EFFECTS OF PELLETIZED ANTICOAGULANT RODENTICIDES ON by liaoqinmei

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 5

									                                                                                                                                                                      Journal      of Wildlife      Diseases,        21(4).        1985.   pp.     391-395




EFFECTS                             OF PELLETIZED                                                          ANTICOAGULANT                                                         RODENTICIDES
ON CALIFORNIA                                                    QUAIL

Lawrence                   J. Blus,                  Charles                   J. Henny,                    and Robert                      A. Grove
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,                                                   Patuxent                 Wildlife             Research               Center,             480 SW Airport                    Road,
Corvallis, Oregon   97333, USA

ABSTRACT:                      A moribund,        emaciated          California    quail     (Callipepla       californica)                                                                                      that was found                              in
an orchard                   in the state      of Washington            had an impacted         crop     and gizzard.                                                                                     Pellets     containing                           the
anticoagulant                   chlorophacinone             (Rozol#{174}, RO) were       in the crop;       the gizzard                                                                                    contents       consisted                          of
a pink          mass          of       paraffin               that           was           selectively                   accumulated                        from          the      paraffinized                 pellets.            The          plasma
prothrombin                        time            of 28              sec         was         near         that          determined                     for          control          quail.        The         signs         of      HO         intoxi-
cation          seen          in       the         moribund                        wild            quail          were              duplicated                  in      captive           quail       given             ad     libitum                  diets
of either    HO or another        paraffinized       chlorophacinone                                                                                  pellet      (Mr. Hat Guard             MRG).
                                                                                                                                                                                      Il#{174},         This left
little doubt    that paraffin      impaction      of the gizzard         was                                                                          the primary         problem.    All captive      quail   fed
HO or MHG pellets           showed       no increases       in prothrombin                                                                                   times    compared     to control     values,    died
in an emaciated       condition,       and had gizzards           impacted                                                                              with paraffin.


                                            INTRODUCTION                                                                                   cle samples        were     sent to the Patuxent               Wildlife
                                                                                                                                           Research        Center        in Laurel,         Maryland         where
        Voles          (Microtus                         spp.)               are           capable                of in-                   they     were    analyzed       for residues          of organochlo-
flicting           considerable                               damage                        to fruit                  trees.               rifle pollutants        using    electron        capture     gas chro-
As       a result,                 a         number                     of         chemicals                           have                matography           (Cromartie          et a!., 1975;       Kaiser     et
been             used              to          control                         vole              populations                               a!., 1980).
                                                                                                                                                Groups     of pen-reared           adult     male    and female
(Byers            et a!.,               1982).                Some                    of       the         rodenti-
                                                                                                                                           California       quail     were     placed       together      in cages
cides      such  as endrin        are exceptionally            tox-                                                                        and given        ad libitum         diets     consisting      solely    of
ic to non-target         wildlife      (Blus et a!., 1983).                                                                                either           paraffinized                  chlorophacinone                            pellets             (Ho-
As a result        there     has been         a shift      to ro-                                                                          zol#{174},
                                                                                                                                                   HO, Chempar   Chemical     Co., Inc.,     660

denticides       such    as the anticoagulants               chlo-                                                                         Madison    Ave.,  New York,    New   York     10021,
                                                                                                                                           USA, or Mr. Hat Guard         MHG, International
                                                                                                                                                                   Il#{174},
rophacinone           and      diphacinone            that      are
                                                                                                                                           2000,      Inc.,    Oklahoma            City,     Oklahoma          73111,
considered        less hazardous           to wildlife.        Our                                                                         USA)      or diphacinone               pellets      (Hamik       Brown#{174},
recovery                   of       a wild                    California                             quail      that                       RB, Velsico!           Chemical           Corporation,         341     East
apparently                         died    as                 a result                        of       ingesting                           Ohio      St., Chicago,          Illinois      60611,      USA).      Each

