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Fast Timing Update on MCP Testing - PowerPoint

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					  Working Towards Large Area,
Picosecond-Level Photodetectors*

                 Erik Ramberg
                    Fermilab

             Anti-Proton Workshop
                 22 May, 2010



  * Thanks to Matthew Wetstein (ANL/EFI), Henry Frisch (EFI),
       Mike Albrow (FNAL) and Anatoly Ronzhin (FNAL)
               LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Time-of-flight (TOF) in Particle Physics
•   Particle identification in High
    Energy Physics is as important as
    ever, for investigating flavor
    physics and rare processes.
•   Traditionally, Cerenkov detectors
    have outperformed TOF for
    energies above 2 GeV.
•   Typical TOF resolution (100
    picoseconds) has been dominated
    by physical size of signal
    generation (cm size of dynode
    structures) and inherent time scale
    of scintillation.

          100 picoseconds = 3 cm
           5 picoseconds = 1.5 mm


                            E. Ramberg/Fast Timing at                      2
                           Fermilab Test Beam/TIPP09
                   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




                                  What If?
Large Water-Cherenkov Detectors will likely be a part of future long-
baseline neutrino experiments.


What if we could build cheap,
large-area MCP-PMTs:
    • ~ 100 psec time resolution.
    • ~ mm-level spatial resolution.
    • With close to 100% coverage.
    • Cost per unit area comparable to
      conventional PMTs.



How could that change the next-gen WC Detectors?
• Could these features improve background rejection?
• In particular, could more precision in timing information combined with better coverage
  improve analysis?


                                                                                            3
           LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




     Detector Prescription (Generic)
• Small feature size needed
  (reminder: 300 microns = 1 psec)
• Homogeneity
  the ability to make uniform large-areas (think solar-
  panels, floor tiles, 50”-HDTV sets)
• Intrinsic low cost
  Although application specific, you need low-cost
  materials and robust batch fabrication. Needs to be
  simple.

              -> Micro-channel plate photo multipliers
              (MCP/PMT) are our weapon of choice
                                                                       11/11/2011
                                          LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



                                     The LAPPD Collaboration
            Large Area Picsecond Photodetector Collaboration
John Anderson, Karen Byrum, Gary Drake, Henry Frisch, Edward May, Alexander Paramonov, Mayly
    Sanchez, Robert Stanek, Robert G. Wagner, Hendrik Weerts, Matthew Wetstein, Zikri Zusof
            High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                       Bernhard Adams, Klaus Attenkofer, Mattieu Chollet
                                                                                               •   Funded by DOE and NSF
          Advanced Photon Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL            •   4 National Labs
                                                                                               •
                                          Zeke Insepov
     Mathematics and Computer Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL          5 Divisions at Argonne
                       Mane Anil, Jeffrey Elam, Joseph Libera, Qing Peng
                           s
              Energy System Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                                                               •   3 US small companies;
          Michael Pellin, Thomas Prolier, Igor Veryovkin, Hau Wang, Alexander Zinovev
              Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                                                                                               •   Electronics expertise at Universities of
                                         Dean Walters                                              Chicago and Hawaii
             Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
                           David Beaulieu, Neal Sullivan, Ken Stenton
                                 Arradiance Inc., Sudbury, MA
 Sam Asare, Michael Baumer, Mircea Bogdan, Henry Frisch, Jean-Francois Genat, Herve Grabas,
  Mary Heintz, Sam Meehan, Richard Northrop, Eric Oberla, Fukun Tang, Matthew Wetstein, Dai
                                         Zhongtian
                    Enrico Ferm Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
                               i                                                               Goals:
                         Erik Ramberg, Anatoly Ronzhin, Greg Sellberg
                       Ferm National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL
                           i                                                                   • Exploit advances in material science
          James Kennedy, Kurtis Nishimura, Marc Rosen, Larry Ruckman, Gary Varner
                               University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI                                and nanotechnology to develop new,
                        Robert Abrams, valentin Ivanov, Thomas Roberts
                                    Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL
                                                                                                 batch methods for producing cheap,
                                          Jerry Va’vra
                     SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA
                                                                                                 large area MCPs.
                               Oswald Siegmund, Anton Tremsin                                  • To develop a commercializable
                Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA
                                       Dimitri Routkevitch                                       product on a three year time scale.
                           Synkera Technologies Inc., Longmont, CO
                                  David Forbush, Tianchi Zhao
                 Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA




                                                                                                                                              5
              LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



 Detector Development- 3 Prongs
MCP development: use modern fabrication processes to control
    emissivities, resistivities, out-gassing
   Use Atomic Layer Deposition for emissive material. Amplification on
    cheap inert substrates (glass capillary arrays, AAO). Scalable to large
    sizes, economical, chemically robust and stable.

Readout: use transmission lines and modern chip technologies for
    high speed cheap low-power high-density readout.
   Anode is a 50-ohm stripline, scalable up to many feet in length.
    Readout 2 ends; CMOS sampling onto capacitors- fast, cheap, low-
    power

Simulation: use computational advances to make design choices.
   Modern computing tools allow simulation at level of basic processes-
      validate with data.


                                                                          11/11/2011
                  Application 1-Energy Frontier
At colliders we measure the 3-momenta of hadrons, but can’t follow the flavor-flow of
quarks, the primary objects that are colliding. 2-orders-of-magnitude in time resolution
would allow us to measure ALL the information=>greatly enhanced discovery potential.




                                                   Specs:
                                                   Signal: 50-10,000
                                                   photons
                                                   Space resolution: 1 mm
                                                   Time resolution 1 psec
                                                   Cost: <100K$/m2:

     t-tbar -> W +bW-bbar at CDF                                                   7
 Application 2- Lepton Flavor Physics
               LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



          Application 2 - Intensity Frontier




• Example- DUSEL detector with 100% coverage and 3D photon
  vertex reconstruction.

• Need >10,000 square meters!
• Spec: single photon sensitivity, 100 ps time, 1 cm space, low
  cost (5-10K$/m2)                      8
        LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




   Application 3- Medical Imaging (PET)




     Depth of interaction measurement currently has best
     value of 375 ps (1 cm) resolution (H. Kim, UC).
Spec: signal 10,000 photons,30 ps time, 1 mm space,
30K$/m2, MD-proof                   9
              LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors


                              Parallel.Efforts on
        PET                  Specific Applications                        Collider
      (UC/BSD,                                                               (UC,
     UCB, Lyon)                                                           ANL,SLAC,.
                                                                               .

                               LAPPD Detector
                               Development
                           ANL,Arradiance,Chicago,Fermil
                           ab,
                           Hawaii,Muons,Inc,SLAC,SSL/U
                           CB, Synkera, U. Wash.

    DUSEL
      (Matt,                                                                K->pnn
    Mayly, Bob,                                                              (UC(?))
     John, ..)


                                      Security
Drawing Not To Scale (!)
                                         (TBD)
                                                 10
   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Anatomy of an MCP-PMT


                                       1.    Photocathode
                                       2.    Multichannel Plates
                                       3.    Anode (stripline) structure
                                       4.    Vacuum Assembly
                                       5.    Front-End Electronics

                                   Conversion of photons to electrons.




                                                                           11
   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Anatomy of an MCP-PMT


                                        1.    Photocathode
                                        2.    Microchannel Plates
                                        3.    Anode (stripline) structure
                                        4.    Vacuum Assembly
                                        5.    Front-End Electronics

                                   Amplification of signal. Consists of two
                                   plates with tiny pores (~10 microns), held at
                                   high potential difference.

                                   Initial electron collides with pore-walls
                                   producing an avalanche of secondary
                                   electrons. Key to our effort.



                                                                                   12
   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Anatomy of an MCP-PMT


                                        1.    Photocathode
                                        2.    Microchannel Plates
                                        3.    Anode (stripline) structure
                                        4.    Vacuum Assembly
                                        5.    Front-End Electronics

                                   Charge collection. Brings signal out of
                                   vacuum.




