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competency based education and outcome based education by PremKumar135

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this document focus on traditional and transformational education

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									                      COMPETENCY BASED EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

Competency based education is an institutional process that moves education
from focusing on what academics believes, graduates need to know (teacher
focused) to what student need to know and be able to do in varying and
complex situation. Focuses on outcome learning. CBE addresses what the
learners are expected to do rather than on what way are expected to learn out

DEFINITIONS OF COMPETENCY BASED EDUCATION

Competencies are specific knowledge, skills, judgement and personal
attributes required for a registered nurses to practice safely and ethically in a
designated role and setting.

                                                                    -CAN(2005)

Competency-based education is outcome based instruction and is and
adaptive to the changing needs of students, teachers and the
community.Competence is describes the students ability to apply basic and
other skills in situations that are commonly encountered in everyday life does
call the content based education is based on set of outcome that are derived
from an analysis of tasks of typically required of students in life role in
situations .
                                                                       -SCHENCK

Competencies consist of a description of the essential skill, knowledge,
attitude, and behaviours required for effective performance of a real world
tasks or activity. These activities may be related to any domain of life, though
have typically been linked to the field of work and to social survival in new
environment.

                                                                    -WIKIPEDIA




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PURPOSES

  1.   promote the important higher order skills required of doctors,
  2.   provide guidance for curriculum development,
  3.   provide guidance to learners and teachers, and
  4.   assist to identify the required infrastructure and support to deliver
       training.

ELEMENTS OF CBE

  1.   Determine the need for a course
  2.   Identify the learner profile
  3.   Develop course structure
  4.   Determine the training and assessment requirements
  5.   Define the training content
  6.   Develop course monitoring arrangements
  7.   Identify career/educational pathways

IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF CBE:

  1. Competencies carefully identified, verified and of public knowledge
  2. Instructions aimed at the development of competency.
  3. The evaluation tasks into account, knowledge, attitude and performance
     as the main source of evidence.
  4. The progress of the students with in the program goes at the rhythm of
     each person.
  5. Instruction as the individualized as possible.
  6. Emphasis placed on the results.
  7. The learning experience are guided by permanent feed back.

COCEPTS OF COMPETENCY IN EDUCATION

Competency as aspects of the whole person comprising,

  1. Aptitude (verbal, numerical and spatial)
  2. Skills and abilities(thinking and leadership)
  3. Knowledge( general, profession specific, job specific, organizational
     specific)
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  4.   Physical competencies(stamina and energy)
  5.   Styles(leader, manage and employee)
  6.   Personality(social orientation)
  7.   Principles, values, beliefs, attitudes and spirituality(fairness, equality)
  8.   Interest(dealing with people, dealing with facts)

DIMENSIONS OF CBE

  1.   Identification of competencies
  2.   Standardization of competencies
  3.   Competency based training
  4.   Certification of competencies.

LEVELS OF COMPETENCY

0 Generic                  Knowledge, skills and attitudes (what the
                           competency-based movement has reacted
                           against)
1Behaviourist              Basic performance in the workplace
2 Additive                 Performance plus knowledge (usually with
                           knowledge assessment undertaken separately
                           from performance assessment, an additive not an
                           integrative approach)
3 Integrative              Performance and knowledge integrated
4 Holistic                 Holistic competence (discussed further below)


DOMINES AND THEIR COMPETENCIES:

MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE

Demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge of human structure, function,
development, pathophysiology and psychosocial development to patent care.



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COMPETENCIES

   1. Know the normal human structure and function.
   2. Know the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanism important to
      homeostasis.
   3. Know the abnormal structure and function of the body including
      mechanism of disease.
   4. Understand the clinical manifestation and diagnostic testes.
   5. Know the behavioural, psychological, social and cultural factors
      associated with the origin and progress of disease.

CLINICAL SKILLS AND PATIENT CARE

Demonstrate effective use of motor and cognitive skills in diagnosis,
management and prevention of common health problem encountered in
patient care.

COMPETENCIES

   1. Demonstrate the ability to elicit, synthesis and interpret both a through
      and appropriately focused history and list of a patients concern in a
      respectful, logical and organized manner.
   2. Demonstrate the ability to perform complete and appropriately focused
      physical examination in a respectful, logical and organized manner.
   3. Perform routine technical procedure used in both medicine and surgery.
   4. Solve clinical problems using deductive reasoning.
   5. Utilize the technology to enhance the practice of medicine and the
      delivery of health care service

SCIENTIFIC AND CLINICAL INQUIRY

Demonstrate understanding of scientific theory and methodology and critical
thinking skills needed to interpret and apply research to improve patient care

COMPETENCIES

   1. Demonstrate understanding of the ethical, legal, professional and social
      issues implicit in the responsible design and conduct of research.

