Take a Hike_ by yurtgc548

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									Take a Hike!
         Internet Lesson Plan
         Grade level: 7-9

         Teacher Activities


         Goal:

         To utilize Internet resources to learn about hiking, prepare for a hike, calculate
         hiking distances and review safety guidelines based on actual experiences of
         Appalachian Trail hikers.

         Objectives:

         At the end of the unit, the participant will be able to:
             • Read a chronicle of hikers' experiences on the Appalachian Trail.
             • Calculate what the hikers' daily distance should have been.
             • Brainstorm factors which may have affected the hikers' progress and
               evaluate his/her reasons with the hikers' weekly logs.
             • Mark the Appalachian Trail, dates of the hikers' progress and elevation
               notes on a map.
             • Track the Bartram Trail route through Georgia.
             • Predict how long it will take to cover the Bartram Trail based on materials
               on the Web and mark the proposed distances on the map.
             • List items that are needed for a hiking trip and evaluate them against a
               suggested list on the Web.
             • Plan purchases of needed hiking items keeping in mind price and weight.
             • Calculate total cost and weight of items.
             • Provide reasons why he/she chose a more expensive or a heavier item for
               a hike.
             • Compare the U.S. view of wildfire control with other parts of the world.
             • List the ecosystem benefits of wildfires.
             • Name the natural factors which increase the chances of wildfire.
             • Evaluate the probability of wildfires along the Appalachian and Bartram
               Trails.

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             • Create a timeline for the Smokey Bear publicity campaign.
             • Design an activity or educational section to augment "Smokey Bear's
               Official Home Page."
             • Explain how one contracts lyme disease and what its symptoms are.
             • Describe how poison ivy spreads and identify other members of this
               poisonous family.
             • Describe parts of a compass.
             • Explain how a compass works.
             • Use a compass to create readings for a treasure hunt.

         Duration:

         Two weeks, one hour of on-line time each day.

         Instructional strategy:

         Divide the class into pairs or small groups of approximately 3-4 participants
         each. Provide each group with a two-pocket folder. Distribute the activities in the
         left pocket of each folder to encourage problem-solving strategies within the
         group.
         Have students utilize the right-hand pocket of the folder to record their strategies,
         take notes, and track project completion. Students can store information they
         have gathered or printed from the Internet in this pocket as well.
         Encourage both on-line and off-line research through reference and research
         material.

         Prerequisite:

         A short introduction to the Internet with information on access and addresses is
         required before participants go on-line. Ensure that students are familiar with the
         World Wide Web and the browser they will be using.

         Assessment/Evaluation:

         The activities in this unit will be evaluated on the basis of student participation
         and performance. Team folders will include information gathered in the process
         of completing the activities. Encourage cooperative learning, group process,
         problem-solving, competition, and the use of the Internet as these activities are
         completed. Serve as facilitator and guide throughout the activities.

         Other related activities:

         Activity #1: The Appalachian Trail.



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             • List activities that you consider adventures. Which ones can you actually
               achieve? What makes an adventure?
             • Explore the history of the Appalachian Trail at "GORP: Appalachian Trail -
               A Footpath in Nature" at
               http://www.gorp.com/gorp/resource/us_trail/appalach.htm.
             • Compare the elevation information gathered in this activity to that shown
               on topographical maps at "National Geophysical Data Center: Science for
               Society - Your State" at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ngdc/news/state.htm.
             • Discuss the uses of topographical maps and how they differ from other
               maps.
             • Use materials such as sand and paper mache to create a topographical
               map of your state or create a map out of cake and frosting. Share your
               masterpiece with others.
             • Teacher: Find activities for different grade levels at "USGS: Understanding
               Maps" at http://www.usgs.gov/education/learnweb/wwmaps.html. Activities
                include "Map adventures" (Grades K-3), "What do maps show?" (Grades
               5-8) and "Exploring maps" (Grades 7-12).

         Activity #2: A southern rival
             • Plot the complete Bartram Trail on a map using the following Web
               resources:
               - "Take a Hike on the Long Side" at
               http://www.cs.unca.edu/nfsnc/recreation/trails.htm
               - "Historic South Carolina Trail Routes" at
               http://www.sctrails.net/historic.html
               - "Three Famous Trails" at http://www.insiders.com/ncmtns/sb-forests2.htm
             • Check your charting of the trail with information on the Bartram Trail
               obtained from the North Bartram Trail Society listed on the Web page
               "GORP: Bartram Trail" at
               http://www.gorp.com/gorp/resource/us_trail/se_bartr.htm.
             • Write a biography for William Bartram using the following resources:
               - "NCNatural's William Bartram Profile" at
               http://ncnatural.com/NCNatural/bartram/bartram1-txt.html
               - "@ugusta Chronicle: Bartram's Writings give Glimpse Into Past" at
               http://augustachronicle.com/history/bartram.html
             • Discuss why Bartram wanted to call the Appalachian Mountains the
               Cherokee Mountains.
             • Create a slogan, ad or commercial to publicize this trail.
             • Create a "Did you know" brochure on this area of the country. Make sure
               to highlight unique and interesting facts.

