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					                     Mississippi 4th Grade Language Arts Standards

                                    Reference Guide




  Standards are indicated with the Mississippi Magnolia icon. Standards or portions of
standards that are new 4th grade skills appear in bold-faced type. If standards appear in
       regular type, they are skills that have been introduced in previous years.


                                            1
                                Table of Contents



Competency                                  Page

Standard 1 - Vocabulary

Competency 1a                               3

Competency 1b                               4

Competency 1c                               6

Competency 1d                               6

Competency 1e                               7

Competency 1f                               8

Competency 1g                               9

Standard 2 – Reading Comprehension

Competency 2a                               10

Competency 2b                               21

Competency 2c                               25

Competency 2d                               25

Competency 2e                               28

Standard 3 - Writing

Competency 3a                               29

Competency 3b                               33

Competency 3c                               34

Competency 3d                               35




                                        2
Competency 3e                                       36

Competency 3f                                       37

Standard 4 – Grammar and Mechanics

Competency 4a                                       38

Competency 4b                                       55

Competency 4c                                       63




All information compiled by Tegan Sexton. If errors are found, please forward information to
tsexton@ossdms.org.

                               Standard 1 – Vocabulary



              1a – The student will use syllabication types (e.g., open, closed, r-controlled,
vowel team, vowel –consonant + e, consonant + le) for decoding words. (DOK 1)
        Syllable Type       Definition                                     Example

        Open                Has one vowel at the end of the syllable.      he, baby, even, paper
                            Usually has a long vowel sound.

        Closed              Has one vowel at the beginning or in the       cap, sit, men
                            middle of the syllable. Ends in a consonant.
                            Usually has a short vowel sound.

        R-controlled        Vowel followed by the letter “r”. The “r”      car, or, care, ire, air, and
                            sound controls the sound of the vowel.         deer

        Vowel Team          Has two vowels (or a vowel consonant in the    rain, day, see, veil, pie,
                            case of aw, ew, ow). Usually produces a        piece, noise, toy, cue
                            single vowel sound.




                                                   3
      Vowel – Consonant +        Found only at the end of a word. The final        ate, ice, tune, slope, strobe,
      e                          “e” is silent and the vowel before it is long.    these

      Consonant + le             Usually the final syllable in a word. This is     Able, fumble, rubble
                                 the only syllable type where the vowel does
                                 not have a sound.



                  There are 4 ways to dividing words into syllables:
1. Divide between two middle consonants.
Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example:
hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never
split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch",
and "wh".

2. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.
When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
"o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has an obvious
short sound, as in "cab/in".

3. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable.
When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the
consonant before the "-le". For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "thi/stle". The only
exception to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le".




4. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy",
"pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful".
In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule that when you add "-ing"
to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the "-ing".




                 1b. The student will identify roots and affixes (e.g., non-, trans-, over-, anti-,
-tion, -or, -ion, -ity, -ment, -ic) in words. (DOK 2)


                                                          4
                                      Common Prefixes

       Prefix           Meaning                                    Examples
a-, an-         without, not           amoral, asymmetrical

ab-, abs-, a-   apart, away from       abnormal, abduct

ad-             toward                 adhere, address

ante-           before                 anteroom, antecedent, anterior

anti-           against                anticlimax, antibiotic

auto-           self                   automatic, automaton

bi-             two                    biennial, bicycle

bio-            life                   biology, biography

circum-         around                 circumference, circumnavigate

di-             two, double            diameter, diagonal, dioxide

dis-            not, apart             disperse, disinherit, display, discard

ex-             out                    exotic, exterior, exothermic, exoskeleton

in-             in                     incorporate, indicator, inspiration

in-, im-        not                    incredible, inhospitable, impossible

inter-          between                interact, interstellar, interpret

macro-          large                  macroscopic, macronutrient

micro-          small                  microscope, micron, micrometer, microorganism

mono-           one, single            monocle, monopoly, monarchy

poly-           many                   polyphonic, polygon

post-           after                  Postage, postman, posture

pre-            before                 premier, preview

pro-            before, in favor of    project, projectile, produce, profession

tele-           distance               telegraph, telephone

trans-          across                 transport, transcend, transaction




                                              5
                                               Suffixes

There are 2 types of suffixes: inflectional and derivational. Inflectional Suffixes – added to
               words to create different forms of the word. These include the following:

          Suffix                              Creates                           Example
         -s, -es, -ies                          plural                         rose – roses

             -ed                              past tense                      want – wanted

             -en                            past participle                   drive – driven

             -ing                            continuous                       jump – jumping

             -er                            comparative                      happy – happier

             -est                            superlative                     happy – happiest

             -n’t                             negative                       could – couldn’t




                     Derivational Suffixes – change the meaning of the word.

           Suffix                              Creates                             Example
             -ism                                noun                       Commune – communism

              -ist                               noun                              Art – artist

              -ful                               noun                           Color – colorful

             -able                             adjective                        Bear – bearable

            -ation                               noun                        Generate – generation

             -ness                               noun                          Great – greatness

            -ment                                noun                          Fulfill – fulfillment

              -ify                                verb                          Ample – amplify

              -fy                              adjective                       Beauty – beautify

              -ity                               noun                             Able – ability

              -ly                               adverb                          Clever - cleverly




                                                   6
                   -ise, ize                                 verb                           Author - authorize




                                                      Common Suffixes

       Suffix                            Meaning                                            Example
-able, -ible             able, can do                               capable, agreeable, visible

-ade                     result of action                           blockade, lemonade

-age                     act of, state of, collection of            salvage, storage, forage

-al                      relating to                                sensual, gradual, manual, natural

-an, -ian                native of, pertaining to                   American, Martian

-ance, -ancy             action, process, state                     assistance, allowance, defiance

-ant                     performing, agent                          assistant, servant

-ary,- ery,- ory         relating to, quality, place where          dictionary, bravery, dormitory, aviary, ordinary

-ate                     cause, make                                liquidate, segregate

-cian                    having a specific skill                    magician, optician, physician

-cy                      action, function                           advocacy, hesitancy, prophecy, normalcy

-dom                     quality, realm, office                     freedom, kingdom, wisdom

-ee                      one who receives the action                employee, nominee, refugee

-en                      made of, make                              silken, frozen, oaken, wooden, lighten

-ence, -ency             action, state of, quality                  difference, conference, urgency

-er, -or                 one who, that which                        baker, carpenter, brewer, sailor

-escent                  in the process of                          adolescent, convalescent

-ese                     a native of                                Javanese, Vietnamese

-esis, -osis             action, process, condition                 genesis, hypnosis, neurosis, osmosis

-ess                     female                                     poetess, goddess

-et, -ette               small one, group                           octet, barrette

-fic                     making, causing                            scientific, specific

-ful                     full of                                    frightful, beautiful, helpful



                                                              7
-fy                  make                                         fortify, simplify

-hood                order, quality                               neighborhood, motherhood

-ic                  nature of, like                              metallic, heroic, poetic

-ice                 condition, state, quality                    justice, malice

-id, -ide            something connected or belonging to          fluid, fluoride, torrid, candid

-ine                 having the nature or characteristic of       feminine, masculine, medicine

-ion, -sion, -tion   act of, state of, result of                  contagion, infection, aversion

-ish                 origin, nature, resembling                   Spanish, foolish

-ism                 system, manner, condition                    feminism, heroism, communism

-ist                 one who, that which                          pianist, soloist

-ite                 nature of, quality of                        dynamite, graphite

-ity, -ty            state of, quality                            captivity, clarity

-ive                 causing                                      conclusive, festive, restive, abusive

-ize                 to make (like)                               emphasize, anthropomorphize

-less                without                                      worthless, mindless

-ly                  like                                         clearly, fearlessly

-ment                act of, result                               contentment, amendment

-ness                state of                                     carelessness, uselessness

-oid                 like (flawed or partial resemblance)         asteroid, tabloid, rhomboid, ovoid

-(o)logy             study, science, theory                       biology




             1c. The student will develop and apply expansive knowledge of words and
 word meanings to communicate. (DOK 1)




              1d. The student will identify and produce grade level appropriate synonyms,
 antonyms, and homonyms. (DOK 2)


                                                              8
SYNONYMS are different words which have the same meaning, or almost the same meaning.
Synonyms can be nouns, verbs, adverbs or adjectives, as long as both are the same part of speech.
For example: chair and seat (nouns), go and leave (verbs), quickly and rapidly (adverbs), long and extended
(adjectives)

Synonyms need not be single words, as in war and armed conflict.

A word can have more than one synonym depending on which meaning you use for the word.
For example: - expired could have the synonym no longer fresh, if you mean milk that's past its sale date.
- expired could have the synonym dead, if you mean no longer alive.

ANTONYMS are words which have opposite meanings.
The words hot and cold are antonyms. So are up and down, and short and tall.

A word can have more than one antonym, depending on which meaning you use for the word.
For example:
- short could have the antonym tall if you are referring to a person's height.
- short could have the antonym long if you are referring to the length of something.

In many languages, including English, you can sometimes make antonyms by adding a prefix:
- real and unreal are antonyms
- flexible and inflexible are antonyms

There are actually four types of antonyms:
1.      Gradable antonyms are opposites at either end of the spectrum, as in slow and fast.
2.      Complementary antonyms are absolute opposites, like mortal and immortal.
3.      Relational antonyms are opposites where one word describes a relationship between two objects, and the
        other word describes the same relationship when the two objects are reversed.
         For example, parent and child, teacher and student, or buy and sell.
4.      Auto-antonyms are the same two words that mean the opposite.
         For example, fast (moving quickly) and fast (stuck in place).


HOMONYMS are words that have the same pronunciation and spelling as another word, but a different meaning.
For example, mean (an average) and mean (nasty) are homonyms. They are identical in spelling and pronunciation,
but different in meaning.
Here are some more homonyms: punch (a drink) and punch (a hit), dog (an animal) and dog (to follow closely), bat (an
animal) and bat (baseball equipment).




              1e. The student will use definitional, synonym, or antonym context clues to
infer the meanings of unfamiliar words. (DOK2)
Context Clues in Meanings
When readers come across an unfamiliar word, they often look in different places in the text for clues to the meaning.


                                                           9
These clues can be found before, within, or after the sentence with the unfamiliar word. Also, there are signal words
associated with the context clues. These signal words will point out the type of context clue being used. Once the
reader is able to identify the type of context clue being used, then the meanings of unfamiliar words become clear.




Types of Context Clues and Their Signal Words

   Definition

      The verb "to be" is a signal indicating that the definition of the word may be in the sentence. A form of the verb
      "to be" is located between the unfamiliar word and its meaning.

      A carnivore is an animal that feeds only on meat.

      The word "or" is a signal word indicating that the definition is in the sentence.

      A biographer, or one who writes about people's lives, is an example of an author.

   Synonym

      The word "like" is a signal word indicating synonym which means there is a word of similar meaning in the
      sentence.

      The harlequin, like the circus clown, was a fool who loved to perform.

   Antonym

      The word "but" is a signal word indicating antonym which means there is a word of opposite meaning in the
      sentence.

      Jerry is very clumsy, but his sister Jenny is adroit.




              1f. The student will apply knowledge of simple figurative language (e.g.,
simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole) to determine the meaning of words and to
communicate. (DOK2)
Simile – A simile is a comparison using like or as. It usually compares two dissimilar objects.



           Example: His feet were as big as boats. We are comparing the size of feet to boats.




                                                              10
Metaphor – Metaphors are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one
important way. Metaphors are a way to describe something. Authors use them to make their writing more interesting
or entertaining. Unlike similes that use the words “as” or “like” to make a comparison, metaphors state that
something is something else.

           Examples: Brian was a wall, bouncing every tennis ball back over the net.
                     We would have had more pizza to eat if Tammy hadn’t been such a hog.
                     The poor rat didn’t have a chance. Our old cat, a bolt of lightning, caught his prey.

Personification – Personification is a writer's craft that gives an idea, object, or animal qualities of a person.

           Examples: The large rock refused to budge. The word refused is something a person would do.
                     The winter wrapped its icy claws around Northeast Pennsylvania.
                     Fear grabbed me as I heard footsteps behind me.

Hyperbole – Hyperbole is an exaggeration that is used to make a particular point. Hyperbole often has a humorous
tone.

            Examples: My eyes widened at the sight of the mile-high ice cream cones we were having for dessert.
                     I've told you a million times don't exaggerate.
                     I was so embarrassed, I thought I might die.




                1g. The student will use reference materials (e.g., dictionary, glossary, teacher
or peer [as a resource], thesaurus, electronic dictionary) to determine the meaning,
pronunciation, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech for unknown
words. (DOK 1)
Dictionary - All words in a dictionary are listed in alphabetical order. That means all words that start with “A” are in
the front of the book and words that start with “Z” are in the back of the book. Here is a sample dictionary page from
the “S” section.




                                                             11
Guide Words – At the top of each dictionary page, there are guide words. These are words that help the reader sort
information easier or “guide” the reader to what words are found on the page. For example, the words “stone” and
“stool” are the guide words for this page. “Stone” is the first main entry on the page. “Stool” is the last main entry on
the page. If a word falls in between these two words alphabetically, it will be found on this page.

Dictionary Entries – The first piece of information in a dictionary entry is the word. The word is broken into syllables.
Next is the pronunciation of the word, which is found in parenthesis. The next piece of information is the part of
speech, followed immediately by the definition. If a word has more than one definition, it will be listed with a number
for each definition.

Glossary – A glossary is organized EXACTLY like a dictionary. There is one major difference though. A dictionary is an
entire book. A glossary is found in the back of a book like a textbook. The glossary’s main purpose is to help the
reader understand the language of a particular subject.

 Thesaurus - A thesaurus shows: Synonyms (same meaning) for words - sometimes you need an alternate word,
instead of repeating the same word over and over, and antonyms (opposite) for words (sometimes offered in a
thesaurus). A thesaurus shows the following information: guide words, entry, part of speech, definition, synonyms
and antonyms (if available). If there is more than one definition for a word, it will be listed as a separate entry. If
there are related words, they will be suggested at the end of the entry.




                                                            12
                                   Standard 2



          2a. The student will apply knowledge of text features, parts of a book, text
    structures, and genres to understand, interpret, or analyze text. (DOK 2)

1 – Text features – titles, headings, captions, illustrations, graphs, charts, diagrams,
bold-faced print, italics, maps, icons, pull down menus, key word searches, etc.




                                         13
Title – The title is something catchy that usually conveys the main idea of the entire passage.
Heading – A heading is a type of title. However, a heading just gives the main idea of a piece of the passage. For
      example, in the passage above, Hand-wing is the heading for the short passage about a bat’s hand-wing. This
      short passage can be found in the main passage, “Flying High”. By skimming the headings, readers can find
      information easier.
Illustration – An illustration can be a picture created by hand or computer, or it can be a photograph. An illustration
      gives the reader a visual representation of the topic. Photos and illustrations are used to emphasize or make
      important points.
Caption – A caption is usually a sentence or two that identifies what a person sees in an illustration. In the passage
      above, there is an illustration of two bats flying. The caption under the photo reads, “These spotted bats are
      flying in opposite directions.” Captions tell you the reason for putting the picture or illustration in the text.
      Captions say in a few lines, what the author may take paragraphs to explain
Diagram – A diagram is a type of illustration. However, a diagram is not just a picture – it gives some detailed
      information to the reader. The illustration above shows the reader how a bat’s hand-wing is constructed.
Bold-Faced Print – Bold-faced print indicates that a word is important and/or it can be found in the glossary. In the
      passage, roosts, predators, and membrane are all bold-faced print. These words will be found in the glossary.
      The start of each section in this study guide uses bold-faced print. It helps the reader organize and easily find
      important words and concepts.
Italics – When a writer uses italics, the writing is slanted like this. Italics are used for the following reasons: titles of
      short stories, poems, songs, etc.; proper names of ships, planes and boats; foreign words and phrases; words
      being used as words, e.g., “The word basically is often unnecessary and should be removed.”; and onomatopoeia.