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   2. Demonstrate the critical thinking skills needed for applying basic
      clinical research to improve patient care.

PROFESSIONALISM

Demonstrate through knowledge and behavior a commitment to the highest
standards of competencies, ethics, integrity and accountability to the patient
and the profession

COMPETENCIES

   1. Value a commitment to ethical decision making in all aspects of
      professional practice pertaining to the provision or with holding of
      clinical care, confidentiality of patient information , informed consent
      and medical practice.
   2. Demonstrate respect, compassion and integrity
   3. Demonstrate sensitive and responsiveness to patients cultural, age,
      gender and disabilities.
   4. Value and uphold scientific standard for quality patient care
   5. Value internal assessment and accept external scrutiny of professional
      performance

INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Demonstrate effective listening, verbal and written communication skills with
a wide range of individual and groups in order to provide patient centered
care

COMPETENCIES

   1. Demonstrate a commitment to work in collaboration groups in all
      aspects of health care
   2. Demonstrate leadership skills that can be used in a variety of health
      care setting
   3. Demonstrate the ability to adapt communication to a variety of
      professional setting and roles



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SYSTEM OF HELATH CARE

Recognize and work effectively within the larger context and system of health
care to advocate for and provide quality patient care.

COMPETENCIES

   1. Understand the physician’s role as a advocate for the health care
      system and for improvement of the medical profession.
   2. Understand how to work effectively in a variety of health care system
   3. Understand the function of health policy, health care delivery and
      options for health care reforms.
   4. Identify principles and variables to analyze, taking into account the
      complexity of medical and ethical decision making.

CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF CARE THROUGH REFLECTIVE PRACTICE

Demonstrate habits of self-directed learning, including awareness of gaps in
understanding, recognition of personal limitation and acquisition of new
knowledge and skills in order to stay current in all aspect of medical practice
and provide a optimal patient care

COMPETENCIES

   1. Demonstrate the abilities to recognize and improve upon limitations in
      ones knowledge and clinical skills .
   2. Demonstrate lifelong learning in the area of science, health care and
      public health care advances.

APPLICATION OF THE COMPETENCIES EXPECTED DURING NURSING
EDUCATION

   Nursing education programs must ensure that practice/clinical hours
   reflect national and jurisdictional practices and/or standards and are
   adequate to allow graduates to achieve curriculum/program objectives
   and entry‐level competencies for registered nurses.

   Approved nursing education programs are required to provide learning
   opportunities for students to apply the entry‐level competencies in direct
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  practice experiences with clients of all ages and genders in a variety of
  settings. The settings need to include practice opportunities to provide
  nursing care in health promotion; the prevention of injury and llness;
  curative, supportive, rehabilitative and palliative care, including end‐of‐life
  care.

  Nursing education programs are expected to provide evidence of the
  nature and length of practice learning experiences available to all students
  during program approval reviews.

CONCLUSION

The health-professions in the 21st century should increase their
accountability to society for improving health. Education systems can improve
the efficiency and effectiveness of their mission through competency-based
education and a focus on the performance requirements for all health
professionals.




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                       OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION

 outcome based education is a process that involves the restructuring of
curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the
achievement of the order learning and mastery rather than the accumulation
of course credits . Thus the primary aim of the outcome based education is to
facilitate Desired changes within the learners by increasing knowledge,
developing skills and positively influencing attitudes, values and judgment

DEFINITION

Comprehensive approach to organizing and operating an educational system
that is focused in and defined by the successful demonstrations of learning
sought from each student

                                                                 -Spady 1994

Needam concisely describes Outcome-Based education as “stating what you
want students to be able to do in measurable terms, then designing
curriculum that lets them learn how to do it.

OBE PURPOSES
Spady (1994) emphasizes that the decision of what and whether the learners
learn is more important than when it happens and through what means (how)
they learn it. He therefore identifies two key aims for OBE:

 Ensure all learners are successful in that they are equipped with the
   knowledge, skills and qualities (values and attitudes) required after they
   exit the educational system
 Achieve and maximize selected outcomes for all students by structuring and
   operating education facilities to be success oriented.




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PRINCIPLES OF OBE

Four principles guide the transformational OBC approach, taken together they
strengthen the conditions for both learner and teacher success

  1.   Clarity of focus
  2.   Design down
  3.   High expectations
  4.   Expanded role

CHARACTERISTICS

   An intentional process now decisions about curriculum instruction, etc
    not the whims of education or politicians
   Some order is to be followed as the instructor through and choose the
    education
   Experiences the students will follow through the course
   Also, the teacher and students can experiences result oriented thinking.
   The curriculum and instruction is then designed with the end in mind.
   Once outcome or exit goals have been mastered the students can
    progress to their next stop.