         Activity #3: What to take?




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             • Discuss the wilderness ethics at "GORP: Wilderness Ethics" at
               http://www.gorp.com/gorp/resource/US_Wilderness_Area/
               WILDETHC.HTM. What unwritten rules should you as "a visitor in the
               wild" follow? Design a handbook outlining them.
             • Visit an outdoor equipment store to see the type of equipment that
               campers and hikers need. Many places offer in-house lectures free to the
               public.
             • Create a store specifically for backpackers. What kind of merchandise
               would you offer?
             • Design a catalog for hikers featuring equipment and other important
               information.

         Activity #4: Get it in gear
             • Prepare a budget for hiking gear. How much money do you need in order
               to buy the basic equipment?
             • See if you can gather some of the camping/hiking gear together to pack a
               backpack and see exactly how heavy items are and how much room there
               is.
             • Try your hand at planning several meals for a trip. Use the "REI:
               Backpacking 102" Web page at
               http://merc.rei.com/OLC/courses/bkpacking102/cbk102top.html.
               Remember the following factors when preparing your menu: weight/bulk,
               ease of preparation and cost. Make sure to cover all the food groups!
             • Prepare a budget of food costs associated with a hiking adventure.
             • Teacher: Invite someone from a local sports store to speak on preparing
               for a hiking trip.

         Activity #5: Dangers in the woods - forest fires
             • Be on the "hot seat" by participating in a fire control simulation at
               "Discovery Online Science: Wildfires!" at
               http://www.discovery.com/area/science/wildfires/wildfires1.html.
             • Discuss the controversial statement "Smokey is dead!" at "Discovery
               Online Science: Wildfires!" at
               http://www.discovery.com/area/science/wildfires/wildfires1.html. In your
               opinion, should forest fires be prescribed?
             • Compare the United States' view of wildfire control with other parts of the
               world.
             • Using graphs compare the number of fires and their causes as well as
               prescribed burns per state using the Web page "Wildfire and Prescribed
               Burn Statistics" at http://fwspceaa.nifc.r9.fws.gov/~olson/stats.html.




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             • Look at the "National Interagency Coordination Center: Fire Incident
               Management Situation Report" at http://www.nifc.gov/sitreprt.html to find
               the current information about daily fires and resources used as well as the
               number of fires and acres burned year-to-date. What conclusions can you
               draw from this information?

         Activity #6: Fret about the little things
             • Prepare an emergency kit. What would you put in it and why?
             • What other dangers lurk in the woods? Spiders, snakes and mosquitoes
               are some of them that come to mind. List others.
             • Create a pamphlet for younger children about lyme disease or poison ivy.
             • Design a poster for the National Park System warning hikers of potential
               dangers and what these may be. Remember that not all hikers will
               understand English.
             • Teacher: Ask a local health care provider to speak on the subject of poison
               treatment and prevention.


         Activity #7: Finding your way!
             • Compare and contrast orienteering and rogaining. Use the "Orienteering
               and Rogaining Home Page" at
               http://www2.aos.princeton.edu/rdslater/orienteering/.
             • Discuss how the methods of navigation have changed since the time of
               Christopher Columbus. Research information from the Web page
               "Columbus Navigation Home Page" at http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/.
             • What other methods of navigation are there? Learn more about how to
               use the sun and stars to navigate.
             • Create a timeline listing advances in navigation and the people behind
               them. Be sure to include inventions as well as significant findings based
               on navigation.
             • Teacher: Review the "Orienteering for the Young" Web page at
               http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/james_baker/ for information
               on how to familiarize children with orienteering.

         Materials needed by the teacher:
             •    Two-pocket folders
             •    Map of the eastern portion of the United States
             •    Detailed map of Georgia
             •    Spreadsheet software (optional)
             •    Compass




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         Teacher notes:

         In "Activity #7: Finding your way," consider conducting a group activity for
         students to learn how to navigate with a compass as described in lessons on the
         Web page "How to Use a Compass" at http://www.uio.no/~kjetikj/compass/.
         As a culminating activity, have students assemble a newspaper for hikers
         including information that they have learned throughout this unit. Suggested
         features include news, health, latest gear, a hiking experience, specific hiking
         areas and famous hikers.




