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In this issue Requirements for Uniform Germination and Emergence by cuiliqing


									May 6, 2010                   Volume 1, Issue 3

                                                   Requirements for Uniform Germination and Emergence of

                                                   Dr. R. L. (Bob) Nielsen, Extension Corn Specialist, Purdue University

                                                   Rapid, uniform germination and emergence of corn help set the stage for maximum grain yield at
                                                   the end of the season. Without such a successful start to the season, the crop is behind the
                                                   proverbial "eight-ball" right from the beginning. The good news is that there are only four simple
                                                   requirements for uniform germination and emergence of corn. The bad news is that one or more
                                                   of the requirements are sometimes absent in one field or another.
      In this issue
Requirements for                                   Adequate and uniform soil moisture at the seed zone. Adequate soil moisture is most simply
Uniform Germination                                defined as not too dry and not too wet. Most growers know what "adequate" looks and feels like.
and Emergence of                                   Uneven soil moisture in the seed zone can be caused by variable soil characteristics, tillage
Corn                                    1‐2        patterns, unusual weather conditions and uneven seeding depth. Uneven soil moisture
                                                   throughout the seed zone is the primary cause of uneven emergence, the results of which can
Crop Emergence and                                 easily be yield losses of 8 to 10 percent.
Growth Measured by 
Temperature                             2‐3        Useful Tip: When seedbed conditions are dry, make sure that your choice of seeding depth
                                                   ensures uniformly adequate soil moisture for the germination of the seed. Even though a 1.5 to 2
Managing Soybean                                   inch seeding depth is a good choice for many conditions, don't hesitate to increase seeding depth
Cyst Nematode                                      to 2.5 to 3 inches if that is the depth where the uniform soil moisture is located. Planting shallower
Populations                             3‐4        than 1.5 inches increases the risk of poor or uneven germination during subsequent drying of
Managing Scab and                                  surface soils.
Rust Diseases of 
Wheat and Barley                        5‐6 

Crop Reports                               6 

News                                    6‐7 

Upcoming Events                            7 

Did You Know                               8 

                                                                     Fig. 1. Uneven corn emergence in 2006 due to uneven (too wet vs. "just right")
                                                                     seedbed soil moisture.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Cont. pg. 2

 University of Maryland Extension programs are open to all citizens without regard to race, color, gender, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, marital or parental status, or national origin.
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                                  2

Adequate and uniform soil temperature            strip tillage practices in the
at the seed zone. Corn will germinate and        future to better manage
emerge slowly and unevenly when soil             surface trash in a reduced
temperatures are less than 50F. When             tillage system.
soils warm to the mid-50's or warmer,
emergence will occur in seven days or less       Adequate and uniform
if soil moisture is adequate. Thermal time       seed-to-soil contact. In
from planting to emergence is                    order for the kernel to
approximately 115 growing degree days            absorb moisture quickly
(GDDs) using the modified growing degree         and uniformly, soil must be
formula (Nielsen, 2008) with air                 firmed completely around
temperatures or about 119 GDDs based on          the kernel. Seed-to-trash
soil temperatures.                               contact results from "hair-
Uneven soil temperature in the seed zone         pinning" of surface trash
can be caused by variable soil texture, soil     into the seed furrow during
color, soil drainage, surface residue cover      no-till planting when soil
in reduced tillage systems and seeding           and/or trash are too wet for
depth control. Temperature variability           adequate coulter cutting         Fig. 2. Example of the effect of soil temperature on the timing of
during germination and emergence is most         action. Seed-to-clod             corn emergence.
critical when average soil temperatures are      contact results from
                                                 planting into cloddy fields created by               kernels into the seed furrow can improve
hovering about the critical 50F minimum
                                                 working soil too wet. Seed-to-rock contact           seed-to-soil contact and seeding depth
threshold value.
                                                 is, needless to say, not good for proper             uniformity when seedbed conditions are
Useful Tips: Dark-colored soils will             germination either. Seed-to-air contact              otherwise challenging.
typically warm more quickly than light-          results from open planter furrows when no-
                                                                                                      Surface Soil Free From Crust. Severe
colored soils. If soils dry differently across   till planting into excessively wet soils.
                                                                                                      surface crusting or compaction will restrict
the field, the drier areas will typically warm   Germination of kernels lying in open
                                                                                                      emergence of the coleoptile and cause
faster than the wet areas. Uneven residue        planter furrows is dependent.
                                                                                                      underground leafing or plant death. Severe
cover (surface trash) in reduced tillage
                                                 Useful Tips: Whippers, wipers, movers,               sidewall compaction can also limit
systems causes significantly lower soil
                                                 fingers, and other similar trash                     elongation of the mesocotyl and
temperatures under the heavier cover than
                                                 management gadgets for the planter are               emergence of the coleoptile.
under barer spots in the field. Uneven
seeding depth exposes deeper planted             most beneficial when you are challenged
                                                                                                      Useful Tips: Avoid excessive tillage prior
seeds to slightly cooler seed zones than         with rocky, cloddy, or trashy surface soil
                                                                                                      to planting the crop, especially if significant
seeds placed shallower. Consider row-            conditions. They help clear the way
                                                                                                      rainfall is forecast prior to emergence of
cleaning attachments for the planter to          (literally) for the planter's double-disc
                                                                                                      the crop. Avoid excessive downpressure
move aside the surface trash during              openers to more easily do their job of
                                                                                                      on the closing wheels of the planter. Avoid
planting and expose the seedbed to               creating an optimum seed furrow. Other
                                                                                                      planting "on the wet side", a practice that
sunlight and its warming effects. Consider       planter attachments that help press the
                                                                                                      often results in stand establishment issues.

