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					    shark tales




                                                                                                              EDWIN MARCOW
                                                                                The passing of
                                                                                Ralph
                                                                                It is with great sadness
                                                                                I report that Ralph, one
                                                                                of four whale sharks
                                                                                housed at the Georgia
                                                                                Aquarium who was
                                                                                profiled in the last
                Edited by                                                       Sharktales, died sud-
           Edwin Marcow                                                         denly on Thursday,
                                                                                January 11th.
                                                                                    Ralph stopped swim-
                                                                                ming on Thursday and
                                                                                was quickly moved
                                                                                to another part of the
                                                                                aquarium. There, staff
                                                                                tried to revive him, but

New Kid On The Block!                                                           he lost his fight for life
                                                                                some eight hours later.
                                                                                15 specialists per-
320 million years in the making,        submarine. Professor Long and his       formed a necropsy on
having swum the ocean depths            team of researchers then spent          Ralph’s remains to try
before the beginning of time,           more than a decade ensuring             to determine the cause
and an incredible further 12 years      these two new species were              of death. This is the first
of research to positively identify      exactly that, before publishing         time this procedure has
and match these two new spe-            their results in the journal Zootaxa    been performed in the
cies—the two fish in question are
the Galapagos and Whitespot
Ghost shark discovered near the
Galapagos Islands in 1995 and
found at a depth of plus 1,200
                                        in October and December 2006.
                                        Among the first to see these new
                                        species was John McCosker who
                                        found the Galapagos Ghost Shark
                                        on his 50th birthday in honour of
                                                                                US.
                                                                                    Ralph’s remains were
                                                                                later cremated. This
                                                                                tragedy follows less
                                                                                than two weeks after
                                                                                                                             They’re coming cloooser
                                                                                                                             “Close to 100 bull sharks were        However, all evidence is still anec-   yet,”said Dr Walker.
feet. “It’s amazing what you find       his new scientific find, the fish was   the death of the aquar-                      sighted near to the shore along       dotal, and one cannot jump to            For those scuba divers who
lying around the bottom of the          named Hydrolagus mccoskeri.             ium’s Beluga whale,                          the St. Lucie County Coast            conclusions based on individual        don’t like sharks and are about
ocean,” as St. Mary’s College              More than a dozen new species        Gaspar. Read more                            Florida,” reported the local sher-    cases such as those in Florida.        to hang up their scuba gear,
Professor Douglas Long has dis-         were documented on this same            on: Xray-mag.com ■                           iff’s department. It appeared that                                           you can take comfort that shark
covered.                                expedition, along with the Ghost                                                     this mass gathering were stalking     Climate change                         attacks along the Florida coast
   The two deep-sea fishes—odd-         and Whitespot Shark funded by                                                        baitfish close to the shore. It has   Michael Brown is not alone in his      are substantially lower than the
looking shark relatives that broke      the Discovery Channel back in                                                        also been noted that along this       thinking. “Climate change could        2000-2003 average of 33 attacks
off on their own evolutionary path      1996 for a documentary on the                                                        coast from Daytona Beach to           cause those sharks that pose the       according to the Florida Mu-
some 320 million years ago—were         Galapagos Islands. Read more on                                                      Palm Beach, sharks are predating      highest risk to humans—including       seum of Natural History. In Cape
unceremoniously sucked up a             Xray-mag.com ■                                                                       on baitfish from the Indian River     The Great White, the Bull and the      Town, South Africa, at Muizen-
vacuum tube into a research                                                                                                  Lagoon’s inlets to warmer waters      Tiger—to travel further south and      berg beac—a popular beach
                                                                                                                             near the Gulf Stream. A number        feed more voraciously,” said Terry     with swimmers and surfers—Great
                                                                                                                             of warnings were given to people      Walker from the Department of          White sightings are down a stag-
                                                                                                                             from a PA on a circling helicopter    Primary Industries Australia. “The     gering 65%.
                                                                                                                             to keep their distance.               implication is, when waters are          For now I think the jury is out. ■
                                                                                                                                In the previous edition of Shark   warmer, they tend to feed more
                                                                                                                             Tales, I mentioned the theories of    voraciously or are more active...
                                                                                                                             Michael Brown of Australia who        I don’t think the tempera-
                                                                                                                             stated that as global sea tem-        tures of the water
Smalleyed rabbitfish, Hydrolagus affinis. From                                                                               peratures rise, this could bring      have changed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 FISHBASE.ORG
plate 10 of Oceanic Ichthyology by G. Brown                                                                                  sharks closer to shore—thus closer    enough for that
Goode and Tarleton H. Bean, published 1896                                                                                   to humans, resulting in tragedy.      to have happened
                                                                                                                                                                                            Bull Shark

     75   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007    EDITORIAL         FEATURES         TRAVEL    NEWS       EQUIPMENT          BOOKS                    SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                EDUCATION           PROFILES         PORTFOLIO          CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                                        Face of spiny dog fish



Preservation Issues
Critcitically endangered and over     states to adopt and support           tragic collapse, Australian sci-      track
fished in the Atlantic oceans, the    Germany’s proposals to list these     entist William Robbins at James       to eco-
Spiny dog fish and the Porbeagle      two species on the CITES list and     Cook University has remarked.         logical
sharks are considered critically      to further restrict trade of these    Grey Reef Shark numbers have          extinc-
endangered. The Shark Alliance is     two fishes under CITES Appendix II.   fallen by around three percent        tion be-
placing immense pressure on the                                             of unfished levels. Their numbers     coming so
European Union to follow scientific   Collapsing populations                are declining so fast that within     rare, that they
advice on the precarious future of    Sadly, their fate is not alone.       20 years, they could collapse to      will no longer play their
these two fishes’ futures.            Coral Reef Shark populations          1/1000 of unfished levels. “Reef      part in the ecology and food
   Their mission is to get all EU     on the Great Barrier Reef are in      sharks are effectively on a fast      web of the reef,” stated Robbins.

                                                                                                                                                        More depress-
                                                                                                                                         Far Left:      ing news is that
                                                                                                                                         Spiny dog      about 100 decapi-
                                                                                                                                         fish being     tated shark heads were
                                                                                                                                         handled        washed ashore at Erton, putting
                                                                                                                                         during on      the little town on the map. A
                                                                                                                                         of NOAA’s
                                                                                                                                                        commercial fishing boat operat-
                                                                                                                                         surveys.
                                                                                                                                                        ing in local waters is suspected of    from fishing                             NOAA

                                                                                                                                         Left:          committing this barbaric act.          by NZ flagged boats.
                                                                                                                                         Porbeagle                                             Anyone violating this law will be
                                                                                                                                         shark          On a lighter note                      fined NZ$250,000 and face up to
                                                                                                                                                        In all this depressing news there is   six months in prison. It will be illegal
                                                                                                                                                        some good. From April 2007, within     to hunt, kill, or harm a Great White
                                                                                                                                                        a 200 nautical mile zone around        shark within this exclusive eco-
                                                                                                                                                        New Zealand, Great White sharks        nomic zone. It will also be illegal to
                                                                                                                                                        currently included on the CITES        either posses or trade any part of
                                                        NOAA




                                                                                                                                       NOAA
                                                                                                                                                        Appendix II will be protected          a Great White shark. ■



Meet Your Cousin Shark                                                                                            Hell at Bells... (why you should dive, not surf )
Researchers from Singapore and        control of these genes is believed    “It will take at least two more       At Bells beach in Victoria,           Africa, Namibia, and the Pacific.      sitting on his board with his legs
the States have made a surpris-       to be the cause of many human         years to sequence the entire          Australia, 25-year-old surfer         The Sevengill can grow up to four      dangling over the side and the
ing discovery. We humans and          illnesses.                            shark genome,” said Associate         Peter Galvin was attacked 100         meters in length. With its distinc-    shark came up from underneath
the Elephant shark found in the           The teams from Singapore’s        Professor Byrappa Venkatesh.          metres from shore as he sat on        tive broad head and unique             and grabbed his leg in the calf
oceans around New Zealand             Institute of Molecular and Cell          Could man and the Elephant         his surfboard with his feet dan-      seven gills, this very active and      and thigh area.” A chunk was
and Southern Australia, share an      Biology and the J Craig Venter        shark be closer than we think? ■      gling over the sides of his board     sometimes aggressive shark will        also taken out of his surfboard,
astonishing large amount of DNA.      Institute began their research last                                         at dusk. The suspected culprit is     cruise near the surface.               and the unlucky victim was left a
This could potentiality have far      year and found that we share                 Australian Ghost Shark or      the lesser know Sevengill Shark,                                             tooth in his wetsuit as a memen-
reaching implications in the          a staggering 5,000 common                                Elephant Fish      Notorynchus cepedianus.               Mistaken identity?                     to!
future for medical research and                  DNA fragments with the                              WIKIPEDIA       With a lower profile than the      Capable of sudden bursts of               Another surfer helped Mr
treatments. DNA in the human                        Elephant shark.                                               usual suspects, its greatest claim    speed and power, the Sevengill         Galvin to shore where paramed-
genome controls genes that                                                                                        to date is that this is the favour-   feeds on salmon, anchovies,            ics treated him. Mr Galvin sus-
produce proteins that are funda-                                                                                       ite shark of legendary Great     smaller sharks and eagle rays.         tained very large lacerations to
mental to the body’s develop-                                                                                            White Shark wrangler Andre     One can only guess that at dusk        the back of his knee with gaping
ment. Any disruption in the                                                                                               Hartman. It is found mostly   this was a case of mistaken iden-      wounds. “It appeared that the
                                                                                                                          in shallow waters, bays,      tity.                                  shark mauled him rather than
                                                                                                                             and close to shore in         Senior Constable Lisa Kennedy       bit him,” reported one of the
                                                                                                                                    Australia, South    of Torquay Police said, “He was        attending paramedics. ■


