PowerPoint Presentation - Kennedy and the Cold War

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					Kennedy and the Cold War

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• The Election of 1960
• Why are elections ending in the year “0” considered
• Kennedy’s problems in the
• Born to wealth
• Catholic
• Youth (youngest inaugurated president
  at 43…who else?)
• In October, just before the election,
  while MLK was in jail, JFK called
  King’s wife to offer condolences and
  encouragement, and had his brother,
  Robert Kennedy persuade a judge to
  release King
• This was told from pulpits of black
  churches and Kennedy won by
  120,000 of 69 million votes.
• Kennedy emphasized his youth and the need for
  change with his “New Frontier” program, while
  Nixon was stuck defending Ike’s administration
• Kennedy’s inaugural speech very hawkish on
  containment of communism

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Let the word go forth from this time and
place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch
has been passed to a new generation of
Americans-born in this century, tempered
by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter
peace Let every nation know, whether it
wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any
price, bear any burden, meet any
hardship, support any friend, oppose any
foe, in order to assure the survival and the
success of liberty.

                John F. Kennedy, Inaugural
                Address, January 20, 1961
• Kennedy gathered top advisors to help with his
• Many of Kennedy’s advisors were young, in their
  30s, such as Speech writer Ted Sorenson and his
  36 year old brother, Robert, whom he made
  attorney general
• Kennedy’s cabinet was, on average, 10 years
  younger than Eisenhower’s (the new generation)
• Kennedy learned, during the campaign, that the
  CIA was, at Eisenhower’s direction, preparing
  1500 Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow
• Castro had come to power in Cuba by
  overthrowing an unpopular dictator, Batista, and
  had taken over many businesses, including those
  owned by Americans
• When Castro signed a trade agreement with the
  Soviets, Eisenhower cut off diplomatic and
  economic ties with Cuba
• The CIA hoped that the people of Cuba would be
  inspired by an invasion and turn against Castro
• Kennedy had been critical of Ike for not taking a
  tougher stand on Cuba
• The CIA assured JFK that the invasions would
• Total disaster. NY Times leaked the plans a
  week before the invasion.
• When things flee apart, Kennedy cancelled air
  strikes that had been planned
• The invasions was doomed. Castro was
  forewarned and ready
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• Kennedy was urged to rescue the invaders
  and overthrow Castro, but feared Russian-US
  relations might be worsened.
• Kennedy obtained the release of the captured
  Cuban invaders by giving Cuba 52 million dollars
  in food and medical aid
• The Bay of Pigs strengthened the Cuban peoples
  feelings for Castro, and the Cuban link with the
  Soviet Union

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Soviets in the Western
• The Berlin Crisis
• Kennedy feared a Soviet response to Cuba in the
  form of an invasion of Europe. Khrushchev saw
  Kennedy’s lack of intervention in Cuba as
• Khrushchev tested American resolve by
  demanding that westerners leave Berlin
• U.S. refusal led to Khrushchev initiating the
  building of the Berlin Wall
• The Berlin Wall ended travel between the two
  sides of Berlin
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• The Berlin Wall

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