paraffinized                                 ch!orophacinone                                                  pellets                      treatment        group     consisted         of three    or four birds.
                                                                                                                                           Mr. Hat Guard                    is
                                                                                                                                                                     Il#{174} similar         to HO except           for
prompted                     this         investigation.                                   The purposes
                                                                                                                                           the       gray            coloration.               Diphacinone                    is also            an        an-
of this           paper                  are to describe                                     the circum-                                   ticoagulant                    that       is used         as      a rodenticide                         in      or-
stances                related                  to         mortality                          of        the            wild                chards.               The            apple-flavored                     high             protein                HB
quail          and           to report                     the         response                       of captive                           pellets            contain              50     g/g         active               ingredient                    and
                                                                                                                                           no       paraffin.
California                      quail               to       diets                consisting                      solely
                                                                                                                                               The general              procedures             described          by Quick
of       chlorophacinone                                         or          diphacinone                                pe!-
                                                                                                                                           (1957)        were       followed         in determination                   of the
lets.                                                                                                                                      one-stage          prothrombin               time       using       blood       plas-
                                                                                                                                           ma.       Blood       samples         were        taken        from      the bra-
                         MATERIALS                           AND METHODS
                                                                                                                                           chial      or jugular           vein;      samples          were       cooled        to
        On      1 December                           1981,       a moribund,    adult                                      fe-             about       5 C and processed                   within      several       hr after
male          California                     quail           (025)   was picked     up                                     by              collection.          Freeze-dried              thromboplastin               (Difco
an       orchardist                    in          Wenatchee,                           Washington.                             A          Chick        Embryo           Extract          EE100#{174}, Difco            Labo-
blood          sample               was            taken              for         evaluation                     of      pro-              ratories,       P.O. Box 1058-A,                       Detroit,        Michigan
thrombin                time.                The         bird               was         killed             the         same                48232,        USA)         was      placed         in a 10-ml             solution
day          it was        found.               Brain,                liver,            and          breast            mus-                containing           0.025       M CaC!2             in 0.85%         NaCl       and
                                                                                                                                           incubated           in a water          bath        for 45 mm at 39 C;
                                                                                                                                           the       thromboplastin                       mixture            was        refrigerated                     and
 Received              for      publication                      26         October                1984.                                   used         within             7 days          of preparation.                          The          throm-

                                                                                                                                     391
392             JOURNAL                       OF WILDLIFE                      DISEASES,                 VOL.           21, NO.         4, OCTOBER                   1985




                                                                                                                                                     062                                                          074
                 CENT I METERS
                        F                            I                   1                                                                    ROZOL                                       MR.            RAT            GUARD                     II
                      0                              1                       2
                                                                                                                                                     PEN                                                          PEN




       CQ-C-                               21 -WA--82                                                                                                   025                                                             088
                          NORMAL                                                                                                                     ROZOL                                            RAMIK                     BROWN
                                        VI I L               D                                                                                        WILD                                                                 PEN
       FIGURE                1.           Gizzard                   contents                 of California                        quail.             Paraffin         impaction          in a wild       quail     (025)      and     in two      pen-
reared           birds                 (062          and          074)           fed        chlorophacinone                                pellets.             Contents           of a bird    (088)       fed    Ramik        Brown#{174}and           a
normal               wild              quail             (CQ-C-21-WA-82)                                      (gizzard                 linings           attached)          are      included      for    comparison.