                                                             14
15
               2a. The student will apply knowledge of text features, parts of a book, text
structures, and genres to understand, interpret, or analyze text. (DOK 2)
    2 – Parts of a book – title page, table of contents, glossary, index, appendix, footnotes,
    etc.




Appendix – After the main text, a reader may find extra information. This is the appendix. It is found at the end of a
book, and includes the following: glossary, index, bibliography. An appendix can also include other documents, such
as: letters, photographs, cargo manifests, and other original documents in works of research.

Glossary – A glossary is an alphabetized collection of specialized terms with their meanings. Glossary entries help the
general reader to understand new or uncommon vocabulary and specialized terms. A glossary is usually found at the
end of non-fiction texts. It is organized like a dictionary by having alphabetical entries. Usually, bold-faced print in the
text will have a definition in the glossary.




                                                            16
17
18
               2a. The student will apply knowledge of text features, parts of a book, text
structures, and genres to understand, interpret, or analyze text. (DOK 2)
    3 – Text Structures – sequential order, description, simple cause and effect, simple
    procedure, compare/contrast, etc.

     Text          Description                       Example                   Signal/Transition      Graphic Organizer
  Structure                                                                          Words
    Type
Sequential The writer presents           Actress and singer Miler Cyrus      Next, first, last,
Order       ideas, series of events, was born in 1992. She became            second, another,
            or a process in the order interested in acting at age 9 while then, after,
            in which they occurred. her dad was in a TV show. She was additionally,
                                      in her first movie, Big Fish, in 2003. initially, before, not
                                      She became the star of the TV show long after, when
                                      Hannah Montana in 2006.




Description  The writer presents          Charlotte’s Web by E.B. White is Consequently,
             information in a          a book about a girl named Fern and therefore, as a
             structure that resembles her pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur makes result, thereby,
             an outline. Each section friends with a clever spider,         leads to, for
             opens with its main       Charlotte. She saves his life and    instance, for
             idea, then elaborates on makes him a very famous pig.          example,
             it. The author tells what Charlotte’s Web has been a popular furthermore, in
             something is like.        story for many years. It will remain addition to, such
                                       a popular story forever.             as, also, in fact
Simple Cause The writer analyzes then Racquel left her Legos all over Consequently,
and Effect   explains the cause for the living room floor. Later, when therefore, as a
             something happening. her brother Eduardo came home, result, thereby,
             The reader is then told he tripped over the Lego castle and leads to, because,
             the reasons why it        twisted his ankle. Racquel was       this lead to, since,
             happened. Effects can grounded for a week!                     may be due to
             be in the text before the
             cause.




                                                             19
Simple       The author describes the The first step in five-can chili is Next, first, last,
Procedure    order of events of how to brown some meat and onions in second, another,
             to do or make           a big pot. Then open two cans of then, after,
             something.              beans, two cans or tomatoes, and a additionally,
                                     can of tomato sauce. Dump the        initially, before, not
                                     cans into the pot. After everything long after, when
                                     is in the pot, add some chili powder
                                     until the chili tastes the way you
                                     like it. Simmer it until it’s hot.

Compare/     The author explains how Harris and Helen were twins.        However, unlike,
Contrast     two or more things are They each had brown eyes and         like, by contrast,
             alike and/or how they dark, curly hair. They were exactly yet, in comparison,
             are different.         the same height. They liked a lot of although, on the
                                    the same foods. There were some other hand, instead
                                    things that were different about     of, unless, not only-
                                    them, though. Helen was a good but also, different
                                    athlete. Harris often tripped over from, similar to
                                    his own feet.




               2a. The student will apply knowledge of text features, parts of a book, text
structures, and genres to understand, interpret, or analyze text. (DOK 2)
    4 – Genres – Fiction, nonfiction, and poetry

Fiction – Fiction is a form of writing in which the events are not factual, but rather, they are invented by the author.
There are many different forms of fiction. These include:




                                                            20
21
Nonfiction – Nonfiction is a type of writing that tells only about true events. Nonfiction can be assigned one of the
following categories:




                                                           22
Poetry – Poetry can be fiction or nonfiction. Some forms of poetry are the sonnet, haiku, ode, acrostic, free verse
and epic. Poetry usually has some form of meter and rhythm.




                                                     23
               2b. The student will analyze texts in order to identify, understand, infer, or
synthesize information. (DOK 2)
1.    – Identify the stated main idea or supporting details in a paragraph.


Main Idea – Every story or paragraph has a main idea. The main idea tells you what the story is about. It may be the
lesson learned or moral of a story. The main idea is the most important part of a story or paragraph.

Supporting Details – The supporting details are the things that describe the main idea. These supporting details make
the main idea stronger.

Take a look at this example:

        The Erie Canal changed the way people moved goods in the 1800’s. The 363 mile canal connected Albany,
New York to Lake Erie in Buffalo for the first time. When the Canal opened in 1825, building supplies and goods could
be transported quickly and cheaply across New York State. Canal boats pulled by mules carried people and supplies
across New York.

The main idea is how the Erie Canal changed the way people moved goods in the 1800’s. It is stated in the first
sentence. This “main idea sentence” is called a topic sentence. The topic sentence doesn’t need to be the first
sentence in a paragraph, but it should be close to help the reader understand what information is being presented.
Learning how to identify the main idea will help you classify what you already know about a subject and what
information is new.




               2b. The student will analyze texts in order to identify, understand, infer, or
synthesize information. (DOK 2)
2.    – Apply knowledge of transitions or cue words to identify and sequence major
      events in a narrative.


Transitions – Transitions are words that help a person’s writing flow from one thought or concept to another. It
makes it easier for the reader to understand because there is a flow to the writing. For example, read the following:

I woke up in the middle of the night. There was thunder crashing outside my window. I had to hold my dog in the
floor while she whimpered. The thunder stopped. We went to bed.




                                                          24
That seems pretty dry, right? Let’s look at the same sentences with a few transitions added.

In the middle of the night, I suddenly woke up. There was thunder crashing outside my window. Before long, I was
sitting in the floor, holding my dog while she whimpered. Eventually, the thunder stopped, and we were all able to go
back to bed.

By adding just a few transitions, the writing has become more exciting. We are also able to follow the transitions and
put the events into the order in which they happened.

The following are some suggestions to use transitions properly. Remember there are many more!


 For Continuing a          To Change a       To Open a             To Conclude    To Restate a Point       To Indicate
     Thought                 Thought        Paragraph or                                                  Sequence or
                                            General Use                                                       Time

consequently         however             certainly            finally             in other words       after

clearly, then        on the other hand granted                lastly              point in fact        as soon as

furthermore          but                 no doubt             therefore           in fact              at first

additionally         yet                 nobody denies        this                specifically         at last

and                  nevertheless        obviously            thence                                   before

in addition          on the contrary     of course            in final analysis                        finally

moreover                                 to be sure           in conclusion                            in the first place

because                                  true                 in final                                 in the meantime
                                                              consideration

because that                             undoubtedly          indeed                                   later

in the same way                          generally speaking                                            meanwhile

following this                           in general                                                    next

also                                     in this situation                                             soon



Transitions in chronological order:
      First…second…third
      Generally…furthermore…finally
      In the first place…also…lastly
      In the first place…pursuing this further…finally
      To be sure…additionally…lastly
      In the first place…just in the same way…finally
      Basically…similarly…as well




                                                              25
               2b. The student will analyze texts in order to identify, understand, infer, or
synthesize information. (DOK 2)
3.    – Identify stated causes and effect relationships in paragraphs and short passages.


Cause – A cause is something that makes something else happen. Out of two events, it is the event that happens first.
To determine the cause, ask the question "Why Did it Happen?"

Effect – An effect is what happens as a result of the cause. Of two related events, it’s the one that happens second or
last. To determine the effect, ask the question "What Happened?"




                                   Cause                             Effect

                     The boy kicked the ball.          The ball rolled.

                     The girl teased the cat.          The cat growled.

                     Sally studied hard for a test.    Sally earned an A on her test.

                     Joe became really tired.          Joe went to sleep early.



Transition words are often used to connect a cause with an effect or an effect with a cause. These can include:
because, so, consequently, therefore, due to the fact, since, as a result, the reason for, thus, and nevertheless.




               2b. The student will analyze texts in order to identify, understand, infer, or
synthesize information. (DOK 2)
4.    – Synthesize information stated in the text with prior knowledge and experience to
      draw a conclusion.


Conclusion – A Conclusion is a logical outcome that can be predicted by the information –BUT IS NOT DIRECTLY
STATED IN THE PASSAGE. Add up the details/facts to form a conclusion. You usually draw on prior knowledge (what
you already know) to add to given facts to conclude. To form a conclusion, you should do these things: read carefully,



                                                           26
determine the main idea and supporting details, and ask yourself these questions, “Where is this heading?” and “What
might come after this?”

EXAMPLE: By the end of the Revolutionary War, the Iroquois had lost most of their land and moved to Canada.

        When settlers first arrived from Europe, Iroquois Indians lived in an area around the eastern Great Lakes.
Iroquois villages were filled with long houses. These buildings were 20 to 25 feet long and about 20 feet wide. Down
the center was a row of firepits, which kept the building warm. Each pit was shared by two families. Long houses
usually had between three and eight pits, so ten or so families lived in each long house. Long houses had no windows.
Apart from the entrance, the only openings were holes in the roof to let out the smoke.

         You can conclude from this passage that the Iroquois Indians
            a. built large cities around the lakes
            b. did not mind communal living
            c. enjoyed sharing meals
            d. lived in a warm climate

THINK: The passage says nothing about size; if fires were needed for warmth it must be cold; therefore, scratch “a”
and “d”. Also, we cannot assume they shared what they cooked - so the conclusion is “b” since many lived together in
one long house.




               2b. The student will analyze texts in order to identify, understand, infer, or
synthesize information. (DOK 2)
5.    – Predict a logical outcome based upon information stated in a paragraph or short
      passage and confirm or revise based upon subsequent text.



Prediction – A prediction is what you think will happen based upon the text, the author, and your background
knowledge. A prediction is an educated guess as to what will happen. Predictions can be made before reading and
during reading. Some things to ask yourself while making predictions are ,”What is happening in the story?”, “What
will happen next?”, “What clues have led me to think that?”, and “What else could happen next?” By making
predictions, you are making sure you understand what is happening in a text.




                                                         27
                                                                 Using pictures, it is easy to make
                                                                 predictions. All we have to do is to notice
                                                                 the details that we see in the picture. The
                                                                 first thing you see is the house appears to
                                                                 be blasting off. Did you notice anything
                                                                 else? For instance, the house, car, trees,
                                                                 and mailboxes all appear to be staying in
                                                                 the same place. Would it help you to know
                                                                 that the author of the book where this
                                                                 picture is found is the same author who
                                                                 wrote Jumanji and Zathura? Would it be a
                                                                 good prediction to say that the house is
                                                                 blasting off like a rocket?




               2c. The student will recognize or generate a summary or paraphrase of the
events or ideas in text, citing text-based evidence. (DOK 2)
Summary – A summary is a brief retelling of text. The first thing to accomplish this is to identify the main idea. After
that, all you need to do is to select the key supporting details. A good way to begin summary writing is to ask yourself,
who, what, when, where, why, and how. Make sure to use transitions, a good topic sentence, and a strong closing to
wrap up the summary.




               2d. The student will interpret increasingly complex literary text, literary
nonfiction, and informational text to compare and contrast information, citing text-based
evidence. (DOK 3)
1.    – Story elements (e.g., setting, characters, character traits, events, resolution, point
      of view)
Setting – The time and location in which a story takes place is called the setting. For some stories the setting is very
important, while for others it is not. There are several aspects of a story's setting to consider when examining how
setting contributes to a story (some, or all, may be present in a story):




                                                            28
        1.      place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place?
        b) time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc)
        c) weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc?
        d) social conditions - What is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local color (writing
        that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)?
        e) mood or atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story? Is it bright and cheerful or
        dark and frightening?

Characters – Characters are the people, animals, or other creatures in a story (maybe even a talking spaceship!).
There are two major types of characters: protagonist and antagonist. The protagonist is the character who pushes
the action forward. The antagonist tries to hold the action back. The protagonist doesn’t have to be the “good guy”,
just like the antagonist doesn’t have to be the bad guy. Think about this, you are writing a story about getting ready
for bed. You are the main character – the protagonist. You don’t want to go to bed. You are pushing the action
forward. There is another character who wants you to go to bed (like your mom). This character is trying to hold up
the action of staying up later. This makes your mom the antagonist (and she isn’t a bad guy!)
Character Traits – Sometimes we think of character traits just as the way a person looks. While this can be helpful to
describe a person, it is their actions and personality that make them who they truly are. In order for a story to seem
real to the reader, its characters must seem real. Characterization (or character traits) is the information the author
gives the reader about the characters themselves. The author may reveal a character in several ways: his/her physical
appearance, what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams, what he/she does or does not do, what others say about
him/her and how others react to him/her. Characters are convincing if they are: consistent, motivated, and life-like
(resemble real people).




Here are some helpful ways to describe a person’s traits:
able               brilliant            dangerous                expert                guilty                leader
active             busy                 daring                   fair                  happy                 lively
adventurous        calm                 dark                     faithful              harsh                 lonely
affectionate       careful              decisive                 fearless              hateful               loving
afraid             careless             demanding                fierce                healthy               loyal
alert              cautious             dependable               foolish               helpful               lucky
ambitious          charming             depressed                fortunate             honest                mature
angry              cheerful             determined               foul                  hopeful               mean
annoyed            childish             discouraged              fresh                 hopeless              messy
anxious            clever               dishonest                friendly              humorous              miserable
apologetic         clumsy               disrespectful            frustrated            ignorant              mysterious
arrogant           coarse               doubtful                 funny                 imaginative           naughty
attentive          concerned            dull                     gentle                impatient             nervous
average            confident            dutiful                  giving                impolite              nice
bad                confused             eager                    glamorous             inconsiderate         noisy
blue               considerate          easygoing                gloomy                independent           obedient
bold               cooperative          efficient                good                  industrious           obnoxious
bored              courageous           embarrassed              graceful              innocent              old
bossy              cowardly             encouraging              grateful              intelligent           peaceful
brainy             cross                energetic                greedy                jealous               picky
brave              cruel                evil                     grouchy               kindly                pleasant
bright             curious              excited                  grumpy                lazy                  polite



                                                            29
poor                 religious            scared                smart               tall                  unhappy
popular              responsible          secretive             sneaky              thankful              upset
positive             restless             selfish               sorry               thoughtful            useful
precise              rich                 serious               spoiled             thoughtless           warm
proper               rough                sharp                 stingy              tired                 weak
proud                rowdy                short                 strange             tolerant              wicked
quick                rude                 shy                   strict              touchy                wise
quiet                sad                  silly                 stubborn            trusting              worried
rational             safe                 skillful              sweet               trustworthy           wrong
reliable             satisfied            sly                   talented            unfriendly            young

 Events – the series of events, or action, that takes place during a story. In narrative writing, this includes the
 conflict and the climax.
 Resolution – The resolution is at the end of the story. It happens after the climax. This is the part that lets you
 know what has happened to the characters after the conflict is resolved. In a fairy tale, it almost always ends
 with, “and they lived happily ever after.”
 Point of View – Point of view is the name we give to who is telling the story. There are four major types of point
 of view.
           First Person – The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and
           feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. He can’t tell us thoughts of other
           characters.
           Third-Person Objective – The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and
           hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can’t tell us the thoughts of the characters.
           Third-Person Limited – The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the characters.
           Omniscient – The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more than one of the
           characters.




