How to gather and process data by dffhrtcv3

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									  Lesson 1:
  INTRODUCTION TO
                                               How to gather and process data
  GATHERING AND                           In this unit you will be using the knowledge and skills
                                          gained in Years 7 and 8 in order to complete a project
  PROCESSING DATA                         involving gathering and processing data. This unit will
                                          also help you to learn more about processing data from
                                          questionnaires to supply information. You will be
                                          working in small groups so it is important that each
                                          member contributes fully to the overall project.


  Background theory and key information
We often have questions and need to collect data in order to answer
those questions. For example, if you wanted to know the average
time that Year 9 students
from your school spend on
homework each night, you
would need to ask all of the
Year 9 students in your
school. Once you had
collected the data you could
compare your results with
those obtained nationally
from all of the Year 9
students in every school (if
this data had been collected).
Luckily there is a useful
source of data which has
been collected from
questionnaires completed by
lots of students on-line. This
information can be found on
the CensusAtSchool website.
You will be using the
CensusAtSchool website           The CensusAtSchool website
later on in this unit.           Source: CensusAtSchool, www.censusatschool.ntu.ac.uk, 14/08/04

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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data



                                 Who holds data about you and your family?
                               Lots of people hold data about you and your family. For example,
                               your doctor needs your medical details in order to give you the best
                               treatment if you are ill. Banks need to hold details of accounts, loans,
                               mortgages, etc. If an organisation is to send you a letter or further
                               information, then it must store your name and address details.


  WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
        WORKSHEET 9.2.1   Who holds what information about you?
        Your teacher may give you a worksheet on which to work or you may be
        asked to copy this table into your book. Write your answers in the table.
        Information about you and your family is held by many organisations. This
        information is held for a purpose.
        Here are some of the people or organisations who are likely to hold
        information about you:




        • Passport Office


                                                       • The Post Office




        • Dentist




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                                   Lesson 1 Introduction to gathering and processing data




            • The Driver and Vehicle
                                                          • Supermarket
              Licensing Agency




            • School                                      • Gym.

            For each of the organisations in the above list write down some items of data
            they would hold and the reasons they need it.


                                                        Data stored       Reasons
              Passport Office
              Dentist
              The Post Office
              The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
              School
              Supermarket
              Gym




  Where do the organisations get this data from?
Organisations store lots of data about you. Where does this data
come from? The simple answer is from you or your parents. When
you complete an application form or questionnaire, you are
supplying the information for a database. With your permission, the
organisations are allowed to exchange this information with others.
Often people forget who they have given information to and
whether they have ticked a box to allow the information to be
passed to others.

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                                   Lesson 1 Introduction to gathering and processing data




            • The Driver and Vehicle
                                                          • Supermarket
              Licensing Agency




            • School                                      • Gym.

            For each of the organisations in the above list write down some items of data
            they would hold and the reasons they need it.


                                                        Data stored       Reasons
              Passport Office
              Dentist
              The Post Office
              The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
              School
              Supermarket
              Gym




  Where do the organisations get this data from?
Organisations store lots of data about you. Where does this data
come from? The simple answer is from you or your parents. When
you complete an application form or questionnaire, you are
supplying the information for a database. With your permission, the
organisations are allowed to exchange this information with others.
Often people forget who they have given information to and
whether they have ticked a box to allow the information to be
passed to others.

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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data



                                      How this data is collected
                                   Data is usually collected from you using:
                                         Paper-based forms or questionnaires.
                                         On-line forms or questionnaires.
REMEMBER

 The Data Protection Act              Personal data
 1998 is the law which
 restricts the way that
 personal information is
                                   For data to be personal it must be about someone who is living and
 stored and processed on           who can be identified from that data. Personal data would include
 a computer.                       information about people such as political beliefs, health records,
                                   creditworthiness, etc.


  WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
          WORKSHEET 9.2.2    Is it personal?
          Your teacher may give you a worksheet on which to work or you may be
          asked to copy this table into your book. Write your answers in the table.
          Assuming that the following data is about a person who can be identified,
          would you consider each of the following items of data to be personal or not?
          The best way to approach this is to decide whether you would feel annoyed
          if someone knew this information about you. Your teacher will discuss this
          with you and the rest of the class after you have completed the table.

                 Information                                                Personal   Not Personal
           1     Eye colour
           2     Religion
           3     Height
           4     Shoe size
           5     Favourite singer/band
           6     Date of birth
           7     Postcode
           8     Gender
           9     Whether you smoke
           10 A photograph of yourself
           11 Medical history (e.g. medical problems, operations, etc.)
           12 Weight
           13 Amount of pocket money given
           14 Status of parent (e.g. married, divorced, single, etc.)
           15 Favourite football team



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                    Lesson 1 Introduction to gathering and processing data




ACTIVITIESACTIVITIESACTIVITIESACTIVITIESACTIVITIESACTIVITIES



  ACTIVITY 1: Producing a spider diagram showing the various
  types of personal information
  Spider diagrams can help you to think about a problem. Basically you
  put the main idea at the centre and then expand this by breaking it
  down into several ideas which are then broken down into more ideas
  and so on.
  Start off with the main topic/idea at the centre of the diagram.


       Personal
     Information




  Now think about the main categories of personal information and
  include these in similar bubbles connected to the original bubble with
  lines, like this:




                               Health




       Money                                           School


                               Personal
                             Information




                   Beliefs                 Interests




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Pick any one of these categories and expand it further. For example, if
        you think about the personal information concerning your health you
        might come up with dental records, medications, fitness records held by
        a health club, details of illnesses, hospital records, etc.


                                   Dental
                                  records
                  Fitness
                                                   Medications
                  records




                                                           Hospital
           Illnesses
                                                           records
                                   Health




          Money                                              School


                                   Personal
                                 Information




                       Beliefs                 Interests




        Complete the spider diagram for money, beliefs, school and interests.
        Your teacher will give you a large sheet of paper on which to work. As
        well as completing the other parts of the diagram in a similar way to
        that in which the ‘Health’ part was expanded, you can also add more
        items to the diagram.




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                                Lesson 1 Introduction to gathering and processing data




              ACTIVITY 2: How to protect personal data
              Personal information is very sensitive and must not be disclosed to just
              anyone. Take a look at the following cartoon.




              Write a list of the steps that could be taken by the head teacher of the
              school in order to prevent the sort of thing shown in the cartoon.



  What you should already know                                              KEY WORDS

                                                                              hypothesis – a
The work in this unit builds on the work done in Years 7 and 8. For           statement that can be
example, you will create hypotheses to be tested and then you will            proved or disproved (i.e.
create and use questionnaires to collect data and put it into a               proved right or wrong)
database. You will process the data in the database to either prove
or disprove the hypothesis. You may need to look back over the
work that you did in Years 7 and 8.


  What you will learn
In this unit you will:
   Work in a group to complete a project.
   Identify some hypotheses to test.
   Produce questionnaires to collect the data used to test the
   hypotheses.
   Create a database structure to hold the data that you have
   collected.
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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


                           Put the data from the questionnaire answers into a database
                           structure.
                           Process the data in the database to help to prove/disprove
                           hypotheses.
                           Prepare the project documentation.
                           Present your findings.




     Lesson 2:   INVESTIGATING THE COLLECTION OF DATA USING
                 QUESTIONNAIRES




                          Background
                        In this lesson you will learn about the importance of collecting data
                        using questionnaires and how the data is used for planning purposes
                        or to provide answers to questions (hypotheses). You will investigate
                        an on-line questionnaire as well as a traditional paper-based
                        questionnaire. The idea of this lesson is to expand your knowledge
                        of questionnaires so that you can start building your own
                        questionnaire as part of the project in the lessons below.
                        There are two main ways of collecting information about people,
                        their interests and opinions:
                           Using on-line questionnaires.
                           Using paper-based questionnaires.



                          On-line questionnaires: advantages and
                          disadvantages
                        Many questionnaires are produced on paper. They are then given or
                        posted to the person selected to answer the questions. Sometimes
                        the questions will be asked by an interviewer who will also complete
                        the form. Other times, the questionnaire will be given to the person
                        to fill in themselves.
                        On-line questionnaires are those that appear and are answered on
                        the Internet. The questionnaire appears on the screen and the

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                   Lesson 2 Investigating the collection of data using questionnaires


person answering it uses the computer keyboard to type his or her
responses.
Advantages of on-line questionnaires:



                                The questionnaire is not printed out
                                on paper, so there are no printing
                                costs.




   There is no need to pay people to
   ask the questions in the street.




                                There is no need to pay for postage
                                (stamps, envelopes, etc.).




   Fewer mistakes are made when
   people type in their own details
   and answers.




                                 Data validation can be built in. For
                                 example, the computer would not
                                 allow an impossible date to be
                                 entered.




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


                        Disadvantages of on-line questionnaires:
                           Specialist knowledge is needed to set up an
                           on-line questionnaire.




                                                   The initial set-up costs can be high.




                           If a person needs help with a question
                           there is no one to ask.




                                                   Not everyone is on the Internet. There is
                                                   a danger that your sample will be biased
                                                   because of this.




                          Paper-based questionnaires
                        Paper-based questionnaires are printed out and then handed to or
                        posted to the people supplying the answers. This is still a very
                        common and useful way of collecting data. Usually an incentive is
                        offered for filling them in, such as the chance of winning a prize.




