PCAPresentationChildWelfareClass20101021 by t4Ri061


									Parenting Capacity
Slides Reviewed in the Guest Lecture
        Child Welfare Class of
         Prof. Winnie Benton
             Presented by
  Robert S. Wright, M.S.W., R.S.W.
Parenting Ability/Capacity

          Ability                   Capacity
Provides a snapshot of how   Provides a prognosis of
  family/parents function      how family/parents
         at present           function in the future
Psychosocial Theory
       Life Stage         Developmental Tasks                  Psychosocial     Central Process
Infancy              Social attachment                         Basic trust    Mutuality with
(birth to 2 years)   Maturation of sensory & motor functions
                     Sensorimotor intelligence & primitive     versus basic   caregiver
                             causality                         mistrust
                     Object permanence
                     Emotion development

Toddlerhood          Elaboration of locomotion                 Initiative     Identification
(2 to 4)             Fantasy and play
                     Language development                      versus guilt

Early School Age     Sex role identification                   Initiative     Identification
                     Early moral development
(4 to 6)                                                       versus guilt
                     Group play
                     Development of self-esteem
Psychosocial Theory

  Middle School     Friendship                  Industry versus         Education
                    Self-evaluation             inferiority
  Age               Concrete operations
  (6 to 12)         Skill learning
                    Team play

  Early             Physical maturation         Group identity versus   Peer pressure
                    Formal operations           alienation
  Adolescence       Emotional development
  (12 to 18)        Membership in peer
                    Heterosexual relationship

  Later             Autonomy from Parents       Individual identity     Role experimentation
                    Sex role identity           versus identity
  Adolescence       Internalized morality
  (18 to 22)                                    confusion
                    Career choice

  Early Adulthood   Marriage                    Intimacy versus         Mutuality among
  (22 to 34)        Childbearing                isolation               peers
                    Life style
Psychosocial Theory

Middle Adulthood   Nurturing the martial relationship          Generativity        Peron-
(34 to 60)         Management of household                     versus              environment fit
                   Child rearing
                                                               stagnation          and creativity
                   Management of career

Later Adulthood    Promoting intellectual vigor                Integrity versus    Introspection
(34 to 60)         Redirecting energy toward new roles         despair
                   Accepting one’s life
                   Developing a point of view about death

Very Old Age       Coping with physical changes in aging       Immortality         Social support
(75 until death)   Developing a psychohistorical perspective   versus extinction
                   Traveling uncharted terrain
What is Attachment
   Attachment is “an affectionate bond between two
    individuals that endures through space and time and serves
    to join them emotionally (Kennell 1976).”
   Attachment is an emotional phenomenon rooted in our
   Early abuse, neglect, abandonment, unrelieved pain, or
    other traumatic events can create neutral pathways that
    interfere with attachment and have life long consequences
    for a child
   Other attachments sites:
      Sites affiliated with the Attachment Centre in Colorado
          http://members.tripod.com/radclass/
          http://www.attachmentcenter.org
      SUNY’s research site at Stony Brook. Good descriptions
        of Ainsworth’s work
          http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters
Lifetime Knowledge
              Amount Learned
  Birth 0___________50____75____100%
         1st year of life   2nd year   3rd year
How Attachment Develops

          Satisfy Need                Quiescence


          Displeasure                   Need
Attachment: Ainsworth’s Strange
   The strange situation is a laboratory
    observation consisting of eight episodes in
    which the caregiver and a female stranger
    interact with, depart from, and reunite
    with, the infant in an environment which
    offers the child opportunities for
Attachment: Ainsworth’s Strange
     Infant            Avoidant                Secure                 Insecure
Pre-separation   Little attention to    Explores freely but      Preoccupied with
                 mother – explores      “checks in” with         mother-little
                 freely                 mother                   exploration

To Stranger      May be more            Responds with            May cling to mother
                 sociable to stranger   interest to stranger     and reject or
                 than mother            looks at or moves        withdraw from
                                        toward mother while      stranger
                                        doing so
At Separation    Little distress        May or may not be        Extreme distress –
                                        distressed, concrete     may make some
                                        efforts to contact       search efforts, may
                                        mother (e.g. follow      be angry or helpless
                                        to door, call, search)
At Reunion       Snubs or ignores       Greets mother            Ambivalent response
                 mother or slow to      positively, if           – seeks and rejects
                 warm up to her         distressed makes         contract, refuses to
                 invitations            physical contact and     be comforted
                                        is comforted
Understanding Trauma
   A traumatic event involves a single, or an
    enduring or repeating event, that completely
    overwhelms the individual's ability to cope or
    integrate the ideas and emotions involved with
    that experience.
   The sense of being overwhelmed can be delayed
    by weeks or years, as the person struggles to
    cope with the immediate danger.
   Trauma usually involves a feeling of complete
    helplessness in the face of a real or subjective
    threat to one's life or to that of loved ones, to
    bodily integrity, or sanity.
Understanding Trauma (cont.)
                             Figure things Out

                                 Coping           Unaffected
                               Mechanisms        Or Enhanced
              Exposure to
  Level of     Potentially                       Functioning
Functioning    Traumatic
                                 Coping            Reduced
                               Mechanisms          Level of

                             Keep us Alive
Understanding Trauma (cont.)

Understanding Trauma (cont.)

