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					Practice AP Multiple Choice Exam 1                             Do NOT write on this!


1. Which of the following is responsible for the cohesive property of water?

a. hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
b. covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
c. hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen
atom of another water molecule
d. covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen
atom of another water molecule
e. hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other types of molecules

Questions 2-5 refer to the following groups of biological compounds:

a. proteins
b. carbohydrates
c. nucleic acids
d. lipids
e. steroids

2. Synthesized at the ribosome, includes enzymes

3. Includes glycogen, chitin, cellulose, and glucose.

4. Used for insulation and buoyancy in marine Arctic animals

5. Used to carry the genetic code

6. About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four
of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?

   A.   Carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
   B.   Carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
   C.   Oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
   D.   Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
   E.   Carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium

7. Different atomic forms of an element contain the same number of protons but a
different number of neutrons. What are these different atomic forms called?

   A.   Ions
   B.   Isotopes
   C.   Neutronic atoms
   D.   Isomers
   E.   Radioactive atoms




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8. Atoms whose outer electron shells contain eight electrons tend to

   A.   Form ionic bonds in aqueous solutions
   B.   Form covalent bonds in aqueous solutions
   C.   Be stable and chemically nonreactive, or inert.
   D.   Be unstable and chemically very reactive.
   E.   Be isotopes and very reactive.

9. What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?

   A.   A nonpolar covalent bond.
   B.   A polar covalent bond.
   C.   An ionic bond.
   D.   A hydrogen bond.
   E.   A hydrophobic interaction.

10. The following explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one
another

   A.   Nonpolar covalent bond
   B.   Polar covalent bond
   C.   Ionic bond
   D.   Hydrogen bond
   E.   Hydrophobic interaction

11. Why does liquid ice float in water?

   A. The liquid water molecules have more kinetic energy and thus support the
      ice.
   B. The ionic bonds between the molecules in ice prevent the ice from sinking.
   C. Ice always has higher oxygen content inside that keep it afloat.
   D. Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than
      the water molecules of liquid water.
   E. The crystalline lattice of ice causes it to be denser than liquid water.

12. In a neutral solution the concentration of

   A.   Hydrogen ions is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions
   B.   Water molecules is less than the concentration of hydrogen ions
   C.   Hydrogen ions is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions
   D.   Water molecules is less than the concentration of hydroxide ions
   E.   Hydrogen ions is greater than the concentration of hydroxide ions




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13. Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number
of different elements than any other type of atom?

       A. carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons
       B. carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell
       C. carbon forms ionic bonds
       D. A and C only
       E. None of the above

14. Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from
monomers by which process?

       A. connecting monomers through condensation reactions
       B. the addition of water to each monomer
       C. connecting monomers through the removal of water by dehydration
       synthesis
       D. ionic bonding of the monomers
       E. the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers

15. Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha helix and the beta pleated sheet
structures of proteins?

       A. hydrophobic interactions
       B. nonpolar covalent bonds
       C. ionic bonds
       D. hydrogen bonds
       E. peptide bonds

16. All of the following nitrogenous bases are found in DNA except

       A. thymine
       B. adenine
       C. uracil
       D. guanine
       E. cytosine

17. Which of the following is not a protein?

       A. hemoglobin
       B. cholesterol
       C. an antibody
       D. an enzyme
       E. insulin




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18. Saturated fatty acids

        A are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil
        B. have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids
        C. have more hydrogen atoms than unsaturated fatty acids
        D. are usually liquid at room temperature
        E. are usually produced by plants


19. Compared to 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has
a. a different atomic number
b. one more neutron
c. one more proton
d. one more electron
e. a different charge

20. The sodium and the calcium atoms in salt (NaCl) are held together by
__________________ bonds.
a. covalent
b. ionic
c. hydrogen
d. peptide
e. polar covalent

21. Which of the following is an example of a hydrophobic material?
a. paper
b. table salt
c. wax
d. sugar
e. pasta

22. Acid precipitation has lowered the pH of a particular lake to 4.0. What is the
hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
a. 4.0 M
b. 10-10 M
c. 10-4 M
d. 104 M
e. 4%




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23. Cell membranes are primarily composed of
a. proteins
b. carbohydrates
c. phospholipids
d. amino acids
e. nucleic acids

24. Choose the term that correctly describes the relationship between glucose and
sucrose (same number of atoms, different arrangements)
a. structural isomers
b. geometric isomers
c. enantiomers
d. isotopes
e. polypeptides

25. What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of 10-8 M?
A) pH 2
B) pH 4
C) pH 6
D) pH 8
E) pH 10

26. Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydroxyl ions
[OH]?
A) lemon juice at pH 2
B) vinegar at pH 3
C) tomato juice at pH 4
D) urine at pH 6
E) seawater at pH 8


27. There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from
another?
A) different carboxyl groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
B) different amino groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon
C) different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha (α) carbon
D) different alpha (α) carbons
E) different asymmetric carbons




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Questions 28-32 refer to the following diagram of a plant cell.




