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PowerPoint Presentation - Connective Tissue

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									Connective Tissue
       General Information
• Types and functions:
  – Loose connective tissue: fat, areolar –
    insulation, protection
  – Dense Connective: Ligaments and tendons –
    binding and support
  – Cartilage – protection, support
  – Bone - support
  – Blood- transportation
    Common Characteristics
• All Connective tissue share the following
  characteristics, despite the variety.
  – Develop from the same embryonic tissue
  – Composed of many different types of cells
    within the tissue.
  – Contains extracellular matrix
  – Great variation in the amount of blood
    supply (vascularization)
               Cells in Matrix
• Cells in connective tissue make and maintain
  the ground substance and fibers.
• Each type of conn. Tissue have immature and
  mature forms of these cells.
• Immature cells have suffix “-blast” – actively
  produce matrix.
• Mature cells have suffix “-cyte” – maintain
  health of matrix, reverting to blasts to
  regenerate matrix after injury.
  –   Fibroblasts – make conn. Tissue/fibers
  –   Chondroblasts – make cartilage,
  –   Osteoblasts – make bone
  –   Hematopoeitic stem cells – make blood
            Cells in Matrix
• Other cells present:
  – White blood cells (macrophages, plasma
    cells)– responsible for immune response
  – Mast cells – responsible for inflammation
    following injury or infection.
          Extracellular Matrix
• Extracellular matrix is the substance that
  connective cells are embedded within.
• Made of nonliving material called ground
   – Can be liquid, gel-like, semi-solid or hard.
   – Texture depends on amount of cell adhesion
     proteins: proteoglycans which trap water forming a
     gel. More proteins, more solid ground substance.
• Contains fibers that provide great strength, or
  flexibility, or both.
• Extracellular matrix allows Conn. Tissue to
  bear weight, mechanical abuse – protects!!
tissue, lots
of fibers,
little open
Lots of
– fewer
• Fibers are embedded in ground substance
   to add strength/flexibility.
• Dense fibous (Collagen): stronger than steel
   of the same size. STRENGTH!
Two types:
1. Regularly arranged in tendons,ligament
2. Irregularly arranged: in dermis give
   elasticity to the skin
          Dense continued
• Dense Irregular
  – Fibers run in different directions.
  – Tissue is found where tension is applied in
    different directions
  – Example: Dermis of skin
Dense Regular
•Ereolar: btw
 Fun : connection
•Reticular: delicate, forms nets
 that support free cells.
         Loose Continued
• Reticular
  – Only contains reticular fibers.
  – VERY DELICATE – a fine net of fibers.
  – Supports free blood cells.
  – Found in lymph nodes, bone
    Loose Connective Tissue
• Areolar – most widely distributed type.
  – Serves as “packing material” cushioning
    organs, subcutaneous, attaches skin to
  – Contains all three fibers
  – Gelatinous
  – Very loosely packed, lots of liquid
  – Swells during inflammation (edema)
            Loose Continued
• Adipose = Fat!
  –   Loosely packed with little matrix
  –   Highly cellular : 90% of tissue is adipocytes
  –   Nutrient storage, cushioning.
  –   Richly vascularized
  –   Develops within areolar tissue/subcutaneous
       • 18% of an average person’s weight
       • 50% of chubby person

Dense Regular

                Dense Irregular
• Characteristics
   – Resists tension and pressure
   – Tough and flexible
   – No nerves or blood vessels
   – Lots of collagen and elastic fibers.
   – 80% water
   – Chondroblasts make matrix until end of human
   – Mature Chondrocytes found in cavities called
     lacunae (pit)
   – Condrotin sulfate give matrix semisolid property
         Hyaline Cartilage
• Looks glassy (hyalin = glass)
• Few chondrocytes, all located in lacunae
• Mostly matrix – lots of collagen
• Reduces friction, absorbs pressure
• Covers ends of bones, connects ribs to
  sternum, forms rings in trachea and
          Elastic Cartilage
• Looks almost identical to hyaline
• Matrix appears more fibrous
• Many more elastic fibers – makes it very
• Found in nose, ear and epiglottis
• Fun: maintain shape, support.
• Very tough, almost like bone
• Consists of rows of chondrocytes and
  collagen fibers
• Withstands great pressure
• Found in intervertebral discs.
Fibrous Cartilage
• Most supportive tissue in body.
• Matrix is composed of collagen fibers
  surrounded by calcium salts.
• Osteoblasts make collagen fibers and calcium
  salts deposited between fibers.
• Well vascularized
• Osteocytes stored in lacunae
• Bone marrow stores fat and makes blood
• Atypical connective tissue
• Only classified as such because it arises
  from same embryonic tissue
• Blood cells are within a matrix of blood
• Fibers apparent only when blood clots.

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