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                 Lesson 2 Investigating the collection of data using questionnaires




                      FIND IT OUT
1 Access the Internet and type in the following website address:
  www.surveymonkey.com

  This address is for a site which shows you how to conduct on-line
  surveys.
2 On the home page of the site (the home page is the first page you
  will see) look for the Design Survey section and click on View
  Example Survey.




3 When you design a survey you will have a number of options
  regarding the types of questions you can use. Look carefully at this
  example survey – you can answer the questions as you do this.
  Make a note of the types of questions you are being asked (e.g.
  multiple choice, questions where you have to type in replies, etc.).
  Write a sentence to describe each type of question.
4 When you have worked through the example survey you will return to
  the screen shown above. You are going to find out about the names of
  the different types of questions. Click on Types of questions.
  You will see the following screen:




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




                           5 Click on each of these question types in turn and make a note of the
                             format of the question. You will be using questions like these when
                             you make your own questionnaires later in this unit.
                             Here is an example of a multiple choice question that allows only
                             one answer; the answers are laid out vertically.




                              The following essay-style question allows the entry of complete
                              sentences.




                              All of these questions ask about peanut butter.




                          Finding out information for planning
                        If you were having a party, you would need to know how many
                        people were likely to come so that you could plan how much food
                        and drink to buy.




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                           Lesson 2 Investigating the collection of data using questionnaires


The Government needs accurate information in order to plan
public services such as schools, health services, roads and
libraries. So, every 10 years each household receives a
questionnaire which, by law, they are required to fill in. This is
completed on a certain date and then sent back for
processing. The results are published on a website and are
used by lots of organisations for planning.
This particular questionnaire is called the Census form, and
the collection of all the data is called the Census.




                                                                     Accurate information is needed in
                                                                     order to plan successfully




The last Census form which each household was required to fill in
Source: National Statistics website: www.statistics.gov.uk


The very first Census in England was commissioned by William
the Conqueror and was completed in 1086.

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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




                                                                    FIND IT OUT
                                     Censuses are nothing new. They have been conducted throughout history
                                     and the most famous one was called the Domesday Book.

 QUESTIONS                           Use the following site to find out about the Domesday Book:
1 The next Census is due to              www.domesdaybook.co.uk
  be held in 2011. Some
                                     Use the information on this site to answer the following questions:
  of the questions will
  change. Why might they             1 Why was the Domesday Book produced?
  need to be changed?
                                     2 What sort of information does the Domesday Book contain?
2 Write a question that
  you think might be                 3 Where is the Domesday Book kept now?
  asked in the 2011
  Census that would not
  have been asked in the
  2001 Census.



                                                        FIND IT OUT
               In this activity you are going to look at the Census website.
               1 Access the Internet and type in the following website address:
                  www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/
               The home page will appear.




                  Source: National Statistics website: www.statistics.gov.uk


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                     Lesson 2 Investigating the collection of data using questionnaires




 2 Look at the left-hand side of the screen and at the section Background information and In
   Brief.


                              Click on each of the following sections and read the information
                              carefully:
                              G   What is the Census?
                              G   Why have a Census?
                              G   How is information processed?




   QUESTIONS
 How much information on the Census site can you         2 In what year was the last Census conducted?
 remember? Try the following quiz to see. Your teacher
                                                         3 How often is the Census conducted?
 will go through the answers with you.
                                                         4 Explain briefly why a national Census is needed.
 1 In what year was the first ever Census conducted?


   HARDER QUESTIONS
 1 What happens to the 24 million forms once they        3 For the next Census, people could be asked to
   are keyed into the computer system?                     complete it on-line. Give two advantages and two
                                                           disadvantages of this.
 2 If responses are missing from a questionnaire,
   what happens?




  Testing a hypothesis using Census data
Here is a hypothesis:
People have a much higher standard of living in the south-east of
England compared with other parts of the UK.
Using Census data it might be possible to determine whether the
above is a statement of fact (i.e. supported by evidence) or merely
an opinion (i.e. someone’s point of view).




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




  WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
        WORKSHEET 9.2.3

        What Census data would you need to test the hypothesis: ‘People have a
        much higher standard of living in the south-east of England compared with
        other parts of the UK’?
        Your teacher may give you a worksheet on which to work or you may be
        asked to copy this table into your book. Write your answers in the table.
        Here is a list of questions which were used in the 1971 Census. Look at each
        question in the list and decide whether it is relevant for testing this
        hypothesis and add a reason for your choice. The first question has been
        completed for you.

          Question                           Relevant?   Reason
          Type of accommodation (terrace,    Yes         Could indicate wealth with detached houses costing more
          semi, detached)                                (note: this may not always be true as a terraced house in
                                                         London could cost a lot more than a detached house
                                                         elsewhere).
          Central heating available?
          General health of each person at
          the address
          Ownership of accommodation?
          Academic and vocational
          qualifications?
          Country of birth
          Religion
          Car/van ownership?
          How people in household travel
          to work
          Address one year ago
          Names of the people living at
          the address
          Hours worked in main job for
          each person who works
          Does household have sole use of
          bath/shower and toilet?
          Ethnic group


        Your teacher will discuss the answers with your class.




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                                                                Lesson 3 Starting the project



  Processing the data from a Census
Once the Census forms (i.e. questionnaires) have been collected,
they are then processed. Because there are so many questionnaires
(around 24 million!) they are read by special input devices that scan
and can understand the responses.


  Bogus information
Have you seen any of the Star Wars films? In the films, Jedi was the
faith of the ‘goodies’. Before the Census in 2001, an e-mail was
circulated stating that if 10,000 people put ‘Jedi’ as their religion on
the Census form it would become a recognised and legal religion.
When the Census forms were processed 390,000 people had put
‘Jedi’ down for their religion.




   Lesson 3:     STARTING THE PROJECT




  Introduction to the project
In this lesson you will be looking in detail at the steps involved in      KEY WORDS
developing the project. You will be comparing these steps with              system life cycle – the
those in the System Life Cycle which you came across in Year 8 Unit         series of steps carried
5. For the rest of this unit you will be working on a project as part       out during the creation
of a small group. Your teacher will tell you how many people will be        of a new system
in your group.




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




  WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
        WORKSHEET 9.2.4   How much can you remember about the System Life Cycle?
        Your teacher may give you a worksheet on which to work or you may be
        asked to copy the information into your book.
        The steps you need to take when doing this project match the main steps in
        the system life cycle. It is important that these steps are taken in the right order.
        Here are the series of steps but they are not in the right order:
        Evaluate
        Design
        Identify
        Test
        Implement
        Analyse
        Put these steps on the diagram in the correct positions.



                          1 ………                   2 ………




                                  The system
          6 ………                                                3 ………
                                   life cycle




                          5 ………                   4 ………




        Here are the descriptions of the activities that make up the system life cycle
        and the terms used. They are jumbled up, so your task is to join the correct
        activity with the correct term by drawing a line between them.




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                                                                   Lesson 3 Starting the project




             Activity                                       Term
             Make sure the system works correctly           Identify
             An outline of the problem                      Test
             Create the new system                          Evaluate
             Look at the needs of the system                Implement
             Refine the system                              Analyse
             Plan the parts of the system                   Design




  The system life cycle and your project
In the following lessons you will follow the steps of the system life
cycle and develop your own project. You will have to provide project
documentation along the way to present evidence to your teacher
about how you developed your project. Only brief documentation
will be needed as this is a fairly simple project, but the overall steps
that you take will be the same no matter how complicated the
project is.
Remember that all systems developed using a computer will involve
input, process and output.


  Developing your project
Your project will last around 10 weeks so you will need to make
good use of your time in order to complete all of the work. As well
as using the time in the lessons, you will also need to do some
preparation work at home. You will need to be well organised so
that you know what you need to do in each lesson. For this reason
you need a project plan. A project plan breaks the overall task down
into many smaller steps. If each of these smaller steps is completed
on time, then the whole project will be completed on time.
The project will be completed as a group so it is important to work
as a team. There is a lot to do, so everyone needs to take
responsibility for their part of the work.




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data



                          What needs to be done?
                        To make things easier the tasks can be put under the following
                        headings. If this list looks daunting, remember you will be working
                        as a team so the work will be shared.


                        Planning the project
                           Establish the purpose of the project.
                           Plan what you are going to do.
                           Break the project down into a series of steps.
                           Put the steps into the order in which they need to be carried out.
                           Decide who does what in your team.
                           Establish deadlines.
                           Establish the success criteria for the project.


                        Planning, developing and refining the questionnaire
                           List the hypothesis or hypotheses to be tested.
                           Write lists of data that need to be collected to test the
                           hypothesis/hypotheses.
                           Decide on the types of questions (NB: usually a mixture of
                           questions is best).
                           Write the questions.
                           Produce the questionnaire using appropriate software.
                           Decide on the sample.
                           Check the results of testing the questionnaire.
                           Make any necessary alterations to the questionnaire.
                           Produce the final version of the questionnaire.


                        Sending out the questionnaires
                           Prepare to send out questionnaires (post, delivery by hand,
                           e-mail, etc.).
                           Send out the questionnaires.


                        Planning the database structure
                           Decide on the most suitable software to use.
                           Establish the field names needed to contain the answers to the
                           questions.
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                                                                Lesson 3 Starting the project


   Decide on the data type for each field.
   Validate and verify.


Creating the database structure
   Set up the database structure as per the plan.
   Enter test data.
   Refine database structure in the light of any problems
   experienced with the test data.