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Take a Hike!
         Student Activities


         Activity #1: The Appalachian Trail

         Feeling adventuresome? Several journalists certainly were in March, 1995, as
         they planned to hike the entire Appalachian Trail, covering 2,162 miles and
         crossing fourteen states! The entire trip is chronicled on the Web page "An
         Appalachian Adventure" at http://www.nando.net/AT/ATmain2.html. Only 10% of
         the people who attempt the trip described on this Web page are successful.
             • What were the starting and ending dates of the journalists' hike? How
               many days did the 2,162 mile journey take?
             • What should have been the average daily mileage accomplished? Do you
               think that this was always the case? Why or why not?
             • What hardships and obstacles do you think that the hikers faced?
             • Scroll down to the bottom of the page to select "Map of the Appalachian
               Trail" and "Elevation and regions." Track the route of the Appalachian Trail
               on a map. Make sure to mark the elevation high points. Chart the hikers'
               progress on your map noting the dates.
             • Look again at the progress of the hikers as they made their journey. Did
               the elevation differences affect the hikers' progress?
             • For more detail about the Appalachian Trail through each state, visit the
               Web site "The Appalachian Trail - State by State" at
               http://www.fred.net/kathy/at/atstate.html. Read several of the weekly
               entrees that the journalists made.
             • Were you correct in your observations about what factors influenced their
               hiking progress? Did you discover other factors and obstacles of which
               you had not thought?

         Activity #2: A southern rival

         Bartram National Recreation Trail is affectionately known as the "Southern
         Appalachian's rival." Charted by William Bartram, known as America's first
         naturalist, it offers much the same scenic beauty as the Appalachian Trail but is
         not as well-known.
         Learn more about this trail at the following sites:
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            • "GORP: Bartram Trail" at
              http://www.gorp.com/gorp/resource/us_trail/se_bartr.htm
            • "Bartram Trail, A North Georgia Hiking Trail" at
              http://ngeorgia.com/trail/bartram.shtml
         Then answer these questions:
             • Through which states does the trail cross?
             • How long is the entire trail? What portion of it crosses through Georgia?
             • What is its degree of difficulty? Why do you think it is rated this way?
             • Track the route of the trail on a map of Georgia.
         Now it's time to plan how long it will take you to make your journey! Other
         factors to consider besides the distance are topography, weather and type of
         hiker you are. Examine the following resources to help you plan your trip:
            • "National Geophysical Data Center: Science for Society - Your State" at
              http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ngdc/news/state.htm lists topographic
              information.
            • "The Weather Channel" at http://www.weather.com/ provides weather
              forecasts.
            • "REI: Basic Backpacking 101" at
              http://merc.rei.com/OLC/courses/bkpacking101/cbk101top.html covers
              planning a backpacking trip and route.
         Then answer these questions about your trip:
             • What type of weather would you encounter if you were to start hiking
               tomorrow?
             • How long do you want to hike each day?
             • Mark on a map the distance you want to accomplish each day.
             • What type of terrain will you be encountering?
             • How experienced of a hiker are you?

         Activity #3: What to take?

         If you were to take a hike lasting over several days, what would you need to take
         in order to survive? Remember there are no electrical outlets or fast food places
         along the way!
             • Brainstorm what you think you need to take for a several day trip out in the
               wilderness. Think of items in the following categories:
                - Storage
                - Safety
                - Food & drink
                - Clothing
                - Shelter
                - Basic supplies

             • How long is your list? Are there some items which you think are not
               necessary? Remember that you will have to carry this stuff!
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             • See how well you did by visiting "REI: Hiking and Backpacking Checklists"
               at http://www.rei.com/OUT_THERE/LISTS/geartop.html as well as the
               "Basic Backpacking 101" section. How did you do? What did you forget?
             • From the list of items you need, how much do you already have and what
               do you need to get?

         Activity #4: Get it in gear!

         You've got your list ... let's go window shopping with the help of the Web to see
         what exactly we need to buy, how much it will cost and more importantly, how
         heavy it will be! Plan a virtual shopping excursion for camping gear using the
         Web page "REI: Camping" at
         http://www.rei.com/shopping/store3/CAMPING/camp.html to make a list of what
         you need. Or if you have another favorite camping store, it may be listed at
         "GORP: Gear and Travel Accessories" at
         http://www.gorp.com/gorp/gear/main.htm.
             • Use your list from the previous activity to look for the items you need.
             • When selecting your gear, think in terms of how much it will cost as well as
               how heavy the item is. If you choose an item for its weight factor instead
               of cost, be prepared to defend your decision.
             • Create a table or use spreadsheet software to list:
                - Item
                - Cost
                - Quantity
                - Weight
                - Total cost and weight

             • Compare with other groups to see who can travel the lightest and
               cheapest!