FUNCTIONAL SHIFT

Most educators already have an end in mind when they begin a course, so how
is OBE?, any different than what schools use today? Dale Shipley(1995)
suggests there are several fundamental shifts that must occur for a unit,
course or programme to become outcome based , they are listed below

Learning        Content Based                   Outcomes Based
System          (Traditional/Transactional)     (Transformational)
Characteristics



Framework        Predefined curriculum,         Curriculum,
                  assessment & credentialing in   instructional strategies,
                  place                           assessment & performed

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Learning        Content Based                    Outcomes Based
System          (Traditional/Transactional)      (Transformational)
Characteristics



                Structures “ends”, no defined   standards
                 learners’ outcomes             Structures support
                                                 outcomes, flexible & a
                                                 means to define
                                                 “learning ends”
Time            Inflexible constraint for      Used alterable source –
                 educator & learner schedule     match needs of educator
                 controls learning & success     & learners
Performance     Comparative & competitive      Learners potentially able
standards        approach                        receive credit for
                Linked to predetermined         achieving performance
                 “curve” or quota of possible    standards
                 successes                      No quotas & standards
                                                 pursued
Learning        Continuous testing &           Macro view learning &
assessments      permanent grading               achievement
                Mistakes on permanent          Mistakes inevitable steps
                 record: best grades & records   in development,
                 fast & consistent performers;   internalizing &
                 slower learners never catch     demonstrating high level
                 up                              of performance
                Never assess/ document what     capabilities
                 learners can ultimately do     Ultimate achievement
                 successfully                    what able to do


PREPARE THE STUDENTS OBE IN CLASSROOMS

There are several characteristics of an OBE classroom

  1. OBE class room is full of energy and excitement ass the teacher and
     learner participate fully in the educational experience.
  2. Influence the way teachers develop curriculum.

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  3. Focus instruction.
  4. Utilize resources.
  5. Ultimately assist students in processing information

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND OUTCOMES

With OBE teachers approach curriculum design from generally defined exit
outcomes to program outcomes to appropriate course outcome, unit outcome
and lesson outcome. Each outcomes fit into the larger scope of fulfilling the
exit outcomes. Spady illustrate the development of outcomes in this model.

                                     EXIT OUTCOME


                                 PROGRAM OUTCOME


                                   COURSE OUTCOME


                                    UNIT OUTCOME


                                   LESSON OUTCOME

When following this model for curriculum development the teacher and
learner can be understand how each lesson, unit and course supplies the
model, knowledge, skills or attitude to become a successful learners of the
program. Learner can see the intentionally of the curriculum and the
educational experience within each unit and course. Learner can participate
more fully in their own educational experiences to them along the way.

OBE AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

OBE accommodate learning environment and resources available to the
instructor. Because outcomes are general in nature they are not tied to

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particular texts or resources. The instructor is able to use the resources on
hand to design , educational experiences for the learner. This is especially
important im remote part of the world were educational resources may be at
a premium.

OBE AND PROCESS LEARNING

OBE accommodates process learning more readily than traditional education.
Blooms taxonomy of learning details six levels of cognitive development . the
lower level involve , lower critical thinking and less cognitive ability cannot be
achieved with onset of activities to achieve , synthesis or analysis or
evaluation requires multiple tasks, thus a process must be followed to achieve
a higher end of the cognitive abilities.

SPADY’S DEMONSTRATION MOUNTAIN

Spady(1994) describes the development of higher order cognitive skills in an
analogy to a mountain. He describes it as the demonstration mountain. The
mountain represents the act of climbing from basic demonstration of
classroom learning up to demonstrations that involve at home, at work, and in
the community. For spady following the demonstration mountain in
curriculum development allows the instructor to help the students achieve the
higher end of blooms taxonomy.

Spady demonstration mountain is designed as

                                             Transformational zone
                   Life role
                 functioning
                Complex role
                performance

                 Complex                       Transitional zone
               understanding
              Task performance
                 High-order
                competencies

                                                Traditional zone
         Structured task performance
            Discrete content skill
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SUMMARY

Till now we have seen about CBE and OBE its characteristics, definitions,
preparation of students, level and domains, spady demonstration mountain

CONCLUSION

The focus of education is shifted from the educator to learner however this
shift requires change within the educational system in order to facilitate
learning. The role of educator is to enable and encourage all learners to
achieve essential outcomes while the learner actively participate in and
contributions toward learning process.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

   1. http://www.school.nt.edu.an/curricular/cf/outcomesfocus/killenpaper
      .pdf
   2. http://www.up.ac.za/academic/acadorgs/saafecs/vol28/malan.html
   3. http://isn.curtin.edu.an/outcome/docs/litreview.pdf
   4. http://www.petech.ac.za/robert/obe/
   5. http://www.edu.tech.com




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