28. Site of glucose synthesis.

29. Site of conversion of chemical energy of glucose to ATP.

30. Site of modification and packaging of proteins and lipids prior to export from the
cell.

31. Site of transport of materials into and out of the cell.

32. Evolved from a photosynthetic prokaryote.




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33. While studying a cell with the electron microscope; a scientist notes the
following: numerous ribosomes, a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum,
chloroplasts, and a cell wall. Which of the following could be the source of this cell?
a. a fungus
b. an animal
c. a bacterium
d. a plant
e. a virus

34. Which of the following assembles ribosomal precursors?
a. centriole
b. Lysosome
c. nucleolus
d. peroxisome
e. ribosomes

35. Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the
intracellular digestion of macromolecules?
a. centriole
b. Lysosomes
c. nucleolus
d. peroxisome
e. ribosomes

36. The function of which of the following organelles directly requires oxygen?
a. ribosome
b. mitochondrion
c. nucleus
d. centriole
e. golgi apparatus

37. A prokaryotic cell has which of the following?
a. centriole
b. Lysosomes
c. plasma membrane
d. mitochondria
e. endoplasmic reticulum




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Questions 38-40 refer to the graph below, which illustrates the percent change in
the mass of pieces of plant tissue placed in solutions of different sucrose molarities.




38. Which of the following occurs in tissue that is placed in 0.6M sucrose?
a. the cells become turgid.
b. the cells burst.
c. the volume of the vacuoles decreases.
d. the volume of the cytoplasm increases.
e. the cells remain the same as before.

39. The approximate molarity of the solution in which the mass of the plant pieces
would NOT change is
a. 0.0 M
b. 0.1 M
c. 0.3 M
d. 0.5 M
e. 0.7 M

40. Water enters and leaves plant cells primarily by
a. endocytosis
b. phagocytosis
c. osmosis
d. active transport
e. facilitated diffusion



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41. The organelle that is a major producer of ATP and is found in both heterotrophs
and autotrophs is the
A.     chloroplast
B.     nucleus
C.     ribosome
D.     Golgi apparatus
E.     mitochondrion

42. All of the following cell components are found in prokaryotic cells EXCEPT
A.      DNA
B.      ribosomes
C.      cell membrane
D.      nuclear envelope
E.      enzymes

43. If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water
into cells is called:
A.      conduction
B.      active transport
C.      transpiration
D.      osmosis
E.      facilitated diffusion

44. Which of the following is the primary role of the lysosome?
A.    ATP synthesis
B.    Intracellular digestion
C.    Lipid transport
D.    Carbohydrate storage
E.    Protein synthesis


Questions 45-47 refer to the diagram of the plasma membrane below.




45. Hydrophilic portion of lipid molecule.


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46. Cell-recognition component.

47. Carriers or enzymes involved in cell transport.


48. Which of the following organelles modifies and packages for secretion the
materials produced by the ribosomes?
A.    The chloroplast
B.    The Golgi apparatus
C.    The nucleus
D.    The nucleolus
E.    The mitochondrion

49. A student using a light microscope observes a cell and correctly decides that it is
a plant cell because
A.      ribosomes are visible
B.      an endoplasmic reticulum can be seen
C.      a cell membrane is present
D.      it has a large central vacuole
E.      centrioles are present

50. Which of the following are involved in energy production for the cell?
a. endoplasmic reticulum
b. mitochondria
c. golgi body
d. nucleus
e. nucleolus

51.The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals
A) enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
B) enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids.
C) enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.
D) makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within
the cell.
E) makes the animal more susceptible to circulatory disorders.

52) What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
A) large and hydrophobic
B) small and hydrophobic
C) large polar
D) ionic
E) monosaccharides such as glucose


53) Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma
membrane most rapidly?


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A) CO2
B) an amino acid
C) glucose
D) K+
E) starch

54) Water passes quickly through cell membranes because
A) the bilayer is hydrophilic.
B) it moves through hydrophobic channels.
C) water movement is tied to ATP hydrolysis.
D) it is a small, polar, charged molecule.
E) it moves through aquaporins in the membrane.