boplastin                     mixture                        (0.2            ml)           and          oxalated                      blood                (hatchet-breasted).            All lipid   reserves     in-
plasma                 (0.1               ml)             were               transferred                           to       separate                       cluding        coronary    fat had apparently       been
chambers                      on          a fibrometer                                 (Fibrosystem,                                   BBL,
                                                                                                                                                           mobilized.          The impacted     crop was full and
Division                     of         Becton,                       Dickinson                        and           Company,
Cockeysville,                             Maryland                           21030,                  USA)           where               they
                                                                                                                                                           contained           about equal    parts  of seeds    and
were            warmed                          to         reaction                    temperature                               (37       C).             a pink material                      subsequently                   identified               as
The           plasma                     was              then           pipetted                      into         the          throm-                    RO pellets  that                     are broadcast                   in orchards
boplastin                    mixture                        and          the           timer             activated.                     The                 in late         fall      to control          voles.        The         cylindrical
fibrometer                         automatically                                   stopped                    when              the      first
                                                                                                                                                            pellets           (5        mm      diameter    and       irregular
fibrin          strand                   was             formed;                   the          prothrombin                            time
was          displayed                          on          a digital                      readout.                  Prothrom-
                                                                                                                                                            lengths           up       to about      20 mm)   contain         inert
bin       time               was           determined                                for         one          or        more            con-                ingredients                  (primarily            grain    and             paraffin)
trol         birds            each                  day          that          samples                   were              run.                             and 50 sg/g                     of the        anticoagulant                   chloro-
       For           quail               on          toxic            diets,             one-way                     analysis                   of
                                                                                                                                                           phacinone.      The      gizzard                              was       impacted
variance                     was               used              to      compare                        pre-             and           post-
                                                                                                                                                           (Fig.   1), and   the contents                                 consisted       of a
test         mean                 body                weights                    and            to      compare                       mean
prothromhin                               times                  with          the         control                 value.              Con-                pink   compact      mass     that                            contained        little
sidering                    both                body                  weight                    and            prothrombin                                 grit.
time,          means                     were              separated                       b’        a multiple                       range                        The        prothrombin                    time          of 28          sec          for
test         (Kramer,                           1956).                  A        paired                 t-test             was           also
                                                                                                                                                            quail     025    was      slightly      above   the     mean
used            in           comparing                                  pre-             and            post-test                      body
                                                                                                                                                            prothrombin          time      of 21.2 sec (range        19 to
weights                 of             individual                        birds              on         each             toxic           diet.
The           level               of      statistical                        significance                          for          all     tests               23 sec) determined               for 19 control     Califor-
is P                 0.05.                                                                                                                                  nia quail     in this study.         Residues   of organo-
                                                                                                                                                           ch!orines      in tissues        (Table       1) were      all                         well
                                                              RESULTS
                                                                                                                                                           below     levels      associated         with     mortality                               or
    Necropsy                                    of           California                               quail               025              re-             sublethal      effects.
vealed      that                               it         was             extremely                                emaciated                                   A!! seven        captive       California         quail                            that
                                                                                                       BLUS        ET AL-EFFECTS                       OF ANTICOAGULANTS                                  ON CALIFORNIA                 QUAIL                393




TABLE               1.         Organochlorine                         residues             in tissues             of a wild             California                quail             (025).


                                                                                                                                 sg/g     (fresh       wet        wt.)’

     Tissue                                     DDE                          Dieldrin                             HE                            OXY                                TNCH                         Endrin                          PCB’s


Brain                                            10.0                             0.11                           0.03                           NDb                                 0.06                         0.07                            0.48
Breast
     muscle                                          2.1                          ND                              ND                            ND                                  ND                            ND                             ND
Liver                                            12.0                             0.19                           0.04                           0.03                                ND                           0.93                            ND

 DDE              = dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene,                                             HE       =     heptachlor             epoxide,         OXY              =        oxychiordane,                TNCH        =      trans-nonachior,
 PCB’s             = polychiorinated  biphenyls                                resembling              Aroclor           1260.
“ND          =     no residue detected.



were                    fed     chlorophacinone                                        pellets   con-                                   after           7 to                  11      days               even           though                  most         of
sumed                    approximately                                0.4         to 0.7 g pellets!                                     these          determinations                                     were           made            when              the
bird/day      and   were   severely       emaciated                                                                                     birds were                            near           death              (Table            3).
when     they  died  after 7 to 12 days on the                                                                                             The   quail                              given   the RB diet         ingested
toxic diet (Table 2). These         birds  lost a sig-                                                                                  approximately                                  8.3 g of pellets/bird/day
nificant                     amount                   (27 to 60%)      of their      pre-                                               and   generally                                 maintained    their body
treatment                              body            weights    (paired       t-test).                                                weight.   Birds                               were killed after 14 to 36
The   gizzards   of a!! birds  were  impacted                                                                                           days    on the     toxic   diets;   post-treatment
(Fig. 1); coloration of the contents  was pink                                                                                          weights     (Table     2) ranged     from       -11                                                                 to
in those fed RO       and gray in those fed                                                                                             +9%     of pretreatment      values, and were                                                                      not
MRG.                     The           gizzard                 impaction                       was          related                     significantly different                                            (paired              t-test).             Crops
to the selective                                      accumulation       of paraffin                                                    and     gizzards      of all birds       on the                                                         RB        diet
from  the pellets                                      into  a compacted       mass.                                                    appeared         normal     (Fig.    1).
The      gizzard                               contents                    of four    birds      on                                         Prothrombin         times     of four quail                                                           fed      RB
chlorophacinone                                     diets                 melted   when     heat-                                       ranged       from     17 to 28 sec (80 to                                                               132%        of
ed       with                a lighted                    match.             Gizzards                      of these                     our control                           values).    There                          were     no signifi-
birds  contained                                     abnormally
                                                     an                                            low quan-                            cant changes                            in prothrombin                               time   through
tity of grit. The                                body condition                                   of the cap-                           36 days                 on the RB                           diet,     and               prothrombin
tive California      quail   fed ch!orophacinone                                                                                        values                 were   not                           significantly                      different
pellets    was similar     to that   noted     in                                                                quail                  from           those                  of birds                   fed     RO         (Table                3).
025 except      that their   crops  contained                                                                     little                     Quail   025 was the                                          only           wild California
or    no food    and were not impacted.                                                                            Pro-                 quail of 59 examined                                                  in         the Wenatchee
thrombin    times     of four   quail     fed chloro-                                                                                   area     in 1981    to 1983                                        that          had ch!oropha-
phacinone     pellets    ranged     from      21 to 25                                                                                  cinone      pellets   in its                                      crop.            We found      RB
sec (99 to 118% of the mean           control    value)                                                                                 pellets              in       crops                  of      two          wild           quail               found