Crop Emergence and Growth Measured by Temperature

Dr. Bob Kratochvil, Extension Specialist – Agronomic Crop Production

Corn                                             (Growing Degree Units). The number of                    temperature, corn growth slows)
Corn planting progress through April 30 is       GDU’s accumulated on any particular day               Daily low maximum = 50o F (below this
ahead of normal. Soil moisture conditions        can be calculated using this formula:                     temperature corn growth stops)
have been good and April temperatures
have been normal to occasionally above             [(Daily High Temperature (oF) + Daily            For example, a day with a high
normal. Corn growth and development can              Low Temperature)/2] minus 50o F                temperature of 76o F and a low of 50o F
be measured in terms of temperature               Daily high maximum = 86o F (above this            accumulates 13 GDU’s.

                                                                                                                                          Cont. pg. 3
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                            3

     [(76o + 50o)/2] – 50o = 13 GDU’s            each leaf added up to leaf 12; and from 12     On average, only 70-80% of the soybean
               accumulated.                      leaves to the final leaf, ~50 GDU’s are        seeds that are planted result in emerged
                                                 required.                                      seedlings. When you start planting, make
It takes 100 – 150 GDU’s for seedling                                                           sure you are planting the seed at the
emergence. Using Salisbury airport               Soybean                                        proper depth (no deeper than 1.5 inches)
temperatures, corn planted on April 23           I know that many of you are planning to        to give you the best opportunity to optimize
should be emerging around May 5 or May           start planting full season soybean during      your stand. However, soybean does
6. If you do not see corn seedlings              the next couple weeks. Remember that           compensate very well when stands are
emerging after you have accumulated 150          soybean seed will germinate at a soil          less than desired. Considerable research
GDU’s, it is a good idea to start digging in     temperature of 50o F but the seedling will     has shown that soybean populations of
your corn rows to determine what may be          grow very slowly if temperatures remain in     100,000 plants/acre often yield as well as
wrong.                                           the 50o range and may rot in cool, wet soil.   150,000 plants/acre. I recommend a
                                                 It is better to plant soybean after soil       seeding rate of 140,000 – 150,000 seeds/
And, once you have emergence, you can            temperature reaches 60o F. At this             acre for full season production.
monitor your crop’s growth progression to        temperature and higher, the seed will
tasseling using these two temperature            germinate and emerge quickly.
related criteria: ~80 GDU’s are required for


Sandra Sardanelli, Director - Plant Nematology Laboratory
Dr. Arvydas Grybauskas, Extension Field Crops Plant Pathologist