Read the following information and refer to Figure 7.4 to answer questions 55 & 56.

Five dialysis bags, constructed from a semi-permeable membrane that is impermeable to
sucrose, were filled with various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate
beakers containing an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. At 10-minute
intervals, the bags were massed (weighed) and the percent change in mass of each bag
was graphed.




                                        Figure 7.4

55) Which line represents the bag that contained a solution isotonic to the 0.6 molar
solution at the beginning of the experiment?

56) Which line represents the bag with the highest initial concentration of sucrose?




57) Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
A) the evolution of larger cells after the evolution of smaller cells

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B) the difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
C) the evolution of eukaryotes after the evolution of prokaryotes
D) the need for a surface area of sufficient area to allow the cell's function
E) the observation that longer cells usually have greater cell volume

58) The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the
following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver
cells?
A) rough ER
B) smooth ER
C) Golgi apparatus
D) Nuclear envelope
E) Transport vesicles

59) Which of the following is a compartment that often takes up much of the volume of a
plant cell?
A) lysosome
B) vacuole
C) mitochondrion
D) Golgi apparatus
E) peroxisome


A + B + Energy  AB

60. Which of the following best characterizes the reaction represented above?
a. Hydrolysis
b. Catabolism
c. Oxidation-Reduction
d. Exergonic Reaction
e. Endergonic Reaction

61. In a mesophyll cell of a leaf, the synthesis of ATP occurs in which of the
following?

        I. Ribosomes
        II. Mitochondria
        III. Chloroplasts

a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. II and III only
e. I, II, and III

62. During respiration, most ATP is formed as a direct result of the net movement of

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a. potassium against a concentration gradient
b. protons down a concentration gradient
c. electrons against a concentration gradient
d. electrons through a channel
e. sodium ions into the cell

63. Which of the following processes is carried out more efficiently by a C4 plant
than a C3 plant?
a. light absorption
b. chemiosmotic coupling
c. photolysis
d. fixation of CO2
e. transport of sugar

64. Which of the following pathways for the transformation of cellular energy most
likely evolved first?
a. Cyclic photophosphorylation
b. Citric acid (Kreb’s) cycle
c. Calvin Cycle
d. C4 photosynthesis
e. Glycolysis

65. On a sunny day, the closing of stomata in plant leaves results in
a. a decrease in CO2 intake
b. a shift from C3 photosynthesis to C4 photosynthesis
c. an increase in transpiration
d. an increase in the concentration of CO2 in mesophyll cells
e. an increase in the rate of production of starch

66. A biologist isolates numerous tiny, green-pigmented cells from a sample of lake
water. The cells are covered with a mucilaginous sheath. They contain relatively
large amounts of chlorophyll a and phyobilin pigments and lack a compact,
organized nucleus. Electron microscopy will reveal that these cells also contain
which of the following pairs of structures?
a. ribosomes and chloroplasts
b. ribosomes and mitochondria
c. golgi bodies and a cell wall
d. thylakoids and a cell wall
e. chloroplasts and mitochondria




67. Which of the following processes is coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP?
a. facilitated diffusion

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b. active transport
c. chemiosmosis
d. osmosis
e. Na+ influx into the cell

Questions 68-71 refer to the following graph. The solid curve and the dashed curve
represent alternate pathways for the same reaction. One pathway is enzyme
catalyzed.




68. Represents the activation energy of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
69. Represents the net energy change of the reaction.
70. Represents the energy state of the products of the enzyme-catalyzed pathway.
71. Represents the energy state of the products of the pathway that is not enzyme
catalyzed.




Questions 72-76


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A. Glycolysis
B. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
C. Calvin Cycle (light-independent reactions of photosynthesis)
D. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
E. Chemiosmosis

72. Process in which O2 is released as a by-product of redox reactions.
73. Process in which CO2 is released as a by-product of redox reactions.
74. Process in which carbon from CO2 is incorporated into other organic molecules.
75. Process found in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
76. Process in which sugar is oxidized to pyruvic acid.




