Chapter 20 Drifting Toward Disunion

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					       Chapter 20:
Drifting Toward Disunion
       AP US Unit 6
    December 6-7, 2010
      Harriet
      Beecher
       Stowe
   (1811 – 1896)

So this is the lady who
started the Civil War.
  -- Abraham Lincoln
Uncle Tom’s
  Cabin
      1852

 Sold 300,000
  copies in
  the first year.
 2 million in a
  decade!
The Impending Crisis of the South
            (1857)
• Written by Hinton R. Helper
• Republished by the anti-slavery movement
  in 1859 when it gained a following
• Said slavery hurt the economy of the South,
  especially the poor, non-slaveholding whites
                      Kansas
• Both Northern and Southern groups financed the
  immigration of pro or anti slavery people to
  Kansas
  – The South had assumed that Nebraska would be free
    and Kansas slave and was angry when they found out
    that anti-slavery voters were moving into Kansas
• On election day in 1855, “border ruffians” from
  Missouri crossed the line to vote in Kansas,
  swinging the vote pro-slavery
• The abolitionists cried fraud and declared their
  own government…now Kansas had two
• Abolitionist and           John Brown
  slightly crazy
• Had at least 20 kids
• Let the attack on
  Pottawatomie Creek
  in May 1856
  – In response to the
    burning of
    Lawrence by pro-
    slavery forces
• Became known for       John Brown and Bleeding Kansas

  his violence against
  slavery
       The Lecompton Constitution
• Pro-slave forces had enough of a majority for a
  vote on the constitution
  – Vote for the constitution with or without slavery
  – Even if voted for without, there was still a provision to
    protect slavery that was already there
• Anti-slave forces boycotted the polls and the
  constitution passed with slavery
• Douglas refused to have this semi-popular
  sovereignty and championed a resolution to have
  the ENTIRE constitution put to a vote
  – It failed and Kansas remained a territory until 1861
  “The Crime Against Kansas”




                  In response to attacks
                    against his cousin,
                  Senator Andrew Butler
                          (D-SC)

Senator Charles                             Congressman
   Sumner                                  Preston Brooks
    (R-MA)                                     (D-SC)
           Bleeding Kansas
• Death Runs Riot from Ken Burns The West
       1856 Presidential Election




James Buchanan John C. Frémont                         Millard Fillmore
  Democrat       Republican                            Whig / American
•Buchanan beat Pierce for the Dem nomination because he was Kansasless
•Fremont was a soldier and explorer: Free speech, free press, free soil, free men,
Fremont!
•Fillmore got the remnants of the Whigs and the anti-immigrant explosion of 1854-
1856
  1856
Election
Results
 Birth of the Republican Party
 Northern Whigs
 Northern Democrats
 Free-Soilers
 Know-Nothings
 Other miscellaneous opponents
  of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
               •Dred Scott lived for
               5 years with his
               master in Illinois
               and Wisconsin
               Territory – free
               territory
               •He sued for his
               freedom with the
               backing of
               abolitionists
        Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
• Chief Justice Taney (from Maryland)
  declared
  – Because a slave was property, they could be
    taken anywhere in the US and be kept as a
    slave
     • 5th Amendment protected property rights
  – Compromise of 1820 and any bans on
    slavery had been unconstitutional all along
  – Slaves were also not citizens and therefore
    could not sue in court
  – Republicans and abolitionists felt that this
    decision was made solely because the
    majority of the court was from the South
• Causes:
  – Inflation             The Panic of 1857
     • Gold
     • Wheat production
  – Overspeculation in Western Land
     • Again
• Effects:
  – Panic, closing of businesses, unemployment
  – North suffered more than the South
     • South felt that this proved that cotton and the southern
       economy was king
  – Pro-homestead feelings in the North
     • Homestead Act passed in 1860 – but vetoed by Buchanan,
       passed by Lincoln in 1862
  – Tariff of 1857 and its lower rates was attacked by
    Republicans
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
 Illinois Senate Debates




                           A House divided
                            against itself,
                            cannot stand
  Stephen
  Douglas
   & the
  Freeport
  Doctrine