TABLE                   2.        Body          weight             relations              of      pen-reared                California                 quail          given                no-choice             diets      of      anticoagulant
pellets.


                                                                                                                                                             Mean             body         wt.    (g)’
Treat-                                                                                                                 Days    on
ment’                              n                            Sex                        Statusb                        diet                           Pre                                      Post                    % Weight               change


RO                                 3                        2M, iF                                D                       8-12                         175 AB                                     106     C                 -27            to     -48
MRG                                4                        2M, 2F                                D                       7-10                         195 A                                       85 C                     -53            to -60
RB                                 4                        2M, 2F                                K                      14-36                         173 AB                                     167 B                     -ii            to +9

  RO         =     Rozol#{174}, MRG              =     Mr.      Rat       Guard                 RB
                                                                                         Il#{174},     =       Ramik       Brown#{174}.
  D      =       died        on   dosage,            K = killed.
‘A significant                    difference               is indicated           for     those       means        not    sharing         a common                letter.
394            JOURNAL              OF WILDLIFE                DISEASES,              VOL.         21, NO.        4, OCTOBER       1985




TABLE           3.       Plasma               prothrombin                      time         of     pen-reared              from           chlorophacinone                                   pellets           were        related
California    quail given                           ad libitum                 diets of chloropha-
cinone     and diphacinone                              pellets                relative  to control                        to paraffin                  impaction
values.                                                                                                                         This     is apparently             the      first     record     of
                                                                                                                           birds      dying    from        impaction              of their    giz-
                                                                        % of co ntrol                    value             zards       with     paraffin         from          anticoagulant
      Treat-           Days on
      ment’              diet                      n               Meanb                             Range                 pellets.      The     observations             that      some     wild
        RO                      7                  3                   109                          99-118
                                                                                                                           birds     are ingesting         these      toxicants         and that
        RB                      7                  4                   109                          95-132                 one of these                          birds      suffered                       almost          certain
        RB                     14                  4                   103                          80-110                 lethal effects                          indicate         that                    there         is some
        RB                     23                  3                   109                        103-111
                                                                                                                           hazard               to     individuals.                          Adverse                 effects          of
        RB                     36                  2                    98                          92-105
                                                                                                                           these       anticoagulant                                    pellets               on     wildlife
#{149}
  RO      =    Rozol#{174},
                         RB         =     Ramik         Brown#{174}. Prothrombin                         time (108%        populations            are                             probably                  minima!,          a!-
 of control           value)        for       a quail      on    the      Mr.         Rat        Guard             diet
                                                                                                             Il#{174}      though               the         evidence                    is inconclusive.
  for     11 days       not     included             in the      statistical           analysis.
  Means         not    significantly              different.
                                                                                                                                                            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                                                                                                                               We         thank             the            many         individuals                 who     helped
dead   in 1980-1981       and     in crops     of two
                                                                                                                           us including             P. H. Albers,   R. C. Anthony,                                              P. L.
ring-necked     pheasants     (Phasianus       coichi-
                                                                                                                           Hegda!,              and E. F. Hill for manuscript     review;
cus)  obtained    from   hunters      in 1979.                                                                             J. Davis             for assistance   and use of EPA    labora-
                                                                                                                           tory space;      R. McKeel       and other      Washington
                                              DISCUSSION                                                                   Dept.     of Game      employees        for assistance       and
                                                                                                                           provision     of office space;      and P. J. Savarie,          P.
        The duplication                             of signs                   of RO intoxica-
                                                                                                                           L. Hegdal, and other employees               of the Denver