77. The end products of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are
a. ADP, H2O, NADPH2
b. ADP, PGAL, RuBP
c. ATP, CO2, H2O
d. ATP, NADPH2, O2
e. CO2, H+, PGAL

78. Which of the following enzymes is responsible for CO2 fixation in C3 plants?
a. Succinate dehydrogenase
b. Rubisco
c. Hekokinase
d. Amylase
e. PEP carboxylase

79. All energy on Earth ultimately comes from
a. ATP
b. Glucose
c. Oxygen
d. The sun
e. plants

80. Which of the following statements is true about the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and
the Calvin (light-independent) cycle?
a. They both result in a net production of ATP and NADH.
b. They both require a net input of ATP
c. They both result in a release of oxygen
d. They both take place in the cytoplasm of a cell
e. They are both carried out by enzymes located within an organelle matrix
81. The function of water in photosynthesis is to
a. combine with CO2

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b. absorb light energy
c. supply electrons in the light-dependent reactions
d. transport H+ ions in the light-dependent reactions
e. provide O2 for the light-dependent reactions

Questions 82-83 refer to an experiment that is set up to determine the relative
volume of O2 consumed by germinating and nongerminating (dry) pea seeds at two
different temperatures. The change in volume is detected using a respirometer over
a given period o time. The data are given below.




82. The rate of oxygen consumption in germinating pea seeds at 26°C is
a. 0.05 mL/min
b. 0.25 mL/min
c. 0.50 mL/min
d. 0.75 mL/min
e. 1.00 mL/min

83. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the data?
a. Nongerminating pea seeds have a higher rate of respiration than germinating pea
seeds do.
b. Light is required for pea seed germination.
c. In the nongerminating pea seeds, oxygen consumption is directly proportional to
oxygen concentration.
d. Less carbon dioxide is produced by germinating pea seeds at 26°C than at 10°C.
e. In pea seeds, an increase in temperature results in an increase in oxygen
consumption.


84) What term is used to describe the transfer of free energy from catabolic pathways to
anabolic pathways?

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A) feedback regulation
B) bioenergetics
C) energy coupling
D) entropy
E) cooperativity

85) How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
A) Increase the activation energy needed.
B) Cool the reactants.
C) Decrease the concentration of the reactants.
D) Add a catalyst.
E) Increase the entropy of the reactants.

86) Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first
overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's
A) entropy.
B) activation energy.
C) endothermic level.
D) heat content.
E) free-energy content.

87) Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true?
A) Enzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction.
B) Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction.
C) Enzymes change the direction of chemical reactions.
D) Enzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze.
E) Enzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations.

88) Zinc, an essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the
enzyme carboxypeptidase. The zinc most likely functions as a(n)
A) competitive inhibitor of the enzyme.
B) noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme.
C) allosteric activator of the enzyme.
D) cofactor necessary for enzyme activity.
E) coenzyme derived from a vitamin.

89) How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction?
A) by binding at the active site of the enzyme
B) by changing the shape of an enzyme
C) by changing the free energy change of the reaction
D) by acting as a coenzyme for the reaction
E) by decreasing the activation energy of the reaction



90) Where does glycolysis takes place?


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A) mitochondrial matrix
B) mitochondrial outer membrane
C) mitochondrial inner membrane
D) mitochondrial inter membrane space
E) cytosol

91) Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is
formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?
A) lactate
B) glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate
C) oxaloacetate
D) acetyl CoA
E) citrate

92) During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
A) food → citric acid cycle → ATP → NAD+
B) food → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
C) glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen
D) glucose → ATP → electron transport chain → NADH
E) food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP

93) The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
A) yield energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain.
B) act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
C) combine with carbon, forming CO2.
D) combine with lactate, forming pyruvate.
E) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.

94) In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is
used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
A) energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system
B) energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation
C) energy released from ATP synthase pumping hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial
matrix
D) energy released from movement of hydrogen ions through ATP synthase
E) No external source of energy is required because the reaction is exergonic.

95 Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are
utilized in the Calvin cycle?
A) CO2 and glucose
B) H2O and O2
C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+
D) electrons and H+
E) ATP and NADPH
96) Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light


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Practice AP Multiple Choice Exam 1                                Do NOT write on this!

reactions and the Calvin cycle?
A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle
returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin
cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2 to produce sugars, and the
Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the
Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

97) Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?
A) stroma of the chloroplast
B) thylakoid membranes
C) outer membrane of the chloroplast
D) electron transport chain
E) thylakoid space

98) What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide
B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide
C) split water and release oxygen
D) transport RuBP out of the chloroplast
E) synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

99) Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during
photosynthesis?
A) NADPH → O2 → CO2
B) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
C) NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle
D) H2O → photosystem I → photosystem II
E) NADPH → electron transport chain → O2

100) The most abundant enzyme on earth is
A) ATP Synthase
B) Rubisco
C) Amylase
D) DNA Polymerase
E) Catalase




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