Soybean Cyst Nematode, SCN                       utilized. Studies done in 1994 and 1998         Rapid buildup of soybean cyst nematode
(Heterodera glycines)                            demonstrated SCN races 1 and 3 were the        populations is almost exclusively
First detected in the United States in 1954      predominant races in MD.                       associated with producing successive
in North Carolina, the soybean cyst
                                                                                                crops of susceptible soybean varieties in
nematode (SCN) was found in Maryland             A simplified replacement for the standard
for the first time in 1980. Due to its’ severe   race test developed in 2003, called the HG     the same fields. Since the genetic sources
injury to host plant roots, rapid                Type test (HG for Heterodera glycines, the     of resistance are limited in commercially
reproduction and persistence in the soil,        scientific name for soybean cyst               available soybean varieties, it is important
the soybean cyst nematode is considered          nematode) has been adopted by                  to rotate these "sources of resistance" to
a serious agricultural pest. Since the first     agronomists, plant pathologists, and           delay the build-up of a virulent SCN
Maryland detection, SCN has been found           soybean breeders. The HG Type test is          population which results in a change in the
in soybean fields in Kent, Queen Anne’s,         similar to a SCN race test, but includes
                                                                                                population structure. Virulence, in
Talbot, Caroline, Dorchester, Wicomico,          only soybean lines that are sources of
Worcester, and Somerset counties on the          resistance in available SCN-resistant          reference to SCN and other nematodes,
Eastern Shore and Charles and St. Mary’s         soybean varieties. Results of the HG Type      refers to the ability of the nematode to
counties west of the Chesapeake Bay.             test indicate how well an SCN population       reproduce on a resistant host plant
                                                 can reproduce on the different sources of
Races vs. HG Types                               SCN resistance. In Delaware, the                       When poor plant growth is
Field populations of SCN were at one time        predominant SCN race had been race 3            observed in a soybean field, the
characterized by a standard race test with       according to the standard race test in use
                                                                                                 possibility of SCN infestation should be
races 1 through 16. A race of cyst               in the past. A 2009 HG Type survey for
nematode is an indication of a field             SCN populations demonstrated that the           considered. In the field, plant damage is
populations' ability to reproduce on             SCN population structure is no longer           usually worse in light, sandy soils, and
selected soybean host differentials (a set       predominantly what was characterized as         increases in soils with low fertility or when
of varieties or breeding lines). Knowing the     race 3.                                         drought conditions exist. Typical above
race of cyst nematode in a given field can                                                       ground symptoms are similar to those of
assist the grower in making decisions            What does this mean for Maryland SCN
                                                                                                 plants with a root system malfunction:
about which resistant varieties should be        management?
                                                                                                 stunting, yellowing, wilting under moisture

                                                                                                                                   Cont. pg. 4
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                               4

  stress, and significant reduction in yield.      1. Scouting for early detection of field                ♦ For a comprehensive review of SCN,
  The first step in determining the                   symptoms                                               the 2009 UME Plant Nematology
                                                   2. Monitoring the active SCN                              SCN Fact Sheet is online http://
  presence of SCN is to submit soil and
                                                      management strategy by submitting
  plant samples for laboratory                                                                     
                                                      soil and plant samples for laboratory
  examination. Samples may be taken at                examination every few years.                           PDFs/FS826.pdf
  any time of the year but preferably                 Samples may be taken at any time                     ♦ Sampling procedure forms and
  during active plant growth (May to                  of the year but preferably during                      sample submission forms may be
  October). NOTE: The UME Plant                       active plant growth (May to                            obtained from County Extension
                                                      October). NOTE: The UME Plant                          Offices
  Nematolgy Laboratory will be closing
                                                      Nematolgy Laboratory will be closing                 ♦ Sampling procedure forms and
  due to retirement in Oct 2010. Samples              due to retirement in Oct 2010.
  for nematode assay must be received by                                                                     sample submission forms may also
                                                      Samples for nematode assay must
  October 1, 2010 in order to be                      be received by October 1, 2010 in                      be obtained from the UME Plant
  processed.                                          order to be processed.                                 Nematology laboratory by contacting
                                                   3. Rotating SCN resistance sources in            or 301-405-
        In a field with a history of SCN              rotation with non-host crops in                        7877.
                                                      infested fields.                                     ♦ The UME Plant Nematology Website
 infestation, the possibility of SCN
 population increase should be                                                                     
                                                       Plant-parasitic Nematode Assay
 considered. Effective management of                                                                         nematology.html
                                                Sampling and fact Sheet Resources
 soybean cyst nematode involves a               from the UME Plant Nematology
 coordinated approach of:                       Laboratory:

 Soybean Cyst Nematode
 Heterodera glycines

                                                                              Area of nematode damage in a soybean field. Patchy
                                                                              appearance of plants in a field is indicative of nematode injury.
Close-up of soybean cyst nematode females on soybean root.