Data entry
   Collect filled-in questionnaires for processing.
   Decide what to do with incomplete questionnaires and
   incorrectly completed answers, etc.
   Enter answers into the database structure.
   Back up database.


Further processing of the data
   Add calculations for working out totals, percentages, averages,
   etc.
   Produce graphs/charts.
   Sort data.
   Filter data.


Proving/disproving hypotheses using the database
   Establish queries which will prove/disprove the hypotheses.
   Explain the purpose of each sort, search, filter, etc.
   Print the results and explain what they show.
   Explain any other interesting things/patterns in the data.
   Compare your findings with others (e.g. compare your results
   with others who are doing a similar project, or compare your
   results with those obtained from sources such as
   CensusAtSchool or the UK Census).


Preparing a presentation about your project
   Allocate roles and responsibilities of team members.
   Collect material.

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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


                           Prepare content (text and graphics for slides).
                           Rehearse presentation.


                        Presenting your findings
                           Give your group’s presentation to the rest of the class.
                           Class and teacher evaluation of your presentation and project.


                          The first steps
                        First you need to identify an area of interest on which to gather
                        data. It is important that all the members of the group are in
                        agreement with the area of interest.
                        Choose a topic that you know something about or are interested in
                        finding out about. You will be working on this project for about 10
                        weeks so you need to have an interesting topic.
                        Here are a few ideas for you, but feel free to come up with your
                        own ideas. If you do come up with your own ideas, ask your teacher
                        whether they are suitable.



                                                                 A health questionnaire.



                           A nutrition questionnaire to see if
                           people have a healthy diet.



                                                                 A questionnaire on how people
                                                                 spend their leisure time.



                           A questionnaire on your year’s
                           TV viewing habits.




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                                                               Lesson 3 Starting the project




                                A questionnaire about your year’s
                                attitudes towards alcohol and drugs.



   A questionnaire on the
   occupations of people that your
   year looks up to.



                                     A questionnaire to investigate
                                     holiday choices.



   A questionnaire to investigate
   attitudes towards the
   environment.


Think up some hypotheses that you may want to test.
Write a list of the hypotheses you would like to test. Here are a few
examples. Obviously yours must relate to the topic that you are
interested in.
   Only about 20% of my year will eat the recommended amount
   of fruit and vegetables per day.
   My year’s favourite food is burger
   and chips.
   Years 7, 8 and 9 spend more
   time using the Internet than they
   spend playing sport.
   Football is the most popular
   sport played by boys in Years 7, 8
   and 9.
   Around 10% of my year are
   overweight. I will collect data to
   check if this is true.
   There is a relationship between
   the height of a person and the
   size of their feet.
                                                                        Taller people have bigger feet



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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        PROJECT 1: The area of interest and the hypotheses
        This is the first part of your ongoing group project. Here is what you
        need to do for this activity:

         1   Meet with your group and discuss a common area of interest that
             you can investigate.

         2   Write a heading for your area of interest and write a few sentences
             describing it.

         3   Write a list of hypotheses that you would like to test.

         4   Complete the project documentation for this part of the project.

         5   Get your teacher’s approval for the project.




 Lesson 4:   PLANNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE




                            In this lesson you will:
                               Decide what information to collect.
                               Decide on the structure of the questions.
                               Decide who to give the questionnaires to.
                            You will also spend time creating your own questions for your
                            ongoing project.


                              Deciding what information to collect
                            You need to collect all of the information that you will require to
                            test your hypotheses. If you forget anything in your original
                            questionnaire it will be difficult to collect the data later, so it is


76
                                                      Lesson 4 Planning the questionnaire


important for each member of your group to check the
questionnaire very carefully before sending it out.




            ACTIVITY 3: What information do you need?
            Here are some hypotheses concerning the students in Year 9 of your
            school. Think about each one and write a list of the information you
            would need in order to prove or disprove each hypothesis.

            Hypothesis 1
            Over 90% of students in Year 9 of my
            school have their own mobile phone.

            Hypothesis 2
            Year 9 students spend more time on the
            Internet than watching television.

            Hypothesis 3
            According to the 2001 Census results,
            the total number of women in Britain
            outnumbers men. This means that this
            will also be the case in Year 9.

            Hypothesis 4
            The boys in Year 9 have a mean height which is greater than that of
            the girls.

            Hypothesis 5
            Year 9 students are more likely to have a dog as a pet than a cat.

            Hypothesis 6
            The majority of Year 9 students live within a one-mile radius of the school.

            Hypothesis 7
            Over 50% of students will
            approve a ban on smoking in
            public places.




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data



                              Creating the questions
                            Creating the questions is not as easy as you think. Here is some
                            information about good questions.
                            Good questions produce good answers that are easily processed to
                            give good-quality information that can answer the original hypotheses.
                            So:
                                  Good questions are easy to understand and do not lead the
                                  interviewee to answer in a particular way.
                                  Good answers are truthful and complete. The interviewee is able
                                  to answer freely and, if the question was multiple choice, his or
                                  her answer is an available option. The answers are easy to process.
                                  Good information helps to prove or disprove a hypothesis.
                            Think about your questions carefully and make sure they are clear,
                            not leading and provide the required answers. Make sure the
                            answers will be easy to process and that the information will either
                            prove or disprove your hypothesis.
REMEMBER                    Suppose you want to investigate the ways in which Year 9 students
 Make sure your             travel to and from school. You would produce some questions.
 questions are clear, not   Look at this question:
 leading and allow all
 possible answers.          Did you travel to school today by car?      Yes   I   No   I
                            This question may look fairly simple, but there is a danger that it
                            could be misinterpreted. The word ‘to’ could imply that you are
                            only interested in the journey to school and not the journey back
                            home at night.
                            Also, some students might be confused if only part of their journey
                            was made by car. For example, they could have been given a lift to
                            the bus stop or the train station.
                            A better question would be:
                            Was the whole of your journey, or any part of your journey, to school
                            today made by car? (Note: this is only about your journey to school
                            and not your journey home.)
                            Yes I No I
                            Always think about the way that a question can be misinterpreted
                            and try to reword it more clearly.
                            Do not include any words which people may not understand. For
                            example the question:
                            What is your mother tongue?
                            is better replaced by the question:
                            What language do you speak most fluently?

78
                                                       Lesson 4 Planning the questionnaire




             ACTIVITY 4: Problems with questions
             Here are some questions which are a bit vague. You have to say why they
             are vague (think about all of the possible answers) and then rewrite the
             questions to make them clearer.

              1   What is your age?

              2   What is your date of birth?

              3   What time do you get up in the morning?

              4   How many people live in your house?

              5   How much do you spend on your mobile phone calls?



  Anonymous questionnaires                                                KEY WORDS

                                                                             misuse – using data in a
If you were asking questions of a personal nature such as students’          way that is morally or
experiences of drugs, sex and alcohol, you might get completely              ethically wrong or
different responses if you had no way of identifying the person              illegal
completing the questionnaire.
Most, but not all, questionnaires are completed anonymously. If you
can identify a person from the answers they give, even if their name
or address is not included, then it is classed as personal information
and you would need to register with a person called the Information
Commissioner. You would then be subject to all sorts of rules and        This logo is used to indicate to
regulations stating what you can and cannot do with the                  data subjects that personal
information. This is to prevent the misuse of information.               information about them is being
                                                                         collected to be processed


  Types of questions
There are lots of different types of questions that you can ask and it
is up to you to use the type most suited to collecting the
information you need. In most questionnaires there will be lots of
different types of questions. Here are some from a CensusAtSchool
questionnaire (source: CensusAtSchool, www.censusatschool.
ntu.ac.uk, 14/08/04).




                                                                                                 79
  Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




                              There is a five-part scale for Question 9. It might have been better to
                              include four or six parts so that people do not choose the easy
                              response by picking the middle of the scale.



Question 10 provides a choice of responses. Notice that space is left for
‘Other’, so the user can put in an answer that is not in the list of
responses. You should always do this as you may not have thought of all
the possible responses.




                                        Question 12 is a two-part
                                        question with the second part of
                                        the question being more specific.




                                                                            ! Note
                                                                             An ‘Other’ option
                                                                             allows interviewees to
                                                                             add their own answer
                                                                             if this is not covered
                                                                             in the list of
                                                                             responses.




  80
                                                                        Lesson 4 Planning the questionnaire



  Making your questions specific                                                                   REMEMBER

When you are writing your questions, always think about the different                                  If you do not tell the
ways they could be answered. For example, if you ask someone their                                     people answering a
                                                                                                       question what units to
height they could give the answer in feet and inches, metres and                                       use, you will have to
centimetres, metres or centimetres. To make it easier for you to                                       convert the answers
process, always state what units of measurement should be used.                                        yourself. This could
                                                                                                       involve a lot of
By working through the following worksheet, you will understand
                                                                                                       needless work.
how to make questions more specific.


     WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
                WORKSHEET 9.2.5   Be specific with your questions
               Your teacher may give you a worksheet on which to work or you may be
               asked to copy this table into your book. Write your answers in the table.
               When you have finished, your teacher will either go through the answers or
               give you an answer sheet so that you can check them yourself.
               Often, the people filling in questionnaires experience problems because the
               questions are too vague. The user is left unsure about what they should enter.
               Here are examples of bad (unspecific) questions and the details of what the
               question is designed to collect. Reword the questions so that they are more
               specific.