                2d. The student will interpret increasingly complex literary text, literary
 nonfiction, and informational text to compare and contrast information, citing text-
 based evidence. (DOK 3)
 2.    – Literary devices (e.g., imagery, exaggeration, dialogue)

 Imagery – Imagery is the use of vivid descriptions that appeal to the senses (sight, sound, touch, taste, and
 smell). Imagery produces mental images in the reader’s mind. Authors can enhance the imagery of writing
 through the use of sound devices and figurative language.
 Exaggeration – Exaggeration is when a writer makes something out to be more than it actually is. Let’s say
 someone accidentally put a small dent in your mom’s car. An exaggeration would be to say that someone
 rammed a shopping cart into the side making the dent. This isn’t over the top – it’s just an exaggeration.
 Sometimes the exaggeration gets to be so outrageous, we have to call it hyperbole. An example would be to say
 that someone dropped a boulder on your mom’s car.
 Dialogue – Dialogue is a conversation that is often used to reveal characters and to advance the plot. Dialogue is
 also the lines spoken by a character in a play, essay, story, or novel.




                                                           30
               2d. The student will interpret increasingly complex literary text, literary
nonfiction, and informational text to compare and contrast information, citing text-
based evidence. (DOK 3)
3.    – Sound devices (e.g., rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance)

Rhyme – The basic definition of rhyme is two words that sound alike. The vowel sound of two words is the
same, but the initial consonant sound is different.
Rhythm – The beat of a poem is called rhythm.
Alliteration – Alliteration is the repetition of the initial (first) consonant letters or sounds in word groups. Some
examples include wild and wooly, sweet sixteen, through thick and thin, dime a dozen, and big blue balloon;
Alliteration is recognized by sound, not by spelling (know and nail alliterate, and know and key do not)
Onomatopoeia – Onomatopoeia is the use of a word that suggests the sound it makes. It creates clear sound
images and helps a writer draw attention to certain words. Some examples include buzz, pop, hiss, moo, hum,
murmur, crackle, crunch, and gurgle.
Assonance – Assonance is a partial rhyme or near rhyme. It is the similarity or repetition of similar vowel sounds
in word groups. Some examples include right-hive and pane-make; lake and stake rhyme, while lake and fate
contain assonance.




               2d. The student will interpret increasingly complex literary text, literary
nonfiction, and informational text to compare and contrast information, citing text-
based evidence. (DOK 3)
4.    – Author’s purpose (e.g., inform, entertain, persuade)


                Persuade – When an author tries to persuade the reader, they want you to think the way they

     P          think. Visiting museums are a great way to learn. At the museum you can read about facts while
                looking at different exhibits. Everyone should visit a great museum once in a while.

                Inform – When an author writes to inform a reader, they are giving the reader facts and

    I           information. Elmont is located in New York State. New York is on the eastern coast of the United
                States of America. Some students in Elmont attend the Covert Avenue School.

                Entertain – When an author tries to entertain the reader, they want you to enjoy what you are

    E           reading. My brother came charging at me with the pie in his hand. He smashed it right into my
                face. Laughing, I picked up his bowl of cereal and dumped it on my kid sister’s head. Then, mom
                came into the kitchen.




                                                         31
                  2e. The student will identify facts, opinions, or tools of persuasion in
text. (DOK 2)
       1 – Distinguish between fact and opinion.


Fact – A fact is a true statement. Everyone would know the same information. For example, An oak is a type of
tree.

Opinion – An opinion is a statement that represents someone’s thoughts or feelings. For example, ketchup is
great on French fries.




                  2e. The student will identify facts, opinions, or tools of persuasion in
text. (DOK 2)
       2 – Identify tools of persuasion (e.g., name calling, endorsement, repetition, air
          and rebut the other side’s point of view).

Name Calling – Name calling is a tool of persuasion in which a person points out the negative so that another
product, idea, or person seems better. In politics, name calling is done all the time. We call someone liberal or
conservative. Television ads also use a form of name calling. This includes calling the product the leading brand
or calling other products cheap imports.
Endorsement – Endorsement is a form of persuasion in which we see people throw their support behind
something. For example, professional athletes often endorse shoes, sports drinks, etc. NASCAR racers endorse
motor oil, tires, and brands of cars.
Repetition – Repetition is a form of persuasion in which information is repeated in order for you to remember it.
When we hear on the radio about the upcoming Monster Truck Rally, the announcer tells us that it is “Sunday,
Sunday, Sunday.” Hearing this over and over helps the listener remember when the rally will occur. Another
way to use repetition is to use a form of alliteration. For example, Subway Sandwiches as the name of a
restaurant or the catch phrase “Can you hear me now?” helps consumers remember the good service from the
cell phone company.
Air and Rebut –If a person airs something, he or she is making it known to everyone else. We often use the
phrase to “air our dirty laundry”. This is when we tell things that we probably shouldn’t tell to other people.
Rebut is when we give arguments as to why the aired statements are not true. In current advertising, we know
that we can visit a Progressive Insurance’s website. They will air their price. They will also post the prices of
other companies in an attempt to rebut their claims that they have the lowest cost.



                                       Standard 3 - Writing
The Writing Process



                                                       32
1.      Think of an idea. Use your imagination and experience, and brainstorm. List, cluster, map,
        make an outline.
2.      Write a rough draft. Double space as you write.
3.      Read and revise. Read your work aloud and revise it. Draw lines through what you change
        rather than erasing. You may later want to recover a word or an idea. Revising means:

            1. Adding words.
            2. Taking out words that aren't needed.
            3. Changing words to make your meaning clearer.
            4. Rearranging words.
            5. Changing or combining sentences.
4.      Then share your writing with someone. Is the meaning clear? Are there questions or
        suggestions? Revise as needed.
5.      Then edit. Check correctness of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, form.
6.      Prepare a final draft. Use your best handwriting.
7.      Finally publish. Share with an audience.




                3a – The student will use and reflect on an appropriate composing
process (e.g., planning, drafting, revising, editing, publishing/ sharing) to express,
communicate, evaluate, or exchange ideas with a focus on texts increasing complexity
and length. [Note: Editing will be tested under competency four.] (DOK 3)

1.      Planning • Plan for composing using a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
        drawing, graphic organizers, peer discussion, reading, viewing).


When we get a question and try to think about it, often our minds go blank. It's not necessarily because there's
nothing in there - often it's because there's TOO MUCH in there! As we can only think and write about one
thought at a time, we need to find a writing technique that helps us empty out our ideas. This technique is called
brainstorming. Conversely, sometimes our mind is blank because we really can't think of anything... maybe you
need to look at that essay question again or, maybe you need to find a way to loosen up and to let your mind
start to flow around and over the topic. This technique is called freewriting, and it will actually help you find and
generate ideas you never even knew you had. Often, what stops us from coming up with ideas and finding out
what we think/feel is that we get caught up in our own head where we can only think about one idea at a time
and may never discover all the other wonderful ones that we have. Don't worry about organization and
correctness. Don't worry about grammar. Don't worry about what anyone else will think; worrying will just get
you stuck! Brainstorming and Freewriting are a way of thinking on the paper, but you need to let your ideas
flow, so that way, everything gets found, nothing gets lost, and you have lots of material to eventually shape
your essay from. It's important to also remember that we can't have a lot of ideas unless we start looking for
them. Preparation writing is for you. It will help you to find and make ideas. It is not for presentation for a
reader, so it doesn't matter what it looks like! Don't spend any time rereading or proofreading or correcting



                                                         33
when you are actually brainstorming or freewriting. We want to find more and more ideas, not judge and
change the initial ones. It is important to write EVERYTHING down and not to censor yourself. What might seem
like a silly idea now may turn out to be the seed of your best idea later.
Here are some more ways that you can get your ideas onto the paper: draw a picture and describe what you
see; draw a picture and describe the feelings of the characters or elements of the setting; create a chart or
diagram that shows main ideas/details, cause/effect, etc.; talk with a friend, teacher, or parent to help you
generate ideas; and, let what you are reading influence you (but DON’T PLAGIARIZE!).

Once you have generated your ideas, you have to organize them. If you don’t, it will make your writing very
difficult to understand. One of the best ways to organize your writing is to create an outline. Once this is
completed, you will begin drafting.




                3a – The student will use and reflect on an appropriate composing
process (e.g., planning, drafting, revising, editing, publishing/ sharing) to express,
communicate, evaluate, or exchange ideas with a focus on texts increasing complexity
and length. [Note: Editing will be tested under competency four.] (DOK 3)

2.      Drafting • Draft with increasing fluency.



Write on every other line.

Skip a line between lines. It’s so much easier to make changes during revision when you have all that space to
write between the lines. And besides, it’ll make you feel like you’re getting twice as many pages written!



Number, date, and save everything.

With all those pages, you’ll need to keep them in order. You should also put the date on each page. When you
go back over previous drafts, those dates could make the difference between being finished and being confused.
And save everything you write – at least for a while.



Write on one side of the paper only.

This makes it easier to keep track of pieces that span many pages. It also allows you to cut your writing into
pieces if you need to move things around.



If you get stuck…

Every writer gets writer’s block. Here are four smart things you can do about it:


                                                        34
1.      Go back to your pre-writing and look for new material. Or, do some new pre-writing.

2.      Share your writing and ask your audience if they have any questions or any thoughts about what you
        could write next.

3.      Read your piece from the beginning. New ideas often occur to writers when they read over their entire
        piece.

4.      Put the piece aside and work on another piece for a while.




                3a – The student will use and reflect on an appropriate composing
process (e.g., planning, drafting, revising, editing, publishing/ sharing) to express,
communicate, evaluate, or exchange ideas with a focus on texts increasing complexity
and length. [Note: Editing will be tested under competency four.] (DOK 3)

5.      Revising • Revise selected drafts by adding, elaborating, deleting, and
        rearranging text based on teacher/peer feedback, writer’s checklist, or rubric.



If a rubric is provided, check back to make sure that what you are writing follows the guidelines on the rubric.

After reading the beginning, ask yourself…

1.      Will your readers know what your paper is about?

2.      Will your readers think your piece is going to be fun to read?

3.      Will your readers want to find out more?



After reading the middle, ask yourself…

1.      Will your readers think that you included enough details to help them understand your main idea?

2.      Will your readers have enough information so that they don’t have to ask a lot of questions?

3.      Will your readers think you included just the right amount of information?



After reading the ending, ask yourself…



                                                        35
1.      Will your readers understand the one most important thing that I wanted them to know?

2.      Will your piece feel finished and give your readers something to think about?

3.      Will your readers feel that they had fun or that they learned something new?



How long should your piece be?

Your piece should be long enough to express your ideas in such a way that all your reader’s questions are
answered – and not one word longer!




                3a – The student will use and reflect on an appropriate composing
process (e.g., planning, drafting, revising, editing, publishing/ sharing) to express,
communicate, evaluate, or exchange ideas with a focus on texts increasing complexity
and length. [Note: Editing will be tested under competency four.] (DOK 3)

4.      Editing • Edit/proofread drafts to ensure standard usage, mechanics, spelling, and
        varied sentence structure.



Editing is the final stage of the writing process. Once you have reworked your paper to your satisfaction, you go
through it one last time and “fix the small stuff.” It is in this stage that you look at punctuation, wording,
sentence structure and completeness, parallelism, preposition and article usage, and the host of other small
grammatical concerns.
Editing and revision are often meshed or confused. Let’s clarify the difference:
         Revision = re-thinking the paper
         Editing = fixing minor mistakes in punctuation, wording, grammar, or spelling.
NOTE! While the grammar and spell checker on your computer will catch most of your errors, there are certain
mistakes that a computer simply won’t find. Instead, I suggest that you listen to someone else read through it
aloud or read it aloud yourself. You will notice places that are choppy or problems that the spell/grammar
checker missed.




                3a – The student will use and reflect on an appropriate composing
process (e.g., planning, drafting, revising, editing, publishing/ sharing) to express,




                                                       36
communicate, evaluate, or exchange ideas with a focus on texts increasing complexity
and length. [Note: Editing will be tested under competency four.] (DOK 3)

5.      Publishing/Sharing • Share writing with others formally and informally using a
        variety of media.


Publishing can be as simple as creating a final copy of your writing. Or, it can be presenting your project to the
class. In any event, you want to realize that you are showcasing your BEST work.



When turning in a paper, neat handwriting or typed final copies should be submitted.

Always check and double check for errors.



When presenting to a small group or class follow these steps:

1.       Do your research In order to give an engaging presentation – You need to know what you're talking
        about. You don't have to become an expert, or read every book or website ever written about your
        topic, but you should be able to answer any questions your teacher or classmates might give you.
2.      Practice – In most presentations, it is pretty obvious who has practiced and who hasn't. Practice in
        front of your family or friends, or in front of the mirror, and give your presentation. Work on what
        you're going to say and how you're going to say it. You'll feel a lot more confident when you do the real
        thing and you'll eliminate the "likes" and "ums" that those who try to "wing it" will have.
3.      Smile at your audience. When it comes time to present, there's nothing that draws your audience into
        your presentation than a good old fashioned smile. Be happy; you're about to teach your entire class
        something they didn't know before.
4.      Feel confident of your presentation. When you give your class a presentation, your teacher is
        essentially having you take over their job for a little while. It's your job to make sure everyone
        understands what you're trying to tell them. Make sure you pay attention to how your teacher does this
        before your presentation, because teachers are expert presenters.
5.      Make eye contact. Nothing is more boring than listening to a presenter who looks at the floor or at
        note-cards. Relax. Your audience is made up of your friends and you talk to them all the time; talk the
        same way now.
6.      Be sure to have inflection in your voice. Your goal is to engage your audience, not put them to sleep. Be
        animated about your topic. Talk about it as if it was the most interesting thing in the world. Your
        classmates will thank you for it.
7.      Have a good conclusion. You've probably heard the presentations that end in something like "um...
        yeah.” Your conclusion is your final impression on your audience, including your teacher. Make it
        exciting by introducing a final statistic, or come up with something creative to do at the end. Your
        conclusion can be anything so long as your audience knows you're finished.
8.      Walk back to your seat with a smile. Know that you just aced your report and that you just did
        something that many people would never be able to do.



                                                        37
Tips
1.      Make it your goal to have eye contact with every person by the time you're finished. Otherwise you're
        likely to look at the same person, or worse, the floor.
2.      Remember that power point is a tool for your audience, not your script. Your presentation should
        include much more than you put on the power point and your slides should not have too much text on
        them.
3.      If you make a mistake, don't worry about it. If you don't draw attention to it by correcting yourself, no
        one will notice and if they do, they'll quickly forget.
4.      Keep your hands below your shoulders so the audience does not get distracted.
5.      Try not to argue with your audience. This detracts from your presentation. Just tell them they have an
        interesting point and that you'll check and get back to them.




               3b – The student will compose descriptive texts using specific details and
vivid language. (DOK3)


The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person, place or thing in such a way that a picture is
formed in the reader's mind. It does not tell the reader that the flower is beautiful; it shows them the flower is
beautiful. The reader feels like he/she is a part of the writer's experience of the subject.