                                           Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN)
                                           Heterodera glycines
                                                                                  Maryland Distribution
                                                 2008 U. S. Distribution      SCN, first detected in the United States
                                                                              in 1954 in North Carolina, was found in
                                                                              Maryland for the first time in 1980.

                                                                              Since the first Maryland detection,
                                                                              soybean cyst nematode has been
                                                                              found damaging soybean fields in:

                                                                              •Kent, Queen Anne’s, Talbot, Caroline,
                                                                              Dorchester, Wicomico, Worcester and
                                                                              Somerset counties on the Eastern
                                                                              Shore (8)

                                                                              •Charles and St. Mary’s counties west
                                                                              of the Chesapeake Bay (2)
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                               5

Managing scab and rust diseases of Wheat and Barley

Dr. Arvydas Grybauskas, Extension Field Crops Plant Pathologist

Wheat that managed to be planted near                                                               another application for rust. If a fungicide
the fly-free date in the southern parts of                                                          was applied at greenup then it has most
Maryland is heading and very close to                                                               likely run out and the crop must be
flowering. Several periods of 80+ °F             Leaf Rust                                          considered unprotected. This is why spring
temperatures this spring has moved plant                                                            greenup applications are not
development along ahead of last year.                                                               recommended. Remember if you have
Late planted fields are delayed. Visit                                                              good resistance you do not need a
wheat scab forecast tool website (http://                                                           fungicide! to assess the
risk of Fusarium head blight in your area.                                                          Identifying rust from other flecks and
To best use this tool it is important to try                                                        discoloration
                                                Stem Rust
to determine when the crop will be
flowering, because best scab suppression                                                            There are symptoms on wheat currently
with the recommended products Prosaro                                                               appearing that may be interpreted by some
and Caramba must be applied as close to                                                             as early symptoms of rust.
flowering as possible. Conditions have
not been favorable for large-scale                                                                  There are two sets of symptoms that can
production of spores so far this season.                                                            be seen on some varieties of wheat that
However, this week (May 2 - May 9) is                                                               may be misinterpreted as early symptoms
forecast to have several warm rainy days                                                            of rust. First, susceptible varieties to the
that will stimulate spore production. The                                                           soil-born viruses, Soil-Borne Mosaic Virus
risk level may change by the end of the                                                             (SBMV) and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic
                                                Comparison of the stem rust and leaf rust
week. Remember, to avoid unintended             lesions on leaf tissue. Note the larger             (WSSMV) are currently displaying a light
increases in vomitoxin, once the crop has       diamond shape of the stem rust relative             green mottling or streaking of the leaves.
headed, do not use products containing          to leaf rust.                                       In some cases the streaking may even be
strobilurin fungicides like (Headline,                                                              yellow, white and in others
Twinline, Quadris, Quilt, or Stratego).        as they can develop very fast, but we may            becoming necrotic as well. The light green
                                               only have small isolated hot spots at this           mottling is the most common
Rusts                                          time. Knowing what variety is present                symptom. See Spindle Streak Mottling
Wheat rusts, leaf rust and stripe rust,        (resistance), and whether or not the                 picture below:
have been more active this season in           pathogen is starting to develop should be
source regions, in particular, in Louisiana    the primary determining factors as to
and Arkansas. Stripe rust, which prefers       whether or not a fungicide is needed. In
cooler weather than leaf rust, has spread      fact this should be coupled with the scab
to Kansas and Nebraska and more                risk. If scab risk is high then Prosaro or
importantly for us it has also been            Caramba should be applied and as long as
confirmed in Virginia. I have recently         the flag leaf is less than 1% infected with
identified leaf rust in a soil-borne virus     rust they will do an excellent job. If scab
nursery south of Salisbury but so far there    risk is low and rust is starting to develop
are no confirmed cases of stripe rust in       then a cheaper triazole like Folicur or Tilt
the state. The leaf rust that we did find      will do an excellent to very good job. If a
was low in the canopy and at very low          fungicide was already applied between flag
severity levels. Rainy or dewy conditions      leaf and boot then the only decision should
are important for infection and                be with regard to scab. But note if rust gets
development of these diseases.                 really rolling although the flag leaf fungicide
                                               application won't hold through the end of
It is important to scout for these diseases    grain-fill there will be little to no benefit from