    Question 1: What is your height?
    Reason for asking question: To obtain the person’s height in centimetres.
    Reworded question:
    Question 2: What is your weight?
    Reason for asking question: To obtain the person’s weight in kilograms.
    Reworded question:
    Question 3: What is your age?
    Reason for asking question: To obtain a person’s age rounded to the nearest year.
    Reworded question:
    Question 4: What is your favourite sport?
    Reason for asking question: To make sure that the PE department in a school knows which sports people prefer to play.
    Reworded question:
    Question 5: How many text messages do you send?
    Reason for asking question: To find, on average, how many text messages you send each week.
    Reworded question:
    Question 6: Give a mark, on a scale of one to five, indicating how important you think it is to have a mobile phone.
    Reason for asking question: To find out on a scale of one to five (one being not at all important and five very important) how
    important it is to have a mobile phone.
    Reworded question:




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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


KEY WORDS
                                    Who do you ask?
  biased – information
  that favours a particular       When you have completed your questionnaires, who do you give
  viewpoint                       them to? If you are getting the opinions of just Year 9 in your
  representative – a              school, then they would be the statistical population and you should
  sample that reflects the        give the questionnaires to them. If you want the opinions of all of
  whole population                the students in the school, then all of the students in the school
  accurately
                                  would be the statistical population.
  sample – a smaller
  amount of data that             If possible, you should ask
  reflects the whole set of       the whole population’s
  data (or population)            opinion, but this is not
  sample composition –            always feasible so you ask a
  this is how the sample is       sample of the population
  made up so that it              instead. The sample view
  reflects the whole set of
  data. For example, a            should be representative of
  sample in a mixed               the view of the population
  school would usually            as a whole. This will be true
  have equal numbers of           if the choice of sample is
  boys and girls
                                  not biased in any way.
  sample size – the
  number of people who            You came across samples and sampling in Year 7. Here are a few
  were asked for their            questions to see how much you can remember.
  opinion



  QUESTIONS
1 Here is a question which was put into a                 (b) Joanne decides she needs to take a sample
  questionnaire:                                              and ask their views.
   ‘Copying music CDs for friends is illegal and              (i) Explain what is meant by a sample.
   anyone who does this should be prosecuted.
                                                              (ii) Explain how Joanne would collect her
   Have you ever copied music CDs for friends
                                                                   sample to make sure that it is not biased.
   illegally?’
                                                       3 It is near the end of the summer term and all Year
   This question is biased.
                                                         11 pupils have left because they have completed
   (a) What does the word biased mean? Briefly           their GCSEs. Also, all Year 7 pupils are on school
       explain why this question is biased.              trips. Explain why the sample that Joanne collects
                                                         using the remaining students is biased.
   (b) Rewrite the above question removing the bias.
                                                       4 You have been asked to collect information about
2 Joanne is conducting a survey of the attitude of
                                                         the views of the students in your school regarding
  students in her school towards drugs. There are
                                                         the environment. Explain how you would choose:
  800 students in her school, so all of these
  students would be the statistical population.           (a) The sample size.
   (a) Give two reasons why it might not be possible      (b) The sample composition.
       to ask all of the students for their views.




 82
                                        Lesson 5 Producing and refining the questionnaire




              PROJECT 2: Writing the questions to test the hypothesis
              In this activity you will be writing a list of questions, the answers to which will supply
              the information needed to test the hypothesis. Write these questions by hand.

              1    Decide who does what in your team. Each person should write some questions.

              2    Write a series of questions for the questionnaires. You will need to indicate how
                   the questions should be answered (e.g. multiple choice, essay style, etc.).

              3    Meet your group members to check each other’s work. All of the questions must
                   be relevant to the collecting of information to test the hypotheses. The answers
                   will start to indicate whether hypotheses are true or false.

              4    Make any necessary adjustments to your questions.

              5    Agree on a final set of questions for your questionnaire.



  Lesson 5:       PRODUCING AND REFINING THE QUESTIONNAIRE




In this lesson, you will type up the questionnaire using the questions
developed and then carefully proofread it and make any corrections.
A sample questionnaire will be given to a small number of users
(about five people) for testing. You may have to modify the
questionnaire due to feedback from these testers. You will then
evaluate the questionnaire by checking that it supplies the answers
in the correct form that will enable you to answer your original
hypothesis/hypotheses.
The next stage is to send the revised questionnaire to everyone in
your sample for them to complete.


  Considering the layout of your questionnaire
On the next page is a sample questionnaire from CensusAtSchool.
Notice how clearly the form is laid out and also notice how specific
the questions are and how examples of the data required are given
as part of the question.                                                                            83
  Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




Phase 4
CensusAtSchool
questionnaire
Source:
CensusAtSchool,
www.censusatschool.
ntu.ac.uk, 14/08/04




   84
                                       Lesson 5 Producing and refining the questionnaire




             PROJECT 3: Typing up your questionnaire
             In this part of the project you are required to design and type up your
             questionnaire using word-processing or other appropriate software.
             Producing a good questionnaire is extremely important for the success
             of your project, so you need to be very careful with your design.
             Here are a few tips to help you:

             1   If possible, try to keep all of your questions on a single page. You
                 will have to use the columns feature if you are using word-
                 processing software to produce your questionnaire. You are free to
                 choose the most appropriate software to use.

             2   Make sure that you include clear instructions on what data the user
                 has to enter. For example, do not just say, ‘Enter your height’, say
                 instead, ‘Enter your height in centimetres’.

             3   Use a small number of highly focused questions.

             4   Vary the type of questions so that users do not get used to
                 answering in a certain way without properly reading and considering
                 the question.

             5   Use simple language and do not use any technical or unfamiliar
                 words without further explanation.

             6   Avoid biased or leading questions.

             7   Try to ensure that each question follows on from the previous one,
                 so that the questionnaire makes sense and flows well.


  Testing and refining the questions
As you will be working in a group for this project your group may be
able to spot problems with questions that one person on their own
would fail to spot. This is one advantage of working in a group.
As part of testing the questionnaire you can:
   Test how long it takes to complete.
   Check that the questions are not ambiguous.
   Check that the instructions are clear.



                                                                                        85
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


                              Amend or remove any questions that do not give you clear
                              information.
                          You can also test your questions by printing them out and letting a
                          few people complete them. Ask these people for feedback. If they
                          have problems in supplying the answers or do not answer them in
                          the way you thought they would, then you can make changes to the
                          questionnaire and re-test it.
                          You can also ask these ‘guinea pigs’ the following questions about
                          the questionnaire:
                              How long did the questionnaire take to complete?
                              Were the instructions clear?
                              Were any of the questions unclear or ambiguous?
                              Did you leave any questions out and, if so, why?
                              Was the layout of the questionnaire clear and attractive?
                              Do you have any suggestions for improvement?


                            Things you will need to consider when
                            collecting your data
                          You will collect some of the data for your project yourself. You
                          may want to compare the data you have collected with somebody
                          else’s data, and if you do this you need to be sure of the reliability
                          of their data.
                          Here are the things you will need to ask when using somebody
                          else’s data:
                              How reliable is the data source?
                              Were the questions used to collect the data biased in any way?
                              Was the way the sample was selected biased in any way?




        PROJECT 4: Testing and refining your questionnaire
        For this part of the project you need to:
            • Produce drafts of your questions (i.e. different versions of the
               questionnaire).
            • Explain how you tested the questionnaire.

86
                         Lesson 6 Creating the database structure to hold the results




                 • Explain what feedback you got from the testers.
                 • Explain how you changed your questionnaire in the light of the
                      feedback.
                 • Produce a final printout of your questionnaire.


   Lesson 6:     CREATING THE DATABASE STRUCTURE TO HOLD THE RESULTS




In order to process the data held in the questionnaires, you need to
put the answers to the questions into a database structure. You
need to develop a database structure using suitable software. This
software could be specialist database software such as Microsoft
Access, or you could create a database using the more familiar
spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel.
In Year 7 Unit 5 you learnt about data handling, so if you cannot
remember much about data handling and databases, then you
should look back at that unit in the Year 7 book.




             ACTIVITY 5: How much can you remember about creating a
             database using Microsoft Excel?
             On the next page is part of a database created using spreadsheet
             software.
             Here are some database terms:
             field
             record
             field names
             database.



                                                                                    87
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Copy out the following sentences putting the correct term in the spaces.
        The terms may be used once, more than once or not at all.
        When you create a database using spreadsheet software the row
        containing the .................... must be next to the row containing the
        data. This allows the software to recognise that you are creating a
        database.
        Surname, Forename and Gender are examples of .................... .
        A row of data in the database is called a .................... and when these
        records are put together we have a .................... .
        A column of data in the database represents a .................... .



                               Deciding on the field names for a database
                            You need to have field names for the fields in which you will store
                            your answers to the questions in the questionnaire.
                            For example, if you have the following question as part of your
                            questionnaire:
                            What is your sex? M I F I
                            you will need a field to hold the result in your database and a
                            suitable field name for this would be ‘Sex’.




88
                          Lesson 6 Creating the database structure to hold the results




            ACTIVITY 6: Deciding on field names
            Here are some questions. Your task is to come up with a suitable field
            name for each of the fields which hold the answers to the questions.

             1   What is your date of birth (DD/MM/YY)? —/—/—

             2   Do you have your own mobile phone?      Yes I    No I

             3   On average, how long to the nearest hour do you spend using the
                 Internet each week? ..................