Descriptive writing is used in all modes of writing (Expository, Narrative, and Persuasive) to create a vivid and
lasting impression of the person, place or thing.



1.      Good descriptive writing includes many vivid sensory details that paint a picture and appeals to all of the
        reader's senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste when appropriate. Descriptive writing
        may also paint pictures of the feelings the person, place or thing invokes in the writer.



     2. Good descriptive writing often makes use of figurative language such as analogies, similes and
        metaphors to help paint the picture in the reader's mind.



     3. Good descriptive writing uses precise language. General adjectives, nouns, and passive verbs do not
        have a place in good descriptive writing. Use specific adjectives and nouns and strong
        action verbs to give life to the picture you are painting in the reader's mind.



     4. Good descriptive writing is organized. Some ways to organize descriptive writing include: chronological
        (time), spatial (location), and order of importance. When describing a person, you might begin with a
        physical description, followed by how that person thinks, feels and acts.




                                                         38
See standard 1af for more on figurative language. See standard strand 4a2 and 4a6 for more on verbs and
adjectives. See standard 4c5 for more on composing sentences with vivid language.




               3c – The student will compose narrative text relating an event with a
clear beginning, middle, and end. (DOK3)

                1.         Stories and retellings

                2.       Narrative Poems

                3.       PowerPoint Presentations


A narrative tells a story. Telling a story aloud is very different from writing a story down on paper. When a story
is told out loud, we tend to "hop around", leave out important details, and forget to explain characters. In a
sense, all of that is okay. Our gestures, expressions, and tones of voice can carry a lot of information. The reader
of a written narrative expects more and needs more. The story cannot be simply "talk written down.” All of the
important events and details must be organized, clear, and descriptive. A fully developed narrative story
involves a main idea, which is introduced in the beginning, more detailed and eventful in the middle, and wraps
up in the end.

Personal Narrative – Personal narratives are often one of the first types of writing that you do. You write about
yourself and experiences that you have encountered, read, or heard about. You can become much more
engaged when your write about yourself in personal narratives because you are the expert on the topic of your
life.
When you write stories from your own experience, you already have a plot. Your job will be to make the story
interesting - as interesting for your reader as it was for you when it happened. Lots of description, lots of action,
and lots of dialogue will help your reader feel what you felt.




               Beginning                                  Middle                                      End


                                                         39
  Introduction and focus, pulls in the    Development, Movement, action, focus           Ties up all loose ends, has a resolution
                reader                    on prompt, elaboration and details                           and a reaction

Good if you jump right into it and        This is the heart or the meat of the story     Only papers with endings are passing
begin the story right away. The           - the most important part in the               papers. At the end of the story the
prompt may be stated or implied, or       development of the problem or the              reader should know what happened
it may come later in the middle of the    situation. The middle should be well           or what the result of the problem or
story. It shouldn't drag on. The          elaborated with lots of action to show         situation was. You should also express
beginning is crucial in a narrative; it   what is happening. If you have not             a resolution (problem/situation
sets the stage for everything else that   mastered writing the middle, you will          resolved and how) and a reaction.
follows. All the following questions      start listing things - descriptions that
should be answered as quickly as the      don't move, or sentences relaying states
story begins: Who? What? When?            of being that don't develop the story or
Where? Why? How?                          provide any action, just statements of
                                          being. For example: the house is blue,
                                          the car is red, and he is cool). Some
                                          listing is okay, as long as the other
                                          components of good writing are
                                          evident. Papers that list and stall, or list
                                          and end in a hurry are typical "2"
                                          papers. The details and elaboration
                                          must be relevant to what is happening
                                          in the story; otherwise it is listing.


Imaginative Narrative – An imaginative narrative is a made up story. Instead of being about real things, this
story is about things you imagine. Creativity is the most important thing in making an imaginative story. You
don't need to be afraid to go above and beyond reality. For example, instead of including events that can
happen to you every day, create unusual events that could never happen in real life.

When you write stories from your imagination, you get a chance to make up what happened - who the people
were, what they looked like, and how they acted. Again, putting in lots of convincing details will help your reader
imagine what you are imagining.

A narrative story can have descriptive and informative writing included in it. However, narrative writing tells a
story. If you can’t decide on what form it is, ask yourself, “Is it telling a story?”




              3d – The student will compose informational text clearly expressing a
main idea with supporting details, including but not limited to, text containing
chronological order, cause and effect, compare and contrast, or simple procedure.
(DOK3)

1.      Reports

2.      Letters



                                                           40
3.      Functional Texts

4.      Presentations

5.      Poems


An informative writing piece is designed to convey facts and data. Informative texts are created to teach people
who would like to gain more knowledge/experience in a particular area. They give us details about aspects of life
in order for us to go about our existence with as much knowledge as possible.

You can tell when a text is informative as it:
         • has one subject. (for example: Cats)
         • uses a specific type of language. (Cats are predators).
         • contains new information. (Cats are members of the feline family.)
         • uses facts and data. (Cats were held in high regard in ancient Egypt.)
         • has taught you something by the end of it. (Cats have been domesticated for centuries.)

See standard 2a3 for more information on chronological order, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and
simple procedure.




              3e – The student will compose simple persuasive text clearly expressing a
main idea with supporting details for a specific purpose and audience. (DOK3)

1.      Letters

2.      Speeches

3.      Advertisements
In persuasive writin0g, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to
believe or do something. Persuasive writing is often used in advertisements to get the reader to buy a product.
It is also used in essays and other types of writing to get the reader to accept a point of view. In order to
convince the reader you need more than opinion; you need facts or examples to back your opinion. So, be sure
to do the research! Because you need facts, persuasive writing often contains some informative writing as well.
If you are having a tough time deciding what type of writing it is, ask yourself, “Is this trying to convince me to
do or think something?”

Persuasive writing follows a particular format. It has an introduction, a body where the argument is developed,
and a conclusion. After writing an essay, like any other piece of writing, you should read, revise, conference and
revise, before publishing the final product.

Introduction



                                                        41
The introduction has a "hook or grabber" to catch the reader's attention. The introduction should also include a
thesis or focus statement.
There are three objectives of a thesis statement:
1.       It tells the reader the specific topic of your essay.
2.       It imposes manageable limits on that topic.
3.       It suggests the organization of your paper.
Through the thesis, you should say to the reader: "I've thought about this topic, I know what I believe about it,
and I know how to organize it."
Body
The writer then provides evidence to support the opinion offered in the thesis statement in the introduction.
The body offers solid reasons (more than one!) to back your thesis statement. Since almost all issues have sound
arguments on both sides of the question, a good persuasive writer tries to anticipate opposing viewpoints and
provide counter-arguments along with the main points in the essay. So, you should dedicate some space to
discuss opposing viewpoints and your counter-argument.
Part of the reasons you cite should include some elaboration. You should use statistics or research, real-life
experiences, or examples to make your argument stronger.
Conclusion
A piece of persuasive writing usually ends by summarizing the most important details of the argument and
stating once again what the reader is to believe or do.
Here are the steps:
1.       Restate your thesis or focus statement.
2.       Summarize the main points: The conclusion enables your reader to recall the main points of your
         position. In order to do this you can paraphrase the main points of your argument.
3.       Write a personal comment or call for action. You can do this:
         1.        With a Prediction: This can be used with a narrative or a cause and effect discussion. The
                   conclusion may suggest or predict what the results may or may not be in the situation discussed
                   or in similar situations.
         2.        With a Question: Closing with a question lets your readers make their own predictions, draw
                   their own conclusions.
         3.        With Recommendations: A recommendations closing is one that stresses the actions or
                   remedies that should be taken.
         4.        With a Quotation: Since a quotation may summarize, predict, question, or call for action, you
                   may use a quotation within a conclusion for nearly any kind of paper.
As a general guideline, when writing a persuasive essay:
1.       Have a firm opinion that you want your reader to accept.
2.       Begin with a grabber or hook to get the reader's attention.
3.       Offer evidence to support your opinion.
4.       Conclude with a restatement of what you want the reader to do or believe.

Refer to standard 2e1 and 2e2 for more information about the tools of persuasion.




                   3f – The student will compose text based on inquiry and research. (DOK3)

1.      Generate questions




                                                       42
2.      Locate sources (e.g., books, interviews, Internet) and gather relevant
        information.

3.      Identify and paraphrase important information from sources.

4.      Present the results.



Please refer to standard 3d for information on informative writing. Refer to standard 1g for information
about using reference materials. Refer to standard 2c for information of paraphrasing and summarizing.
Refer to standard 3a5 for information on publishing/sharing.




                         Standard 4 – Grammar and Mechanics



                   4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

          1 – Nouns (e.g., singular plural [including irregular forms], common, proper,
          singular possessive, plural possessive, appositives)



 Nouns - Nouns are naming words. They name people, places and objects. They can also name ideas, emotions,
 qualities and activities.

        Here are some examples of nouns: Peter, Elizabeth, driver, sister, friend, Bristol, Severn, Brazil, pen,
        dog, money, love, beauty, industry, nature, greed, pain.

Singular noun – When a noun means one only, it is said to be singular.
        Examples: boy, girl, book, church, box

Plural noun – When a noun means more than one, it is said to be plural.
        Examples: boys, girls, books, churches
            Rule 1 -The plural of nouns is usually formed by adding s to a singular noun.
                   Example: lamp, lamps; cat, cats; fork, forks; flower, flowers; pen, pens
            Rule 2 - Nouns ending in s, z, x, sh, and ch form the plural by adding es.
                   Example: moss, mosses buzz, buzzes box, boxes, dish, dishes church, churches


                                                        43
                    Special Note: If you add s to such nouns as fox, bush, and bench, you will find that you
                    cannot pronounce them without making an additional syllable. This is why such nouns form
                    the plural by adding es.
             Rule 3 - Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant is formed into a plural by changing y to ies.
                     Examples: lady, ladies; city, cities; army, armies
             Rule 4 - Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by adding s.
                    Example: boy, boys; day, days
             Rule 5 - Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant is formed into a plural by adding es.
                    Example: hero; heroes; grotto, grottoes
                    Add –es – motto, calico, buffalo, hero, potato, cargo, volcano, grotto, mosquito, tomato
                    Add –s only – canto, solo, piano, lasso, halo, memento, albino, sirocco
                    Special Note: Most nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel are formed into a plural by
                    adding s.
                    Example: folio, folios; cameo; cameos; studio, studios; portfolio, portfolios
             Rule 6 - Some nouns ending in f or fe are made plural by changing f or fe to ves.
                    Example: beef, beeves; wife, wives
                    Exceptions: The following may form their plurals by adding s: chief, chiefs fife, fifes mischief,
                    mischiefs, hoof, hoofs roof, roofs grief, griefs, kerchief, kerchiefs safe, safes
Irregular plural nouns – These nouns have no set rules to help remember how to change form.
        Examples: man, men; foot, feet; mouse, mice; woman, women; tooth, teeth; louse, lice; child, children;
                    ox, oxen; goose, geese;
        The following nouns have no singular: scissors, oats, tongs, dregs, trousers, pinchers, bellows, snuffers,
        cattle, shears, measles, mumps, victuals, tweezers, vespers.
        Some nouns are always singular. Some of these nouns may be used in the plural when different kinds
        are meant as sugars, coffees, cottons, gold, silver, wheat, corn, molasses, copper, sugar, news, gallows,
        mathematics, ethics (other words ending in ics)
Common noun – All nouns which are not proper nouns are common nouns.

        A few examples are: cup, art, paper, work, frog, bicycle, atom, family, mind.

Proper Noun – Proper nouns start with capital letters. They are the names of people, places, times,
organizations, etc. They refer to unique individuals. Most are not found in the dictionary.

        Here are some examples: President Obama, Mrs. Lewis, Government Street, The Ford Motor Company.

Singular possessive noun – When a noun means one only, it is said to be singular. When a singular noun shows
ownership or possession, add an apostrophe (‘) and the letter s ('s)
        Examples: boy = boy's; girl = girl's; bird = bird's; mouse = mouse's
Plural possessive noun – When a noun means more than one, it is said to be plural.
        Rule 1 - When the plural ends in s, only the apostrophe is added.
                 Examples: boys = boys' coat, Mr. Carstens = Mr. Carstens' car, Odysseus = Odysseus' travels,
                 princess = princess' tiara
        Rule 2 - When the plural does not end in s, only the apostrophe and the s is added.
                 Examples: oxen = oxen's

Appositive phrase – An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The
appositive can be a short or long combination of words.

        Look at these examples (the appositive is underlined):

            The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.




                                                         44
          The insect, a large cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.

          The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.

          The insect, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal, is crawling across the
          kitchen table.

     Here are more examples:

          During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed potatoes
          like an erupting volcano.

          My 286 computer, a modern-day dinosaur, chews floppy disks as noisily as my brother does peanut
          brittle.

          Genette's bedroom desk, the biggest disaster area in the house, is a collection of overdue library
          books, dirty plates, computer components, old mail, cat hair, and empty potato chip bags.

          Reliable, Diane's eleven-year-old beagle, chews holes in the living room carpeting as if he were still a
          puppy.

     Punctuate the appositive correctly.

          The important point to remember is that a nonessential appositive is always separated from the rest
          of the sentence with comma(s).

              When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:

                    A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to hit the poor man
                    with a racket.

              When the appositive interrupts the sentence, it looks like this:

                    Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player, charged the umpire and tried to hit the poor man
                    with a racket.

              And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:

                    Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player who
                    charged the umpire and tried to hit the poor man with a racket.




                 4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

         2 – Verbs (e.g., helping verbs, irregular verbs, linking verbs)



                                                      45
Verb – Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put
objects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the objects in meaningful ways.
        Look at the examples below:
             My grumpy old English teacher smiled at the plate of cold meatloaf.
                 My grumpy old English teacher = object; smiled = verb.
             The daredevil cockroach splashed into Sara's soup.
                 The daredevil cockroach = object; splashed = verb.
        The important thing to remember is that every subject in a sentence must have a verb. Otherwise, you
        will have written a fragment, a major writing error.
        Remember to consider word function when you are looking for a verb.
        Many words in English have more than one function. Sometimes a word is a subject, sometimes a verb,
        sometimes a modifier. As a result, you must often analyze the job a word is doing in the sentence. Look
        at these two examples:
             Potato chips crunch too loudly to eat during an exam.
             The crunch of the potato chips drew the angry glance of Professor Orsini to our corner of the room.
                 Crunch is something that we can do. We can crunch cockroaches under our shoes. We can
                 crunch popcorn during a movie. We can crunch numbers for a math class. In the first sentence,
                 then, crunch is what the potato chips do, so we can call it a verb.
                 Even though crunch is often a verb, it can also be a noun. The crunch of the potato chips, for
                 example, is a thing, a sound that we can hear. You therefore need to analyze the function that a
                 word provides in a sentence before you determine what grammatical name to give that word.
Action verb - Know an action verb when you see one. Dance! Sing! Paint! Giggle! Chew! What are these words
doing? They are expressing action, something that a person, animal, force of nature, or thing can do. As a result,
words like these are called action verbs.
        Look at the examples below:
             Clyde sneezes with the force of a tornado.
                 Sneezing is something that Clyde can do.
             The telephone rang with shrill, annoying cries.
                 Ringing is something that the telephone can do.
             Thunder boomed in the distance, sending my poor dog scrambling under the bed.
                 Booming is something that thunder can do.
        If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence
        and ask yourself, "Is this something that a person or thing can do?" Take this sentence, for example:
             During the summer, my poodle constantly pants and drools.
                 Can you during? Is during something you can do? Can you the? Is there someone theing outside
                 the window right now? Can you summer? Do your obnoxious neighbors keep you up until 2 a.m.
                 because they are summering? Can you my? What does a person do when she's mying? Can you
                 poodle? Show me what poodling is. Can you pant? Bingo! Sure you can! Run five miles and you'll
                 be panting. Can you and? Of course not! But can you drool? You bet—although we don't need a
                 demonstration of this ability. In the sentence above, therefore, there are two action verbs: pant
                 and drool.