                                                                                                                                     Cont. pg. 6
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                            6

The other symptom that we noted in the                                                          Rusts will develop very characteristic
field this season is a light green flecking.                                                    pustules in a very short period of time. If
Small lighter green spots in the leaf blade                                                     you don't see a reddish-brown or yellow
give the leaf a non-uniform green color.                                                        pustule with spores that are easily rubbed
There appears to be varietal differences.                                                       off the pustule then you don't have rust.
This may be physiological or possibly due
to a bacterial disease. In either case these
symptoms and those from the soil-
borne viruses are not rust and will not
respond to fungicides. See Physiological
leaf spot picture:

Crop Reports

Western                                        Southern                                         Upper Eastern Shore
Weather in west has been warmer and            Corn planting has progressed well, with          Southern part of the region is 80%
drier than average this spring. Soil           most farmers now finished. This week             complete planting corn, northern part is
moisture has been below normal for a           marked the shift to full season bean             60% complete. Early planted corn that is
couple of weeks but rains this week have       planting for many farms. Early planted           up looks good. Soybean planting is just
brought improved soil moistures. About         corn is 3-4 inches tall. Wheat and barley        getting started in the southern part of the
50% of the spring oats is planted and a few    continue to progress ahead of schedule.          region. Wheat is heading and looks good
farmers have started planting corn. Forage     Most barley is now headed out. Most wheat        considering the winter we had. Some are
crops (grass and alfalfa) are looking better   is in Feekes stage 9 or 10 with flag leaf out.   spraying for powdery mildew and cereal
than average for this time of year. No         There is still some unevenness in the            leaf beetle. Soil moisture is good
major pests are being reported at this         field. Last week saw a lot of hay cut. Hay       throughout the region, however, a half inch
time.                                          crops look very good this spring.                of rain would be nice to incorporate and
                                                                                                activate corn herbicides.
Central                                        North East
Corn planting about 75% complete in the        Soil moisture conditions are optimal for         Lower Eastern Shore
south and 50% to the north. Some early         starting the growing season. Corn planting       Field conditions have improved
hay has been made and grass haylage is         is well over half done with many growers         substantially allowing field preparation and
being harvested now. Alfalfa haylage           finishing up corn and switching over to          planting to proceed. Corn planting is well
harvest is beginning. There was some           soybeans; the warm end of April brought          underway with earliest plantings emerging
small grain silage (barley and rye) made       on corn germination with most planted            last week. Where field conditions
last week. Pastures are generally in good      fields showing emergence. Pasture                permitted nitrogen applications, small
or better condition with mostly adequate       conditions are very good. Grass hay is in        grains look good. Wheat and barley are
crop moisture. Continued warm weather          boot and early head stages. Barley is in         headed. Stripe rust, cereal leaf larvae and
will speed crop development for                head and flowering. Wheat is looking very        aphids has been found in wheat. Some
strawberries, etc. Thistle control has         good.                                            early tomato plantings were started last
begun.                                                                                          week.


EPA has conducted                              science on the important herbicide               century of use, atrazine is a fresh target for
                                               atrazine, the week of April 26, in               class-action litigation. The lawsuits have
meetings to re-review                          Washington, D.C.                                 emerged in tandem with new health claims
Atrazine                                                                                        from activist groups like the NRDC, which
                                               Used on most corn, sorghum and sugar             has geared up a well-funded campaign to
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency       cane acres, atrazine is valued for its           convince regulators that the federal limit on
has held a series of new Scientific Advisory   applications in controlling weeds, while         atrazine in water (three parts per billion)
Panel (SAP) meetings to re-review the          acting gently on the land. After a half-         isn’t low enough. This is despite the fact