    76   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL        FEATURES         TRAVEL       NEWS        EQUIPMENT            BOOKS      SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                EDUCATION           PROFILES         PORTFOLIO             CLASSIFIED
                   media      Books Film DVDs CDs
                                                                                                         Dragon Sea
                                                                                                         A true tale of treas-
                                                                                                         ure, archeology, and
                                                                                                         greed off the coast
                                                                                                                                                                              Giant
                                                                                                                                                                              Stride
                                                                                                                                                                              Divers Alert
                                                                                                         of Vietnam.                                                          Network
                              Edited by Peter Symes                                                      By Frank Pope                                                        (DAN) will
                              & Michael Symes                                                            Publisher: Harcourt                                                  launch a
                                                                                                         Hardcover: 368 pp.                                                   new edi-
                              POINT & CLICK                                                              ISBN-10: 0151012075                                                  tion of Giant
                              ON BOLD LINKS                                                              Sale Price: £11.66 / $16.50                                          Stride, the
                                                                                                         Amazon.co.uk                                                         organisa-
                                                                                                         In this gripping true                                                tion’s pub-
                                                                                                         thriller the author takes                                            lication aimed at prospective, stu-
                                                                                                         us inside the daring bid                                             dent and new divers, in early 2007.
                                                                                                         to raise the precious                                                Giant Stride introduces new divers to
Whales’ Angels                                                                                           sunken cargo of 15th                                                 the sport through information, stories
A seagoing adven-                                                                                        century porcelain from                                               and safety tips.
ture of international                                                                                    the depths of the Dragon                                                Each student enrolled in DAN’s
intrigue and murder                                                                                      Sea, a treacherous stretch                                           Student Membership Program will
By Paul J. Mila                                                                                          of water off the coast of                           Vietnam. The     receive a complimentary copy of
Publisher: AuthorHouse                                    The Tragic History of the Sea                  tale of the dramatic deep sea recovery of the cargo from             Giant Stride. The publication is also
Book Publishing                                           Shipwrecks from the Bible to Titanic           the Hoi An wreck has a cast of compelling characters.                available for distribution to all dive
Company                                                   Edited by Anthony Brandt                       Renowned Oxford archaeologist Mensun Bound teamed up                 centers and instructors at no cost.
ISBN: 9781425939373                                       Publisher: National Geographic Books           with a financier, a crew of hardened saturation divers and              The magazine covers such topics
Paperback: 268 pp.                                        Hardcover: 329 pp.                             the Vietnamese military in a test of ingenuity and resolve.          as an introduction to scuba, what
Price: US$15.99                                           List Price: US$24.00 Sale Price: US$17.52      The stakes were high, but so were the potential rewards. If          to expect during training, resources
Newlyweds Terry Hunter                                    The editor has compiled 29 tales of ship-      they could survive the threat of typhoons and pirates, Bound         at a diver’s disposal, dive safety
and ex-NYPD detective                                     wrecks from the past 2,000 years. Each         would have the chance to discover a lost era in Vietnamese           and etiquette, profiles on divers who
Joe Manetta are busy                                      true story is reproduced in its original       civilisation, and his backer stood to make millions at the auc-      have made the sport their careers or
running their Cozumel                                     form, with an introduction by Brandt.          tion block. This is a page-turning real-life thriller packed with    hobbies and common medical issues
dive operation and                                        The Tragic Story of the Sea makes a wel-       danger, adventure and ambition. It is a fascinating object           of interest to new divers. Giant Stride
starting a family. But a                                  come addition to the library of historians     lesson in what happens when scholarship and commerce                 is scheduled to be published once
chance encounter with a                                   and landlubbers alike. Amazon.com              combine in the recovery of lost treasure. Amazon.com                 a year and is distributed throughout
female diver from Holland                                                                                                                                                     the dive industry.
leads them on a globetrotting adven-                                                                                                                                             Divers Alert Network (DAN) is a
ture. While diving with humpback whales                                                                                                                                       non-profit medical and research
in the Dominican Republic, they learn                                       Troubled Waters                                regarded as nothing more than an eco-              organisation dedicated to the safety
a rogue sea captain is illegally hunting                                    The changing fortunes                          nomic resource. Today, interest in these           and health of recreational scuba
whales and killing activists attempting to                                  of whales and dolphins                         enduringly popular animals is at an all            divers. The Student Membership
stop the hunt.                                                              By Sarah Lazarus                               time high but do they continue to swim             Program is open to all entry-level
   But far more dangerous for the whales                                    Publisher: Natural History Museum, London      in troubled waters? This gripping narrative        divers, and any certified scuba
is a conspiracy led by Japan, Iceland,                                      Hardback: 224 pp, 8 pp colour section          explores the fates of whales and dolphins          instructor in the DAN Americas
Finland and Norway, to overturn the                                         plus scattered b&w illustrations               and how they became intertwined with               region may enrole their students. A
International Whaling Commission’s whal-                                    ISBN: 0 565 09192 1                            human history. The story begins over 1000          new DAN Is My Buddy DVD is avail-
ing ban at the Commission’s upcoming                                        Price: GB£12.99                                years ago when hunters first took up har-          able to all instructors for use in their
meeting in Iceland. Terry and Joe travel                                    Dispelling common misconceptions – are         poons and went to sea in search of the             classes.
to Iceland offering their assistance to                                     dolphins really supernaturally intelligent?    rich rewards of meat, oil and whalebone.              A new interactive website, www.
save the whales and solve a cover-up                                        Are the great whales in danger of extinc-      Troubled Waters charts a course through            danismybuddy.com, was created
reaching the highest levels of govern-                                      tion? – and opening up current argu-           the whaling boom of the 18th and 19th              to answer questions and concerns
ment. Their involvement entangles them                                      ments, this gripping investigation explains    centuries, the tragic implications of com-         commonly expressed by new divers
in a dangerous world of international pol-                                  just why whales and dolphins became one        mercial fishing and noise pollution, the           and to provide excitement and infor-
itics, intrigue, and murder, where fate has                                 of the major harvests of the sea, and how      controversial keeping of dolphins in cap-          mation when a new diver wants it
a surprise in store for them. Amazon.com                                    humans are destined to affect their future.    tivity, and the current row over Japanese          most.
                                                                               For centuries, whales and dolphins were     and Norwegian whaling. Amazon.co.uk                   For more information or to request
                                                                                                                                                                              materials, please call (919) 684-2948.


    77   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL     FEATURES   TRAVEL      NEWS        EQUIPMENT            BOOKS      SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                 EDUCATION            PROFILES      PORTFOLIO         CLASSIFIED
                                         d vd Facing Darkness
                                                   A film by Nathalie Lasselin
                                                                                                                           Saipan diving sites now on DVD
                                                                                                                           A DVD containing scenes of the many diving sites
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Banzai
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Spot Light
                                                                                                                                                                                             Wing Beach
                                           This film is a documentary about                                                on Saipan is now available, not merely for the
                                              caves and cave diving. In the                                                diving aficionados but for everyone who wants
                                          Peacock cave system, like in most                                                to have a memento of the numerous beauty             Eagle Ray City
                                           of the cave system, passages can                                                spots on the island. Producer and underwater                            B29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Grotto
                                            be really different from one to the                                            cinematographer and videographer Mike Tripp          Ship Wreck
                                        other. Explorers as Sheck Exley, Lamar                                             recently finished work on the DVD film, called The
                                          Hires gave names to these passages.                                              Underwater World of Saipan. Tripp said his 105-                   Ice Cream
                                          Other explorers dived there hundreds                                             minute interactive DVD provides a picture of the
                                            of time to survey and map these sys-                                           “incredible beauty and bio-diversity of Saipan’s
                                                                                                                                                                                 Dimple
                                             tems. With a line and a boussole, just                                        underwater world.” The DVD, under the Mike
                                             imagine the kind of work done there.                                          Tripp Productions, is now available for US$25 a
                                         Thanks to these people, new cave divers                                           copy. Tripp said it is now being sold at the CNMI
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Forbidden Island
                                        can now travel through these systems in a                                          Museum of History and Culture, PHI Pharmacy in
                                          much more safe way. Productions Pixnat,                                          Dandan, CNMI Council of the Arts on Capital Hill,
A Reef Manager’s Guide                   2006. 45 min. Price: US$29.99. Amazon.com                                         Joeten Susupe and Garapan, Hotel Nikko Saipan,                                 LauLau Beach
To Coral Bleaching                                                                                                         and the Managaha Island Gift Shop.
Mass coral bleaching events have
increased in frequency and severity                               The ShipSinkers                                                                                                   Obyan
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Naftan
over the past two decades associ-                                    This is a hi-definition video documentary
ated with anomalously high sea                                         showing the processes of preparation and
surface temperatures. These events                                       scuttling ships as part of the world-wide
have produced wide-spread coral                                              ship reefing programme. Shot mainly                                                         Washed Up
mortality and significant ecologi-                                           on location aboard F69. It is definitely                                                       The Curious Journeys of Flotsam and Jetsam
cal, social and economic impacts                                             worth getting a copy when its avail-                                                           By Skye Moody
to coral reefs and the communities                                           able online. The producers, Sea of Steel                                                      Publisher: Sasquatch Books
that depend on them. What can                                                Productions, is planning on providing                                                         Paperback: 240 pp.
local coral reef managers do to                                             a source for this high definition DVD.                                                        ISBN-10: 1570614636
address coral bleaching events?                                            ShipSinkers tells the story like it is, with                                                   Sale Price: US$13.22 Amazon.com
   The Reef Manager’s Guide pro-                                         all of the suspense that’s there right up                                                       In late 1990, hundreds of Nike shoes began wash-
vides information on the causes and                                    to sink time. Happy to take pre-orders via                                                        ing up on the beaches of Vancouver Island and
consequences of coral bleaching,                                     shipsinkers@divewreck.co.nz                                                                        Queen Charlotte Sound. They were relatively new
and management strategies to help                                                                                                                                       shoes, and local flotsamists amassed a substantial
local and regional reef managers                                                                                                                                        collection of them. There was only one problem: The
reduce this threat to coral reef eco-                       Welcome to Underwater Video Basics                                                                         majority of shoes pulled from the wrack were right-
systems.                                                               Emmy Award winning Cameraman and                                                                footed. Meanwhile, farther south, in Cannon Beach,
   Produced by the National                                                       Divemaster Steve Miller provides you                                                Ore., other Nikes were appearing, most of them left-
Oceanic and Atmospheric                                                             with the most comprehensive instruc-                                              footed. Beachcombers up and down the Pacific
Administration (NOAA), the                                                          tional program for divers who want                                                Northwest were scratching their heads.
Australian Great Barrier Reef                                                      to take the plunge into the world of                                                 W. James Ingraham and Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer, oce-
Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA),                                                   underwater video. In this DVD, you’ll                                              anographers who track flotsam to better understand
and the International Union for the                                              learn about:                                          ocean                         currents, stepped in to decipher the source of the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the                                              • Equipment Selection                                  mismatched shoes. A container vessel, en route from Korea to the United States in
Reef Manager’s Guide includes                                                   • Camcorder Selection and Operation                    May 1990, had encountered severe weather in the North Pacific and lost 21 of its
contributions from over 50 experts in                                          • Underwater Housing Operation                          containers overboard, five of which held about 80,000 Nikes.
coral bleaching and coral reef man-                                           • Setup and Maintenance                                    The shoes drifted for more than 200 days, the right-footed ones tacked north-
agement from 30 organisations.                                                • Camera Shots and Moves                                 eastward into the Alaska Current, while the left-footers joined the California
   For hard copies contact:                                                  • Dive Skills and Safety Tips                             Current. This “spill of opportunity,” although surely a headache for Nike and the
BleachingGuide@noaa.gov                                                     • Communicating Underwater                                 insurers of Hansa Carrier, resulted in a boon of data for Ingraham’s Ocean Surface
info@gbrmpa.gov.au                                                          • Storytelling Techniques                                  Currents Simulation computer model. All this and more is chronicled in Skye
books@iucn.org                                                             • Interaction with Marine Life                              Moody’s book, who’s subject is anything that floats on, sinks in or washes up from
For more information contact:                                             Publisher: AuthorHouse Book                                  the sea: ambergris, seed pods, driftwood, barnacles, beeswax and messages in
Paul.Marshall@gbrmpa.gov.au or                                           Publishing Company                                            bottles. She covers Taiwanese propaganda set adrift for the Chinese mainland,
Heidi.Schuttenberg@jcu.edu.au                                            Price: US$29.95 Amazon.com                                    beached sea monsters, lost BMWs, floating glass balls and, of course, shipwrecks. ■


      78   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL    FEATURES       TRAVEL       NEWS         EQUIPMENT           BOOKS        SCIENCE & ECOLOGY             EDUCATION           PROFILES         PORTFOLIO        CLASSIFIED
               technical
               matters


Edited by
Brian Keegan                         A collection of cliassic regs: Scubapro MK25 and
                                     X650, Mares V32 and Abyss, Legend LX ACD,
                                     Apeks ATX100, Beuchat VX200 , Aqualung Titan LX
                                     Supreme, Poseidon Xstream.