Helping verb – Helping verbs are verbs that help a main verb. They help by making verb tense.

        Try these words to the tune of “When the Saints Go Marching In”!


                                                       46
            Am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, have, has, had, do, did, does, can, could, shall, should, will,
            would, may, might, must, These are the helping verbs!

        A helping verb ALWAYS has to be used with another verb. If it is not, it is called a linking verb.

Irregular verb – To make the past tense of most verbs, all we have to do is to add –ed to the end. The verbs in
the following chart are called irregular because we have to change their spelling to put them into a different
tense. For a visual definition, please see standard 4a3.

Linking verb – Linking verbs, on the other hand, do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of a
verb to additional information about the subject.




        Look at the examples below:

            Mario is a computer hacker.

                Ising isn't something that Mario can do. Is connects the subject, Mario, to additional information
                about him, that he will soon have the FBI on his trail.

            During bad storms, trailer parks are often magnets for tornadoes.

                Areing isn't something that trailer parks can do. Are is simply connecting the subject, trailer
                parks, to something said about them, that they tend to attract tornadoes.

            After receiving another failing grade in algebra, Jose became depressed.

                Became connects the subject, Jose, to something said about him, that he wasn't happy.

            A three-mile run seems like a marathon during a hot, humid July afternoon.

                Seems connects the subject, a three-mile run, with additional information, that it's more
                arduous depending on the day and time.

            At restaurants, Rami always feels angry after waiting an hour for a poor meal.

                Feels connects the subject, Rami, to his state of being, anger.

        The following verbs are true linking verbs: any form of the verb be [am, were, has been, are being, might
        have been, etc.], become, and seem. These true linking verbs are always linking verbs.

        Then you have a list of verbs with multiple personalities: appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell,
        sound, taste, and turn. Sometimes these verbs are linking verbs; sometimes they are action verbs. Their
        function in a sentence decides what you should call them.

        How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs? If you can substitute am,
        is, or are for the verb and the sentence still sounds logical, you have a linking verb on your hands. If,
        after the substitution, the sentence makes no sense, you are dealing with an action verb.




                                                         47
          Here are some examples:

              Chris tasted the crunchy, honey-roasted grasshopper.

                   Chris is the grasshopper? I don't think so! In this sentence then, tasted is an action verb.

              The crunchy, honey-roasted grasshopper tasted good.

                   The grasshopper is good? You bet. Roast your own!

              I smell the delicious aroma of the grilled octopus.

                   I am the delicious aroma? Not the last time I checked. Smell, in this sentence, is an action
                   verb.

              The aroma of the grilled octopus smells appetizing.

                   The aroma is appetizing? Definitely! Come take a whiff!

              The students looked at the equation until their brains hurt.

                   The students are the equation? Of course not! Here, looked is an action verb.

              The equation looked hopelessly confusing.

                   The equation is confusing? Without a doubt! You try it.

          This substitution will not work for appear. With appear, you have to analyze the function of the
          verb.

              Godzilla appeared in the doorway, spooking me badly.

                   Appear is something Godzilla can do—whether you want him to or not.

              Godzilla appeared happy to see me.

                   Here, appeared is connecting the subject, Godzilla, to his state of mind, happiness.




                4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

         3 – Verb tense (conjugation and purpose for past, present, future, present
         perfect)



                                                      48
All verbs, whether regular or irregular, have five forms [often called principal parts]. These forms are the
infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle, and present participle. We will study these forms:
infinitive (verb name), present, past, future, present perfect.

The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the simple past and past participle.
Regular verbs are dependably consistent – the simple past ends in –ed as does the past participle. Look at the
following chart.



          Infinitive         Simple Present            Simple Past           Past Participle     Present Participle

to laugh                 laugh(s)               laughed               laughed                  laughing

to start                 start(s)               started               started                  starting

to wash                  wash(es)               washed                washed                   washing

to wink                  wink(s)                winked                winked                   winking



Irregular verbs, on the other hand, can end in a variety of ways, with absolutely no consistent pattern. Here are
some examples:



          Infinitive         Simple Present            Simple Past           Past Participle     Present Participle

to drive                 drive(s)               drove                 driven                   driving

to feel                  feel(s)                felt                  felt                     feeling

to put                   put(s)                 put                   put                      putting

to swim                  swim(s)                swam                  swum                     swimming



Writers make two frequent errors with irregular verbs: either adding an incorrect –ed to the end of an irregular
verb or accidentally interchanging the simple past and past participle. Read this sentence:

           Olivia feeled like exercising yesterday, so she putted on her bathing suit and drived to the YMCA, where
           she swum so far that only an extra large pepperoni pizza would satisfy her hunger.

What are the problems with this sentence? First, feeled should be felt. Next, putted needs to be put. The
correct past tense form of drive is drove. And we must change swum to swam.



Simple Present – Verbs in simple present tense are verbs whose actions are happening RIGHT NOW.




                                                           49
     Simple Past – Verbs in simple past tense are verbs whose actions happened before this very moment. These
     verbs usually end in –d, -ed, or -ied.

     Future – Verbs in the future tense are verbs whose actions will happen sometime in the future. These verbs
     usually have one of the following helping verbs with them: will, going to, shall, aim to, etc.

     Present Perfect – Verbs in the present perfect tense are verbs that indicate that the action was done in the past
     and is still being done. Present perfect verbs almost always appear with the helping verbs have or has.

              Examples (the verb phrase is underlined):

                    I have been to France.

                    I have never been to France.

                    You have grown since the last time I saw you.

                    Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

                    Bill has still not arrived.

                    We have had many major problems.



     To help, an irregular verb chart has been included.

   Infinitive (Name)        Present Tense                Past Tense              Past Participle              Present Perfect

to arise                  arise(s)                arose                    arisen                  (have or has) arisen

to awake                  awake(s)                awoke or awaked          awaked or awoken        (have or has) awaked or awoken

to be                     am, is, are             was or were              been                    (have or has) been

to bear                   bear(s)                 bore                     borne or born           (have or has) bore, borne or born

to beat                   beat(s)                 beat                     beaten                  (have or has) beat or beaten

to become                 become(s)               became                   become                  (have or has) became or become

to begin                  begin(s)                began                    begun                   (have or has) began or begun

to bend                   bend(s)                 bent                     bent                    (have or has) bent

to bet                    bet(s)                  bet                      bet                     (have or has) bet

to bid (to offer)         bid(s)                  bid                      bid                     (have or has) bid

to bid (to command)       bid(s)                  bade                     bidden                  (have or has)bade or bidden

to bind                   bind(s)                 bound                    bound                   (have or has) bound




                                                                      50
to bite                 bite(s)            bit                       bitten or bit            (have or has) bitten or bit

to blow                 blow(s)            blew                      blown                    (have or has) blew or blown

to break                break(s)           broke                     broken                   (have or has) broke or broken

to bring                bring(s)           brought                   brought                  (have or has) brought

to build                build(s)           built                     built                    (have or has) built

to burst                burst(s)           burst                     burst                    (have or has) burst

to buy                  buy(s)             bought                    bought                   (have or has) bought

to cast                 cast(s)            cast                      cast                     (have or has) cast

to catch                catch(es)          caught                    caught                   (have or has) caught

to choose               choose(s)          chose                     chosen                   (have or has) chose or chosen

to cling                cling(s)           clung                     clung                    (have or has) clung

to come                 come(s)            came                      come                     (have or has) came or come

to cost                 cost(s)            cost                      cost                     (have or has) cost

to creep                creep(s)           crept                     crept                    (have or has) crept

to cut                  cut(s)             cut                       cut                      (have or has) cut

to deal                 deal(s)            dealt                     dealt                    (have or has) dealt

to dig                  dig(s)             dug                       dug                      (have or has) dug

to dive                 dive(s)            dived or dove             dived                    (have or has) dived or dove

to do                   do(es)             did                       done                     (have or has) done

to draw                 draw(s)            drew                      drawn                    (have or has) drawn

to drink                drink(s)           drank                     drunk                    (have or has) drank or drunk

to drive                drive(s)           drove                     driven                   (have or has) driven

to eat                  eat(s)             ate                       eaten                    (have or has) eaten

to fall                 fall(s)            fell                      fallen                   (have or has) fallen

to feed                 feed(s)            fed                       fed                      (have or has) fed

    Infinitive (Name)      Present Tense           Past Tense               Past Participle               Present Perfect

to feel                 feel(s)            felt                      felt                     (have or has) felt




                                                                51
to fight               fight(s)     fought                 fought                (have or has) fought

to find                find(s)      found                  found                 (have or has) found

to flee                flee(s)      fled                   fled                  (have or has) fled

to fling               fling(s)     flung                  flung                 (have or has) flung

to fly                 flies, fly   flew                   flown                 (have or has) flown

to forbid              forbid(s)    forbade or forbad      forbidden             (have or has) forbade or forbidden

to forget              forget(s)    forgot                 forgotten or forgot   (have or has) forgotten or forgot

to forgive             forgive(s)   forgave                forgive               (have or has) forgiven

to forsake             forsake(s)   forsook                forsaken              (have or has) forsook or forsaken

to freeze              freeze(s)    froze                  frozen                (have or has) froze or frozen

to get                 get(s)       got                    got or gotten         (have or has) got or gotten

to give                give(s)      gave                   given                 (have or has) given

to go                  go(s)        went                   gone                  (have or has) gone

to grow                grow(s)      grew                   grown                 (have or has) grown

to hang (to suspend)   hang(s)      hung                   hung                  (have or has) hung

to have                has, have    had                    had                   (have or has) had

to hear                hear(s)      heard                  heard                 (have or has) heard

to hide                hide(s)      hid                    hidden                (have or has) hid or hidden

to hit                 hit(s)       hit                    hit                   (have or has) hit

to hurt                hurt(s)      hurt                   hurt                  (have or has) hurt

to keep                keep(s)      kept                   kept                  (have or has) kept

to know                know(s)      knew                   known                 (have or has) known

to lay                 lay(s)       laid                   laid                  (have or has) laid

to lead                lead(s)      led                    led                   (have or has) led

to leap                leap(s)      leaped or leapt        leaped or leapt       (have or has) leaped or leapt

to leave               leave(s)     left                   left                  (have or has) left

to lend                lend(s)      lent                   lent                  (have or has) lent




                                                      52
to let                      let(s)             let                      let                      (have or has) let

to lie (to rest or recline) lie(s)             lay                      lain                     (have or has) lain

to light                    light(s)           lighted or lit           lighted or lit           (have or has) lighted or lit

to lose                     lose(s)            lost                     lost                     (have or has) lost

to make                     make(s)            made                     made                     (have or has) made

to mean                     mean(s)            meant                    meant                    (have or has) meant

to pay                      pay(s)             paid                     paid                     (have or has) paid

to prove                    prove(s)           proved                   proved or proven         (have or has) proved or proven

to quit                     quit(s)            quit                     quit                     (have or has) quit

to read                     read(s)            read                     read                     (have or has) read

to rid                      rid(s)             rid                      rid                      (have or has) rid

to ride                     ride(s)            rode                     ridden                   (have or has) ridden

to ring                     ring(s)            rang                     rung                     (have or has) rang or rung

to rise                     rise(s)            rose                     risen                    (have or has) risen

to run                      run(s)             ran                      run                      (have or has) run

to say                      say(s)             said                     said                     (have or has) said

to see                      see(s)             saw                      seen                     (have or has) seen

to seek                     seek(s)            sought                   sought                   (have or has) sought

to send                     send(s)            sent                     sent                     (have or has) sent

to set                      set(s)             set                      set                      (have or has) set

to shake                    shake(s)           shook                    shaken                   (have or has) shaken

to shine (to glow)          shine(s)           shone                    shone                    (have or has) shone

    Infinitive (Name)          Present Tense          Past Tense               Past Participle               Present Perfect

to shoot                    shoot(s)           shot                     shot                     (have or has) shot

to show                     show(s)            showed                   shown or showed          (have or has) shown or showed

to shrink                   shrink(s)          shrank                   shrunk                   (have or has) shrunk

to sing                     sing(s)            sang                     sung                     (have or has) sung




                                                                   53
to sink     sink (s)    sank or sunk          sunk               (have or has) sunk

to sit      sit(s)      sat                   sat                (have or has) sat

to slay     slay(s)     slew                  slain              (have or has) slain

to sleep    sleep(s)    slept                 slept              (have or has) slept

to sling    sling(s)    slung                 slung              (have or has) slung

to sneak    sneak(s)    sneaked or snuck      sneaked or snuck   (have or has) sneaked or snuck

to speak    speak(s)    spoke                 spoken             (have or has) spoken

to spend    spend(s)    spent                 spent              (have or has) spent

to spin     spin(s)     spun                  spun               (have or has) spun

to spring   spring(s)   sprang or sprung      sprung             (have or has) sprung

to stand    stand(s)    stood                 stood              (have or has) stood

to steal    steal(s)    stole                 stolen             (have or has) stolen

to sting    sting(s)    stung                 stung              (have or has) stung

to stink    stink(s)    stank or stunk        stunk              (have or has) stunk

to stride   stride(s)   strode                stridden           (have or has) stridden

to strike   strike(s)   struck                struck             (have or has) struck

to strive   strive(s)   strove                striven            (have or has) striven

to swear    swear(s)    swore                 sworn              (have or has) sworn

to sweep    sweep(s)    swept                 swept              (have or has) swept

to swim     swim(s)     swam                  swum               (have or has) swum

to swing    swing(s)    swung                 swung              (have or has) swung

to take     take(s)     took                  taken              (have or has) taken

to teach    teach(es)   taught                taught             (have or has) taught

to tear     tear(s)     tore                  torn               (have or has) torn

to tell     tell(s)     told                  told               (have or has) told

to think    think(s)    thought               thought            (have or has) thought

to throw    throw(s)    threw                 thrown             (have or has) thrown




                                         54
to understand          understand(s)       understood            understood            (have or has) understood

to wake                wake(s)             woke or waked         waked or woken        (have or has) waked or woken

to wear                wear(s)             wore                  worn                  (have or has) worn

to wring               wring(s)            wrung                 wrung                 (have or has) wrung

to write               write(s)            wrote                 written               (have or has) written




                       4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
    (DOK1)

                4 – Subject-verb agreement


    After identifying the subject and verb in a sentence, make certain the two agree. The following rules apply to
    subject/verb agreement.
              1. If the subject is singular (refers to one person or thing), the verb will have an -s ending.
                        Examples: The boy walks home. He throws the ball. The cat plays.
              2. If the subject is plural (refers to more than one person or thing), the verb will not end in s.
                        Examples: The girls write long essays. The computers work well. The children practice soccer
                        after school.
              3. The pronouns each, either, neither, one, everyone, no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, someone,
                 everybody, and much are singular and will require a verb with an -s ending.
                        Examples: Everyone in the class is going on the trip. Neither teacher plans to cover the entire
                        textbook. Someone living on our street is building a new deck.
              4. The pronouns several, few, both, many, and others are plural and require a verb without an -s
                  ending.
                        Examples: Several of my friends work in the library. Many on the honor roll study long hours.
              5. The pronouns some, any, none, all, and most may be either singular or plural.
                        Examples: Some of the cake was eaten. All of the contestants were present.
              6. When a sentence has two or more subjects joined by and, a verb without an s is needed.
                        Examples: Students and teachers park in front of the auditorium. Pizza, cake and ice cream
                        have always been his favorite foods.
              7. When a sentence has two or more subjects joined by or or nor, choose a verb that agrees with the
                  subject closest to it.
                        Examples: Fudge or cookies are a good choice for dessert. Neither Tammy nor her sister likes
                        to travel.
              8. Collective nouns such as team, family, jury, faculty, and committee are singular when considered
                  as a unit. These will take a verb with an -s ending.
                        Examples: My family drives to California each year. The faculty recommends that the new
                        handbook be approved.