             4   Do you have access to the Internet at home?     Yes I   No I

             5   What is your religion?

                 Christian           I
                 Muslim              I
                 Hindu               I
                 Jewish              I
                 Buddhist            I
                 Sikh                I
                 None                I
                 Other religion      I



  Advice on planning field names                                         REMEMBER

                                                                           Short field names allow
Although you may be tempted to use long field names so that they           more columns to
describe the data clearly, this will cause a problem because the           appear on the screen,
columns that hold the field names will need to be wide. Therefore,         so the information is
fewer columns will be visible on the screen at the same time. This         easier to see.
makes it more difficult to use the database.




                                                                                              89
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        PROJECT 5: Planning the field names to hold the answers to the
        questions in the questionnaire
        In this activity you have to produce a list of field names which can be
        used to hold the answers to the questions in your group’s questionnaire.
        The field names should be in the same order as the questions so that the
        person inputting the data from the questionnaires will see the fields on the
        database on the screen in the same order as the questions on the form.
        A table like this should be filled in:

         Question number      Question           Field name used   Data type (number,   Notes
                                                                   date or text)
         1                    Date of birth      DOB               Date
         2                    Key Stage          Key Stage         Number               3 or 4
         3                    Favourite pet      Fav Pet           Text




 Lesson 7:   ENSURING THE ACCURATE ENTRY OF DATA INTO YOUR
             DATABASE




                            In this lesson you will learn about the steps that can be taken to
                            ensure that the data entered into the database is as accurate as
                            possible.
                            If you process wrong data you get wrong information and so we
                            need to make sure that we do not introduce errors such as typing
                            mistakes when inputting the data. The software used to store the
                            data can also be used to check it, as you will see in this lesson.




90
                         Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database



  Making sure your data is accurate
There is no point in being careful in the construction of your
questionnaire if you are then going to make mistakes when you
enter the data into the database.
There are two main ways in which errors in the data can occur:
   You may misread data from the questionnaire and type it
   incorrectly into the database.
   The data on the form may be incorrect, and even though it is
   correctly typed in, it will still be wrong.
It is hard to eliminate all of the errors but it is possible to make the
data as accurate as you can.
You need to:
   Have a method of making sure that the data on the
   questionnaires is entered correctly.
   Have a method of making sure that any data which is obviously
   incorrect, for example the date 30/2/2005, is prevented from
   entering the database.


  Deciding what to do with dirty data
You also need to decide what to do with dirty data. Dirty data                           KEY WORDS
comes from questionnaires which have not been completed
properly. Maybe some people did not understand the questions or                           dirty data – an item of
they have not completed the form properly (e.g. when asked for                            data that is obviously
                                                                                          wrong
their date of birth, they entered the current date by mistake). They
may have forgotten to supply answers to some questions.

                 You can go back
               to the source of the           You can delete it in the
                data and check it              fields where it occurs




                                      Dirty Data              You can alter it to what
                                                             you thought it should be




      You can disregard an entire                  You can ask the respondent ( the
        questionnaire sheet if it                  person who filled in the questions)
      contains too much dirty data                        to supply new data




                                                                                                              91
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


KEY WORDS
                             Data verification
 verification – checking
 the accuracy of data      Verification involves simply checking that the data being typed in
 entry                     matches exactly the data on the questionnaire. Verification helps to
                           ensure that no mistakes are made during the typing.


                             Data validation
                           When you are typing data from a questionnaire into a database there
                           are a number of mistakes that you can make. Here are some of
                           them:
                              Typing in the same information twice.
                              Leaving a field blank.
                              Transposing words, letters and numbers (i.e. putting them in the
                              wrong order).
                              Misreading a word in a document you are copying from.
                              Putting the data into the wrong format.

                              QUESTIONS
                            Here is a table containing the names of validation checks and a
                            description of what they are designed to check. The only problem is that
                            they have been mixed up. Copy the table below and use arrows to indicate
                            which check relates to which description.

                              Name of validation check     Description of what it is designed to check
                              Range check                  Ensuring that data has been entered into a field.
                              Data type check              Checks to make sure that the entered data is in
                                                           a list.
                              Presence check               To make sure that a number lies within a certain
                                                           range.
KEY WORDS

 validation check – a
 check performed by a      When data is validated we ask, ‘Is this data possible or reasonable?’.
 computer program to       Data validation is performed by a computer program. When we
 make sure that the data   build a database we need to think about the validation checks that
 is permissible            we can set up to trap unreasonable data.




92
        Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




ACTIVITY 7: Validation checks using Excel
In this activity you will learn how to create validation checks for data
being entered into a database using spreadsheet software.

1   Load the spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel.

2   Load the file called Health Database. The following worksheet
    should appear.

                                                                             ! Note
                                                                             You can access the
                                                                             file Health Database
                                                                             via the Activities Files
                                                                             link at www.
                                                                             nelsonthornes.com/
                                                                             solutions




3   The Age field needs a validation check. The health questionnaire was
    given to Year 9 pupils. Here they enter their age to the nearest year.
    This means that this number can be between 12 and 14.

    Suppose data is being entered into cells from A4 to A30. We need to
    put validation checks in all of those cells. To choose a range for the
    validation check, highlight all of the cells from cell A4 to cell A30.

4   Click on       and select Validation… from the pull-down
    menu like this:




5   The following Data Validation
    screen appears.

    Click on the pull-down menu
    under Allow:.




                                                                                            93
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




         6   Here you can select the type of data that you want to go into the
             cell. In this database, in the Age field whole numbers need to be
             entered, so click on Whole number.

                               ! Note
                                Notice all of the different specifications for data being entered into a field.
                                Once you have specified a particular type of data, it can prevent other different
                                types of data from being entered. For example, if you have specified Whole
                                number, a number that contains decimal places cannot be entered.




         7   Now click on the Data: pull-down menu.




             Select between from the list.

         8   The number for the age
             has to be a whole
             number between 12 and
             14.

             In the Minimum: box
             enter 12 and in the
             Maximum: box enter
             14 like this:




94
                   Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




          9     Click on OK.

                You have now added a validation check to a single cell that will only
                allow whole numbers between and including 12 to 14 to be
                entered.

          10    You now have to test this validation check.

                You need to check that:
                (a) It only allows whole numbers to be entered.
                (b) It only allows numbers between 12 and 14 to be entered.

                It is best to create a table and then enter the values into cell A4 of
                the spreadsheet and record what happens. You should never assume
                that a validation check will work as expected; it should be tested.

          11    Type each of the numbers into cell A4 in turn and then copy and
                complete the validation table shown below.

Validation check for cell: A4          Field name: Age
Value entered     What should happen   What actually happens   Action needed
5                 Not accepted         Not accepted            None
15                                                                               REMEMBER
12                                                                                  Always ensure
13                                                                                  that your
                                                                                    validation
14                                                                                  checks work as
20                                                                                  expected. Do
                                                                                    not simply
12.5                                                                                assume they
15.5                                                                                will work.

5.5
13.4


         12     To complete the validation you need to check that all of the cells in
                the range from A4 to A30 contain the validation check. You can do
                this by entering valid and invalid ages into cell A30 and some of the
                other cells.

         13     Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck1’.




                                                                                               95
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        ACTIVITY 8: Adding a validation message
        When you have included a validation check for a cell and the user tries to
        enter invalid data, the following message appears:




        This is not very helpful for the user because all it says is that the data is
        not valid. Rather than making the user guess what values they can enter,
        we need a more helpful message explaining what range of values they
        are allowed to enter.

         1   Load the software Microsoft Excel and the file Validationcheck1 if
             you do not already have them loaded.

         2   Select the cell range A4 to A30 (on selection the range will be
             highlighted in blue).

         3   Click on      and select Validation… from the pull-down

             menu like this:




        The following Data Validation screen
        appears.




96
       Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




4   Click on the Input Message tab and the following window appears.




Enter the text as shown into the Title: and Input message: boxes.
As soon as users move the cursor onto any cells in the range A4 to A30
the message will appear which will prompt them to enter the right kind
of data.

5   If they take no notice of the Input Message and still enter invalid
    data, an error alert needs to appear telling them what they have
    done wrong and what they have to enter.
Click on the Error Alert tab and the following window appears. Enter
the text as shown in this screenshot.




                                                                          97
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Click on the pull-down menu for Style: and you can choose a suitable
        style for the graphic which appears to alert the user.
        Click on OK.

         6   Move the cursor to any cell in the range to check that the input
             message appears like this:




         7   Now check the Error Alert message by entering valid and invalid
             data into any cell in the range A4 to A30.
        When invalid data is entered the following Error Alert should appear.




         8   You have now completed the validation for the Age field.
        Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck2’.


        ACTIVITY 9: Validating the Sex field
        Other types of data can also be validated by using the Data Validation
        feature.
        You are going to create a validation check for the field Sex. We can do
        this by including a drop-down list which only allows the options M or F
        to be selected.

         1   Load the software Microsoft Excel and the file Validationcheck2 if
             these are not already loaded.




98
       Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




2   Select the fields from B4 to B30 by clicking and dragging. The cell
    range will be highlighted like this:




3   Click on      and select Validation… from the pull-down

    menu like this:




4   The Data Validation window
    appears.




                                                                          99
         Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




                         In the Allow: box select List.
! Note                   In the Source: box type in the possible selections you want the user to
                         pick from, which in this case is M or F. Notice that the items in this list
You should always
specify if a field can   need to be separated by commas.
be left blank or not.
Some fields such as      Remove the tick in the Ignore blank box. This will prevent a user from
e-mail address or        being able to leave this field empty whilst filling in the record.
mobile phone
number could be left
blank as not             5   Click on the Input Message tab.
everyone has these.
                         Type in the Title: and Input message: as shown here.