                                                                             13
   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Anatomy of an MCP-PMT


                                        1.    Photocathode
                                        2.    Microchannel Plates
                                        3.    Anode (stripline) structure
                                        4.    Vacuum Assembly
                                        5.    Front-End Electronics

                                   Maintenance of vacuum. Provides
                                   mechanical structure and stability to the
                                   complete device.




                                                                               14
   LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




Anatomy of an MCP-PMT


                                        1.    Photocathode
                                        2.    Microchannel Plates
                                        3.    Anode (stripline) structure
                                        4.    Vacuum Assembly
                                        5.    Front-end electronics

                                   Acquisition and digitization of the signal.




                                                                                 15
               LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




         Channel Plate Fabrication




Conventional MCP Fabrication                     Proposed Approach
• Pore structure formed by drawing and          • Separate out the three functions
  slicing lead-glass fiber bundles. The glass
  also serves as the resistive material         • Hand-pick materials to optimize
                                                  performance.
• Chemical etching and heating in hydrogen
  to improve secondary emissive properties.     • Use Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD):
                                                  a cheap industrial batch method.
• Expensive, requires long conditioning, and
  uses the same material for resistive and
  secondary emissive properties. (Problems
  with thermal run-away).



                                                                                       16
            LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



   Front-end Electronics/Readout
               Waveform sampling ASIC
Electronics Group: Jean-Francois Genat, Gary Varner, Mircea
Bogdan, Michael Baumer, Michael Cooney, Zhongtian Dai, Herve
Grabas, Mary Heintz, James Kennedy, Sam Meehan, Kurtis
Nishimura, Eric Oberla, Larry Ruckman, Fukun Tang (meets weekly)
                                                       Have to understand
                                                       signal and noise in the
                                                       frequency domain




                                               17
                    LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




                    Front End Electronics
• Collaboration between U of Chicago and Hawaii.
• Resolution depends on # photoelectrons, analog bandwidth,
  and signal-to-noise.
• Transmission Line: readout both ends  position and time
• Cover large areas with much reduced channel count.
• Simulations indicate that these transmission lines could be
  scalable to large detectors without severe degradation of
  resolution.
          Differential time resolution between   Wave-form sampling is best, and can
                 two ends of a strip line        be implemented in low-power widely
                                                 available CMOS processes (e.g. IBM
                                                 8RF). Low cost per channel.

                                               First chip submitted to
                                               MOSIS -- IBM 8RF (0.13
                                               micron CMOS)- 4-channel
                                               prototype. Next chip will
                                               have self-triggering and
                                               phase-lock loop


                                                   J-F. Genat, G. Varner, M. Bogdan, M. Baumer, M. Cooney, Z.
                                                   Dai, H. Grabas, M. Heintz, J. Kennedy, S. Meehan, K. Nishimura,
                                                   E. Oberla, L.Ruckman, F. Tang



                                                                                                                     18
         Planicon Large Transmission
Photonis LAPPD Collaboration:on Area Picosecond PhotodetectorsLine Board




  Couple 1024 pads to strip-lines with silver-loaded epoxy
    (Greg Sellberg, Fermilab).
                                       19
              LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




                           Simulation
• Working to develop a first-
  principles model to predict MCP                 Transit Time Spread (TTS)
  behavior, at device-level, based
  on microscopic parameters.
• Will use these models to
  understand and optimize our
  MCP designs.




                                                         Z. Yusov, S. Antipov, Z. Insepov (ANL),
                                                  V. Ivanov (Muons,Inc), A. Tremsin (SSL/Arradiance),
                                                                N. Sullivan (Arradiance)




                                                                                                        20
            LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



     Scaling Performance to Large Area
                Anode Simulation(Fukun Tang)




• 48-inch Transmission Line- simulation shows 1.1
  GHz bandwidth- still better than present electronics.