                                                            55
             If individual members or parts of a group are considered separate, a plural verb without an s is
             needed.
                   Examples: The dance team buy their own costumes. The Honor Society compete in the math
                   competition.
          9. When every or many a comes before a subject, the verb should have an -s ending.
                   Examples: Every man, woman and child remembers that cold winter. Many a woman chooses
                   motherhood over a career.
          10. There and here are never subjects when they appear at the beginning of a sentence. The subject
             will come later in the sentence. Make certain to identify the correct word as the subject before
             choosing a verb.
                   Examples: There is the jacket I lost. Here are the library books you needed.
             Often the subject of a sentence will be delayed. The subject may come after the verb or after a
             prepositional phrase.
                   Examples: Through the gate ran the champion horses of the Kentucky Derby. In the pond
                   swim five large ducks.




                   4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

          5 – Articles and coordinating conjunctions



Articles – An article is an adjective and it modifies a noun. We sometimes call articles noun markers, because it
lets us know that a noun is coming in the sentence. There are three articles. They are a, an, and the.

The word “the” is used when you are talking about something specific or definite.

The word “a” or “an” is used when you are talking about something in general or indefinite. “A” is used before a
word that begins with a consonant. “An” is used before a word that begins with a vowel.



Coordinating conjunction - And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet—these are the seven coordinating conjunctions.
To remember all seven, you might want to learn this acronym: FANBOYS.

              F = for
              A = and
              N = nor
              B = but
              O = or
              Y = yet
              S = so

Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses.
         Look at the examples that follow:
         The bowl of squid eyeball stew is hot and delicious. “And” connects two adjectives.


                                                       56
          The squid eyeball stew is so thick that you can eat it with a fork or spoon. “Or” connects two objects
              of the preposition “with”. “So” is not a conjunction – it acts like an adverb.
          Rocky, my orange tomcat, loves having his head scratched but hates getting his claws trimmed. “But”
              connects loves to hates, creating a compound predicate.
          Rocky terrorizes the poodles next door yet adores the German shepherd across the street. “Yet”
              connects terrorizes to adores, creating a compound predicate.
          Rocky refuses to eat dry cat food, nor will he touch a saucer of squid eyeball stew. “Nor” connects
              the simple sentence “Rocky refuses” to the simple sentence “will he touch”, creating a compound
              sentence.
          I hate to waste a single drop of squid eyeball stew, for it is expensive and time-consuming to make.
              “For” connects the simple sentence “I hate” to the simple sentence “It is”, creating a compound
              sentence. “And” connects the two adjectives expensive to time-consuming.
          Even though I added cream to the squid eyeball stew, Rocky ignored his serving, so I got a spoon and
          ate it myself. “So” connects the simple sentence “Rocky ignored” to the simple sentence “I got”,
          creating a compound sentence. “And” connects the verb “got” to the verb “ate”, creating a
          compound predicate.
A coordinating conjunction can join two main clauses that a writer wants to emphasize equally. The pattern for
coordination looks like this:
Main clause , coordinating conjunction main clause.




                  4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)
          6 – Adjectives (e.g., possessive, comparative, superlative)

Adjectives - Adjectives describe nouns by answering one of these three questions: What kind is it? How many
are there? Which one is it? An adjective can be a single word, a phrase, or a clause. Check out these examples:
        What kind is it?
                Dan decided that the fuzzy green bread would make an unappetizing sandwich.
                         What kind of bread? Fuzzy green! What kind of sandwich? Unappetizing!
                A friend with a fat wallet will never want for weekend shopping partners.
                         What kind of friend? One with money to spend!
                A towel that is still warm from the dryer is more comforting than a hot fudge sundae.
                         What kind of towel? One right out of the dryer.
        How many are there?
                Seven hungry space aliens slithered into the diner and ordered two dozen vanilla milkshakes.
                         How many hungry space aliens? Seven!
                The students, five freshmen and six sophomores, braved Dr. Ribley's killer calculus exam.
                         How many students? Eleven!
                The disorganized pile of books, which contained seventeen overdue volumes from the library
                and five unread class texts, blocked the doorway in Eli's dorm room.
                         How many books? Twenty-two!
        Which one is it?


                                                       57
                The most unhealthy item from the cafeteria is the steak sub, which will slime your hands with
                grease.
                        Which item from the cafeteria? Certainly not the one that will lower your cholesterol!
                The cockroach eyeing your cookie has started to crawl this way.
                        Which cockroach? Not the one crawling up your leg but the one who wants your cookie!
                The students who neglected to prepare for Mrs. Mauzy's English class hide in the cafeteria
                rather than risk their instructor's wrath.
                        Which students? Not the good students but the lazy slackers.
Possessive adjectives – We use possessive adjectives to show who owns or "possesses" something. The
possessive adjectives are: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, and whose (interrogative)

number        person      gender                   possessive example sentence
                                                   adjective

singular      1st         male/female              my         This is my book.

              2nd         male/female              your       I like your hair.

              3rd         male                     his        His name is "John".

                          female                   her        Her name is "Mary".

                          neuter                   its        The dog is licking its paw.

plural        1st         male/female              our        We have sold our house.

              2nd         male/female              your       Your children are lovely.

              3rd         male/female/neuter       their      The students thanked their teacher.



singular/plural 1st/2nd/3rd male/female (not neuter) whose    Whose phone did you use?


Comparative and superlative adjectives – To make comparisons, you will often need comparative or superlative
adjectives. You use comparative adjectives if you are discussing two people, places, or things. You use
superlative adjectives if you have three or more people, places, or things.
         Look at these two examples:
             Stevie, a suck up who sits in the front row, has a thicker notebook than Nina, who never comes to
             class.
             The thinnest notebook belongs to Mike, a computer geek who scans all notes and handouts and
             saves them on the hard drive of his laptop.
You can form comparative adjectives two ways. You can add er to the end of the adjective, or you can use more
or less before it. Do not, however, do both! You violate the rules of grammar if you claim that you are more
taller, more smarter, or less faster than your older brother Fred.




                                                     58
One-syllable words generally take –er at the end, as in these examples: Because Fuzz is a smaller cat than
Buster, she loses the fights for tuna fish. For dinner, we ordered a bigger pizza than usual so that we would have
cold leftovers for breakfast.

Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Kelly is lazier than an old dog; he is perfectly happy spending an entire Saturday on the couch, watching old
movies and napping. The new suit makes Marvin more handsome than a movie star.

Use more or less before adjectives with three or more syllables:
Movies on our new flat-screen television are, thankfully, less colorful; we no longer have to tolerate the electric
greens and nuclear pinks of the old unit. Heather is more compassionate than anyone I know; she watches
where she steps to avoid squashing a poor bug by accident.

You can form superlative adjectives two ways as well. You can add –est to the end of the adjective, or you can
use most or least before it. Do not, however, do both! You violate another grammatical rule if you claim that you
are the most brightest, most happiest, or least angriest member of your family.

One-syllable words generally take est at the end, as in these examples:
These are the tartest lemon-roasted squid tentacles that I have ever eaten! Nigel, the tallest member of the
class, has to sit in the front row because he has bad eyes; the rest of us crane around him for a glimpse of the
board.

Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Because Hector refuses to read directions, he made the crispiest mashed potatoes ever in the history of instant
food. Because Isaac has a crush on Ms. Orsini, his English teacher, he believes that she is the most gorgeous
creature to walk the planet.

Use most or least before adjectives with three or more syllables:
The most frustrating experience of Desiree's day was arriving home to discover that the onion rings were
missing from her drive-thru order. The least believable detail of the story was that the space aliens had offered
Eli a slice of pepperoni pizza before his release.




                   4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit.
(DOK1)
          7 – Prepositions

Prepositions – Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the
physical world. Check out the three examples below:




                                                        59
             The puppy is on the floor.                             The puppy is beside the phone.



                                         The puppy is in the trashcan.
 On, in, and beside are all prepositions. They are showing where the puppy is. Prepositions can also show location
 in time. Read the next three examples:
          At midnight, Jill craved mashed potatoes with grape jelly.
          In the spring, I always vow to plant tomatoes but end up buying them at the supermarket.
          During the marathon, Iggy's legs complained with sharp pains shooting up his thighs.
 At midnight, in the spring, and during the marathon all show location in time.

 Because there are so many possible locations, there are quite a few prepositions. Below is the complete list.
 about                  before                   except for              near                     through
 above                  behind                   excepting               next                     throughout
 according to           below                    for                     of                       till
 across                 beneath                  from                    off                      to
 after                  beside                   in                      on                       toward
 against                between                  in addition to          onto                     under
 along                  beyond                   in back of              on top of                underneath
 along with             but*                     in front of             out                      unlike
 among                  by                       in case of              out of                   until
 apart from             by means of              in place of             outside                  up
 around                 concerning               inside                  over                     upon
 as                     despite                  in spite of             past                     up to
 as for                 down                     instead of              regarding                with
 at                     during                   into                    round                    within
 because of             except                   like                    since                    without

* But is very seldom a preposition. When it is used as a preposition, but means the same as except—Everyone ate frog legs
but Jamie. But usually functions as a coordinating conjunction.
Prepositions generally introduce prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases look like this:
preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, or gerund

Here are some examples:
       At school                               At = preposition; school = noun
       According to us                         According to = preposition; us = pronoun
       By chewing                              By = preposition; chewing = gerund



                                                        60
            Under the stove                         Under = preposition; the = modifier; stove = noun
            In the crumb-filled, rumpled sheets     In = preposition; the, crumb-filled, rumpled = modifiers; sheets = noun




                       4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit. (DOK1)

              8 – Pronouns (e.g., subject pronouns, singular pronouns, plural pronouns, singular
              possessive pronouns, plural possessive pronouns, object pronouns, reflexive pronouns,
              demonstrative pronouns)



 Pronouns – Pronouns are words that take the place of names and nouns (persons, places, things). Here are all the most
 common pronouns classified by person and case.



                Subject Pronoun    Object Pronoun     Reflexive Pronoun     Possessive Pronoun Possessive Adjective

Singular

1st person      I                  me                 myself                mine                  my

2nd person      you                you                yourself              yours                 your

3rd person      he, she, it        him, her, it       himself, herself,     his, hers, its        his, her, its
                                                      itself

Plural

1st person      we                 us                 ourselves             ours                  our

2nd person      you                you                yourselves            yours                 your

3rd person      they               them               themselves            theirs                their



 Subject pronoun – Subject pronouns are used when the pronoun is the subject of the sentence. You can remember subject
      pronouns easily by filling in the blank subject space for a simple sentence.

         Example: ______ did the job.
         I, you, he, she, it, we, and they all fit into the blank and are, therefore, subject pronouns. Subject pronouns are also
         used if they rename the subject. They follow to be verbs such as is, are, was, were, am, and will be.

         Examples: It is he. This is she speaking. It is we who are responsible for the decision to downsize. NOTE: In spoken
         English, most people tend to follow to be verbs with object pronouns. Many English teachers support (or at least have
         given in to) this distinction between written and spoken English.




                                                                   61
     Example: It could have been them. Better: It could have been they.

     Example: It is just me at the door. Better: It is just I at the door.

Singular pronoun – A singular pronoun is a pronoun that takes the place of a singular noun.

Plural pronoun – A plural pronoun is a pronoun that takes the place of a plural noun.

Singular possessive pronoun – Singular possessive pronouns show ownership in the singular form and never need
     apostrophes.
     Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its

     NOTE The only time it's has an apostrophe is when it is a contraction for it is or it has.

     Examples: It's a cold morning. The thermometer reached its highest reading.

Plural possessive pronoun – Plural possessive pronouns show ownership in the plural form and never need apostrophes.
     Possessive pronouns: ours, yours, theirs

     Examples: The land is ours to take care of.

Object pronoun – Object pronouns are used everywhere else (e.g., direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition).
    Object pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.

     Examples: Jean talked to him. Are you talking to me?

Reflexive pronoun – Reflexive pronouns - myself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, ourselves, yourself, yourselves- should
     be used only when they rename another pronoun in the sentence.

     Correct: I worked myself to the bone. Incorrect: My brother and myself did it. The word myself does not refer back to
     another word.

     Correct: My brother and I did it. Incorrect: Please give it to John or myself.

     Correct: Please give it to John or me.

Demonstrative pronoun – The four demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, those. A demonstrative pronoun identifies
   and specifies a noun or pronoun.

     This and these refer to nouns that are nearby in time or space. That or those refer to nouns that are further away in time
     or space. This and that refer to singular nouns; these and those refer to plural nouns. The demonstrative pronouns are in
     italics.

           This tastes delicious. (This is the subject of the sentence.)

           I don't like this. (This is the direct object of the sentence.)

           That will run for an hour. (That is the subject of the sentence.)

           Jim wrote that. (That is the direct object of the sentence.)

           These look good. (These is the subject of the sentence.)



                                                                  62
           I'll take these. (These is the direct object of the sentence.)

           Those belong to Linda. (Those is the subject of the sentence.)

           Jack brought those. (Those is the direct object of the sentence.)




                   4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit. (DOK1)

          9 – Pronoun-antecedent agreement (number and gender)

Pronoun-antecedent agreement – Pronouns (words that replace nouns) must agree with their antecedents (nouns that have
been replaced) in number and gender.

Pronouns Must Agree with Their Antecedents in Number.
       A singular pronoun refers to a singular antecedent.
       A plural pronoun refers to a plural antecedent.
       Examples:
           Singular
           My dog Chester chews his tennis ball into tiny pieces.
                The singular possessive pronoun his agrees with the singular noun antecedent Chester.
           The committee voted in haste and later regretted its decision.
                The singular pronoun its agrees with the singular noun antecedent committee. (The noun committee is an
                example of a collective noun--a singular noun which refers to a group that may have many members but is
                being referred to as a single entity. Other collective nouns are words like class, team, squad, and faculty.)
           Plural
           Many of the fans lost their voices during the final minutes of the exciting playoff game.
                The plural possesive pronoun their agrees with the plural noun fans.
           Indefinite
           One group of pronouns is especially troublesome. These pronouns, called indefinite pronouns, are always
           singular. These pronouns include everyone, anyone, nobody, everybody, and anybody.
           Notice that the pronoun specifies everyone or someone, not "everytwo" or "sometwo." Look at the common
           pronoun error in this sentence:
           I told everyone to bring their coats since the temperature is falling.
                The plural pronoun their does not agree with the singular indefinite pronoun antecedent everyone.
           Correct the error either by making the antecedent plural or by specifying both genders:
                I told all my friends to bring their coats . . .
                I told everyone to bring his or her coat . . . .