How to choose a regulator
                                                                                        After my very first pool session, I was      Well, the almighty instructor said that
                                                                                        hooked. Every thought I had circled          with a different breathing and handling
                                                                                        around diving and dive equipment. I          technique, I could avoid these incidents
                                                                                        could not wait for my next session. The      in the future, and he was right; there are
                                                                                        instructor was a God, and what he said       things you can do to avoid freezing regu-
                                                                                        must be true. I was an easy target! By the   lators, but they are not bullet proof. Trying
                                                                                        end of the class, I walked out of there      not to reveal my age, it was back when
                                                                                        with an Open Water dive certificate and      only a few regulators were made to with-
                                                                                        a great deal on a dive package.              stand arctic temperatures. Poseidon was
                                                                                                                                     one of them and still going strong. Most
                                                                                        Or so I thought... Living in Sweden,         regulators were made for diving environ-
                                                                                        in the Northern part of the world, the       ments like the Mediterranean Sea, which
                                                                                        weather is not always at its best behavior   even during winter provides a different
                                                                                        and definitely not warm most of the year.    water temperature than the cold
                                                                                        I mean, the Polar circle cuts through        lakes and the Baltic Sea up north
                                                                                        my home country for crying out loud! A       provide us Viking-spirited divers.
                                                                                        month later, I had my first free flowing        Today, you will find a number
                                                                                        experience, and let me tell you, was I       of high-quality cold water envi-
                                                                                        glad we practiced that in class! Escorted    ronmentally sealed regulators
                                                                                        by bubbles from a lively mouth piece,        on the market. Most of them meet
                                                                                        I made it to the surface. My mind was        the European standard (EN250) for cold
                                                                                        racing. What can I do to avoid this in the   water—a standard you can use when
                                                                                        future?                                      choosing your weapon of arms.


                                                                                        Text by Millis and Brian Keegan


  79   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL    FEATURES        TRAVEL        NEWS          EQUIPMENT          BOOKS        SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                 EDUCATION            PROFILES   PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED
                                                                       First, ask yourself                                                                                         Regulators
“What kind of
diving will you
be doing, and in
                                                 What kind of diver are you?
which environ-
                                                                        There are different kinds of regulators. While the
ment are you                                                            basic function is to provide you with air, you will
going to dive?”                                                         find that there are different regulators for differ-
                                                                        ent kind of activities. We will go through what you
                                                                        need, step by step. The first thing you need to
                                                                        decide is what kind of diving you will be doing
                                                                        and in what environment you are going to dive.
                                                                        This is perhaps the most important piece of your
                                                                        dive equipment and nothing to be rushed into.



                                                                       What kind if diver are             Or a Cold Water Diver?
                                                                                                          When diving in cold water, it’s
                                                                       you?                               vitally important that you use
                                                                       What environment are you           regulators designed for cold
                                                                       going to dive? Identifying your    water. You will be looking for both
                                                                       needs will help you choose the     a first stage that limits formation
                                                                       right regulator for your activi-   of ice, as well as second stage
                                                                       ties.                              that doesn’t freeze in an open or
                                                                                                          closed position when the warm
                                                                       Are you a Warm Water               moisture in the diver’s breath
                                                                       Diver?                             touches the cold regulator.
                                                                       A warm water diver is some-
                                                                       one who dives only in warmer       Then choose:
                                                                       water temperatures who does        This should go without saying—
                                                                       not require extreme measures       use regulators designed for cold
                                                                       to be safe and comfortable         water diving! Look for regulators
                                                                       while diving. According to the     that meet the EN250 standard for
                                                                       EU norm cold water diving          cold water performance. Cold          Heat sink:
                                                                       begins when the temperature        water regulators are either envi-     Many piston regulators utilize
                                                                       of the water is equal to or        ronmentally sealed or use some-       some heavy metal parts, like the
                                                                       drops below 6°C (50° F).           thing called a ‘heat sink’ . A heat   spring or part of the body to trans-
                                                                                                          sink uses the cold water to ‘warm’    fer warmth from the water to help
                                                                       Then choose:                       the first stage, which limits the     keep the water around the piston
                                                                       While it never hurts to buy        formation of ice. By default, cold    from freezing.
                                                                       the best equipment you can,
                                                                       under those circumstances
                                                                       where there is no risk, at any     Can I use a cold water regulator in warm water?              200bar    (2900psi)   or 300?(4350psi)
                                                                       time, that your regulator will     Yes. A regulator designed for cold water is by necessity     SCUBA tanks come in a variety of
                                                                       freeze while breathing—it is not   a top performance regulator that can handle the most         pressure ratings from around 200
                                                                       necessary to buy a top-of-the-     extreme conditions. Any good quality regulator from a        to 300 bar. Different pressures are
                                                                       line regulator.                    reputable dealer will provide you with air in a safe way,    common is different countries.
                                                                                                          when diving in warm water.


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tech talk                                     DIN or Yoke?      Which is better?

                                                                                           Which brand?
water regulators are high performance
regulators.                                                                                Sorry, but here is no straightforward answer. There are a lot of
                                                                                           great regulators on the market and an almost bewildering variety.
Are you considering Nitrox?
A recreational nitrox diver is a diver that
                                                                                           Look for well reputable makers, narrow down the choices and
uses nitrox during a dive for a safer dive,                                                concentrate on them. Do your research and don’t be afraid to ask
by using the air tables. When diving                                                       questions when you shop around.
with the gas mix nitrox, there are certain
things to consider. You will dive with a
higher content of oxygen in your tank,                                                     priate mixture, each tank needs to be          technical phrases and fancy words, call
which is a flammable gas, and you need                                                     analyzed for O2.                               him/her on it and have them explain. That
to adjust your equipment for this.                                                            Most new high performance regulators        is what they are there for, and one good
                                                                                           are either nitrox-compatible or ready for      reason to spend your money in a dive
Then choose:                                                                               nitrox use, with a DIN or yoke first stage.    shop instead of shopping online.
First, make sure you are trained for nitrox
diving. Dealing with nitrox means deal-                                                    Ask your local dealer                          Don’t be cheap
ing with a risk of explosion, albeit small.                                                At this stage, you should now be concen-       To think cheap can be costly. There are
Your dive equipment needs to be grease                                                     trating on details like comfort and airflow.   sometimes huge price differences on dive
free. Because mistakes can be made in                                                      If the sales person tries to baffle you with   equipment in different parts of the world,
mixing the O2 and air to get the appro-                                                                                                   and although you might be tempted to
                                              DIN connectors are rated at 200 and 300                                                     save money while traveling, don’t do
                                              bar / 3000 and 4500 psi (ISO12029-2) and     A few points to check                          it unless you have done your research
                                              yolk connectors are rated at 230 bar/        Does the second stage feel comfort-            before the trip. If you do buy a regulator
                                              3450 psi (ISO 12209-1). Also DIN connec-     able? Is the mouth piece a good fit for        made overseas, stick to an international
                                              tors provide a sturdier connection, drop a   you? Bear in mind the mouthpiece can           brand, or you could be in for an expen-
                                              SCUBA package on the first stage and it
                                                                                           be changed. Consider the dental ones           sive surprise when it is time for service.
                                              can come dislodged from the valve.
                                                                                                                                          Sure, your regulator was a find, but if your
                                                                                           Is the second stage heavy, does it “drag”      new find is not sold in your country, it is
                                                                                           in the corner of your mouth. Details           quite possible that you wont be able to
                                                                                               like that can get real old real quick,     find a service technician trained for that
                                                                                                  believe me.                             brand in your neck of the woods. On top
                                                                                                                                          of that, if you do find someone, the parts
                                                                                                Do you want to be able to adjust          might have to travel overseas as well. You
                                                                                                      your second stage air flow?         do the math. Make sure you know what
                                                                                                        If you do do, can You han-        brands sells in your country, and if the war-
                                                                                                         dle the adjustment easily,       ranty is valid in your home country, before
                                                                                                         with and without gloves?         going on a shopping spree. ■

                                                                                                          Will you travel with your
                                                                                                        equipment? Include weight
                                                                                             and size in your requirement for a good
                                                                                           regulator.
                                                           Can you handle
                                                                                           Does the regulator come with a warran-
                                                           the adjustment                  ty? And if so what is covered. Can your
                                                           easily, with and                regulator be serviced regularly?
                                                           without gloves?

                                                                                                     If the second stage feels like
                                                                                                     dragging, perhaps try one with
                                                                                                     a different hose configuration.

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How does it work? and what differentiates regulator from another?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Regulators



First stages can process very                   The balanced piston first stage                     ate pressure side and down the hose to             The unbalanced piston first stage The diaphragm first stage
large volumes of air. At 200 Bar                The piston first stage has a piston that            the second stage. When the pressure on             In an unbalanced piston first stage, the       The diaphragm first stage has a flexible
                                                has a sharp knife edge that seals against           the intermediate side gets high enough,            high pressure seat is mounted in the end       diaphragm that separates the internal
some can process much more                      a high pressure seat. A spring and the              its force against the other side of the pis-       of the piston shaft and seals against the      parts from the surrounding water.
air in one minute than most                     ambient pressure push one way against               ton overcomes the combination of the               knife edged orifice through which the            On the water side, the water pressure
scuba tanks hold. So how does                   the piston and try to move the knife                spring and ambient pressure, and the               high pressure air flows. As you see in the     and a spring provide a force to help
the regulator transform that high               edge of the piston away from the high               pistons slides so that the knife edge once         diagram—just like in the case of the bal-      open the valve.
                                                pressure seat and let high pressure air             again seals against the high pressure seat         anced piston—the spring and ambient              When you breathe and the intermedi-
pressure air to a steady supply                 flow through the piston to the intermedi-           and cuts off the air flow.                         pressure act to move the piston and            ate pressure drops, the spring and water
of ambient pressure air when                                                                                                                           open the flow of air and the
you need it?                                                                     High pressure from cylinder                                           intermediate pressure acts to                         High pressure from cylinder
                                                                                                                                                       move the piston the other way
                                                                                                                                                       and close off the air flow.                                         Spring that
It’s a two step process and your regula-                                                                                   Piston                                                                                          closes valve Diaphragm
                                                                                                                                                    High pressure seat   Unbalanced
tor has two parts or stages to do the job.                                                          Filter
                                                                                                                                                                         piston first
The part you attach to your tank valve is                                                                                                                                stage
called the first stage. It’s job is to supply                                                                                                                                                                                                Spring that
air at a fixed pressure above the ambi-                                                              High pres-                                                                                                                              opens valve
                                                              Piston
ent pressure. The second stage uses this                                                             sure seat
                                                                                                     and valve                                                              High pressure
to supply you with breathable air on
                                                                                                                                                                            from cylinder
demand.
   There are two main types of first stages,                                  Spring                                                                                                                                                          High
the piston and diaphragm.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              seat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              valve
                                                                                                                                                          Output to pres-
                                                                                                                                                          sure gauge


                                                  Output to second stage        Output to pressure gauge                  Output to second stage                                             Output to second stage     Output to pressure gauge
                                                                                                                                                       The difference here is that the
                                                Balanced piston first stage            Piston-type first stages are simpler to make than the dia-      high pressure air is pressing
                                                                                       phragm type. They provide higher performance when               against the high pressure seat and is          Diaphragm-type first stages are more complex
                                                                                       breathed at depth. They need more careful mainte-               helping the spring and ambient pressure        and have more components than the piston
                                                                                       nance because some of the internal moving parts are             to move the piston and open the flow           type. They are more responsive; they provide
                                                                                       exposed to water and contaminants in the water                  of air. The problem is that this force var-    gas when the diver uses little inhalation effort
                                 Ports!                                                                                                                ies as the tank pressure changes. As the
                                 There are high pressure                                                                                               tank pressure drops during the course of
                                 ports for pressure gauges                                                                                             the dive, it takes less and less intermedi-    pressure flex the diaphragm in and lift a
                                 and low pressure ports for                                                                                            ate pressure to close off the air flow. This   poppet. Depending on the model of the
                                 most everything else.                                                                                                 is what makes it unbalanced. Since the         regulator, the poppet has either the knife
                                 In some older regula-                                                                                                 second stage is built to work with one         edge or the high pressure seat. The air
                                 tors the ports were the
                                                                                                                                                       specific intermediate pressure, as the         flows until the intermediate pressure and
                                 same size. Don’t put a
                                 low pressure hose in a                                                                                                intermediate pressure drops in the regu-       a small spring on the same side win the
                                 high pressure port!                                                                                                   lator, it gets harder to breathe.              battle and reseat the poppet.