                         6   Click on OK. This now means that when the user selects any cell in
                             the range B4 to B30 the input message will appear.
                         7   Click on the Error Alert tab.


                                                                           Type in the Title: and
                                                                           Error message: as
                                                                           shown here.




         100
        Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




8    You have completed the creation of the validation check for Sex.
Click on OK.

9    Now move to any cell within the range B4 to B30 and you will see
     the drop-down list appear.




10   Put a few entries in this field to get used to using the drop-down
     list. It is also possible to type in other entries but the error message
     will appear and prevent their entry. Check that this works as
     expected.

11   Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck3’.


ACTIVITY 10: Adding the validation checks for the Weight field
In order to produce good validation checks you need to think carefully
about the data that will go into each field.
Sometimes it is necessary to do some research to find out information
about the data. For example, in the Weight field, you could have a range
check but you would need to have some idea of the maximum and
minimum weights to put in. One way to do this would be to look at the



                                                                                101
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        data and find the largest and the smallest value. Another way is to do
        some research to find typical weight values.

         1   Load the software Microsoft Excel and the file Validationcheck3 if
             these are not already loaded.

         2   Select the cells from C4 to C30.

         3   Using your own figures obtained using suitable research, put an
             appropriate validation check in for these fields. Make sure that you
             produce a suitable Input Message and Error Alert.

         4   Test your validation check by copying and completing the following
             table.

              Validation check for cells: C4 to C30   Field name: Weight
              Value entered    What should happen     What actually happens   Action needed




         5   Test that the Input Message and Error Alert work as expected.

         6   Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck4’.


        ACTIVITY 11: Researching and adding a validation check for the
        Height field
        If you ask someone their height there are a lot of answers that can be
        given. Some people may give their answer in feet and inches while
        others will give their answer in metres or centimetres. It is important
        to specify, as part of the question, the unit of measurement that you
        want to be used.




102
        Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




In this database users will enter their heights in centimetres, and in this
activity you will validate the data they supply as their answer.

1   Connect to the Internet and try to find out typical heights for people
    in the 12 to 14 age group. You will need this information when
    creating the validation check.

2   Load the software Microsoft Excel and the file Validationcheck4 if
    these are not already loaded.

3   Select the cells from D4 to D30.

4   Using your own figures, obtained using suitable research, put an
    appropriate validation check in for these fields. Make sure that you
    produce a suitable Input Message and Error Alert.

5   Test your validation check by copying and completing the following
    table.

     Validation check for cells: D4 to D30   Field name: Height
     Value entered    What should happen     What actually happens   Action needed




6   Test that the Input Message and Error Alert work as expected.

7   Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck5’.


ACTIVITY 12: Validating dates
Some dates are valid and some are not.
Look at each of these dates carefully and say whether each is possible
or not:



                                                                                     103
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




         1   29 February 2004.

         2   29 February 2001.

         3   31 November 1999.

         4   30 June 2005.

         5   31 September 2004.


        ACTIVITY 13: Validating dates using Excel
        You will now use the spreadsheet software Excel to check the dates in
        the previous activity.
        Open a blank spreadsheet, click on a cell and change the format of this
        cell to Date.
        Type each of the dates into this cell in turn to see what happens.
        Keep a record of your results.


        ACTIVITY 14: Validating a date of birth for Year 9 students
        You are going to validate the date of birth for Year 9 students who were
        born between 1 September 1993 and 31 August 1994 (NB: these dates
        of birth are correct in 2004 when this book was written).
        If you just type dates straight in, the spreadsheet will think they are text
        and will allow them all to be typed in.
        You need to add a validation check to the field.

         1   Load the spreadsheet Excel and start a new worksheet.

         2   Put the column heading into cell A1 like this:




        Widen the column to accommodate the field name.

         3   Position the cursor on cell A2 and select the cells down as far as
             cell A8 as this is the range of cells on which the validation check is
             to be applied.


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       Lesson 7 Ensuring the accurate entry of data into your database




4   Click on      and select Validation…

    from the pull-down menu like this:




5   The following Data Validation screen appears.




Click on the pull-down menu under Allow:.

6   Select Date and key in the two dates like this:




                                                                   105
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Make sure that you remove the tick in the ‘Ignore blank’ box. This        ! Note
        will ensure that a date of birth is always entered and that the cells     You should always
        are not left blank.                                                       specify if a field can
                                                                                  be left blank or not.
                                                                                  Some fields such as
         7   Choose a suitable Input Message and Error Alert and click on         e-mail address or
             OK. Refer back to the previous activities if you cannot              mobile phone
                                                                                  number could be left
             remember how to do this.                                             blank as not
                                                                                  everyone has these.
         8   Produce a table like the one created in Activities 13 and 14 and
             use this to test that your validation check works as expected.
        Also check that your Input Message and Error Alert work as expected.


        ACTIVITY 15: Adding validation checks for the remaining
        fields
        For this activity you have to create the validation checks with
        appropriate messages for the two other fields in this database. It is
        important that in the Input Message you specify carefully what the
        user is expected to enter for the field. For example, in the field for
        the number of items of fruit/vegetables eaten per day, you should
        specify that this is an average figure.
        When you have completed this activity write down your validation
        check and also any titles and messages you included for your Input
        Message and Error Alert.
        Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Validationcheck6’.




        PROJECT 6: Adding validation checks to your database
        In this activity you will continue to develop your database to hold the
        answers of the questionnaires.
        In this activity you will:
             • Add validation checks to the fields in your database.
             • Add appropriate input messages.
             • Add appropriate error alerts.


106
                                              Lesson 8 Entering the data into your database




                 • Test your validation checks by completing tables like this one:
                      Validation check for cells: D4 to D30   Field name: Height
                      Value entered    What should happen     What actually happens   Action needed




            It is not always possible to validate every field so you do not need to add
            validation checks to all of your fields.



   Lesson 8:    ENTERING THE DATA INTO YOUR DATABASE




In this lesson you will enter the
data that you have collected into
the database structure. You will
need to deal appropriately with
any dirty data or data that fails
your validation checks.




                                                                                                      107
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        PROJECT 7: Entering the data into the database structure
        For this activity you will enter the answers from the questionnaires into
        your database structure.
        You will need to make sure that the data entry into the database is
        accurate by:
              • Proofreading your entered data against the answers to the
                 questions.
              • Dealing appropriately with any dirty data.
              • Dealing with any data that fails your validation checks.
        When you have entered all of the data into the database structure,
        obtain a printout in a suitable format showing all of that data.
        Include this printout as part of your project documentation.




  Lesson 9:    TESTING HYPOTHESES AND DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM
               DATA




                                                     Once all of the data has been entered into
                                                     the database you can process that data to
                                                     determine the answers to the hypotheses.
                                                     You can also examine the data in the
                                                     database to draw other conclusions. Maybe
                                                     the data shows some interesting facts that
                                                     are worth mentioning.
                                                     Here is some information about GCSE
                                                     exam results in 2002. These are actual
                                                     results and you are going to analyse them
                                                     using a database created using spreadsheet
                                                     software.




108
        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




ACTIVITY 16: What do the results show?
Here is a hypothesis: ‘Girls are better at English and Maths than boys’. In
order to prove or disprove the hypothesis it was decided to use the data
on the GCSE examination results.
These results were obtained for the year 2002 from a reliable source,
the BBC.
The full version of the results can be seen on the following website:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/education/02/exam_results/html/
gcse.stm

1   Load the spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel and open the file
    called GCSE Results Analysis. The following worksheet will appear.




                                                                ! Note
                                                                 You can access the file
                                                                 GCSE Results Analysis via
                                                                 the Activities Files link at
                                                                 www.nelsonthornes.com/
                                                                 solutions
2   Describe what further processing (calculations, graphs,
    etc.) could be done to make the information easier to digest.

3   Make any alterations to this spreadsheet that you think are
    necessary and save the results using the file name ‘GCSE Results
    Analysis1’.

4   State whether you think the hypothesis is true or false on the basis
    of these figures.

5   Print out a copy of your worksheet.




                                                                                            109
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        ACTIVITY 17: Processing data further to provide more
        information
        The highest grade you can get at GCSE is the grade A*. The following
        spreadsheet shows the percentage of boys and girls getting A* grades in
        different subjects at GCSE.

         1   Load the spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel and open the file
             Grades.
        Check that the following worksheet appears.




                                                                     ! Note
                                                                      You can access the file
                                                                      Grades via the Activities
                                                                      Files link at
                                                                      www.nelsonthornes.com/
                                                                      solutions




         2   Notice that the numbers do not line up neatly. This is because whole
             numbers are not shown with a decimal place after them. For
             example, if 7.0 is entered, it is displayed as 7 on the worksheet.
        To format the numbers so that they all appear to one decimal place,
        select all of the numbers in columns B and C by highlighting them.
        Click on Format and then Cells….




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        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




The following screen appears.