KEY POINT- READOUT FOR A 4-FOOT-WIDE
  DETECTOR IS THE SAME AS FOR A LITTLE ONE-
  HAS POTENTIAL…
                                               21
            LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




         Mechanical Assembly
Rich Northrop, Dean Walters, Joe Gregar Bob Wagner, Michael
Minot, Jason McPhate, Ossy Siegmund




8” proto-type stack                       8” proto-type mock-up
  design sketch                     BNL Colloquium                      11/11/2011
                                                                                22
             LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors



        The 24”x16” `SuperModule
                                        Tile now has no
                                        penetrations- neither HV
                                        nor signals
                                        Digital card in design
                                        Front-end ASICs ditto


Mockup of 1x3 ½ SM
Real glass parts
Electrical tests in air in situ
about to begin                       BNL Colloquium                      11/11/2011
                                                                                 23
                              LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




     Channel Plate Fabrication w/ ALD
                                                                     pore

1.      Start with a porous, insulating
        substrate that has appropriate
        channel structure.
                                                           1 KV




                                                                                        Alternative ALD Coatings:

 borosilicate glass filters        Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO)                                          Al2O3
          (default)                                               Conventional MCP’s:

                                                                            SiO2             (ALD SiO2 also)
2.      Apply a resistive coating (ALD)
                                                                                                         MgO
3.      Apply an emissive coating (ALD)
4.      Apply a conductive coating to the                                                        ZnO

        top and bottom (thermal
        evaporation or sputtering)

                                                                                                                    24
                 LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




         Status After Several Months

• Using our electronic front-end and
  striplines with a commercial Photonis
  MCP-PMT, were able to achieve 1.95
  psec differential resolution, 97 µm
  position resolution (158 photoelectrons).
• Demonstrated ability produce 33 mm
  ALD coated channel-plate samples.
• Development of advanced testing
  capabilities underway.
                                                                              B. Adams, M. Chollet (ANL/APS),
• Preliminary results at APS show                                                M. Wetstein (UC, ANL/HEP)

  amplification in a commercial MCP after
  ALD coating.
                                                 • After characterizing the Photonis MCP, we coat the
• Growing collaboration between                    plates with 10 nm Al2O3.
  simulation and testing groups.                 • The “after-ALD” measurements have been taken
                                                   without scrubbing.

                                                 • These measurements are ongoing.



                                                                                                                25
Beam line time-of-flight for particlePicosecond Photodetectors
             LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area identification
                                                                            at + 7m far
                                                                     B      position


   Testing the Photek 240 MCP/PMT in                             8 GeV/c
                                                                 p or π
   Fermilab’s Test Beam
                                                                           VETO L+R



                                                                         C = PMT210
                                                                         reference




                                                                      B



                                                                     A

                                                                      TRIG L*R
      SiPM’s also an option and were tested.

              26
                 Some Results: Area Picosecond Photodetectors
                 LAPPD Collaboration: Large




Test Beam Results for 120 GeV monoenergetic
protons beam on quartz bar detector


Remove tails of PH distributions
(correlated, probably interactions)

Apply time-slewing correction
(CFD needs residual PH correction)


Fit Dt = (t1 – t2) to Gaussian:
                                                         channels
       sDt = 16 ps, which means each device contributes 11 ps


            27
            LAPPD beam over 7 m:
Positive 8 GeV/cCollaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors

Test Beam Results for 7 meter separation in 8 GeV
mixed (muons, pions, protons, electrons) beam


                                  π


                                                p



   Proton content of beam gives 146 ps difference
   Resolution of timing difference σ = 7 ch = 21.7 ps
                                               (No corrections for slewing etc)
            28
               LAPPD Collaboration: Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors




                          Conclusions
• The large area, fast timing photodetector project is an advanced
 cooperative research project, headed up by U. Chicago, and highly
 supported by the DOE. We’re on a 3 year time table. Lots of work ahead.
 Preliminary achievements are encouraging.
• The cooperation between quite different research areas (materials science,
 space science, high energy physics, medical imaging) is striking and is
 perhaps a model for future endeavors.
• If successful, this project presents potential opportunities for future water
  Cherenkov detectors, collider detectors, fixed target detectors, medical
  imaging, etc.




                                                                                  29

				
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