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                                                                                                                                                            Venturi Effect
                                                                                                       Medium pressure from 1st stage
                                                                                                                                                            All the manufacturers
                                                                                                                                                            that use it have their own
                                                                                                                                                            cleaver name for it, but
                                                                                                                                                            the principle is the same.
                                                                                                                                                            With this venturi or vacu-
                                                                                                                                                            um assist effect, once air
                                                                                   Valve (red)                                                              flow is initiated, it takes
                                                                                                                                                            little or even less than
                                                                                                                                                            no effort to continue the
                                                                                    Spring                                               Mouthpiece         inhalation. The way this
                                                                                                                                                            is accomplished is that
                                                                                                                                                            the air flow is designed
                                                                                    Valve opening                                                           to hold the diaphragm
                                                                                    arm (dark green)                                                        drawn in until the diver
                                                                                                                                        Output to
                                                                                                                                                            stops inhaling.
                                                                                                                                        divers lungs
                                                                                   Purge button
                                                                                   (yellow)


                                                                                   Diaphragm                                             Exhaust valve
The Second Stage                               Air on demand                       (blue)                                                                   that valve causes the main
The second stage’s job is to take the inter-   Even though there are other                                                                                  valve to close and stop the
mediate pressure air that comes from the       variations of basic second                                                                                   air flow. They can provide
first stage and deliver it to you at ambient   stage designs, one of the                                                                                    extremely easy breathing
pressure when you demand it. There are         characteristics that all mod-       Diagramme over a second stage                                            but can’t handle very high
a variety of basic designs of second stag-     ern designs share is that they                                                                               supply pressure. The hoses       One or two hoses?
es. In the most common design, when            have demand valves that                                                                                      that come with these sec-
you inhale, the drop in pressure inside the    only deliver air on demand instead of a     not so bad. Some models, from Poseidon            ond stages have a built in over-pressure        A twin hose regu-
second stage draws in a large, flexible        constant flow of air. Most, called down-    for instance, are upstream valves. Their          relief valve. It is very important that they    lator, with a
diaphragm. The diaphragm depresses a           stream valves, are designed to free flow    diaphragm activates a very sensitive              always be used with the correct type of         diaphragm
lever that acts to move a low pressure         if supplied with excessively high pressure  pilot valve. The airflow from this pilot          hose.                                           first stage,
seat away from a knife edge and allow          air. That might not sound so good but       valve opens the main valve. At the end                                                            can offer
                                                                                                                                                                                             com-
air to flow. When you stop inhaling, the air   considering that the alternative is that    of the breath the pilot valve is closed           Balanced or unbalanced                          plete
flow allows the diaphragm to return to its     the valve slams shut and will not open it’s by a very small spring and the closing of         Second stages can be balanced or                environ-
original position, and a spring presses the                                                                                                  unbalanced. In balanced second stages,          mental and
low pressure seat against the knife edge                                                                                                     air flows through the part that holds the       freeze protec-
around the inlet orifice. When you exhale,                                                                                                   low pressure seat into a chamber at             tion—no water comes in          con-
an exhaust valve allows the exhaled air to                                                                                                   the other end. This helps counteract the        tact with any moving parts. They are popular
flow out.                                                                                                                                    force of the air pushing the low pres-          with some photographers, biologists, etc.,
                                                                                                                                             sure seat away from the knife edge. The         because the exhaust bubbles are behind
                                                                                                                                             reduction of this force allows the use of a     your head rather than in front.
                                                                                                                                             weaker spring to close off the airflow. The
                                                                                                                                             effect of this for you is that the weaker      types of minor free flow that may devel-
                                                                                                                                             spring reduces the amount of force             op between servicing.
                                                                                                                                             needed to start the air flowing.                 Some second stages also have a small
                                                                                                                                                Many second stages now come with            knob that adjusts a vane or other device
                                                                                                                                             external adjustments. Scubapro was the         that effects the characteristics of the
                                                                                                                                             first to provide an adjustment knob for        air flow inside the body. In these mod-
                                                                                                                                             the spring tension that closes the second      els the air flow is designed to hold the
                                                                                                                                             stage. This can be used at times, such as      diaphragm drawn in until the diver stops
                                                      X-Ray drawing of a second stage - from                                                 when entering the water, to increase the       inhaling. With this Venturi or Vacuum
                                                      the Scubapro regulator manual. The                                                     breathing effort when entering the water       assist effect, once air flow is initiated it
                                                      adjustment knob alters the sensitivity or                                              or swimming in a head down position.           takes little or even less than no effort to
                                                      opening pressure of the inlet valve                                                    It can also be used to help stop some          continue to inhale. This is handy when


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tech talk                                                                                                                                                    Regulators
                                                                                                                                                                                         Some cool
                                                                                                                                                                                         Accessories

you are breathing but can cause the                                                                                                            your buddies gear, it’s easier for you
regulator to free flow when it’s in the                                                                                                         to see them. Check for the kind
water and out of your mouth. The adjust-                                                                                                         of leaks around the hoses we
ment allows you, for example, to stop                                                                                                              mentioned in the service sec-
that effect and help prevent free flows                                                                                                              tion. After each dive you
when you are at the surface and not                                                                                                                   should rinse off the regu-
using the regulator. Before a dive I often                                                                                                            lator especially after diving
tune mine to the point just before the                                                                                                                in salt water. The best way to     “Remove before Dive” Dust
regulator free flows after the purge valve                                                                                                           do this is to soak the regulator    cap with extra o-ring from
is pressed. During the dive if I feel that                                                                                                        in water, preferably warm water.       German Divedelight protects
the breathing effort is too high I adjust                                                                                                Leave it attached to the tank with the          your precious reg when not in
it to full venturi effect. But that’s just my                                                                                            air turned on. This keeps water from get-       use. www.divedelight.de
                                                                                                                                                                                         (NB: Site in German)
personal preference, you should experi-                                                                                                  ting in where it shouldn’t be. If you can’t
ment and find the settings that suit you                                                                                                 soak it, disconnect it from the tank, dry
best.                                                                                                                                    the first stage dust cap and secure it in
                                                                                                                                         place. It’s ok to dry the dust cap with air
Service                                                                                                                                  from the tank but be careful not to blow
Regulators should be serviced once                                                                                                       any water into the inlet of the first stage.
a year or about every 100 dives                                                                                                          If the dust cap is supposed to have an
which ever comes first. The limit on                                                                                                     o-ring make sure it is in place. Then
the number of dives covers excessive                                                                                                     you can use a hose to rinse with. If
wear and the time limit covers aging                                                        Warranty                                     you do it this way be sure not to press                                       Hoseprotectors
of the soft parts. Over the course of                                                       In the US the warranty usually covers        the purge button, which would allow
time the soft parts deteriorate and                                cially the high pres-    defects and the parts needed for stand-      water to enter the hose. Be careful when
                                                                                                                                                                                         Swivel for second stage
take a set over time.                       sure hose that connects the pressure            ard maintenance. Most manufactur-            you rinse the second stage, don’t blast
                                                                                                                                                                                         hose - eases the pull on
   It’s easy to damage a regulator during gauge. If you look carefully at that hose         ers will require as terms of the warranty    water at it, as it can displace or damage       the jaw. This one found at
service and special tools and instruments you can see a line of small perforations.         that the regulator be serviced once a        the delicate diaphragms. After rinsing,         www.zeagle.com
are needed to properly work on, assem-      These are pin holes through the rubber          year by an authorized dealer using only      allow to dry thoroughly. You can give it a
ble and adjust a regulator so service       outer layer of hose. The inner layers con-      parts supplied by the manufacturer. As       shake and pour water out of the second
should only be performed by a trained       tain the pressure and the holes allow you       we mentioned before regulators are           stage or wipe the outside with a cloth
technician who has access to the latest     to see when the inside of the hose has          life support equipment so regular, quali-    to help it along. It is best not to store the   Suffering from
from the manufacturer.                      developed a leak. In the old days before        fied maintenance is important for your       regulator by hanging it or curling the          jaw fatigue?
   During service the soft parts of the     the perforations the outer layer would          diving comfort and safety. The service       hoses too tightly. This stresses the hoses      Try a dif-
regulator are changed, like the o-rings     swell up like a balloon. Another common         replacement parts are also an important      and can cause them to fail prematurely.         ferent
and pressure seats. Also                                 place for a leak to develop        part of the warranty. Over the course        One thing you can do to help the hoses          mouth-            piece.
                                                                                                                                                                                         This one from Seacure
the knife edges, dia-             Regulators should        is at the end of the hose        of the regulators lifetime the cost of the   is to have hose protectors put on them.
                                                                                                                                                                                         uses your own dental
phragm, exhaust valves,
mouthpieces, etc are
                               be serviced once a year where the pressure gauge
                                                            is mounted. There is a little
                                                                                            replacement parts can easily add up to
                                                                                            more than the original cost of the regula-
                                                                                                                                         These are plastic sleeves that are placed
                                                                                                                                         up at the first stage end of the hoses to
                                                                                                                                                                                         impression.
                                                                                                                                                                                         www.seacure1.com
inspected and replaced or about every 100 dives adapter with two small o-                   tor. The warranty can differ from country    distribute the stress of bending the hoses.
as necessary. If there’s                                    rings that goes in between      to country, keep that in mind when you       The sleeves should be constructed so
any corrosion or buildup
                               which ever comes first the hose and the gauge                buy. Will the warranty be as good as it      that they drain water and don’t promote            The Isolator Valve is used to shut off
of salt, lime a s o, on the                              and these o-rings, which are       would be if I bought it at home? Will I      corrosion.                                         the air supply in any situation where
metal parts they can be cleaned in an       exposed to the outside environment              be able to get authorized service and           Between servicing you can check out             2nd stage isolation is desired.t
ultrasonic cleaner. Both stages will be     don’t last forever.                             replacement parts?                             the mouthpiece, check to see that the            www.zeagle.com
properly lubricated during service, reas-     Except for the parts covered by the                                                            bite blocks are not partially bitten off.
sembled and the intermediate pressure       warranty that must be returned to the           Maintenance                                        Check for cracks and splitting, espe-
(IP) and breathing resistance will be       manufacturer, all the old parts should be       When you are in the water                           cially at the end of the part of the
                                                                                                                                     ?
checked.                                    returned to you so you can see what you         check for air leaks. Be
                                                                                                                                n ty             second stage body that the mouth-
   The regulator should also be checked     paid for.                                       a good buddy and                  a               piece is mounted on. They are prone
for leaks. Hoses can develop leaks, espe-                                                   look for leaks in              rr            to splitting right where the tube like sec-
                                                                                                                        Wa               tion they are mounted on ends. ■


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                                                                                                                                              be warmed by the surrounding            If you have a second stage with
                                                                                                                                              water. Therefore keep the 2nd        a breathing resistance adjust-
                                                                                                                                              stage under water until it is time   ment, set the adjuster to minimum
                                                                                                                                              to dive. Put the mouthpiece in as    when not in use.
                                                                                                                                              you submerge and take your first        If you dive with a redundant air
                                                                                                                                              breath with it under water. If you   supply, switch to that and then
                                                                                                                                              for any reason need to stick your    shut off the tank valve a few min-
                                                                                                                                              head above the water again           utes and then turn it slowly back
                                                                                                                                              before the dive, remove your         on.
                                                                                                                                              mouthpiece in water and keep it         Do not use your buddys air
                                                                                                                                              submerged.                           supply for this exercise, since
Text: Millis Keegan                                                                                                                                                                the extra demand on his regula-
Images: Peter Symes                                                                                                                           Inflate your BC slowly, preferably   tor can cause his equipment to




Freezing & Freeflows
                                                                                                                                              while you exhale, to reduce the      freeze as well.
           How to avoid free flows                                                                                                            stress of the first stage.