         Activity #5: Dangers in the woods - forest fires

         Is it true that "only you can prevent forest fires?" Often humans are the cause of
         wilderness fires due to carelessness from smoking or camp fires. Sometimes,
         though, nature does it to herself. Several factors from the ecosystem increase
         the chances of wildfires. Visit the Web page "The Why Files: Woods Ablaze" at
         http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/018forest_fire/index.html to learn more.
             • Start at the section about "Yellowstone National Park." What did scientists
               learn about this wildfire?
             • What differences has the role in fire played throughout the years in the
               United States and other parts of the world? Who is right, if anyone?
               Why? What benefits occurred in Yellowstone due to the fire?
             • View the section on "Computer Models." How can we use computers to
               help us understand wildfire occurrences better?


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             • Using the Web page "Wildland Fire Assessment System" at
               http://www.fs.fed.us/land/wfas/welcome.html, learn how scientists monitor
               the chances of a fire. What factors do they observe?
             • Of course, before you go hiking, you will want to know the outlook for fires.
               How kind is mother nature going to be while you are hiking? Check the
               forest fire conditions throughout the United States by using the Web page
               "Forest Fire Conditions in the U.S." at
               http://www.vita.org/disaster/firefrst.html.
             • Interpret the data in the different maps for observed versus forecasted
               forest fires. Note the different danger classifications. Pay particular
               attention to the areas near the Appalachian and Bartram Trails. How close
               are the predictions to actual fires?
             • What are the chances of fire in the areas around the Appalachian Trail and
               Bartram Trail?
             • Finally take a look at the history behind one of the "greatest publicity
               campaigns ever" at "Smokey Bear's Home Page" at
               http://www.odf.state.or.us/smokey/smokey.htm. Create a timeline outlining
               the history for the Smokey Bear campaign.
             • Design an activity or educational section which would complement
               "Smokey Bear's Official Home Page" at http://www.smokeybear.com/.
               Keep in mind that the page is meant for children ages 6-10.

         Activity #6: Fret the little stuff

         When people think of dangers in the wild, many think only of the large animals.
         One animal that many people forget about is a small one that packs a mean
         punch - the tick. It is responsible for many unexplained ailments which upon
         closer examination can be explained by this small creature! Visit the following
         Web pages for more information:
              ü "Lyme Disease" at http://www.ziplink.net/~jcwheel/lyme.html
              ü "Lyme Disease Information Resource" at
                http://www.sky.net/~dporter/lyme1.html
              ü "CDC: Lyme Disease" at
                http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/lyme/lyme.htm
              ü "Lyme Disease - An Overview" at
                http://www.lehigh.edu/lists/lymenet-l/overview.htm
         Then answer these questions:
            • What is lyme disease?
            • How is it transmitted?
            • What are the symptoms?
            • Why is it called the "Great Imitator"?
            • Where are ticks found and how can you protect yourself from them?
            • Are your pets safe from ticks and lyme disease?
         Another danger many people encounter are the "leaves of three" - poison oak,
         sumac and ivy! Learn what to avoid as you hike by visiting the Web sites:
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              ü "Poison Ivy, Western Poison Oak, and Poisonous Sumac" at
                http://res.agr.ca/brd/poisivy/title.html
              ü "Obnoxious Plants - Poison Ivy and Nettles" at
                http://www.ncnatural.com/wildflwr/obnxious.html
         Then answer the following questions:
             • How do you get poison ivy and how does it spread? Does everyone
               agree?
             • What do the three poisonous plants look like?
             • Can you get poison ivy from your dog?
             • How can you tell that you have poison ivy?
             • What should you do if you know that you are in a poisonous plant?
             • Why doesn't everyone react the same way when they get poison ivy?
             • Design a brochure outlining the possible dangers and prevention methods
               that you've learned about in this activity.

         Activity #7: Finding your way

         Think how far we have come - from navigating using the stars, using sextants
         and compasses, to finding one's way on a published trail map. Since most trails
         are well-marked with blazes, you don't really need to rely on the map to see
         where you are going. But it can be fun to find your own way the old-fashioned
         way - by using a compass! To discover how to use this helpful instrument, grab
         a compass and go to the following Web sites:
              ü "Finding your Way with Map and Compass" at
                http://info.er.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/finding-your-way/finding-your-way.htm
                l
              ü "How to Use a Compass" at http://www.uio.no/~kjetikj/compass/
         Then aswer these questions:
             •  In what direction does a compass point?
             •  What things can affect the accuracy of a compass reading?
             •  What components make up a compass?
             •  How can you go northeast when the compass is always pointing in the
                same direction?
         A sport that relies heavily on compass readings and special maps is orienteering.
         To learn more about it, go to the web site "Orienteering" at
         http://www.williams.edu:803/Biology/orienteering/o~index.html.
             • What is orienteering?
             • What makes orienteering maps different from other types of maps?
             • Make a treasure map around your school building with compass readings
               and paces to tell others how to find a hidden treasure. Try your hand at
               using symbols that are used in orienteering.
             • Swap maps and try to locate another group's treasure.



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