Cardiac training simulator using pump with electronic pressure by linzhengnd


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Surgical training simulators
Improved pulsatile pump
Control system
Vital signs monitor
Conclusions and future work

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Training issues in cardiac surgery
     1) Lack of exposure due to low number of
       operations carried out/lack of access to intensive
       care facilities e.g. Jamaica
     2) Legislation limiting working hours of hospital
       doctors affects on-job training e.g. Europe
     3) New surgical procedures need more training
       before trainee is ready to attempt surgery on real
       patients e.g. beating heart surgery
Simulators can provide additional training

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Surgical simulators

Types of simulator for human surgery
  1)    Live animals - complexity, cost, ethics
  2)    Virtual Reality - level of realism
  3)    Synthetic organs - cost, level of realism
  4)    Animal organs - cheap, good likeness with human
       tissue, potentially high level of realism if
       appropriately animated
Beating heart cardiac surgery
  Use a porcine heart, pumped via intra-ventricular
    balloons, using a computer controlled pulsatile pump
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Surgical simulators (cont.)

Cardiac surgery training environment
 Surgeon (left), Synthetic chest cavity with porcine heart inset (right)

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Improved pulsatile pump

Linear actuator-based diaphragm pump
Computer interface for low-level control
Pressure sensor and feedback electronics

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Control system
Beating mode selection
   Sequenced – at a specified step in the
    simulation sequence
   Scheduled – after a specified time has
   Immediate – manually selected
   Sensor triggered – automated response to
    system feedback e.g. from pressure sensor
    to simulate onset of ventricular fibrillation
    when heart is squeezed
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 Beating demonstrated at various rates (30-300bpm)
 Faithful triggering of simulated ventricular fibrillation by
  squeezing heart, followed by defibrillation
 Simulated vital signs traces realistically tracked the
  beating heart

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 The improved pump system was able make the organic
  heart beat realistically at various rates under software
 Pressure sensor feedback worked to faithfully reproduce
  the onset of ventricular fibrillation mode when heart is
 The vital signs monitor is a useful addition to the
  training environment
 Further work
      Investigate alternative algorithms to improve robustness of
       automatic triggering, if necessary
      Complete high-level software design
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