                                                                                                                                                                     While the use of a cold water regulator
                                                                                                                                                                     is the first step of prevention, the second
                                                                                                                 and the zen of being a cold water diver             step is to minimize the demand on it
All regulators will perform             it enters the second stage. In           Then make sure that your tank
differently in cold water               each stage of the regulator, the       valve orifice is dry before attach-
                                        air temperature keeps dropping,        ing your first stage to avoid moist
compared to warmer                      and droplets inside the mecha-         being drawn into the inside.
water temperatures. If you              nism may form ice crystals, which        Cold water divers may also
dive in cold water, chanc-              in turn can cause a malfunction        choose to dive with two inde-
es are you will experience              such as a free flow.                   pendent scuba regulators for
                                                                               extra safety.
a free flow sooner or later.            When water temperature reaches
It is not a matter of if, it is a       5°C and colder, a regulator is         Prevention
matter of when. No regu-                at risk of freezing. The first stage   The key to avoiding free-flowing
                                        freezes in an open position, which     incidents is prevention. While the
lator, no matter how well
                                        causes a free flow of air. It is       use of a cold water regulator is
manufactured and full with              designed to do so, as a failsafe       the first step of prevention, the
fancy features it is, can               feature, since the option would        second step is to minimize the
safeguard you completely                be blown hoses, which is an expe-      demand on it. Use these simple
                                        rience we could do without while       precautions and you are way on
                                        diving. The rapid airflow in turn      your way to become a true cold
Since you are a diver, you should       can cause the second stage to          water diver.
already know that gases heat up         freeze While not being in a pleas-        Take every opportunity to prac-
during compression, (i.e. while fill-   ant situation, one can still breathe   tice in safe conditions, simulating
ing a tank), and that they cool         from a free flowing regulator          a situation by pressing the purge
during expansion which is what          ...until it runs out of air.           button. This way you will find what
happens you breathe them from              Cold water divers may also          works for you.
a scuba tank. This cooling may          choose to dive with two inde-
affects the regulator in various        pendent scuba regulators for           Breathe only under water
ways, When air from a cylinder          extra safety.                          In winter, the air will often be
undergoes a drop in pressure,                                                  colder than the water so avoid
which happens when air passes           Precautions                            breathing from the 2nd stage out
through the first stage, the pres-      It is important that the air in your   of the water when the air tem-
sure is typically reduced to 11 Bar     tank is dry. Usually vapor will be     perature is low.
(the interstage pressure) before        trapped by the compressor,                A cool 1st stage can, however,


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Rehashing your basic training

Breathing from a Free
Flowing Regulator
What to do:

                                                                                                                  ����������������������������
Hold the regulator second stage loosely in your         • Remain calm: Stop - Think - Act
mouth, allowing excess air to escape. If possible         If you are confident in breathing from a
angle your head slightly to avoid bubbles in front of     free flowing regulator do so, but check
your eyes.                                                and prepare alternate sources just in
                                                          case.
No-nos                                                  • If an alternate air supply is preferred and
• Avoid taking a “test” breath from your regula-          available switch to it.
  tor in temperatures near freezing. The moisture       • Head for the surface.
  in the atmosphere and your breath can easily          • If a buddy is available, or you can reach
  cause icing in the second stage.                        the cylinder valve, switch off the cylinder
• Avoid pressing the purge button.                        and slowly switch it back on.




                                                                                                                                                                                                             foto: John Neuschwander (Noordpool, in Otter Ultimate droogpak)
• Avoid heavy breathing                                 • If you run out of air then the only option
• Avoid adding air to your BC in                          is a free ascent, possibly accellerated by
  small bursts                                            removing the weight belt. Ensure
• Avoid using your regulator                              you don’t hold your breath,
  for secondary use. While                                and the air inside
  filling up a safety sausage                             the lungs will
  use your exhaust valve,                                  expand. ■
  and if you need to fill a lift
  bag in cold water, consider
  using a spare tank for that pur-
  pose.

When a regulator suddenly free-flows it can
be very startling as there is a sudden roar of
          bubbles and visibility is reduced.
                  The main strategy is to:




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                                                                                                                         ����������������������                             ��������������������������������������
                                                                                                                              �����������������                             ��������������������������������������
                                                                                                                  �����������������������������                             ����������������������
                                                                                                               ������������������������������      DIVING INTERNATIONAL

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Breathing Diagram
          How to understand the



Why is it an important tool?
                                                                                                                                                               The regulator is
Let’s make one thing clear, it is not an important tool for you while                                                                                          connected to an
                                                                                                                                                               air supply and
choosing a regulator, but it is an important tool for a manufac-                                                                                               placed in a hyper-
turer while designing a regulator. What you, as a recreational diver                                                                                           baric chamber. The
should look for when shopping for a regulator is whether it passed                                                                                             chamber is filled
                                                                                                                                                               with water and
the US Navy tests, and/or EN250 standards.                                                                                                                     pressurized to the
                                                                                                                                                               test depth
Text by Brian Keegan

ANSTI
Those tests are done on a system called           The machine also supplies pressure,                             through the lungs—37.5 liters in one         Reading a breathing diagram                 European standard EN 250 demands,
The ANSTI Demand Regulator Test Station.       simulating the air pressure in a tank to                           minute.                                      Lets look at a work of breathing dia-       that total work of breathing from a regu-
The system scientifically evaluates a regu-    create a realistic diving situation. The                              An average breathing rate during          gram. If we start on the left side, the     lator on depth in 50 meters at intensity
lators performance, simulating human           regulators are tested at several different                         a stress-free dive is generally between      curve above the horizontal axis repre-      of breathing in 62.5 liters per minute
breathing. It is designed to measure           breathing rates. When the regulators are                           25-31 RMV. The initial testing begins at     sents the exhalation. The area under        and cylinder pressure in 50 Bar does not
the dynamic performance of SCUBA               tested, the ANSTI measures the inhala-                             37.5 RMV—a number chosen because             that curve (S1) is the effort required to   exceed 3 J/l.
demand regulators to 80 metres at the          tion and exhalation in liters per minute                           it best represents a regulator’s perform-    exhale a breath. Then, the inhalation         This is done by the machine making 25
maximum ventilation requirements of            (RMV*) times the size of the breath (Tidal                         ance during a dive made by an aver-          curve runs from right to left with the      inhalations per minute with vol-
EN250. The ANSTI can identify if a regula-     Volume).                                                           age fit diver. A higher work rate—stand-     area above that curve representing the
tor passes or fails a test criteria.              Example: At an RMV of 37.5, a diver’s                           ards used both by the US Navy and the        effort required to inhale the
  During the testing, the ANSTI system         lungs are filled with 2.5 liters of air on                         European EN250 while evaluating a regu-      breath.
takes continuous readings, a work of           every inhalation and forcing the same                              lator’s performance—is used during the         Thus, the total work of
breathing diagram is generated by a            amount out on every exhalation. The                                second test, which is done at 62.5 RMV.      breathing is represented by
breathing machine simulating a human           RMV at 15 breaths per minute would                                                                              the sum of the two areas
breath. It shows how much effort it takes      be 18.75 liters per minute during inhala-
to complete a breathing cycle under            tion and 18.75 liters per minute during
different circumstances, like diving at dif-   exhalation, which equals total air moved
ferent depths, and in different tempera-
tures. The effort is referred to as the Work   RMV: RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME IS THE VOLUME OF AIR WHICH CAN BE
                                               INHALED (INHALED MINUTE VOLUME) OR EXHALED (EXHALED MINUTE VOL-
of Breathing (WOB).                            UME) FROM A PERSON’S LUNGS IN ONE MINUTE



                                                                                                                                                                          The display of the
                                               Ansti Test Systems Ltd specialises in the design                                                                           ANSTI machine
                                                                                                                                   Exhale
                                                              and manufacture of test facili-                                                                             shows the results
                                                               ties for performance measure-                                                                              of a breathing
                                                               ment of underwater breathing                                                                               test in the form
                                                                                                                                                        WORK
                                                                  apparatus. The facilities are                                                                           of a Breathing
                                                                        turnkey packages, which                                    Inhale                                 Diagram. The
                                                                         utilise computerised                                                                             diagram give
                                                                         data acquisition tech-                                                                           researchers and
                                                                        niques to display in real                                                                         designers an idea
                                                                       time the dynamic per-                                                                              of how a regulator
                                                                      formance of the breath-                                                                             performs during a
                                                                     ing apparatus under test.                                                                            breathing cycle.
                                                                         www.ansti.com


    87   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007    EDITORIAL           FEATURES                 TRAVEL               NEWS          EQUIPMENT          BOOKS       SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                  EDUCATION         PROFILES       PORTFOLIO         CLASSIFIED
                                          tech talk                                                                                                                        Regulators
                                           ume of 2,5 liters of air per inhalation. This is        Phase two                                         Conclusion
                                           considered representative of a diver per-               Now that the air is flowing, the breathing        In conclusion, don’t get too hung up on
                                           forming hard physical work. The regulator               resistance drops. The air is coming from          the numbers. On the one hand, lower
                                           is supplied with air at 100 bars.                       the hose and the intermediate pressure            WOB is better, but on the other hand,
                                              The inhalation phase is the part of the              area in the first stage. If the second stage      the quality of your breathing experience
                                           breath that really differentiates regulators            has a venturi assist feature, the air flow        is also greatly influenced by how natural
                                           these days. Along with the total work of                holds the valve open, and the flow of air         each part of the breathing cycle and the
                                           breathing effort, we can get a better idea              can actually exceed the demand. If this           cycle as a whole feels.
                                           of how this relates to the way it feels to              is excessive, you feel like you are being            Add to that, that even if the ANSTI
                                           breath on a particular regulator.                       force-fed air. Not having to work is nice,        machine is very sensitive and can meas-
                                           Lets look at Fig 2.                                     but the regulator designers don’t want            ure differences down to 0.1 J/l, you can’t.
                                                                                                   you to feel like you’re being inflated like       A human being is only able to feel a differ-
                                           Phase one                                               a balloon. As we near the end of phase            ence in the effort down to about 0.5 J/l. ■
                                           We see the beginning of the breath in                   two, the intermediate pressure is dropping
                                           phase one. When the diver starts to breath              to the point where the first stage will open
                                           in and sucks air out of the second stage,               and start to replenish the available air with                 The inhalation
                                           the diaphragm is drawn in and eventually                air from the tank.
                                           opens the second stage valve and starts
                                                                                                                                                               phase is the part of
                                           the air flowing. This is commonly referred              Phase three                                                the breath that really
                                           to as the cracking effort, and we see this              The first stage is opening now. If it is poorly            differentiates regula-
                                           as an initial spike in the curve. Too much              designed and waits too long to open or
                                           cracking effort doesn’t feel natural, you               can’t supply air fast enough, we would                         tors these days
                                           have to really work hard and all of a sud-              see an increase in WOB effort here. Note:
                                           den – woosh, lots of air.                               With modern regulator design that is no
                                                                                                   longer a common problem.
                                                                                                                                                     Common standards
                                                                                                                                                     Here are three standards that regulators
                                                                                                                                                     are judged by:
                                                               25                                                            Exhale
                                            This WOB                                                                                                 U.S. Navy Class B
                                            graph,                                                                                                   Depth of 40 m with a supply pressure of
                                            shows                                                                                                    100 bars, 25 2.5 liter breaths per minute
                                            phase 1,           15
                                                                                                                                                     with WOB less than 1.4 joules per liter.
                                            phase 2
                                            and phase
                                                                                                                                                     U.S. Navy Class A
                                            3 as men-           5
                                            tioned in                                                                                                Same criteria as Class B except at
                                            the text.       mbar                                                                                     depth of 60 m.

