assignment 202 by LnB5K1v5

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Identify and discuss three key considerations in the development literacy pedagogy suitable
for the early years of high school.


Language and literacy is a major part of everyday life, this is why it is important that students
develop literacy throughout their schooling. “All teachers are teachers of literacy” (NSW
department of school education, 1997, p.1) therefore PDHPE teachers are not exempt from
involving literacy development pedagogy in their classrooms. There are many ideas or concepts
involved in literacy development pedagogy. Three of these are scaffolding, the four resources
model and multilliteracies. This essay will look at these three ideas and how can be incorporated
into the classroom.


Scaffolding is a term first coined by Wood, Bruner and Ross in 1976. They used it as a metaphor for
the support that people need in learning new skills (Hammond & Gibbons, 2001). Scaffolding in its
general meaning refers to the support put up around a building until it can stand by itself. When the
term is talked about in teaching pedagogy it refers to the support that a teacher provides a student
until they are able to complete a take on their own. Scaffolding largely is based on the theories of
learning and cognitive development of Russian psychologist Vygotsky (Hammond & Gibbons,
2001). Although Vygotsky never used the term, many of scaffoldings key principles are based
upon his work.


Teachers use scaffolding to help students extend there knowledge and ability. When doing this
teachers focus on two levels of scaffolding, the macro and micro levels ( Hammond & Gibbons,
2001). The micro level refers to the immediate task at hand and the student’s interaction with the
teacher. The macro level refers to how the tasks relate to the aim of the course. The micro level is
part of the macro level and both require the teacher to have a clear aim for their students.


The notion of contingency in scaffolding refers to teachers knowing the current understandings of
there students. Some students need more attention then others, therefore teachers need to have
some idea of each student’s skill level. If not students might find tasks either too difficult or too
easy. Mariani (1997, as cited in Hammond & Gibbons, 2001) discusses the effects of tasks on
students. He suggests that students who are highly challenged with little support can get frustrated


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and are likely to fail. When tasks are too easy students get bored and lose interest. Mariani
concludes highly challenging activities with a lot of support gets maximum results. Mariani’s
findings are very similar to Vygotsky’s theory of the zone of proximal development.


Van Lier(1996, as cited by Hammond, 2001) suggests that interactional scaffolding can be the
driving force behind a successful teacher.


The four resources model was developed by Freebody and Luke(1990, as sited in Freebody, 2004).
They suggest that reading is a complicated task and when people read they use 4 resources to
construct meaning from the text. These were code breaking, text participating, text using and text
analysing resources. Code breaking involves the knowledge of being able to interpret a text,
identify icons, symbols and subject specific language. Text participating requires the use of
background knowledge to interpret meaning of the text by deconstructing it and finding the literal
and figurative meanings of words and expressions. Text using is when the reader takes action and
thinks about the function of the text. Text analysing requires the understanding of how the text can
influence people and how the meaning of the text can be left open to the interpretation of its reader.
(Freebody, 2004)


Freebody and Luke determined that any pedagogy or literacy theory aimed at education should
incorporate the four resources model. All the resources are interdependent of each other so a reader
can not only use just one. Like in scaffolding, when teachers use the model they must have an
understanding of the student’s current knowledge and they must have a goal or aim at what the text
is trying to teach the students.


Secondary teachers tend to focus little on reading and the four resources model as they presume
students have learnt the knowledge in primary school (Santoro, 2004). In secondary school the
model is very important because as students attend each class they come across different text types.
This is where subject specific language becomes involve in the code braking stage. Subject specific
knowledge involves the different contexts and meanings that words have in each subject. For
example in PDHPE students look at different texts compared to what they would look at in maths,
music and art.


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PDHPE teachers can use the four resources model to teach children almost anything. If a teacher
was trying to teach about drug awareness they would ask questions to the students such as what are
drugs? and what do they know about them? This gives the teacher an understanding of there
previous knowledge of the subject. After the students have read the text book teachers can ask
students the same questions again. This puts the student in a code breaking and text participating
role which allows them to interpret the text. To support the students as text users the teacher can ask
the students to focus on one drug and write a report on the effects the substance has on the body. By
asking the students questions such as what is the purpose of drug awareness? And why are some
drugs illegal? A teacher Encourages the students to analyse the text. (Santoro, 2004)


Multiliteracies or multimodal texts are those used by students that are not print texts. With digital
technology, global communication and social change literacy has come to include many forms of
text (Healy, 2004) this change has forced pedagogy to involve the use of many digital interface
forms of literacy.


According to Healy (2004) multimodal texts have four key characteristics. The first is that they are
not possible using print technology. Secondly they acknowledge multilingual dialects, social and
other languages. Thirdly they must ensure students have a sense of belonging. Lastly multimodal
curriculum must involve the four knowledge processes and transformation model. This is similar to
the four resources model and it involves students experiencing, conceptualising, analysing and
applying (Kalantzis & Cope, 2004 as cited in Healy, 2004).


Multimodal texts are made up of five elements; visual, linguistic, audio, spatial and gestural
(Healy, 2004). Visual design involves colours and perspective. Linguistic design incorporates
structure and vocabulary. Audio design concerns music, voice and sound effects. Spatial design is
about interaction. Lastly gestual engages behaviour, emotion and sensuality. Multimodal texts
must use some or all of these five elements.


Multiliteracies are important in the classroom as they broaden a students communication skills for
there future careers. Although print literacies play a major role in the classroom, using only them


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restricts a students learning. Teachers in all subjects need to incorporate multiliteracies in their
classroom.


In conclusion these three subjects relate to all teachers, no teacher should be exempt from these
practices. The three concepts are interrelated and they compliment each other in pedagogy.
Scaffolding is very similar to the four resources model as they both require teachers to interact and
have set goals for their students. The four resources model can be applied to multiliteracies to help
students decode and interpret multimodal texts (Healy, 2004). If teachers incorporate these
practices in their classroom they should be successful.




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                                         Referencing
Freebody, P. (2004). The four resources model. Text Next : New resources for literacy learning.
Primary English Teaching Association (PETA), Newtown, NSW.

Hammond, J & Gibbons, P. (2001). What is scaffolding? Scaffolding: teaching and learning in
language and literacy education, editor J Hammond, Primary English Teaching Association
(PETA), Newtown, NSW.

Healy, A .(eds). (2004). Text Next: New resources for literacy learning. Primary English Teaching
Association (PETA), Newtown, NSW.

NSW Department of school education. (1997). PDHPE curriculum directorate, vol.2 NO.3

Santoro, N. (2004). Using the four resources model across the curriculum. Text Next: New
resources for literacy learning, editors Healy, A and Honan, E, Primary English Teaching
Association (PETA), Newtown, NSW.




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