  Popular
Sovereignty?
     John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
• John Brown, with 20
  followers, decided to stage
  a slave rebellion in Virginia
  in October, 1859
  – Would seize an arsenal to
    arm the slaves
  – Didn’t advertise very well
• Was trapped inside the arsenal and captured by
  the US Marines under Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee
• Was tried and convicted of treason
     John Brown and Harpers Ferry
                     • John Brown was hanged on
                       December 2, 1859
                     • Instead of fading into oblivion:
                        – He became a martyr for
                          abolitionists with violent
                          leanings
                        – He became the stereotype of
                          Northerners that southerners
                          feared

• Brown caused the southern militia system to be
  reinvigorated – further assisting in making the
  South comfortable for secession
        Democratic Party in 1860
• Southern democrats broke off and
  nominated John C. Breckinridge (KY)
  with a platform of slavery in the
  territories and the annexation of Cuba
• Northern democrats nominated
  Stephen Douglas (IL) with a platform
  of popular sovereignty and the
  enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act
The Constitutional Union Party in 1860
 • The Constitutional Union Party (Do
   Nothing or Old Gentleman’s Party)
   nominated John Bell (TN) with a platform
   of “The Union, The Constitution, and the
   Enforcement of Laws”
  The Republican Party in 1860
• The Republican Party nominated Abraham
  Lincoln (IL). Seward was best known but
  had made too many inflammatory speeches.
  Platform appealed to all non-slavery groups:
                Group           Appealing Part of Platform
 Free Soilers               No Slavery in Territories
 Northern Manufacturers     Protective Tariff
 Immigrants                 No abridgement of rights
 Northwest                  Transcontinental Railroad
 West                       Internal improvements from the feds
 Farmers                    Free Homesteads
 1860
Election
Results
           The Election of 1860
• Lincoln won with a majority of electoral votes
  but only 40% of the popular votes.
• He wasn’t even on the ballot in 10 southern
  states.
• Even though this angered the South they still
  controlled 4/5 of the Supreme Court and the
  Republicans did not control Congress.
• Also the slave states had the numbers to
  override any amendment and an amendment
  was necessary to outlaw slavery
                    Secession
• South Carolina, true to its word, seceded within 4
  days of Lincoln’s election.
• Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
  and Texas joined within 6 weeks.
• 4 more states would join after Sumter.
• The first 7 would meet in Montgomery, Alabama
  in February 1861 to establish the Confederate
  States of America
  – Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederacy
Secession!: SC left on Dec. 20,1860
Secessionitis
        Buchanan’s Plan…or Not
• President Buchanan (until March 4, 1861)
  maintained a “wait and see” policy.
• Neither Constitution nor precedent helped him
  decide what to do and he thought the small
  army was more needed in the West.
• Also, he thought that not going to blows meant
  the possibility of reconciliation.
• It worked out better for the North when the
  South attacked first, because prior to that
  many Northerners didn’t want a war
     The Crittenden Amendments
• James Henry Crittenden (KY) came up with a
  plan: The Crittenden Amendments.
  – Under these, slavery in the territories would be
    prohibited north of 36° 30’ and allowed south of
    it. When they became states they could choose.
• Lincoln turned this down since he had been
  elected to keep slavery out of the territories
  and he thought it would force America’s
  expansionism to take over southern regions to
  make more territories.
Southern Reasoning for Secession
• Tired of being attacked
  – Underground Railroad, John Brown
  – Abolitionists and Free Soilers
• Felt unrepresented when Lincoln got elected
• Thought North wouldn’t attack
  – Especially because the South thought that the
    North was too dependent on cotton to attack
• Felt that they were the second American
  Revolution
                        Historiography
• Nationalist School: late 19th C James Rhodes: all about slavery and
  preserving the union
• Progressives: early 20th C Charles and Mary Beard: inherent economic
  differences – 2nd American Revolution moved power to the businesses and
  away from planters
• Post WWI: James Randall and Avery Craven unnecessary war (like WWI)
• Neo-nationalist: Post WWII Allan Nevins and David Potter: irreconcilable
  differences in morality, politics, culture, social values, and economy eroded
  the ties between the sections and set them on the path to war
• Paranoia: Foner and Genovese: each side saw their way of life being
  threatened
• Party Politics: Destruction of Whigs and breakdown of Jacksonian party
  system tore apart the last thing that was holding the country together
• Ethnocultural School: Michael Holt, Late 20th century: Breakdown of parties
  because before parties had agreed NOT to talk about slavery and had ended
  up agreeing on most other things. After that slavery was the only issues left

				
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