                                                                                                                                                     European Standard EN250
                                                                                                                                                     Depth of 50 m with a supply pressure of
                                                                                                                                                     50 bars, 25 2.5 liter breaths per minute
                                                              - 15                                                                                   with WOB less than 3.0 joules per liter

                                                                                  A3          A2               A1
                                                              - 25                                                           Inhale
                                                                                                                                                     Tidbit
                                                                                                                                                     The most powerful breathing machines
                                                                                PHASE 3   PHASE 2            PHASE 1
                                                                                                                                                     is found in the possession of Aqualung. It
                                                                                                                                                     can simulate a dive down to 100 meters
                                                                                                                                                     in water temperature down to 0 degrees



88   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL   FEATURES        TRAVEL         NEWS           EQUIPMENT              BOOKS         SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                 EDUCATION           PROFILES          PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED
                                                    Photo &
                                                Videography
                                                      This section is sponsored by:
                         Edited by
                         Daniel Beecham
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Magic Filters get results
                         & Jason Heller




                        UR-PRO filters have been popular
                        on compact cameras because
                        they can be mounted to the out-
                        side of a camera housing, can be
                        removed if not needed and can
                                                                Filters
                                                                Types
                                                                There are a couple of different
                                                                types of URPRO available. The
                                                                original CY filter has an effective
                                                                range of around 5-20 metres, and
                                                                                                                   Performing Magic with




                                                                                                      rection for seawater, but instead
                                                                                                      to produce a colour balance that
                                                                                                      cameras own white balance can
                                                                                                      correct. This means that you can
                                                                                                      use the Magic Filter over a large
                                                                                                                                             Using the Magic Filter
                                                                                                                                                                      When using the Magic Filter, it’s
                                                                                                                                                                      important that you set your white
                                                                                                                                                                      balance and adjust it every time
                                                                                                                                                                      you change depth to ensure accu-
                                                                                                                                                                      rate colour reproduction


                                                                                                                                             Understanding white balance,
                                                                                                                                             and how to successfully calibrate
                                                                                                                                             your white balance is key to
                                                                                                                                             developing your filter photogra-
                                                                                                                                                                                 experienced underwater cin-
                                                                                                                                                                                 ematographers have the internal
                                                                                                                                                                                 Neutral Density filters in their Digi-
                                                                                                                                                                                 Beta or High-Definition cameras
                                                                                                                                                                                 removed and replaced with an                    The standard greycard has a18%
                        be used at the same time as an          is designed for use in blue water.    depth range; from the surface          phy. For a long time now, video     underwater filter.                                 reflectancy (middle). This is the
                        external wide angle lens. Some          There are now a couple of other       down to around 15 metres, and          cameras have had the ability to        When using the Magic Filter,                   golden standard against which
WWW.MAGIC-FILTERS.COM




                        video camera housings have a            different models available, includ-   generate photographs with col-         manually white balance, and so      it’s important that you set your                  light meters are calibrated and
                        built in filter-drawer, leaving the     ing one for use in shallow water      our that penetrates much deeper        filters have been used in under-    white balance, and adjust it every                      white balanced measured
                        filter easily accessible in case it’s   and one for use in green water.       into the image.                        water video for a long time. Many   time you change depth to ensure
                        needed, or easily removed if the        Last year, a brand new type of                                                                                                                               accurate colour reproduction.
                        shooter chooses not to use it.          filter was released. The ‘Magic                                                                                                                              To set your white balance, either
                                                                Filter’ was developed by British                                                                                                                             manually white balance off your
                                                                photographer, Alex Mustard, and                                                                                                                              subject—be sure it fills the frame—
                                                                has been adopted as an essen-                                                                                                                                or white balance off a grey card.
                                                                tial piece of kit by many leading                                                                                                                            Again, be sure it fills most (70% or
                                                                underwater photographers. The                                                                                                                                more) of the frame. It’s important
                                                                Magic Filter has really changed                                                                                                                              to become familiar with setting
                                                                things. Exploiting the ability for                                                                                                                           your white balance, so that you
                                                                digital cameras to fine-tune white                                                                                                                           can quickly set it and get shoot-
                                                                balance, some of the images that                                                                                                                             ing!
                                                                photographers are creating with
                                                                this new technology are really                                                                                                                               Technique
                                                                unique.                                                                                                                                                      Because filters work by removing
                                                                    What makes the Magic Filter                                                                                                                              light, you may be forced to use
                                                                so special is that it has not been                                                                                                                           slower shutter speeds than you
                                                                designed to provide optical cor-                                                                                                                             normally would. So, remember to
                                                                                                                    Without filters or strobes                          With filters, and still without strobes


                            89   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007    EDITORIAL         FEATURES        TRAVEL        NEWS       EQUIPMENT            BOOKS       SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                 EDUCATION                 PROFILES      PORTFOLIO           CLASSIFIED
         Photo &
      Videography                                             Filter and URPRO discs


Sponsored by



concentrate on keeping your          Post-processing
camera steady to get sharp           It’s possible to shoot images that
images. If you find your shut-       you will be able to use straight
ter speed is dropping too low,       out of your camera, but some-
you may need to up your ISO.         times it may be worth perform-       The
Many digital cameras perform         ing slight adjustments to get        Limitations
excellently at 200 or 400 ISO. Get   the best out of your images. It’s    It’s important to keep in mind
to know your camera and the          also worth bearing in mind that      the limitations of filter photog-
quality of the images at different   you can perform RAW conver-          raphy; bright sunny conditions
ISO settings, so you can get to      sions using software such as         are always required. So, obvi-
know how far you can push the        Photoshop to play with settings      ously, filters won’t work at night!
ISO without losing quality.          including white balance. As a        Also, the effectiveness of filters is     Camera housing with twin strobes
    Like shooting underwater         general rule, it best to try and     very dependent on your depth.
video, it’s also important to        get your white balance set dur-      Any filter will have an optimum
shoot WITH the light when using      ing the dive. But when this is not   working depth. So, be sure the
filters. So, have the sun to your    possible—if you’re in a rush to      subject you’re planning to pho-
back. It’s also important to try     capture a subject—bear in mind       tograph will fit within this depth.
and keep a downward angle,           that you will be able to set it      If not, you may need to re-think
which will give you even lighting.   later.                               your subject or your photo-
                                                                          graphic approach!
                                                                             The development of new
                                                                          technologies continues to revo-
                                                                          lutionize the way we shoot our                        ������������
                                                                          underwater images, and the
                                                                          cost of underwater camera
                                                                          systems has made underwater
                                                                          photography available to every-
                                                                          one. With the development and
                                                                          refinement of techniques for fil-
                                                                          ter photography, it’s easier than
                                                                          ever to get images you can be
                                                                          proud of. ■




                                                                          Raw image file
                                                                          adjustment on
                                                                          the computer



    90   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL         FEATURES        TRAVEL         NEWS        EQUIPMENT           BOOKS      SCIENCE & ECOLOGY         EDUCATION   PROFILES   PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED
                  photography
                                                                                                                  Cleaning?      Delkin Devices, Inc., makers of high quality dig-



                               news
                                                                                                                  ital photography products and accessories, announced their
                                                                                                                  SensorScope™ System for cleaning digital SLR image sensors. The
                                                                                                                  SensorScope’s use of magnification and focused, high intensity
                                                                                                                  light, enables camera owners to inspect their camera’s sensor to
                         Sponsored by                                                                             see if it needs cleaning. Why risk damaging your camera—don’t
                                                                                                                  clean your sensor if it doesn’t need it! www.delkin.com




                                   Corel upgrade
                                 Corel has released a free update              Three new houses for Canon 400D
                                 to Paint Shop Pro Photo XI, which
                                 extends Corel’s support for camera
                                 raw formats, including a signifi-                                                         SEALUX
                                 cant improvement in the quality of                                                        CC400
                                 imported raw images, enhanced
                                                                                                                           The most
                                 support for IPTC metadata, and
                                 support for additional camera mod-                                                        important
                                 els (Nikon D200, Sony DSC-F828,                                                           part of a
Photoshop CS3 - Beta and Sony DSC-V3). Corel will contin-                                                                  housing is
Adobe has released a beta        ue to add support for new models                                                          the viewfind-
version of Adobe Photoshop       in future updates of Paint Shop Pro                                                       er, accord-
CS3. Probably the                                       Photo XI. This                                                     ing to Sealux.
most significant point                                  update also fea-                                                   Chose be-
in this release is the                                  tures enhanced                                                     tween the              Inon House for Canon
fact that it is a uni-                                  performance in         inexpensive LD viewfinder that gives a good overview               Inon’s new X-2 series DSLR hous-
versal binary version                                   many areas of
allowing it to run on                                                          over image and camera data, or Sealux’ special bril-               ings for Canon EOS20D and 30D
                                                        the program,
Mac computers with                                      especially in the      liant GD (grand) view finder that offers a spectacular             cameras comes with three user
the new Intel chip,                                     organizer and          viewfinder image. www.sealux.de                                    interchangeable viewfinder
while at the same                                       thumbnail gen-                                                                            options, including the 45 degree
time—not to forget                                      eration features.                                                                         Viewfinder. Each housing is
their Windows cus-                                      Many issues                                                                               equipped with two fiber optic
tomers— supporting                                      have been fixed        Hugyfot’s HFC                                                      sync connectors supporting four
XP and Vista. Adobe                                     including saving       400D is very ergo-                                                 directly connected strobes, each
says this is to allow                                   16-bit images as       nomic, allowing                                                    capable of S-TTL operation. The
a smoother transi-                                      TIFF files, support    for one hand                                                       housing is supported with a multi-
tion to newer hardware plat-     for transparency when saving PNG
forms—namely, the Mac. The                                                     photography,                                                       coated optical glass port system
                                 files, retention of EXIF data when
free beta can be downloaded files are duplicated, and prob-                    and is depth                                                       with Magnetic Rotary System
at Adobe’s website by any user lems moving floating text. This free            rated down                                                         (MRS) manual focusing possible
with a valid Creative Suite 2 or update is recommended for all cur-            to 100 meters.                                                     on some models.
Photoshop CS2 serial number.     rent users. It is available for down-         The housings are                                                   www.inonamerica.com
labs.adobe.com                   load at www.corel.com/support                 CNC milled out of
                                                                               solid blocks of
                                                                               aluminium.
 The Photo & Videography Section is sponsored by:                              www.hugyfot.com                                 Sea&Sea’s DX-400D underwater housing for
                                                                                                                                              the Canon EOS 400D/Digital Rebel
                                                                                                                                              XT is made from a combination of
                                                                                                                                              corrosion resistant aluminum alloy
                                                                                                                                             and polycarbonate. Depth-rated to
                                                                                                                                             180 feet, the housing also includes a
                                                                                                                                             3 pin N-type connector (for attach-
                                                                                                                                            ing a YS-series strobe); a A TTL con-
 Welcome to the Future of Photography                                                                                                       verter; a leak sensor; and a 0.66x
  For more information, please visit: www.h2ophotopros.com                                                                                  viewfinder. www.seaandsea.com