                                                                                                                                  Cont. pg. 7
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                              7

that health authorities around the world --       that atrazine is a test case for activists. If   common vector-borne illness in the United
including the U.S., the U.K., Australia,          they can sow enough unfounded fear and           States - with over 28,000 cases reported in
Canada and the World Health Organization          turn public opinion against a product as         2008, most in the mid-Atlantic and New
– have all given atrazine a clean bill of         clearly safe to use as atrazine, virtually any   England regions - scientists have not yet
health.                                           technology used by farmers will be open          developed a test that reliably detects its
                                                  game for those in Washington who share           presence. This new breakthrough in the
By employing conservation tillage                 their anti-pesticide agenda.                     genetic design of Lyme disease pathogen
practices, farmers who use atrazine or any                                                         Borrelia burgdorferi promises to greatly
other herbicides to control weeds reduce          Lyme Disease Marker has                          improve the efficacy of diagnostic tests and
soil runoff and the number of tractor trips                                                        help to differentiate between different
across their fields. That prevents soil
                                                  won UM best inventions
                                                                                                   strains of the disease. Pal and Coleman
erosion, improves water quality, and cuts         for the year                                     are currently collaborating with an
down greenhouse gas emissions.                                                                     international commercial organization to
                                                  This year, out of 133 inventions a new
                                                                                                   optimize the test.
Many EPA watchers are deeply concerned            marker for Lyme disease has won the best
that this new re-review signals an                UM inventions distinction. Utpal Pal,
                                                                                                   The College of Agriculture and Natural
unprecedented war on agriculture by anti-         Assistant Professor in Veterinary Medicine,
                                                                                                   Resources as well as the
pesticide activists. The subject of more          and Adam Coleman's winning invention,
                                                                                                   Veterinary Medicine department are proud
than 6,000 studies, atrazine was recently         "Genetic Markers for Improved Lyme
                                                                                                   of this great achievement.
registered as safe to use by the EPA after        Disease Diagnostics," contributes key
a dozen years of scientific inquiry. It is        information to the long-studied problem of
believed by many in the farm community            detecting Lyme disease in humans and
                                                  other mammals. Although it is the most

                                                         Upcoming Events

2010 Small Grains and                             2010 OSAGE BIO                                     • By entering the challenge you agree to
Strawberry Twilight Tour                          ENERGY BARLEY YIELD                                  provide a record of all production
on May 19th                                       CONTEST
                                                                                                     • Each entry will submit a barley sample
2010 Small grain and Strawberry twilight          If you are growing barley in Maryland, you           for testing. Testing will be done by
tour will be held at Wye Research and             have the chance to be recognized for your            Osage Bio Energy and include test
Education Center, 211 Farm Lane,                  top yield. Enter the 2010 Barley Yield               weight, moisture, protein, starch, oil,
Queenstown MD on May 19th, 6 pm. These            Challenge! The top three producers in                ash and fiber content.
are concurrent sessions where university          state will be recognized and the 1st prize
of Maryland faculty and extension                 will be a Trip to the 2011 Commodity             All Maryland entrants must be members of
specialist will present variety, fertilizer and   Classic in Tampa, FL, 2nd prize $750 and         the Maryland Grain Producers Association
disease trial updates. For more                   third prize $500.                                (MGPA).
information contact Debby Dant 410-827-              • Contact a qualified contest supervisor
8056 X115.                                             to let them know you are entering this      ENTRY DEADLINE IS JULY, 15, 2010. To
                                                       year’s challenge. These include, but        obtain the entry forms contact your
                                                       are not limited to, University of           local University of Maryland Extension
                                                       Maryland Extension Agents, NRCS             office or visit
                                                       staff and FSA staff.                        Maryland entrants should mail the harvest
                                                     • Field qualifications: The contest field     forms to the Maryland Grain Producers
                                                       must be at least five (5) contiguous        Association, 53 Slama Road, Edgewater,
                                                       acres. A minimum of three (3)               MD 21037.
                                                       contiguous acres from within the
                                                       contest field must be harvested for the     For further information contact:
                                                       contest entry.                              Dr. Bob Kratochvil (301 405-6241) or
Agronomy News - May 6, 2010                                                                                                             8

          Did You Know
          Of each dollar spent on food, the farmer's share is approximately 23 cents.

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This edition of Agronomy News is brought to you by:
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University of Maryland Extension Field Faculty:
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                                                                                                 To subscribe or more information:
University of Maryland Extension Specialist:                                                     Agronomy News
Dr. Arvydas Grybauskas, Field Crop Pathologist                                                   University of Maryland Extension
Dr. Robert Kratochvil, Agronomic Crop Production
Sandra Sardanelli, Director- Nematology Laboratory
                                                                                                 501 Court Lane, Room 208
                                                                                                 Cambridge, MD 21613
University Partners:                                                                             410-228-8800
Dr. R. L. (Bob) Nielsen, Extension Corn Specialist, Purdue University                            Email:

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