Pronouns Must Agree with Their Antecedents in Person. – Person refers to the point of view, indicating whether the speaker
or writer includes himself, directly addresses another, or refers to others by name or gender.
        First person pronouns include the speaker: I, we, us, our.
        Second person pronouns directly address another: you, your.
        Third person pronouns represent an uninvolved point of view: he, him, she, her, they, them, their.
                 Examples:



                                                                 63
              First Person
              My roommate doesn't understand that I need music to study.
                       The first person possessive pronoun my agrees in person with the pronoun I.
              Second Person
              You shouldn't forget to set your alarm when you have an 8:00 a.m. class.
                       The second person possesive pronoun your corresponds to its antecedent you.
              Third Person
              Sarah does poorly on homework assignments, but she always aces the tests.
                       The third person pronoun she corresponds to the antecedent Sarah.
Pronouns Must Agree with Their Antecedents in Gender.
       Pronouns which rename specifically masculine nouns must be masculine: he, him, his.
       Pronouns which rename specifically feminine nouns must be feminine: she, her, hers.
       Pronouns which refer to non-gendered nouns are usually neuter: it, its, they, theirs.
              Examples:
              Masculine
              Carlos flew to Chicago for his family reunion.
              Feminine
              Andrea had the best game of her career last night.
              Neuter
              The coffee table only looks antique; actually, it is a reproduction.

               HINT: Generally, you should use the neuter pronouns to refer to unnamed animals. Use masculine or
               feminine pronouns for named animals.

               The horse lost its shoe during the final leg of the race.
               Carlton refuses to eat his cat food, insisting instead on table scraps.
               Disney's Lady can't help herself: she's attracted to The Tramp.

Remember that every pronoun must have a clear, explicit antecedent. To solve pronoun problems, begin by circling each
pronoun. Then draw an arrow to the pronoun's antecedent.




Once you've located the pronoun and its antecedent, check to see that they agree in number, person, and gender.




                  4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit. (DOK1)

         10 – Adverbs (avoiding double negatives; comparative forms)
Adverbs – Adverbs tweak the meaning of verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and clauses. Read, for example, this sentence: Our
basset hound Bailey sleeps on the living room floor.




                                                              64
Is Bailey a sound sleeper, curled into a tight ball? Or is he a fitful sleeper, his paws twitching while he dreams? The addition of
an adverb adjusts the meaning of the verb sleeps so that the reader has a clearer picture: Our basset hound Bailey sleeps
peacefully on the living room floor.

Adverbs can be single words, or they can be phrases or clauses. Adverbs answer one of these four questions: How? When?
Where? and Why?
Here are some single-word examples:
         Lenora rudely grabbed the last chocolate cookie. The adverb rudely fine-tunes the verb grabbed.
         Tyler stumbled in the completely dark kitchen. The adverb completely fine-tunes the adjective dark.
         Roxanne very happily accepted the ten-point late penalty to work on her research essay one more day.
                  The adverb very fine-tunes the adverb happily.
         Surprisingly, the restroom stalls had toilet paper. The adverb surprisingly modifies the entire main clause that
                  follows.
Many single-word adverbs end in ly. In the examples above, you saw peacefully, rudely, completely, happily, and surprisingly.
Not all ly words are adverbs, however. Lively, lonely, and lovely are adjectives instead, answering the questions What kind? or
Which one?Many single-word adverbs have no specific ending, such as next, not, often, seldom, and then. If you are not
certain whether a word is an adverb or not, use a dictionary to determine its part of speech.

Avoid an adverb when a single, stronger word will do.
Many readers believe that adverbs make sentences bloated and flabby. When you can replace a two-word combination with
a more powerful, single word, do so! For example, don't write drink quickly when you mean gulp, or walk slowly when you
mean saunter, or very hungry when you mean ravenous.

Form comparative and superlative adverbs correctly.
To make comparisons, you will often need comparative or superlative adverbs. You use comparative adverbs—more and
less—if you are discussing two people, places, or things. You use superlative adverbs—most and least—if you have three or
more people, places, or things.
         Look at these two examples:
                 Beth loves green vegetables, so she eats broccoli more frequently than her brother Daniel does.
                 Among the members of her family, Beth eats pepperoni pizza the least often.
Don't use an adjective when you need an adverb instead.
You will often hear people say, "Anthony is real smart", or "This pizza sauce is real salty."
Real is an adjective, so it cannot modify another adjective like smart or salty. What people should say is "Anthony is really
smart" or "This pizza sauce is really salty."
If you train yourself to add the extra ly syllable when you speak, you will likely remember it when you write, where its
absence will otherwise cost you points or respect!

Realize that an adverb is not part of the verb.
Some verbs require up to four words to complete the tense. A multi-part verb has a base or main part as well as additional
helping or auxiliary verbs with it. When a short adverb such as also, never, or not, interrupts, it is still an adverb, not part of
the verb.
        Read these examples:
                 For his birthday, Frank would also like a jar of dill pickles. Would like = verb; also = adverb.
                 After that dreadful casserole you made last night, Julie will never eat tuna or broccoli again. Will eat = verb;
                     never = adverb.



                                                                 65
                Despite the approaching deadline, Sheryl-Ann has not started her research essay. Has started = verb; not =
                    adverb.
Double negatives - Words combined with n't and the word not are negative words. In general only one negative word is
necessary in a sentence. If two negative words appear in a sentence, replace one with an affirmative, or yes, word.

Negative                      Affirmative                Negative                      Affirmative

nothing                       anything, something        nobody                        anybody, somebody

never                         ever                       nowhere                       anywhere, somewhere

no one                        anyone, someone, everyone no                             any, a, one

                                                         none                          one, all, some

          They didn’t have (any or no) tickets. We would choose the word “any” because there is already a negative in the
             sentence. It is the word “not” and appears as a contraction in “didn’t”.
          Haven’t you (ever or never) been to a football game? We would choose the word “ever” because there is already a
             negative in the sentence. It is the word “not” and appears as a contraction in “haven’t”.
          Nobody (can’t or can) find the tennis rackets. We would use the word “can” because “nobody” is a negative word.




                    4a – The student will apply Standard English grammar to compose or edit. (DOK1)

            11 – Interjections
Interjection – Hi! That's an interjection. 

Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real
grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted
into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an
exclamation mark (!) when written.

The table below shows some interjections with examples.

     Interjection                          Meaning                                          Example
ah                  expressing pleasure                               Ah, that feels good.
                    expressing realization                            Ah, now I understand.
                    expressing resignation                            Ah well, it can’t be helped.
                    expressing surprise                               Ah! I’ve won!
alas                expressing grief or pity                          Alas, she’s dead now.
dear                expressing pity                                   Oh dear! Does it hurt?
                    expressing surprise                               Dear me! That’s a surprise!
eh                  asking for repetition                             It’s hot today. Eh? I said it’s hot today.
                    expressing inquiry                                What do you think of that, eh?
                    expressing surprise                               Eh! Really?
                    inviting agreement                                Let’s go, eh?



                                                             66
er                expressing hesitation                               Lima is the capital of…er…Peru.
hello             expressing greeting                                 Hello John. How are you today?
                  expressing surprise                                 Hello! My car’s gone!
hey               calling attention                                   Hey! Look at that!
                  expressing surprise, joy, etc.                      Hey! What a good idea!
hi                expressing greeting                                 Hi! What’s new?
hmm               expressing hesitation, doubt, or disagreement       Hmm. I’m not so sure.
oh                expressing surprise                                 Oh! You’re here!
                  expressing pain                                     Oh! I’ve got a toothache.
                  expressing pleading                                 Oh, please say yes!
ouch              expressing pain                                     Ouch! That hurts!
uh                expressing hesitation                               Uh…I don’t know the answer to that.
uh-huh            expressing agreement                                Shall we go?     Uh-huh.
um, umm           expressing hesitation                               85 divided by 5 is…um…17.
well              expressing surprise                                 Well, I never!
                  introducing a remark                                Well, what did he say?




                  4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

          1 – End punctuation (e.g., period, question mark, exclamation point)



End punctuation – Every complete sentence ends with a punctuation mark.

        Period – Use a period (.) for commands (imperative) and statements (declarative).

        Question mark – Use a question mark (?) for questions (interrogative).

        Exclamation point – Use an exclamation point (!) for sentences that show strong feeling or need extra emphasis
             (exclamatory).




                  4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

          2 – Periods in common abbreviations (e.g., titles of address, days of the week, months of
          the year)
Here are a few tables that will show you common abbreviations that we use in 4th grade.

Months     Month’s Abbr.      Days of the   Day’s Abbr.       Address     Address Abbr.      Directions     Directions



                                                             67
                                 Week                           Words                                           Abbr.

January       Jan.           Sunday        Sun.             Road          Rd.               North          N.

February      Feb.           Monday        Mon.             Street        St.               South          S.

March         Mar.           Tuesday       Tues.            Post Office P.O.                East           E.

April         Apr.           Wednesday Wed.                 Apartment Apt.                  West           W.

May           May            Thursday      Thurs.           Boulevard     Blvd.             North East     N.E.

June          June           Friday        Fri.             Avenue        Ave.              North West     N.W.

July          July           Saturday      Sat.             Highway       Hwy.              South East     S.E.

August        Aug.                                                                          South West     S.W.

September Sept.

October       Oct.

November      Nov.

December      Dec.



   Proper     Proper
   Address    Address
               Abbr.

 Mister      Mr.

 Misses      Mrs.

 Miss        Miss

 Ms.         Ms.




                     4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

             3 – Commas (e.g., dates, series, addresses, greetings and closings of friendly letters,
             quotations, introductory prepositional phrases, and nonessential appositive phrases)
 The comma tells the reader to pause, just as the blinking yellow light tells a driver to slow down and proceed with caution.
 Some writers try to tell where a comma is needed by reading their work aloud and inserting a comma where there seems to
 be a clear pause in the sentence. This is not the best way to use commas. Below are some of the general ways to use commas
 with a reasonable degree of certainty.


                                                             68
               Rules                                                             Examples
Use commas to separate the day from           January 15, 2010
the year.
                                              November 21, 1976

Use commas to separate the street name       Ocean Springs, Mississippi
from the city or town name, from the
state, from the country. (Or any             New Mexico, United States of America
combination of the two)                      Government Street, Ocean Springs

                                             3500 Government Street, Ocean Springs, Mississippi, United States of America

Use commas to separate 3 or more          Nouns - For lunch I ate a sandwich, a cookie, and milk.
words or phrases in a series.
                                             My favorite fruits are apples, oranges, grapes, and pears.

                                          Verbs – We are going to go running, biking, and swimming.

                                             Aunt Carrie acted, directed, and sang in the first Star Wars movie.

                                          Adjectives – Please refer to the section at the bottom of this table.

                                          Phrases – On Saturday, we will go on a bike ride, camp in a tent, and have a lot of
                                             fun!

                                              The following statements were made: I love cheesecake, crawfish taste
                                              delicious, and I have never seen it snow at my house.

Use a comma in direct address.            Mary, you should wear your sneakers to school.
                                          Will you help me tie my shoe, Mom?

Use a comma after an interjection at the Yes, I'd like some mustard for my hotdog.
beginning of a sentence.
                                         Hey, are you sitting at his table?

Use a comma after the greeting of a       Dear Grandma,
letter.
                                          Dear Phillip,

Use a comma after the closing of a letter. Your friend,

                                          Sincerely,

Use a comma to introduce quotations.      I said, “Please quit jumping on the bed.”

                                          As the spider climbed down its web onto my shoulder, I yelled, “Yikes!”

Use a comma to set off introductory       To raise enough money in time, Mary had to hold a bake sale.
prepositional phrases.
                                          In order to go on the field trip, Paul had to turn in his permission form.

Use a comma to set off a nonessential     When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:
appositive phrase


                                                                  69
                                            A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to hit the
                                            poor man with a racket.

                                      When the appositive interrupts the sentence, it looks like this:

                                            Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player, charged the umpire and tried to hit the
                                            poor man with a racket.

                                      And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:

                                            Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player
                                            who charged the umpire and tried to hit the poor man with a racket.


To describe a noun fully, you might need to use two or more adjectives. Sometimes a series of adjectives requires commas,
but sometimes it doesn't. What makes the difference?
If the adjectives are coordinate, you must use commas between them. If, on the other hand, the adjectives are non-
coordinate, no commas are necessary. How do you tell the difference?
Coordinate adjectives can pass one of two tests. When you rearrange their location in the series or when you insert and
between them, they still make sense. Look at the following example:
          The tall, creamy, delicious milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty
          cashier.
Now read this revision:
          The delicious, tall, creamy milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty
          cashier.
The series of adjectives still makes sense even though the order has changed. And if you insert and between the adjectives,
you still have a logical sentence:
          The tall and creamy and delicious milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty
          cashier.

Non-coordinate adjectives do not make sense when you rearrange their location in the series or when you insert and
between them. Check out this example:
         Jeanne's two fat Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings.
If you switch the order of the adjectives, the sentence becomes gibberish:
         Fat Siamese two Jeanne's cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings.
Logic will also evaporate if you insert and between the adjectives.
         Jeanne's and two and fat and Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings.




                   4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

          4 – Apostrophes (e.g., possessives; contractions)
                          Rule                                                     Example

Use the apostrophe with contractions. The apostrophe is don't, isn't



                                                              70
always placed at the spot where the letter(s) has been       You're right.
removed.
                                                             She's a great teacher.

Use the apostrophe to show possession. Place the             word doesn’t end in “s” – one boy's hat, one woman's
apostrophe before the s to show singular possession.         hat, one actress's hat, one child's hat, Ms. Chang's house

                                                             word does end in “s” – although names ending in s or an
                                                             s sound are not required to have the second s added in
                                                             possessive form, it is preferred.

                                                             Mr. Jones's golf clubs, Texas's weather, Ms. Straus's
                                                             daughter, Jose Sanchez's artwork, Dr. Hastings's
                                                             appointment (name is Hastings), Mrs. Lees's books
                                                             (name is Lees)

Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is This was his father's, not his, jacket.
implied.

To show plural possession, make the noun plural first.       two boys' hats, two women's hats, two actresses' hats,
Then immediately use the apostrophe.                         two children's hats, the Changs' house, the Joneses' golf
                                                             clubs, the Strauses' daughter, the Sanchezes' artwork,
                                                             the Hastingses' appointment, the Leeses' books

Do not use an apostrophe for the plural of a name.           We visited the Sanchezes in Los Angeles.

                                                             The Changs have two cats and a dog.

With a singular compound noun, show possession with 's my mother-in-law's hat
at the end of the word.

If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and my two brothers-in-law's hats
then
use the apostrophe.

Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if Cesar and Maribel's home is constructed of redwood.
two people possess the same item.                      Cesar's and Maribel's job contracts will be renewed
                                                       next year. - Indicates separate ownership.

                                                             Cesar and Maribel's job contracts will be renewed next
                                                             year. - Indicates joint ownership of more than one
                                                             contract.

Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, Correct: This book is hers, not yours.
hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose. They already show Incorrect: Sincerely your's.
possession so they do not require an apostrophe.

The only time an apostrophe is used for it's is when it is a It's a nice day.
contraction for it is or it has.                             It's your right to refuse the invitation.
                                                             It's been great getting to know you.



                                                                  71
 The plurals for capital letters and numbers used as nouns She consulted with three M.D.s.
 are not formed with apostrophes.                          BUT
                                                           She went to three M.D.s' offices.
                                                           The apostrophe is needed here to show plural
                                                           possessive.

