Literary Elements

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					 Literary Elements
   These are the basic
 elements which you will
  need to be prepared to
explain to the class about
        your novel.
Literary Elements
    Point of View
    Rising Action
    Falling Action
   The author reveals the theme
    through the literary
    elements such as character,
    setting, plot, and point of
        Theme, continued
   Theme is the main idea, meaning. or message
    of a literary work.

   It is not the same as the subject or a
    summary of the action.

   It is the author’s statement of the way
    things are – or how they should be.

   It is the author’s reflection on a
    universal truth.
   Who (or what) is in the story –
    people or animals.

   Usually one character is central
    – the action revolves around him
    or her.
       Character, continued
   Protagonist – The chief character in a
    play, story, or film. Enlists our
    interest and sympathy, whether his/her
    cause is heroic or not.

   Antagonist – Second most important
    character in a play, story, or film.
    Directly opposed to the protagonist, a
    rival or opponent.
         Character, continued
        The author reveals character in four
         main ways:
    1.     By author comment - the author tells a
           person’s actions and analyzes his
    2.     By the character’s actions
    3.     By the character’s comments
    4.     By what the other characters say about him
         Character, continued
   Useful Character Questions

       What traits does each character have?

       How are they revealed?

       Does a character change during the
        story? If so, how?
     Character, continued
   How does the writer want you
    to react to each person?

   Does the character remind
    you of someone you know?
   The physical background of a
    story, the time and place in
    which the action takes place. It
    is normally explained at or near
    the beginning of the story.
    Setting, continued
   Does the setting influence the plot or the
    What kind of mood or atmosphere (the
    emotional coloring) does the setting
   How important is the setting to the story?
    Could the same story happen in any other
    time or place?
    Setting, continued
   As you read the story:
      Picture the setting – think about :
        Geographical location
        Scenery
        Weather
        Furniture
        Clothing
        Time of Year
        Period of History
   Plot – the plan of events or
    the main story.

   It is based on one or more
    conflicts, with one being the
    main conflict of the story.
        Plot, continued
   There are two kinds of
       External –
           Between two characters – human
            vs. human
           Between a character and society –
            human vs. society
           Between a character and nature or
            a supernatural element – human
            vs. nature
         Plot, continued
   Kinds of conflicts, continued:

       Internal –
         Withina character – human vs.
Techniques to Develop the
    Foreshadowing – hinting about an
     event that has not yet occurred.

    Flashback – breaks the sequences
     of events to tell about something
     that occurred earlier.
    Techniques to Develop the
         Plot, continued
   Suspense – feeling of growing tension
    and excitement felt by the reader as the
    plot develops.

   Surprise Ending – unexpected twist in
    the plot at the end of the story.
     Techniques to Develop the
          Plot, continued
   Dialogue – an important way for
    the author to create realism and
    suspense. Useful method of
    revealing character and
    developing plot.
        Point of View
   First Person - Narrative told
    by one of the characters from
    the “I” point of view.
      Limited because the reader
       knows only what the character
     Point of View, continued
   Limited Third Person – Narrator
    tells the story using “he” and
      Can be limited with the narrator
       knowing the thoughts of only one
     Point of View, continued
   Omniscient – Narrator tells the
    story using “he” and “she.”
      Knows the thoughts and feelings
       of all the characters.
   Setting, characters, and
    situation are revealed.

   May suggest the theme and
    sometimes even hint at the
    probable outcome.
        Rising Action
   Major part of the plot.
   Series of steps each presenting a
    minor obstacle or problem and
    leading to a climax.
   Developed mainly by incident,
    description, characterization, and
   The culmination of events of the
    rising action.
   The most exciting moment.
   The highest point of interest.
   Usually brief and distinct –
    sometimes only a sentence long.
      Falling Action
   Follows the climax and explains
    any details that need further

   May try to help the reader
    understand an unexpected ending.

   Usually short.
   How the conflict of the
    story is resolved – how the
    main problem is solved.
         Book Journaling
   As you read the book you will pose
    questions to your partner about the
    portions you have read. This is
    designed to help you both understand
    better and to allow you to point out
    things that your partner may have
    overlooked or thought was less
Book Journaling Assignment,
   Remember that you will be
    coordinating your report with
    your partner for presentation in
    both classes.

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