Make sure that the Category is set to Number and that the Decimal
places is set to one, and then click on the OK button.
The worksheet will now look like this:




3   Further processing enables more information to be obtained to help
    give an answer to the hypothesis.


                                                                         111
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Further processing can involve producing statistics such as working out
        the mean percentage pass rate for the boys and girls.
        Type the following into cell A25: Average (Mean) percentage. Make this
        text bold.
        To work out the mean of all the cells in the range B6 to     REMEMBER
        B24, enter into cell B25 the formula =Average(B6:B24).           There are lots of
        Enter a similar formula into cell C25. This time it is           functions in Excel to
        =Average(C6:C24).                                                choose from. In Unit 5
                                                                         of the Year 7 book a
                                                                         range of functions were
         4   In column D we want to put a text message, either           explained, such as
             ‘Boys’ or ‘Girls’ depending on who did best in the          maximum, minimum,
             subject.                                                    mode, median, etc.
        Type Who did best at this subject? into cell D5. You will
        need to widen the column to fit the text.

         5   We want to compare the number in cell B with the number in cell C
             to see which is bigger. If the number in the cell in column B is
             bigger, then the message Boys appears; if it is not bigger, the
             message Girls will appear.
        Type the formula =IF(B6>C6,“Boys”,“Girls”) into cell D6.
        The message will appear in cell D6 like this:




         6   Now copy the formula down the column. This saves having to type
             it in each row and altering it slightly each time. Copy the formula by
             moving the cursor to the cell that contains it. Click the bottom
             right-hand corner of the cell and you should get a black cross shape.
             Hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse down the
             column until you reach cell D24. You will see a dotted rectangle
             around the area where the formula is copied. Now take your finger
             off the button and the results will be inserted. This is called relative
             copying because the formulae are altered slightly to take account of
             the changed positions of the marks for each subject.




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        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




The completed worksheet now looks like this:




7   We could count up the number of subjects at which girls did better
    and those at which boys did better, but why not get the computer
    to do this using the COUNTIF function.
You came across the COUNTIF function in Year 7 when you had to count
up the occurrences of different scores on a dice.
The COUNTIF function can also be used for counting the occurrences of
a certain word. We can therefore use two COUNTIF functions: one to
work out the number of occurrences of Girls and another to work out
the number of occurrences of Boys.
In cell A27 enter the text Girls did better than boys in, and in cell A28
add the text Boys did better than girls in.

8   Put the formula shown below into cell B27.




Put the formula shown on the next page into cell B28.


                                                                            113
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Manually count the number of occurrences of Boys and Girls and check
        that the formula is producing the same answer. Never assume that a
        formula is producing the correct answer – always check it.

         9    Key the text subjects in cells C27 and C28.
        Your final worksheet will now look like this:




         10   Save your worksheet using the file name ‘Who got the highest
              grades at GCSE’.

         11   Print out a copy of this worksheet.


        ACTIVITY 18: Evaluating the worksheet
        In the last activity you started with a simple worksheet containing
        percentages of boys and girls getting the highest grade A* at GCSE in
        2002. This was then processed further to provide more information.



114
                      Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




              1   Explain how the additional processing (i.e. the extra calculations
                  performed) made it easier to interpret what the data shows.

              2   Here is a hypothesis: ‘Girls get a much greater number of A* grades
                  than boys’.
             Is the hypothesis true or false from the results shown in your
             worksheet?
             Support your answer with facts and figures from your worksheet.




           EXTENSION                   ACTIVITY

  It is always possible to refine and improve a worksheet. You can
  do this by:
  • Using different fonts and font sizes.
  • Adding features such as colour and borders so that
    important things stand out.
  • Performing further calculations to provide more
    information.
  • Adding graphs and charts so that the information can be
    seen pictorially.
  • Adding clip art or other artwork to make the worksheet
     stand out.
  Improve the worksheet created in Activity 17 by carrying out
  some of the suggestions listed above.



  The CensusAtSchool project
CensusAtSchool is a project that has been set up by Nottingham
Trent University and its purpose is to collect data about students
aged 7 to 16. Over 60,000 students in over 200 schools took the
time to answer the questions on the on-line survey. The questions
covered information on the students, their households and their
school life. The idea was that this school census would be just like
the real Census which took place in 2001.


Comma separated variable/value files (CSV files)
When all of the data from the student census had been put into the
computer it was stored in a special file format called a comma
separated variable/value file or CSV for short.

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Unit 2 Gathering and processing data


                           A CSV file can be loaded into any database or spreadsheet program.
                           This means that you could read the file using the spreadsheet
                           software Excel or using the database software called Access. Packages
                           that are not part of Microsoft Office could be used to read the file.
                           This flexibility means the file can be used by a lot more people.
                           Once the file has been opened by the software that you want to
                           use, you can save it in the normal file format used by that software.




        ACTIVITY 19: Using part of the data from the CensusAtSchool
        project
        In this activity you are going to investigate a random set of data from the
        CensusAtSchool project.

         1   Load the software Microsoft Excel.

         2   Click on File and then Open and a screen similar to this will
             be displayed.




        The file we want to use, called ‘CSVFile’, is not         REMEMBER
        displayed here. This is because it is not a Microsoft
        Excel file.                                                  To view CSV files in
                                                                     Excel, you need to select
        Click on the drop-down list in the box Files of type         All Files in the Files of
        and then select All Files from the list.                     type window.




116
        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




3   The following screen now shows all file types.




Now find the file called CSVFile and then click on Open.

4   An Excel spreadsheet is opened and the data in the database is
    displayed like this:




                                                                     117
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




         5   Notice that some of the data looks strange. This is because it has
             been imported as a CSV file. Some of the formatting (i.e. suitable
             column widths) has been lost. We need to make some of the
             columns wider to accommodate the data and the column headings.
        Widen the columns to suitable widths for each column.
        The data should now look like this:




                                                                     ! Note
                                                                     When data is imported into Excel
         6   This database now needs to be saved as an Excel file.   from a CSV file, some of the
                                                                     formatting will be lost. Some of the
        Click on File and then Save As….                             data may look strange, and you will
                                                                     need to reformat the cells.




118
        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




The following window will appear.




Change the file name to ‘Answers to student survey’ and from the Save
as type: select Microsoft Excel Workbook.
Check that your window looks like this:




Now click on Save.

7   As there are so many columns, it is impossible to print out the entire
    worksheet on a single page and still be able to read it.



                                                                             119
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        To make the worksheet easy to
        use in printed form you need to:
            (a) Include the column
                letters and row
                numbers.
            (b) Show the gridlines.
            (c) Show the worksheet in
                landscape.
        Click on File and then Page
        Setup. The window shown here
        appears.


        Change the settings so that you
        have included all of the items in
        the list.
        Click on Print Preview to check that all of your settings are correct. Your
        screen will now look like this:




120
                             Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




                 When you are happy with the screen, click on the Print… button.
                 Check that your printout is readable as you will need it for the
                 next activity.




  Coding data
Data is often coded before it is put into a database. There are two
reasons for this:
1 It takes less time to enter the data into the database.
2 It takes less time to sort the data or make searches.




                 ACTIVITY 20: Can you guess what these codes mean?
                 Here are some codes. Some will be very familiar. Your task is to say what
                 they represent. If you are unsure about any, take a guess.

                  1    M/F                            6    U, PG, 12, 15, 18

                  2    FD04RTF                        7    GBP, USD, GDM, EUR

                  3    S/M/L/XL/XXL                   8    Y7/Y8/Y9

                  4    0151/0121/0161/0181            9    .bmp/.jpg/.gif

                  5    MAN/LHR/                       10   A*/A/B/C/D/E



   QUESTIONS
 Codes are often used to abbreviate data.
 Give the names of two codes that you have used.
 Code 1 ....................................
 Code 2 ....................................




                                                                                             121
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        ACTIVITY 21: Coding data
        You will need the printout for the answers to the student survey for this
        activity.

         1   (a) Look down column I. There are two possible responses to
                 whether or not a student has a mobile: 0 or 1. What do you
                 think this code means?
             (b) Can you think of a different coding system that could be used
                 for this field? Write this down.

         2   (a) A coding system has been used for the field FootyClub. Give a
                 reason why a code is used instead of entering the name for the
                 football club, such as Manchester United.
             (b) Give one disadvantage of using a coding system for this field.

         3   Look at column N containing the data for the Region field.
        Create a coding system that could be used for this data. Briefly explain
        the coding system used.

         4   The best coding systems are self explanatory. However, this is not
             always possible particularly if there are lots of possible answers.
        From this database give an example of a coding system that is self
        explanatory and an example of a coding system that is not easy to
        understand.


        ACTIVITY 22: Is the data dirty?
        You came across dirty data in Year 7 Unit 5 on data handling. Dirty data
        contains obvious errors and if it is processed the results produced will
        be wrong.
        You will need the printout of the answers to the student survey for this
        activity.

         1   (a) The field for FootyClub has some empty cells. Why do you think
                 this is?
             (b) If a person does not support a football team, then a zero
                 should be entered. What should be done to clean the data in
                 column H?




122
        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




2   Cells C9 and C33 do not contain a date of birth. What do
    you suggest we do with the rows (i.e. records) from which
    data is missing?

3   Row 38 is a record that contains lots of incomplete fields.
    What is the best thing to do with this record?


ACTIVITY 23: Sorting data
                                                                      ! Note
Sorting the database into different orders
                                                                      You can access the file
                                                                      Clean answers to
1   Load the spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel                     student survey via the
                                                                      Activities Files link at
    and the file called Clean answers to student survey.              www.nelsonthornes.
                                                                      com/solutions
2   Look carefully at the data in this database and notice that
    it is not in any particular order.
It would be useful to look at this data in key-stage order with the
lowest key stages first.
Click on any of the numbers in the Key Stage column and then
click on the descending order (Z to A) icon in the toolbar.