                                                            She learned her ABCs.

                                                            the 1990s not the 1990's

                                                            the '90s or the mid-'70s not the '90's or the mid-'70's

                                                            She learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.


                                                           Exception: Use apostrophes with capital letters and
                                                           numbers when the meaning would be unclear
                                                           otherwise.
                                                           Examples: Please dot your i's. You don't mean is.
 Use the possessive case in front of a gerund (-ing word). Alex's skating was a joy to behold.
                                                           This does not stop Joan's inspecting of our facilities
                                                           next Thursday.
 If the gerund has a pronoun in front of it, use the       I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.
 possessive form                                            I appreciated his working with me to resolve the
 of that pronoun.                                          conflict.




                    4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

           5 – Quotation marks (e.g., quotations, titles of poems, titles of songs, titles of short
           stories)

 Quotation marks – Quotation marks surround words that are being spoken. All quotations begin with a capital letter!

                             Rule                                                       Example
If the quote comes before the person who spoke and tells     "The world is a very big place with seven continents and
something, place a comma after the quote, before the closing four oceans," the teacher told the class.
quotation mark.
If the quote comes after the person who spoke and tells      Chad explained, "We live on the continent of North
something, place the comma after the person who spoke,       America."
before the opening quotation mark.
If the quote comes before the person who spoke and asks      "Is North America a large continent?" Jane asked.
something, place the question mark after the quote, before
the closing quotation mark.
If the quote comes after the person who spoke and asks       Mr. Pantane responded, "Why don't you look it up?"



                                                                72
something, place the question mark after the quote, before
the closing quotation mark.
If the quote comes before the person who spoke and shows              "I know, I know!" James exclaimed.
strong emotion, place the exclamation mark after the quote,
before the closing quotation mark.
If the quote comes after the person who spoke and asks                Mary interrupted excitedly, "I know that North America is
something, place the exclamation mark after the quote,                the third largest continent!"
before the closing quotation mark.
A quote separated by the person who spoke is called a split           "OK class," said the teacher, "tomorrow we will use the
quotation. Begin the first part of a split quotation with a           computer and learn more about continents."
capital letter, and end with a comma. Begin the second part
of a split quotation with a lower case letter. Enclose both
parts of the split quotation with quotation marks.

 For more information on using quotation marks in the titles of songs and short stories, please refer to standard 4b6 –
 Underlining/Italics.




                      4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit. (DOK1)

            6 – Underlining/Italics (e.g., titles of books and movies)

 Remember these two rules for using underlining/italics vs. quotation marks!
          1 – Short works and parts of long works are usually in quotation marks.
          2 – Long works and collections of short works are usually put in italics when using word processing software or underlined
             when writing by hand.
          REMEMBER – If it can sit on a shelf it gets underlined/italics. If it fits in something that sits on a shelf, it gets quotation marks!



   “Title of a Short Poem.”                                              “Title of a Short Song”

   Ex: “The Raven.”                                                      Ex: “Money Talks”



   “Title of a Short Story.”

   Ex: “Young Goodman Brown”



   “Title of an Essay”

   Ex: “The Fiction of Langston Hughes”

                                                                         “Title of a Skit or Monologue”




                                                                       73
Ex: “Madman’s Lament”
                                                         Title of a Novel
                                                         Ex: The Scarlet Letter or The Scarlet Letter
“Short Commercial”
                                                         Title of a Collection or Anthology of Essays
Ex: “Obey Your Thirst.”                                  Ex: Modern Writers and Their Readers

                                                         Title of a CD, Cassette, or Album
Title of “Individual Episode” in a Television Series.    Ex: The Razor’s Edge by AC/DC
                                                         Also: Title of a Ballet or Opera
Ex: “Sawyer’s Past”                                      Ex: The Nutcracker Suite or Die Fliedermaus
                                                         Also: Title of Long Classical or Instrumental Compositions
                                                         Identified by Name, Rather than Number.
“Title of a Chapter in a Book”                           Ex: Wagner’s The Flight of the Valkyries

Ex: “Welsh Mountains”                                    Title of a Play
                                                         Ex: The Importance of Being Earnest

“Encyclopedia Article”                                   Title of a Film
                                                         Ex: Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones
Ex: “Etruscan”
                                                         Title of a Television Series as a Whole
                                                         Ex: Everybody Loves Raymond
“Title of an Article in a Magazine”
                                                         Title of a Complete Book
Ex: “Training Your Toddler”                              Ex: A Guide to Welsh Geography

                                                         Title of Encyclopedia
“Title of an Article in a Newspaper”                     Ex: Encyclopedia Brittanica

Ex: “Man Kills Seven in Subway”                          Title of a Magazine
                                                         Ex: Parenting

“Title of Two Page Handout”                              Title of a Newspaper
                                                         Ex: The New York Times
Ex: “Old English Verbs: A One Page Guide”
                                                         Title of a Pamphlet
Title of an Epic Poem or Book-Length Poem                Ex: The Coming Kingdom of God and the Millenium
Ex: The Odyssey or The Odyssey




                  4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit.
(DOK1)



                                                        74
          7 – Colons (e.g., time, before lists introduced by independent clauses)



Colons in time statements – When writing the time, ALWAYS place a colon in between the hour and the minutes.

          Ex: 7:35       9:27 a.m.

Colons before a list introduced by an independent clause – Use a colon before a list of items, especially after
expressions “like”, “as follows”, or “the following”. A colon says "note what follows." A colon suggests equality. When
used like this, the colon should ALWAYS follow what could be a complete sentence (independent clause). NEVER use a
colon with a fragment.
        Ex. Danielle has two favorite Thanksgiving dishes: stuffing and pecan pie.
        Incorrect – The ingredients for the chocolate cake : flour, cocoa, butter, eggs, sugar, and vanilla extract.
        Correct - We need several ingredients for the chocolate cake : flour, cocoa, butter, eggs, sugar, and vanilla
                   extract.




                     4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit.
(DOK1)
     8 – Capitalization (e.g., first word in a sentence, proper nouns, days of the week,
     months of the year, holidays, titles, initials, the pronoun “I”, first word in greetings
     and closings of friendly letters, proper adjectives)
                            Rule                                                       Example

Capitalize the first word of any sentence.                   How are you today?

Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.              He said, "Treat her as you would your own daughter."

                                                             "Look out!" she screamed. "You almost ran into my child.”

Capitalize a proper noun.                                    Golden Gate Bridge

Capitalize a person's title when it precedes the name. Do    Chairperson Petrov
not capitalize when the title is acting as a description
following the name.                                          Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address
                                                             us at noon.

Capitalize points of the compass only when they refer to     We have had three relatives visit from the South.
specific regions.
                                                             Go south three blocks and then turn left.

                                                             We live in the southeast section of town.

                                                                 Southeast is just an adjective here describing section,
                                                                 so it should not be capitalized.

Do not capitalize names of seasons.                          I love autumn colors and spring flowers.




                                                            75
Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word Dear Ms. Mohamed:
of a complimentary close.
                                                             My dear Mr. Sanchez:

                                                            Very truly yours,

Capitalize words derived from proper nouns.                 I must take English and math.
                                                            English is capitalized because it comes from the proper
                                                            noun England, but math does not come from Mathland.

After a sentence ending with a colon, do not capitalize the These are my favorite foods: chocolate cake, spaghetti,
first word if it begins a list.                             and artichokes.

Always capitalize the days of the week, months of the year, I am going to see my grandmother on the first Sunday in
and holidays.                                               October because Halloween is her favorite holiday.

Always capitalize the pronoun I.                            She asked me if I had ever eaten a TatoNut.

Some proper nouns are used to describe other nouns. This Kodak camera
makes them proper adjectives. Proper adjectives are
always capitalized.                                      Chinese-American

                                                            French fries

                                                            Belgian Waffle




                  4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

          9 – Spell words commonly found in fourth grade level text.
                Please refer to your child’s Language Arts spelling resources.




                  4b – The student will apply Standard English mechanics to compose or edit.
(DOK1)

          10 – Produce legible text.




                                                           76
              4c – The student will apply knowledge of sentence structure in composing or
editing. (DOK2)

          1 – Analyze the structure of sentences (e.g., simple sentences including those with
          compound subjects and/or compound predicates; compound sentences; and
          complex sentences, including independent and dependent clauses).

          2 – Compose simple sentences with compound subjects and/or compound
          predicates; compound sentences; and complex sentences.



Complete sentence - A complete sentence has three characteristics:
   First, it begins with a capital letter.
   In addition, it includes an end mark—either a period [ . ], question mark [ ? ], or exclamation point [ ! ].
   Most importantly, the complete sentence must contain at least one main clause. A main clause contains an
        independent subject and verb and expresses a complete thought.

    Check out these examples:



                                                          77
       The banana rotting at the bottom of Jimmy's book bag has soaked his biology notes with ooze.
       Did you notice the cricket swimming in your cup of tea?
       I cannot believe that you tried one of those disgusting chocolate-broccoli muffins!

If a main clause exists in the sentence, you can attach whatever other sentence elements you need. Look at the
additions to the main clause below. All of the additions make complete sentences.
     A bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth.
     Buzzing around the picnic table, a bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth.
     A bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth, stinging the poor boy's tongue, which swelled up as big and as blue as
         an eggplant.
     Because it smelled the peach-flavored bubble gum, a bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth.
     A bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth and tickled the poor boy's tonsils.
     Taking a wrong turn, a bumblebee flew into Peter's open mouth, but it buzzed back out before Peter swallowed.

Simple Sentence – A simple sentence begins with a capital letter, has one subject, one verb, and ends with a
punctuation mark. A simple sentence is one independent clause.
         Ex: Suzette came over to my house yesterday.
Simple Sentence with a Compound Subject – A simple sentence with a compound subject begins with a capital letter,
has two subjects joined by a coordinating conjunction, one verb, and ends with a punctuation mark. A simple
sentence with a compound subject is one independent clause.
         Ex: Suzette and Johnny came over to my house yesterday.
             Suzette and her brother, Johnny, came over to my house yesterday.
             Suzette and her brother came over to my house yesterday.
Simple Sentence with a Compound Predicate – A simple sentence with a compound predicate begins with a capital
letter, has one subject, two verbs (does not include helping verbs with an action verb), and ends with a punctuation
mark. A simple sentence with a compound predicate is one independent clause.
         Ex: Suzette laughed and played at my house yesterday.
             Suzette laughed out loud and played inside at my house yesterday.
Compound Sentence – A compound sentence is a complete sentence that has been formed by joining two
independent clauses (a simple sentence, a simple sentence with a compound subject, or a simple sentence with a
compound predicate) with a coordinating conjunction.
Independent Clause – An independent clause is another name for a complete sentence, either with one subject and
one predicate, or a compound subject or compound predicate. It can stand all on its own and makes complete sense.
Dependent Clause – A dependent clause has a subject and a verb, but it does not make complete sense. It depends
on the rest of the sentence to help it.

      Before the rain                          This is a prepositional phrase that functions as an adverb because it
                                               answers the questions, “When?” There is no verb in this phrase.
      Before the rain hit                      This is a dependent clause. Although there is a noun (rain) and a verb
                                               (hit), the clause leaves a little bit more to be desired. We need more
                                               information to make a complete sentence. Because it is not a complete
                                               sentence, it is a fragment.
      Before the rain hit, I quickly put my    Adding the dependent clause to a complete sentence (independent
      bicycle in the garage.                   clause) gives us a complex sentence.
      I quickly put my bicycle in the garage   The dependent clause can be at the front of the sentence or at the end.



                                                           78
        before the rain hit.

 Complex Sentence – A complex sentence is a sentence that contains at least one dependent and one independent
 clause.
 Here is a list of subordinate conjunctions to help you.



           after                                   once                                   until
           although                                provided that                          when
           as                                      rather than                            whenever
           because                                 since                                  where
           before                                  so that                                whereas
           even if                                 than                                   wherever
           even though                             that                                   whether
           if                                      though                                 while
           in order that                           unless                                 why




              4c – The student will apply knowledge of sentence structure in composing or
editing. (DOK2)

          3 – Avoid sentence fragments and run-on sentences, and comma splices.
Sometimes you might begin a group of words with a capital letter, then conclude with an end mark, but forget to
insert a main clause anywhere in the mix. When this happens, you have written a fragment, a major error in writing.
Read the examples that follow:




                   Fragment = no main clause                                         Complete Sentence
      Because hungry sharks flashed on the surface of the        Because hungry sharks flashed on the surface of the
      waves.                                                     waves, Mike and Sarah decided to return their
                                                                 surfboards to the car.
      Spilling the hot spaghetti sauce all over his new suede    Leonardo grabbed the pot handle with his bare hands,
      shoes.                                                     spilling the hot spaghetti sauce all over his new suede
                                                                 shoes.
      To buy nice jewelry for his greedy girlfriend, Gloria.     Danny sold half of his comic book collection to buy nice
                                                                 jewelry for his greedy girlfriend, Gloria.



                                                                79
      For example, a mailbox stuffed with bills, two dozen  For example, April found a mailbox stuffed with bills,
      messages on the answering machine, an uppity cat, and two dozen messages on the answering machine, an
      a dead lawn.                                          uppity cat, and a dead lawn.
      And peeked into the room, risking the wrath of Mrs.   Sherry turned the doorknob and peeked into the room,
      Mauzy, who has no patience for students walking into risking the wrath of Mrs. Mauzy, who has no patience
      class late.                                           for students walking into class late.


Run-On sentence – A run-on sentence is exactly like a compound sentence EXCEPT the coordinating conjunction and
the comma are missing. It can be fixed by adding the correct coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) and a comma.

Comma splice – A comma splice is a sentence that is exactly like a compound sentence EXCEPT the coordinating
conjunction is missing. It can be fixed by adding the correct coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS).




              4c – The student will apply knowledge of sentence structure in composing or
editing. (DOK2)

         4 – Analyze sentences containing descriptive adjectives, adverbs, prepositional
         phrases, and appositive phrases.

         5 – Compose sentences containing descriptive adjectives, adverbs, prepositional
         phrases (functioning as adjectives or adverbs), and appositive phrases.
Adjectives and adverbs are words that when added to your writing, provide rich detail. The same can be said for
appositive phrases.
Sometimes, though, adverbs and adjectives can form into phrases and clauses. This is done with the help of
prepositions. Sometimes a prepositional phrase will answer the following questions: what kind, which one, or how
many? When this happens, the phrase is called an adjective phrase. Here are some examples with the adjective
clause underlined:
          Diane felt manipulated by her beagle Santana, whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie.
          Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie.
          Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, Madison's two dogs, competed for the hardboiled egg that bounced
                across the kitchen floor.
          Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccupped for seven hours afterward.

         An adjective phrase functions almost like an appositive phrase. There is a difference, however, an
              appositive phrase is not essential to the sentence, where an adjective phrase is essential.

Sometimes a prepositional phrase will answer the following questions: how, when, or where? When this happens,
the phrase is called an adverb phrase. Here are some examples:



         At 2 a.m., a bat flew through Deidre's open bedroom window.


                                                         80
The prepositional phrase at 2 a.m. indicates when the event happened. The second prepositional phrase, through
Deidre's open bedroom window, describes where the creature traveled.
          With a fork, George thrashed the raw eggs until they foamed.
The subordinate clause until they foamed describes how George prepared the eggs.
          Sylvia emptied the carton of milk into the sink because the expiration date had long passed.
The subordinate clause because the expiration date had long passed describes why Sylvia poured out the milk.

For more on appositive phrases, please refer to Competency 4a1.




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