     91   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007       EDITORIAL           FEATURES            TRAVEL      NEWS        EQUIPMENT          BOOKS        SCIENCE & ECOLOGY             EDUCATION          PROFILES   PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                   New Zealand Dive Experiences                      Bottom Bunch Dive Club, San Diego, US      Danish dive shop & online store
                                           Dive Operators              AMERICAS       Dive Operators                  RED SEA      Expand your diving and underwater                 Promoting safe diving and having fun       www.dykcen.dk
                                           At the Water’s Edge, MA, USA               Emperor Divers, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt       photography horizons in Kiwi country              www.bottombunchdiveclub.com                Diveshoppen, Denmark
                                           When you just gotta dive!                  Your Red Sea dive specialists                www.nzdivexperiences.com                          British Sub Aqua Club (BSAC), UK           In the heart of Copenhagen
                                           www.lovetodive.com                         www.emperordivers.com                        Ningaloo Reef Dive, Western Australia             Where sport diving began...                www.diveshoppen.dk
                                           Captain Slate’s Atlantis Dive Center       Nemo Divers, Eliat, Israel                   Preferred operators on the West Coast             www.bsac.co.uk                             LondonDivingNet —The best place in
                                           For the very best diving in the Florida    Red Sea’s best little dive center            www.ningalooreefdive.com.au                       Dansk Sportsdykker Forbund, Denmark        London to learn to dive
                                           Keys www.captianslate.com                  www.nemodivers.co.il                         Perth Diving, Australia —Western Aus-             7500 members in 152 clubs in Denmark       www.londondiving.net
                                           Tiedeman’s Diving Center, NY, USA                                                       tralia’s premier diving organisation              www.sportsdykning.dk                       Ocean Dive Explorers, Denmark

       Business
                                           Long Island’s Premier Scuba Ed Facility
                                           www.tdconline.com
                                                                                      Dive Operators                   AFRICA
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Society, USA www.laups.org
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TDI/SDI Scandinavia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                www.oceandive.dk
                                           Tuneffe Island Lodge                       Dive Solutions, South Africa —Diving         Liveaboards                                       Northumbria Sub Aqua Club, UK              SuperDive.dk —Copenhagen
       Directory                           A private Caribbean Island                 Mozambique, tech & rec dive educ                                                               Dive training and trips                    dive center, tours and trips
                                           www.tuneffelodge.com                       www.divesolutions.co.za                      Nautilus Explorer Liveaboard, USA                 www.divenorthumbria.co.uk                  PADI, NAUI and NAUI Tech
                                           Utila Dive Center, Honduras                                                             Diving Mantas to Icebergs                         Saddleworth Sub-Aqua Club, UK              NAUI representative in Denmark
                                           Welcome to the Whaleshark experts                                                       www.nautilusexplorer.com                          Based in the Pannine hills of Lancashire   www.superdive.dk
                                           www.utiladivecenter.com
                                                                                      Dive Operators                      ASIA     Ocean Rover —Cruises in Thailand,                 www.saddleworth-subaqua.co.uk              Simply Scuba, UK & International
                                           Utopia Village —Coming 2007: Dive,         Bali International Diving Professionals      Myanmar, Indonesia and Malaysia                   Southern Division Diving Club              One-stop online dive shop
                                           Fish, Relax in Utila, Honduras. Opening    Specialists in Macro to Pelagic Sights       www.oceanrover.com                                Netherlands: Dive with us, you can’t       www.simplyscuba.com
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                                                                                      Big Bubble Center, Singapore                 www.smyondina.com                                 Tufts University Scuba Club, MA, USA       5 star PADI instructor development ctr
                                                                                      Taking the mystery out of scuba diving       www.thebestdivingintheworld.co                    New adventures, new buddies                www.thygedive.dk
                                           Dive Operators                 EUROPE      www.bigbubble.com                            Star Dancer Liveaboard, Australia                 www.ase.tufts.edu/scuba
                                           Dive Academy Gran Canary Island            Delphis Diving, Maldives                     Peter Huges Diving Adventures                     Underwater BC Photography Society          Dive Travel Agents
                                           Europe’s most southern dive center         Since 1982. Safe, personal & organised       www.peterhughes.com                               Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
To order a directory listing:              www.diveacademy-grancanaria.com            www.delphis.com.mv                                                                             www.ubcps.bc.ca                            AquaTours UK
                                           Diving World, Netherlands                  Lumbalumba Diving - Manado                   SCUBA & UWP Clubs                                                                            Aquatours specialise in Scuba Diving
Call or email to reserve space             Dive travel specialists                    Small, cosy and personalized dive                                                              Dive Shops                                 holidays world-wide. Aquatours.com
30 days before publication. Text           www.divingworld.nl                         resort in Bunaken Marine Park                Aalesunds Sportsdykkerclub, Norway                                                           Blue o Two Operating since 2001, blue
due 15 days before publication             Dykkercenter Langeland, Denmark            www.lumbalumbadiving.com                     På Voldsdalsberga ved Borgundfjorden                                                         o two offers tailor-made diving holiday
date. Send link and text info to:          Cabins & Wreck diving in Denmark           Sipadan Water Village Resort, Sabah          www.aasdk.no                                      Carlsens Dykkercenter, Denmark             packages to THAILAND, RED SEA, USVI
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3 lines x 30 characters per line           www.eden-roc-dive.com                      www.tiomanscuba.com                          Underwater sports & eco-awareness                 www.deep-six.com                           US Dive Travel Network, USA
incl. spaces). Must be prepaid             Media-Sub, Erstein, France —Underwa-       Ocean Adventures —Philippines                ws.albertaunderwatercouncil.com                   Divers Supply, USA —Shop us for the        Not just a vacation, an adventure!
with credit card through PayPal.           ter video and photography equipment        Welcome to the world of wonder               Barnacle Busters Scuba Club, USA                  best prices, equipment and service!        www.usdivetravel.com
com and text received no later             and service www.mediasub.com               www.oceanadventure.com.ph                    Los Angeles/Long Beach (Gay/Lesbian)              www.diverssupplyusa.com
than 15 days before publica-               Profondo Blu, Ustica                       Swanido, Biak, Indonesia Discover the        www.barnaclebusters.org                           Dykkercentret, Denmark
tion.                                      An underwater paradise in the Med          Hidden Treasures in Cenderawasih Bay
                                           www.ustica-diving.it                       www.swanido.com                                                                                                                                            Wet & Weird
FORMAT:                                    Scuba.Lu, Luxemburg —Diving Luxem-                                                                                             World’s Tallest Man Saves Dolphins in China
LINE 1: Business name, city/state          burg-Worldwide expeditions                 Dive Operators                AUSTRALIA                                             At the Royal Jidi Ocean World Aquarium in China, veteri-
or province, country                       www.scuba.lu                               Abyss Scuba Diving, Sydney Australia                                                narians found two of the dolphins ill after they ingested
LINE 2: Slogan or services/offers          Timuna Sea, London, UK                     Scuba diving in Australia is worldclass                                             some plastic found near their pool. While attempting
LINE 3: Website or email address           Premier diving specialist in East London   www.abyss.com.au                                                                    surgery, the vets were forced to stop because their in-
(active link)                              www.timunasea.com                          Aquapro Dive Services Australia                                                     struments were going to lacerate the stomachs of the
                                           West Wales Diving Center, UK               Your first choice for instructor training                                           dolphins. A sudden brainstorm brought an urgent call to
                                           Longest serving dive center in Wales       www.aquaprodive.com                                                                 Bao Xishun, a herdsman from Inner Mongolia. At 7 feet, 9       News edited by
      INFORMATION:                         www.westwalesdivers.co.uk                  Deep Sea Divers Den, Australia                                                      inches, he is the world’s tallest man. Xishun came to the      Gunild Symes
                                           Zapp Divers, Denmark


                                                                                                                                                            CHINA DAILY
   www.xray-mag.com                                                                   Diving Great Barrier Reef & Queens-                                                 aquarium and stretched his 41. inch long arms into the
  BizDir@xray-mag.com                      Dive tours around Jutland                  land www.diversden.com.au                                                           dolphins’ mouths to physcially remove the plastic from their
                                           www.zappdivers.dk                          Eagle Hawk Dive Center, Tasmania                                                    stomachs. While a few small pieces remained, the vets said the dolphins
                                                                                      Tazmanian Peninsula dive specialists          Bao Xishun and friend                 soon digested and passed the leftover bits. SOURCE: Newsvine.com ■
                                                                                      www.eaglehawkdive.com.au

  92     X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007          EDITORIAL        FEATURES          TRAVEL          NEWS          EQUIPMENT                BOOKS       SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                            EDUCATION             PROFILES          PORTFOLIO            CLASSIFIED
                                            Coral Reef Alliance —Working togeth-      Lines & Shadows —Home of the best        Underwater Australasia —Australia &                                                 Michael Portelly, UK
                                            er to keep coral reefs dive               source of UWP, travel & adventure        Asia Pacific’s most popular dive portal
                                                                                                                                                                          UW Photo, Video, Film                    Director and Cinematographer
                                            www.coralreef.org                         www.linesandshadows.com                  www.underwater.com.au                      Alex Mustard, PhD, UK                    www.portelly.com
                                            The Manta Network                         NauticFriend.com —The Ultimate           UnderwaterTimes —A daily journal of        UWP and Marine Biologist                 Nonoy Tan, Metro Manila, Philippines
                                            Help Save the Mantas                      Worldwide Watersports Directory          life in and around water                   www.amustard.com                         Underwater images of the Philippines
                                            www.save-the-mantas.org                   www.nauticfriend.com                     www.underwatertimes.com                    Amos Nachoum Big Animals                 nonoytan@yahoo.com
                                                                                      Onderwaterfoto, Netherlands              University of Michigan, OSEH               Worldwide expeditions & adventure        Poppe Images, Philippines
                                            Online Dive Resources                     Digital UWP Forum                        Dive links by Larry “Harris” Taylor, PhD   www.biganimals.com                       Marine Iconography of the Philippines

