerebellum
b. hypothalamus
c. limbic system
d. medulla

27. Information travels from our sensory receptors to the _______ in the brain, which relays
   it to higher association areas.
a. thalamus
b. cerebellum
c. hypothalamus
d. amygdala
28. The limbic system contains each of the following structures EXCEPT the:
a. amygdala
b. medulla
c. hippocampus
d. hypothalamus

29. Your text suggests that the correlation between intelligence and the ratio of brain weight
   to body weight is probably:
a. negative
b. low
c. positive
d. moderate

30. The outer bark-like layer of the brain is termed the _________.
a. brain stem
b. association area
c. cerebellum
d. cerebral cortex

31. Your text suggests that the correlation between the surface area of the cortex and
   intelligence is probably:
a. unknown
b. negative
c. zero
d. positive

32. The nervous system contains not only neurons, but also other cells called ___________.
a. axons
b. glia
c. dendrites
d. myelin cells

33. Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells?
a. They nourish nerve cells.
b. They communicate messages within the nervous system.
c. They protect neurons.
d. They absorb unused neurotransmitters.

34. The ―new brain‖ is the:
a. hindbrain
b. limbic system
c. cerebral cortex
d. cerebellum
35. Below the frontal lobe is the _______ lobe.
a. occipital
b. ventral
c. temporal
d. parietal

36. In which lobe is the motor cortex located?
a. occipital
b. dorsal
c. parietal
d. frontal

37. A monkey makes an involuntary gesture when a portion of its brain is electrically
   stimulated. The area of the brain that was most likely stimulated is the:
a. motor cortex
b. sensory cortex
c. amygdala
d. occipital lobe

38. In a roller-blading mishap, Wendy fell down and injured the very back of her head.
   Which of her senses is most likely impaired?
a. hearing
b. pain
c. taste
d. vision

39. Which of the following defines contralateral control?
a. The left side of the brain receives and sends information to the right side of the body and the
   right side of the brain receives and sends information to the left side of the body
b. The left and right brain hemispheres have different sensory and motor functions
c. The left and right brain hemisphere are specialized for different tasks or abilities
d. the brain can adapt to the effects of damage

40. Which of the following defines neuroplasticity?
a. The left side of the brain receives and sends information to the right side of the body and the
   right side of the brain receives and sends information to the left side of the body
b. The left and right brain hemispheres have different sensory and motor functions
c. The left and right brain hemisphere are specialized for different tasks or abilities
d. the brain can adapt to the effects of experience or damage

41. Which of the following defines brain lateralization?
a. The left side of the brain receives and sends information to the right side of the body and the
   right side of the brain receives and sends information to the left side of the body
b. The left and right brain hemispheres have different sensory and motor functions
c. The left and right brain hemisphere are specialized for different tasks or abilities
d. the brain can adapt to the effects of experience or damage
42. In the ________ areas of the cortex, sensory and motor information is combined and
   linked with stored knowledge.
   a. association
   b. correlation
   c. comparison
   d. relational

43. The process by which the brain responds to experience or damage is termed
   ___________.
   a. neuromutability
   b. neurogenesis
   c. neuroflexibility
   d. neuroplasticity

44.     According to your text, our brains are most adaptable during:
   a.   early childhood
   b.   middle childhood
   c.   puberty
   d.   late adolescence

45.     The production of new neurons is called __________.
   a.   neuroproduction
   b.   neurogenesis
   c.   somagenesis
   d.   plasticity

46. The left and right hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the
   ___________.
   a. corpus callosum
   b. corpus cerebellum
   c. central sulcus
   d. limbic system

47. Left-handers appear to excel in abilities associated with the _______ hemisphere in the
   brain, illustrating the principle of ________ control.
   a. right; neuroplastic
   b. right; contralateral
   c. right; heterohemispheric
   d. left; contralateral
48.     Stroke patients provided our earliest understanding of the brain areas involved in:
   a.   hearing
   b.   decision-making
   c.   balance
   d.   language

49. The brain injury suffered by 19th-century railroad worker Phineas Gage allowed
   psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain‘s:
   a. frontal lobe
   b. brainstem
   c. limbic system
   d. right hemisphere

50. Which research method in psychology is exemplified by the study of Phineas Gage‘s
   thought and behavior following his brain injury?
   a. experimental research
   b. the correlational technique
   c. the case study method
   d. naturalistic observation

51. The brain‘s _________ appears to support moral reasoning and decision-making
   processes.
   a. parietal lobe
   b. left hemisphere
   c. occipital lobe
   d. frontal lobe

52. Which technique might be best used to study the electrical activity in the brain that occur
   in the different stages of sleep and dreaming.
   a. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
   b. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
   c. Single-cell recording
   d. Electroencephalography (EEG)

53. A researcher is using a strong magnet to create images of the blood flow in participants‘
   brains as they complete decision-making tasks. The researcher is using ____________ to
   examine the brain‘s activity.
   a. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
   b. positron emission tomography (PET)
   c. electroencephalography (EEG)
   d. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
54.     Which brain study technique below is correctly matched with its description?
   a.   fMRI — traces blood flow in the brain
   b.   TMS — records the brain‘s electrical activity with scalp electrodes
   c.   EEG – examines the extent of brain damage
   d.   PET – temporarily deactivates a brain regiont

55.     Bundles of interconnected neurons that fire in synchrony are called ______.
   a.   glia
   b.   ganglia
   c.   networks
   d.   nerves

56.     The brain and the spinal cord constitute the _________ nervous system.
   a.   central
   b.   peripheral
   c.   primary
   d.   autonomic

57. Imagine a large city in which a downtown business district is linked to outlying suburbs
   by a system of subway trains. The spinal cord‘s afferent neurons may be likened to the
   system‘s ________ trains; the spinal cord‘s efferent neurons are analogous to the _______
   trains.
   a. local; express
   b. outbound; inbound
   c. express; local
   d. inbound; outbound

58.     Automatic, involuntary responses to stimuli are termed __________.
   a.   action potentials
   b.   conditioned responses
   c.   instincts
   d.   reflexes

59. Within the reflex circuit, it is the ______ that allows the spinal cord to control certain
   reflexes without the brain‘s help.
   a. motor neuron
   b. sensory neuron
   c. interneuron
   d. integrator
60. The central nervous system consists of _____________. The peripheral nervous system
   comprises _____________.
   a. the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
   b. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the brain and the spinal cord
   c. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; the somatic and autonomic
      nervous systems
   d. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic
      nervous systems

61. The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _______ and _______
   divisions.
   a. somatic; autonomic
   b. sympathetic; parasympathetic
   c. afferent; efferent
   d. sensory; motor

62. Which of the following alternatives correctly orders branches of the nervous system from
   the broadest to the most specific?
   a. peripheral  sympathetic  autonomic
   b. autonomic  sympathetic  peripheral
   c. peripheral  autonomic  sympathetic
   d. sympathetic  peripheral  autonomic

63. Izzy‘s pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid.
   Her _________ nervous system is active.
   a. parasympathetic
   b. sympathetic
   c. autosympathetic
   d. somatic

64.     The endocrine system influences:
   a.   growth
   b.   metabolism
   c.   reproduction
   d.   all of the above

65.     Which of the following is considered the ‗master gland‘ of the endocrine system?
   a.   the testes or ovaries
   b.   the adrenal glands
   c.   the pancreas
   d.   the pituitary gland

				
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