IS 240

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					                                             SEN 221
                                  Web application Development




Lab: Lab # 071
Date: 09th March 2009
Topic: Web Building & Development


Web Design:

Designing Web sites needs careful thinking and a lot of planning. The most important thing is to
KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE.



Users are Scanners

A typical visitor will NOT read the entire content of your Web page!

No matter how much useful information you put into a Web page, a visitor will only spend a few
seconds scanning it before they decide whether to leave or to stay.

Be sure to make your point in the very first sentence of the page! After that, try to keep the user
occupied with short paragraphs, and new headers down the page.

Less is More

Keep the paragraphs as short as possible.

Keep the pages as short as possible.

Keep the chapters as short as possible.

Use a lot of space! Pages overloaded with text will kill your audience.

If you have a lot to say, break your information into smaller chunks and place it on different pages!
Navigation

Create a consistent navigation structure that is used by all the pages in your Web site.

Don't use hyperlinks inside paragraphs, to send visitors to every page of your Web. This will
destroy the feeling of a consistent navigation structure.

If you must use hyperlinks, add them to the bottom of a paragraph, or to the menu.



Download Speed

Sometimes developers are not aware of the fact that some pages take a long time to download.

Most visitors will leave a Web page that takes more than 7 seconds to download.

Test your web pages over a low-speed modem connection. If your pages take a long time to
download, consider removing graphic or multimedia content.

Let your Audience Speak!

Feedback is a very good thing!

Your visitors are your "customers". Often they will give you some valuable hints about what you
could have done better.

Provide a simple way to reach you, and you will get a lot of input from people with different skills
and knowledge.



Web Users:
Visitor's Monitor

Not everyone on the internet has the same monitor as you.

If you design a Web site to be displayed on a monitor with a 1024x768 resolution, visitors with
lower resolution monitors (like 800x600) might have problems reading your pages.

Make sure you test your Web site on different monitors.
What Browsers Do They Use?

Don't forget to test your Web site on different browsers.

The most popular browsers today are Internet Explorer and Firefox.

One wise thing to do when designing Web pages is to use correct HTML (or XHTML). Strict and
correct coding will help a browser to display your pages correctly.

What Plug-Ins Do They Have?

Sound, video clips, or other multimedia content might require the use of separate programs (plug-
ins).

Be sure that your visitors have access to the software needed to view them.



What about Disabilities?

Some people have viewing or hearing disabilities.

They might try to read your pages with Braille or speech-based browsers. Always add text
alternatives for pictures and graphic elements.



Web Standards:

Why Web Standards?

To make internet a better place, for both developers and end-users, it is important that both
browsers and Web developers follow the Web standards.

When developers follow the Web standards, the development is simplified, since it is easier for a
developer to understand another's coding.

Using Web standards will help you to ensure that all browsers, will display your Web site properly,
without frequent and time-consuming rewrites.

Web pages that conforms to the standard are easier for search engines to access and index,
easier to convert to other formats, and easier to access with program code (like JavaScript and the
DOM).

Tip: Make a habit of validating your pages with a validation service. Validation keeps your
documents up to the standards, and free for errors.
Accessibility

Accessibility is an important part of the HTML standard.

Web standards make it easier for people with disabilities to use the Web.

Blind people can use computers that read Web pages for them. People with poor sight can
rearrange and magnify standard Web pages. Simple Web standards like HTML 4 and CSS, will
make your Web pages much easier to understand by special devices.



W3C - The World Wide Web Consortium

W3C creates the Web standards.

W3C, founded in 1994, is an international consortium dedicated to "lead the Web to its full
potential".

As developers, especially when creating educational Web sites, we can help them turn this dream
into reality.



ECMA - European Computer Manufacturers Association

ECMA, founded in 1961, in order to meet the need for standardizing computer languages and
input/output codes.

ECMA is not an official standardization institute, but an association of companies that collaborate
with other official institutes like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).

For Web developers, the most important standard is ECMAScript, the standardization of
JavaScript.

With JavaScript, DOM objects can then be added, deleted, or changed.

The latest ECMAScript specification is ECMA-262:

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm
Web W3C:

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) creates the WWW standards.

W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential, which it does by developing specifications,
guidelines, software, and tools.



W3C - The World Wide Web Consortium

From Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, director and founder of the World
Wide Web consortium:

"The dream behind the Web is of a common information space in which we communicate by
sharing information."

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), founded in 1994, is an international consortium
dedicated to "lead the Web to its full potential".

       W3C Stands for the World Wide Web Consortium
       W3C was created in October 1994
       W3C was created by Tim Berners-Lee
       W3C was created by the Inventor of the Web
       W3C is organized as a Member Organization
       W3C is working to Standardize the Web
       W3C creates and maintains WWW Standards
       W3C Standards are called W3C Recommendations

The most important W3C standards are:

       HTML
       XHTML
       CSS
       XML
       XSL
       DOM

				
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