     Business                               Cairns Scuba Diving Australia
                                                                                      www.onderwaterfoto.net
                                                                                      One Ocean —Earn frequent diver
                                                                                                                               www-personal.umich.edu
                                                                                                                               WetPixel, USA
                                                                                                                                                                          Bill Becher Outdoor & Adventure
                                                                                                                                                                          Writing & Photography —CA, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   www.poppe-images.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Thomas Peschak, South Africa
     Directory                              Dive training & travel holidays
                                            www.divedirectory.com.au
                                                                                      points toward equipment & travel
                                                                                      www.oneocean.com
                                                                                                                               Digital imaging for divers
                                                                                                                               www.wetpixel.com
                                                                                                                                                                          www.becher.com
                                                                                                                                                                          Cathy Church, Cayman Islands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Africa’s Oceans and Coasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   www.currentsofcontrast.com
                                            DiveGuru, Deerfield, FL, USA               Patrick Musimu, Freediving Champion      World-Newspapers.com                       UWP Center, Classes, Trips, Services     Tony White, UK
                                            When you want answers...                  Accept No Limits                         Scuba Diving Magazines Online              www.cathychurch.com                      Underwater imagery at its best!
Publishers                                  www.diveguru.net                          www.patrickmusimu.com                    www.world-newspapers.com/scuba             City Seahorse, Dallas, TX, USA           www.seaofdreams.co.uk
                                            DiveIndex.com —All links diving related   Scuba Duba —Online diving resource                                                  UWP & Raja Ampat stock & tours           UV Foto, Norway
Best Publishing Co, Flagstaff, AZ, USA      Newest, top-rated, most popular           for news, equipment, buddies & travel    UWP Competitions                           www.cityseahorse.com                     Underwater photos of Stein Johnsen
Scuba diving & hyperbaric medicine          www.diveindex.com                         www.scubaduba.com                                                                   Edwin Marcow, UK                         www.uvfoto.no
www.bestpub.com                             DivePhotoGuide —The essential             Scuba Spots —The World’s Oldest,         National Wildlife Photography Awards       Marine & Wildlife Photographer           Water Ventures
Oceans Enterprises                          resource for UWPs & Videographers         Largest Scuba Directory                  Deadline: July 15th, 2006                  www.edwinmarcow.com                      Travel, diving and culinary images
Diving and Underwater Books                 www.divephotoguide.com                    www.scubaspots.com                       www.nwf.org                                Jack Connick, WA, USA                    www.waterventures.no
www.oceans.com.au                           Diverlink —A comprehensive resource       Scuba.start4all.com —Diving directory    Santa Barbara Ocean Film Festival          UWP & Graphic Design
Pine Belt Publishing                        for divers and dive businesses            in cooperation with Diving World         Deadline: August 30, 2006                  www.opticalocean.com
Onlline Book Distributors                   www.diverlink.com                         www.scuba.start4all.com                  www.ocean.com                              John Collins Photography, Kinsale, UK
www.pinebeltpublishing.com                  Divester                                  ScubaDiveSites.com, Australia            XARIFA Unterwasser Foto & Film Festival    Cool Waters-Emeral Seas                            Wet & Weird
                                            Weblong’s premier diveblog                Listing Dive Sites Worldwide             14-15 October 2006, Germany                www.johncollinskinsale.com
Dive Manufacturers                          www.divester.com
                                            Dykcentralen, Sweden
                                                                                      www.scubadivesites.com
                                                                                      UK Diving —UK Scuba Diving
                                                                                                                               www.uwfv.de/xarifa
                                                                                                                               World Festival of Underwater Pictures
                                                                                                                                                                          Jon Gross & Keith Clements, WA, USA
                                                                                                                                                                          Marine Life Index
Cochran                                     Swedish divelink index                    Resource & Network                       25-29 October 2006, Antibes, France        www.seaotter.com
Undersea Technology                         www.dykcentralen.se                       www.ukdivers.com                         www.underwater-festival.com
www.divecochran.com
Dive Junkie, Singapore —Fun, fashion-
able and expressive scuba dive t-shirts                                                              Meet Bubba the Fish...                                                                                                  News edited by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gunild Symes
www.divejunkie.com.sg
Diving Unlimited International, USA                                                                   At a depth of 2,977 feet, a water tempera-
Unlimited comfort, performance, quality                                                                           ture of 10.3°C and salinity of 35.3,
dui-online.com                                                                                                          researchers found one of only
                                                                                                                          three Shaefer’s anglerfish,
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Stuck in the Toilet?
Fourth Element, UK —High tech, high                                                                                                                                                                  Love fish so much you can’t be without
quality dive clothing and design                                                                                           or Sladenia shaefersi, to be
                                                                                                                          seen in the world. The other                                               them for even a minute? Well, now you
www.fourthelement.com                                                                                                                                                                                can enjoy your fishy friends in the WC with
Nocturnal Lights, CA, USA —Advanced                                                                                     two specimens were found
                                                                                                                    off the coast of Columbia in 1976                                                this cool little number (left). It’s called a
lighting systems for diving, UWP, video                                                                                                                                                                        Fish’n’Flush and touted as “a whim-
www.nocturnallights.com                                                                                             and Aruba later. Research diver,
                                                                                                                     Josh Loefer, was credited with                                                                      sical potty that turns your
Reefling Clothing                                                                                                                                                                                                           toilet into a nautical won-
Divewear that inspires diving                                                                                       finding the specimen and gave it
                                                                                                                    the unique identifying name, Bubba.                                                                       derland” by its creators at
www.reefling.com                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aqua One Technologies
Silent Diving Systems, USA                                                                                            Bubba (left) was taken abaard the
                                                                                                                  research vessel where he was measured,                                                                      located where else but
Closed circuit rebreather distribution                                                                                                                                                                                       in that innovative state of
www.silentdiving.com                                                                                          weighed, studied and preserved. Bacteria was
                                                                                                            also taken from Bubba for antimicrobial study.                                                                   California, USA. They also
                                                                                                         The “fishing poles” sticking out of Bubba’s head are                                                             say on their website that the
Non-Profit Organisations                                                                              illiceum. They are the first and second spines of his dor-                                                        funky flusher will maximize
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      space, provide entertainment
International Association of                                                                          sal fin and attract prey swimming just above his huge
                                                     This specimen is one of only three Shaefer’s     mouth. He then sucks them in for a tasty meal. SOURCE:                                                      and excitement... Got to have
Handicapped Divers (IAHD Foundation)                                                                                                                                                                            one? See www.fishnflush.com ■
                                                            anglerfish ever seen in the world         NOAA ■
www.iahd.org


     93   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007          EDITORIAL        FEATURES          TRAVEL        NEWS         EQUIPMENT              BOOKS        SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                   EDUCATION             PROFILES          PORTFOLIO            CLASSIFIED
                                Sue Duda    Editted by Gunild Pak Symes
                                            All images are original batik on silk by Sue Duda

                                            Blending her love of the sea and its cherished creatures
                                            with the ancient art of Batik, a die and wax technique
                                            on silk, Sue Dudas has created an ocean of art work to
                                            delight the most hardy sea lover.

                                            Sue Duda received her education in art at the University of Wisconsin-Ste-
                                            vens Point in the U.S. where she earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Art in 1976.
                                            She spent the next 22 years working as a studio potter. Experiences in
                                            scuba diving and snorkeling led Duda to incorporate the ocean’s won-
                                            derous colors and intricate patterns on silk, using the wax-resist method of
                                            batik.
                                                                                                      On silk, vibrant
                                                                                                    colors harmoni-
                                                                                                    ously blend creating
                                                                                                    bright, eye-catching designs. Duda says that
                                                                                                    foregrounds of the batik paintings are uniquely
                                                                                                    enhanced by the crackled backgrounds. The




                                                                                                                                                      textural effect emulates the look of sunrays streaming through water,
                                                                                                                                                      which enhances the allure of Duda’s underwater pieces. Through her
                                                                                                                                                      batik work, Duda hopes to share her love for the rich environment of
                                                                                                                                                      the underwater world, its color and life. By drawing attention to the
                                                                                                                                                      ocean with her images, she wants to positively influence human-
 COUNTERCLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: Beaked Butterflyfish; Quilfin Blenny, 22 x 27 inches; Ascent,                                                        kind’s awareness of the ocean’s fragile ecosystem.
 30 x 24 inches; Clown Triggerfish; Red Banded Wrasse, 24 x 28 inches                                                                                    Bringing the splendors of the underwater world to the surface, Duda


94   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL        FEATURES         TRAVEL        NEWS        EQUIPMENT         BOOKS         SCIENCE & ECOLOGY              EDUCATION           PROFILES       PORTFOLIO          CLASSIFIED
                                                                                                                                                                                 Sue Duda
portfolio                           The Lookdowns design (right) is available on sweatshirts,
                                        t-shirts, mugs, tote bags and other apparel and gifts
                                            through www.cafepress.com/xray-mag.com




creates cheerful art for others to
enjoy and ocean art enthusiasts
can enjoy building distinctive col-
lections.
  Duda recommends framing your
original batiks on silk between two
layers of glass in order to allow light
to pass through the batik. It creates
a spectacular conversation piece
when placed near a window in
your home, office or on your yacht.
Originals can also be framed in
conventional styles as well.
  The artist has won several local
and regional awards for her art
work. Several of her pieces have
been published by Sundance Graphics          See her work at the following websites:                                                      CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: Mandarinfish, 23 x 28 inches;
and Ocean Arts Gallery. Duda focuses on      Ocean Dudes by Duda                                                                          Lookdowns, 24 x 28 inches; Queen of the Sea, 28 x 24 inch-
sea life but also creates freshwater fish,   Original batiks, greeting cards and prints                                                   es; Trunkfish; Bluestripped Grunt Quints, 25 x 19.5 inches;
nature, and music batiks.                    www.oceandudes.com                                                                           Cardinalfish, 22.5 x 28 inches


    95   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL         FEATURES          TRAVEL         NEWS        EQUIPMENT   BOOKS   SCIENCE & ECOLOGY   EDUCATION         PROFILES         PORTFOLIO           CLASSIFIED
portfolio                                                                                                                                                                    Sue Duda




Ocean Arts Gallery                   The X-RAY MAG Store                                                                   CLOCKWSIE FROM TOP LEFT: Head Green Border; Head Red Border, Tail
Fine art giclée prints of batiks     T-shirts, apparel, gifts and more                                                     Blue Border; Spotfin Butterflyfish and Juveniles; King Angelfish; Spotted
www.oceanartsgallery.com             www.cafepress.com/xraymag                                                             Hogfish


  96   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007       EDITORIAL      FEATURES         TRAVEL   NEWS   EQUIPMENT   BOOKS   SCIENCE & ECOLOGY     EDUCATION            PROFILES         PORTFOLIO            CLASSIFIED
portfolio                                        ◄ Sue Duda shows off her original batik on silk of Two Moorish Idols,
                                                   framed with primavera wood between two layers of glass
                                                                                                                                                     Sue Duda                       IN OUR NEXT ISSUE
                                                                                                                                                                                            The Red Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                            Saudi Arabia
                                                                                                                                                                                            New Zealand




                                                                                                                                                                                                             BARB ROY




                                                                                                                                                                                                             BARB ROY




                                                                                                                 CLOCKWISE FROM TOP: Dive Flag, 20 x 24 inches. The artist
                                                                                                                 created this brand new batik especially for X-RAY MAG.
                                                                                                                 It might very well be the only batik dive flag design avail-
                                                                                                                 able; Moorish Idol; Banded Butterflyfish, 30 x 24 inches


                                                                                                                 A percentage of all sales from The X-RAY MAG Store                                        PETER SYMES
                                                                                                                 and Ocean Arts goes to ocean conservation!
                                                                                                                   Masterpiece Giclees can be ordered in 3 differ-
                                                                                                                 ent sizes on the customer’s choice of canvas or
                                                                                                                 watercolor paper. The color on these giclées is fabu-
                                                                                                                                                                                        COMING IN APRIL
                                                                                                                 lous! Inquiries about purchasing original batiks can                  Subscribe now FREE!
                                                                                                                 be sent to Sue Duda at: tel. 715-356-4526, e-mail:
                                                                                                                 sue@oceandudes.com. Prices of some of the originals                   www.xray-mag.com
                                                                                                                 can be viewed on Sue’s website: www.oceandudes.
                                                                                                                 com ■

 97   X-RAY MAG : 15 : 2007   EDITORIAL   FEATURES   TRAVEL         NEWS         EQUIPMENT           BOOKS          SCIENCE & ECOLOGY                   EDUCATION               PROFILES   PORTFOLIO   CLASSIFIED

				
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