Ascending order




    Descending order


Your database will now be sorted. Notice that all of the key-
stage 2 pupils appear first.

3   Suppose we want to put this list into order according to key
    stage and date of birth so that the younger pupils appear
    first in each key stage.
Click on any date in the Date of Birth column and then click on
the descending order (Z to A) icon in the toolbar.




                                                                                    123
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Check that your worksheet is ordered like this:




        ACTIVITY 24: Using filters
        Filters are features in Excel that allow you to search for data that meets
        certain criteria. Basically, they filter out the unwanted data leaving the
        required data to be displayed.

         1   Click on Data then Filter and then Autofilter. You will see that the
             cells in the row containing the field name now have drop-down
             arrows. Clicking on any of these shows a drop-down menu from
             which a selection can be made.




124
        Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




2   Click on the drop-down arrow for Key Stage and the following
    drop-down menu appears.




Notice that the Key Stage numbers 2, 3 and 4 appear in this list.

3   Select 3 from this list and notice that only the Key Stage 3
    records are displayed.

4   To display the whole list of records just click on (All) in the
    drop-down list for Key Stage.

5   Suppose you wanted to just show those records for Key
    Stage 2 and Key Stage 3. Click on the drop-down arrow for
    Key Stage and then select (Custom…) from the menu.
    The following menu appears.




                                                                      125
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        We want to show the rows where the Key Stage is either 2 or 3. Fill in
        the appropriate boxes as shown, making use of the drop-down menus.
        Then click on OK. The following records will now be displayed.




        ACTIVITY 25: Using filters on your own
        In this activity you can practise using filters.
        You are to use the same data as for the previous activity.
        Using filters produce the following:
            • A display of all female students.
            • A display of all female Key Stage 3 students.

126
                      Lesson 9 Testing hypotheses and drawing conclusions from data




                • A display of all students living in the North East.
                • A display of all male students living in the North East.
                • A display of all Key Stage 2 students who have their own computer.

        EXTENSION                     ACTIVITY

Using filters, produce:
• A display of all students who have a height greater than
  150 cm.
• A display of all female students who have a foot size greater
   than or equal to 25.



  WORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEETWORKSHEET
          WORKSHEET 9.2.6   Thinking up further hypotheses that can be tested using the data
          In the project that you will be developing you will list the hypotheses you
          want to test and then collect and process the relevant data to find out if the
          hypotheses are true or false. It is also possible to ask further hypotheses that
          you did not think of at the start of the project. Provided that you have
          collected the data, these further hypotheses can be tested.
          In this worksheet you will need to look carefully at the data from the
          database printout and identify the hypotheses that could be tested using
          this data. Here are a few to start
          you off:
          Hypothesis 1: A greater
          percentage of girls than boys have
          mobile phones.
          Hypothesis 2: Over 80% of
          students have a computer.
          Hypothesis 3: There are more
          females than males in the sample
          of data.
          Hypothesis 4: Most students have
          one car in their household.
                                                                                             L
                                                                                             L




                                                                                             127
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




        Hypothesis 5: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 6: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 7: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 8: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 9: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 10: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 11: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 12: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 13: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 14: .............................................................................................
        Hypothesis 15: .............................................................................................




        PROJECT 8: Processing your data and proving/disproving your
        hypotheses
        In this activity you will use the data in your database and process it
        further to provide more information.
        This processing could involve:
              • Performing calculations such as totals, percentages, means,
                    medians, etc.
              • Using functions such as COUNTIF, IF statements, etc.
              • Drawing graphs and charts.
              • Filtering, sorting and searching data.
        After you have processed the data to help you find out whether each
        hypothesis you are testing is true or false, you need to prepare a
        document explaining what you have discovered.
        In this document you will need to state each hypothesis and your
        conclusion (i.e. whether it is true or false). You will also need to explain
        how you arrived at each conclusion and refer to the evidence.
        You can also mention any other interesting things you found out from
        your data.




128
            Lesson 10 Exchanging and sharing information – giving your presentation



 Lesson 10: EXCHANGING AND SHARING INFORMATION – GIVING YOUR
            PRESENTATION




Your group will be required to give a five-minute presentation to the
class and your teacher on your project and the findings from the results.
As part of this presentation you will be required to produce a series
of slides using Microsoft PowerPoint. You could either print the
slides out and use an overhead projector, or you can use a special
projector that is connected to a computer, if there is one available.
                                                                            A data projector is used to
In Year 7 you produced a presentation on UFOs and you need to
                                                                            project an image from a
think about what you did and what other people did. Use this                computer screen onto a
experience to make your presentation as good as you can.                    large screen




             ACTIVITY 26: Criteria for evaluation
             In order for you to give a good presentation, you need to think about
             the ingredients of the presentation.
             For this activity you will need to produce a list of the criteria by which a
             presentation can be judged. Again you will be working in your groups.
             Produce a list of criteria.
             Your teacher will discuss your list with your group.




             PROJECT 9: Preparing the presentation
             For this activity you will work as a group to prepare a presentation on
             the findings of your project. In your presentation you will need to
             consider who your audience is (i.e. your teacher and the other
             members of your class), and make the format of your presentation
             appropriate for them.
             You will need to discuss each of the following:



                                                                                                   129
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data




            • The number of PowerPoint slides to use.
            • The design of each slide (background, fonts, font size, graphics,
               etc.).
            • What text to include on each slide.
        You will also need to decide who does what during the presentation.



                            Tips when speaking to an audience
                          There are not many people who like speaking to an audience. Most
                          people find it quite frightening. The secret is to know and
                          understand what you are talking about and to be prepared.
                          Here are some tips for speaking to an audience:




                             Avoid nervous behaviour.




                             Be mindful of your body language.




                             Show that you are interested in the project.




                             Do not speak in just one tone, and vary the volume of your voice.




                             Do not just read out a set of notes as this will bore your
                             audience.



130
           Lesson 10 Exchanging and sharing information – giving your presentation



  The structure of your presentation
The presentation needs to have a structure. Here is a structure you might like to use.




                                 ¬                                 ¬                                ¯


        Explain the purpose of           Introduce the members            State the hypothesis/
        your presentation.               of the group.                    hypotheses you set out
                                                                          to prove.




¯                                ¬                                 ¬                                °


        Summarise the                    Explain how your data            Explain briefly how you
        important points.                proved/disproved the             collected the data.
                                         hypothesis/hypotheses.




°                                ¬


       Thank the audience for             Answer any questions.
       their attention and ask
       for questions.

  Where to get further help on presentations
If you need further help on your presentation there are some good
websites that you can look at. Two of these are: www.presentation
helper.co.uk and www.hope.ac.uk/gnu/stuhelp/pres.htm.
                                                                                             131
Unit 2 Gathering and processing data



                          Criteria for evaluation
                        It is important to have some criteria for evaluation in order to assess
                        presentations. It is helpful to know how your presentation will be
                        marked before you start. Below is a list of the things your teacher
                        and the rest of your class will be looking for in your presentation.
                        You can use this as a checklist to make sure that you have included
                        all of these points in your presentation. As you can see, each item in
                        this list will be given a mark from one to four and the maximum
                        possible mark for the presentation will be 60.


                        Presentation structure
                         Introduction           No introduction          1234      Good introduction
                                                Did not introduce
                                                group members            1234      Introduced members
                         Order of slides        Not a logical order      1234      Sensible order
                         Conclusion             No conclusion            1234      Good conclusion
                         Main points            No summary               1234      Full summary
                         summarised

                        Delivery of the presentation

                         Preparation            Poorly prepared          1234      Well prepared
                         Voice                  Unclear/monotonous       1234      Clear/varied tone
                         Eye contact            Did not make eye contact 1 2 3 4   Good eye contact
                         Timing                 Too long/short           1234      Well timed
                         Nervousness            Very nervous             1234      Confident delivery
                         Use of equipment       Poor                     1234      Excellent

                        Use of slides

                         Slide design           Poor                     1234      Excellent
                         Slide content          Poor                     1234      Excellent

                        Subject knowledge

                         Knowledge of subject   Poor                     1234      Excellent
                         Ability to answer      Poor                     1234      Excellent
                         questions




132
           Lesson 10 Exchanging and sharing information – giving your presentation




            PROJECT 10: Giving the presentation
            For this activity your group will present your findings to your teacher and
            the other groups in your class.
            Your teacher will be using the criteria for evaluation to assess your work.
            The teacher may also ask the other groups to help arrive at a final mark
            for your work.


            PROJECT 11: Evaluating your project
            This is the final activity of your project. You are required to evaluate the
            project.
            Here are some things which you should consider in your evaluation:
                 • How reliable do you think your results are?
                 • What could you have changed in your questionnaire to make it
                    better?
                 • How well did the results of the questionnaire answer your
                    original hypothesis/hypotheses?
                 • Did you have problems with the software (such as not knowing
                    how to do things) and, if so, how did you overcome them?
            You will need to write a document entitled ‘Evaluation’.




  Evaluating your own performance in the project
You have worked as a group to complete this project. However, the
project documentation is something you must write up for yourself.
Obviously since you are doing the same project, other members of
your group will have very similar documentation and this is fine.
Some parts, such as the evaluation, will be your own work as you
will be describing your experiences of the project.
Your teacher will also require you to hand in your complete project
documentation for marking.




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