tion       of California                          quail   025                  in captive  birds                           Wildlife     Research    Center      for advice     and assis-
leaves           little doubt    that the moribund                                                               con-      tance.
dition            of the    wild     California  quail                                                            was
caused                  by      impaction           of                                the       gizzard                                                          LITERATURE                   CITED
through                selective       accumulation                                          of paraffin
                                                                                                                           BLUS,      L. J., C. J. HENNY,         T. J. KAISER,        AND      R. A.
from      the           pellets.   Digestion                                   of food seemed                                      GROVE.       1983.     Effects    on wildlife     from use of
impossible                  in those      birds                                with   impacted                                   endrin      in Washington        State orchards.        Trans.      N.
gizzards.                                                                                                                         Am. Wildl.        Nat. Resour.      Conf. 48: 159-174.
                                                                                                                           BYERS,       R. E., M. H. MERSON,          AND    S. D. PALMATEER.
        According        to Fitzek (1978), the toxicity
                                                                                                                                  1982.     Control     of orchard       voles with broadcast
of       all anticoagulants       is due  to depression
                                                                                                                                 baits.    J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 107: 613-619.
of prothrombin                                  level     of blood      that   leads                                       CROMARTIE,          E., W. L. REICHEL,          L. N. LOCKE,          A. A.
to uncontrollable                                bleeding.      One-stage        pro-                                             BELISLE,      T. E. KAISER,         T. G. LAMONT,            B. M.
thrombin         time                          provides      a means         of de-                                               MULHERN,          R. M. PROUTY,         AND     D. M. SwINE-
                                                                                                                                 FORD.        1975.     Residues      of organochlorine            pes-
tecting       changes                              in prothrombin              level
                                                                                                                                 ticides     and polychlorinated           biphenyls       and au-
(Quick,  1957).  Even  large                                                 changes                      in pro-
                                                                                                                                 topsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72. Pestic.                 Monit.
thrombin    time in animals                                                   ingesting                      anti-               J. 9: 11-14.
coagulants     are difficult         to interpret.        Sev-                                                             FITzEK,       A. 1978.      Pharmacokinetics          of 2-pivaloyliri-
eral golden     eagles      (Aquila      chrysaetos)       fed                                                                   dan-i,3-dione in dogs. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol.
                                                                                                                                   42:     81-87.
diphacinone-contaminated                   meat       for 5 to
                                                                                                                           KAISER,         T.    E.,        W.        L.     REICHEL,          L.     N.     LOCKE,        E.   Cno-
10 days     experienced             increases         in pro-
                                                                                                                                   MARTIE,             A.        J. KRYNITSKY,                 T.     G.      LAMONT,           B.    M.
thrombin    time       from     a control       value    of 23                                                                     MULHERN,                      R.    M.         PROUTY,       C.     J. STAFFORD,                  AND
sec       up         to 900             sec       (Savarie                et a!.,                 1979).           All          D. M. SWINEFORD.          1980.     Organochlorine         pes-

eagles   survived,    but several                                                      experienced                              ticides, PCB, and PBB residues         and necropsy        data
weakness      and hemorrhaging                                                        wounds.      This                         for bald eagles from 29 states-1975-77.                 Pestic.
                                                                                                                                Monit. J. 13: 145-149.
indicates that chlorophacinone                                                           and dipha-
                                                                                                                           KRAMER,       C. Y. 1956.     Extension     of multiple       range
cinone had little                               effect           on the vascular    sys-                                        tests to group means        with   unequal      numbers        of
tem of California                                  quail          and that problems                                             replications.  Biometrics       12: 307-310.
                                                                                                BLUS       ET AL-EFFECTS                OF ANTICOAGULANTS                   ON CALIFORNIA          QUAIL             395




QUICK,         A. J.            1957.           Hemorrhagic                      diseases. Lea                    and                phacinone          as a predacide.             In Avian     and    Mam-
         Febiger,              Philadelphia,                  Pennsylvania,                       451      pp.                       malian   Wildlife            Toxicology,         E. E. Kenaga       (ed).
SAVARIE,            P.        J., D. J.        HAYES,              R.     T.     MCBRIDE,                 AND           J.           Am. Soc. Test.              Mat. Spec.         Tech.  Publ.     No. 693,
         D.    ROBERTS.                  1979.           Efficacy                and          safety        of     di-               pp. 69-79.




                                                                                                                                                       Journal     of   Wildlife   Diseases,   21(4),   1985.   p.   395




BOOK                 REVIEW.

The      Ticks     of California           (Acari:      Ixodida),                                                            of each         species          includes         taxonomy,             diagnosis,
Deane      P. Furman      and Edmond           C. Loomis.        Bull.                                                       bionomics,              and        medical            importance.               Each
Calif.    Insect   Survey      25: i-viii,      1-239,     Univer-                                                           species       review          is supported             by a map           of distri-
sity   of California        Press,   Berkeley,         California                                                            bution       in California              and by one or more                     plates
94720,      USA. $25.00       US.                                                                                            of illustrations             (a total of 356 figures).                    The first
                                                                                                                             four     of the 75 plates                    are line          drawings           with
    A total of 49 described          species      (seven    genera)                                                          explanations             of structural             details.        The remain-
of ticks      are   recorded       from      California.         One                                                         ing 71 plates              consist         of scanning             electron         mi-
species    [Argas     (A.) cooleyi]       consists       of popula-                                                          croscope          illustrations             of definitive             characters.
tions typical     of this species       plus a population           of                                                       There       are eight           pages       of references.
a   species              in     the     process               of         being          described                   as            The illustrations                are excellent              and outstand-
new.          Two             other      species              have             been           introduced                     ingly useful.           The smoothly                flowing        text contains
repeatedly             into    California.         In this       state,       ticks                                          a wealth          of easily          managed             detail.      The     entire
harm         wildlife,       livestock,       and       man      by causing                                                  monograph              is marked             by a high degree                 of ac-
irritation,          anemia,         toxemia,        allergic        sensitiza-                                              curacy,        meticulous              attention          to detail,        clarity,
tion,      and paralysis.            They     transmit        five      serolog-                                             and intimate              knowledge              of the variety             of sub-
ically         distinct               strains            of             spotted-fever-group                                  jects    treated.           It is a model                for workers              else-
rickettsiae               and the agents            causing        Q fever (Cox-                                             where        and     a boon          to entomologists,                 parasitolo-
 lella burneti),             bovine        anaplasmosis               (Anaplasma                                             gists, zoologists,           epidemiologists,               and specialists
 marginale),             Colorado             tick fever          (CTF)       (an ap-                                        in human           and veterinary                medicine.
 parently         new CTF-related                      virus),      Powassan         en-                                          A good deal of effort                   is being        made         by sev-
 cephalitis          (POW          virus),        tularemia            (Francisella                                          eral California           specialists,          independently               and in
 tularensis),           tickborne            relapsing          fevers     (Borrelia                                         collaboration           with      others        elsewhere,           to answer
 hermsi,         B. parkeri),            Lyme          disease       (B. burgdor-                                            fascinating           questions           regarding            several         tick-
feri),      canine        jaundice           and possibly             human        bab-                                      borne       agents       and        their      epidemiology                in this
 esiosis       (Babesia           microti),             an uncharacterized                                                   state.    Much       information            is presented            for a num-
 malaria-like            disease        of rodents            and lagomorphs,                                                ber of species            of ticks        in California,              but other
 and epizootic               bovine        abortion           (agent      and wild-                                          poorly       known        species,        as well as some                Califor-
 life associations               undetermined).                   To aid in tick                                             nia tick-associated                infections,          cry for more              in-
 identification,              the      first      section         of the        mono-                                        tensive       field and laboratory                  investigations.
 graph        briefly       reviews          the six species             most com-
monly          encountered                       in California,                       lists       taxonom-
ic characters                    and their   definitions,                                   and          keys          to    Harry Hoogstraal,   United States Naval Medical
tick families,                   genera,   and species                                 by        adult           and         Research  Unit Number Three (NAMRU-3),     Ameri-
immature                  stages.         The           obviously                  expert                review              can Embassy, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt.

								
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