The Laser Beam of Love

 Caring                                                                  Parenting Tasks

                           Parent’s   Parent’s Adult                                 •Child’s Outcome
              Parent’s                                 •Maintaining Stable Housing
                                      Relationships                                  •Independence
            Experiences   Emotional                    •Consistent Limits
                            Health          &          •Nutrition                    •Self-control
              As Child
                                       Experiences                                   •Affectionate
                                                       •Educational Preparation
Socio-Cultural Considerations
 Parenting is a highly culturally directed
 Different “peoples” have different methods
  and different goals of parenting
 Historical and political context of “peoples”
  has resulted in unique problems

   Addictions and Justice as examples
Socio-Cultural Considerations (cont.)
             Some writers and
               theorists have
               begun to
               explore socio-
               aspects of
               major social
               certain peoples
   Ethnic Groups        Axiology                             Epistemology                         Logic        Process
Ethnic Worldview                               Applied          Pedagogy       Methodology

                     Member-Object           One knows          Parts to       Linear and      Dichotomo       All sets are
                   The highest value lies     through            Whole         Sequential           us         repeatable
                    in the object or the    Counting and                        -Assembly       Either/Or           and
                     acquisition of the      Measuring                             line-       -Newtonian     reproducible
                           object                                                                theory-      -Technology-
                   Member-Member            One knows            Whole        Critical Path    Diunital       All sets are
                   The highest value lies   through             Holistic        analysis       Union of       interrelated
         African   in the relationships     Symbolic            Thinking       -Cut to the     Difrasismo       through
         African   between persons          Imagery and         -The BIG         chase-        -Aztec         human and
       American                             Rhythm               picture-                      thought-         spiritual
        Latino/a                            (function)                                         The In           networks
            Arab                             -Gladwell                                         Between            -Black
                                            Blink-                                             Ibn ‘Arabi        church-

                   Member-Group             One knows           Whole and     Cyclical and     Nyaya           All sets are
                   The highest value lies   through             parts are      Repetitive      -The           independentl
                   in the cohesiveness of   Transcendent          seen        -Stroke order    objective      y interrelated
                   the group                al                simultaneous     in writing a    world is           in the
                                            Striving                ly        Chinese word-    conceived       harmony of
 Asian American
                                            -Tree the           -To read a                     independen     the universe
                                            forest-           Chinese word-                    t of thought     -Keiretsu-
                                                                                               and mind-
                   Member-Great Spirit       One knows        Whole is seen   Environmentall       Great      All sets are
                   The highest value lies      through          in cyclic     y experiential     Mystery      interrelated
                   in oneness with the      Reflection and     movement         reflection      -A set of 4   through the
                   Great Spirit                Spiritual       -Seasons-         -Rites of     and a set of    elements,
                                             Receptivity        -Medicine        Passage-       3 form the       plant,
Native American
                                             -Purification       Wheel-                           whole-      animal, and
                                                 rites-                                           -Super        spiritual
                                                                                                   string       networks
                                                                                                  theory-        -White
Legislative, Regulatory, Policy
Child, Youth and Family Services Act . . . General principles

7. This Act shall be interpreted and administered in accordance with
   the following principles:
   (a) . . . best interests of the child;
   (b) every child is entitled to be assured of personal safety, health
   and well-being;
   (c) the family is . . . responsible for the safety, health and well-
   being of the child;
   (d) the community has a responsibility . . . and may require
   assistance . . . ;
   (e) prevention activities are integral . . .;
   (f) kinship ties are integral to a child’s self-development and
   growth . . .;
   (g) the cultural heritage of a child shall be respected . . .; and
   (h) . . . a child 12 years of age or over is capable . . .
Legislative, Regulatory, Policy
Children’s Law Act . . . Merits of application for custody or access

31. (1) The merits of an application under this Part in respect of custody of or access to a child shall be
    determined on the basis of the best interests of the child.
    (2) In determining the best interests of a child for the purposes of an application under this Part in
    respect of custody of or access to a child, a court shall consider all the needs and circumstances of
    the child including
              (a) the love, affection and emotional ties between the child and,
                         (i) each person entitled to or claiming custody of or access to the child,
                         (ii) other members of the child's family who live with the child, and
                         (iii) persons involved in the care and upbringing of the child;
             (b) the views and preferences of the child, where the views and preferences can reasonably
    be ascertained;
             (c) the length of time the child has lived in a stable home environment;
             (d) the ability and willingness of each person applying for custody of the child to provide
    the child with guidance and education, the necessaries of life and the special needs of the child;
             (e) the ability of each parent seeking the custody or access to act as a parent;
             (f) plans proposed for the care and upbringing of the child;
             (g) the permanence and stability of the family unit with which it is proposed that the child
    will live; and
             (h) the relationship by blood or through an adoption order between the child and each
    person who is a party to the application.
    (3) In assessing a person's ability to act as a parent, the court shall consider whether the person
    has ever acted in a violent manner towards
             (a) his or her spouse or child;
             (b) his or her child's parent; or
             (c) another member of the household,
otherwise a person's past conduct shall only be considered if the court thinks it is relevant to the
    person's ability to act as a parent.
Legislative, Regulatory, Policy

   CYFS Act Balances     CL Act Balances
   Parenting Capacity    Parenting Capacities
   vs Standard: Test =   of Different
   “Good Enough          Petitioners: Test =
   Parent”               “Best Parent”
Toronto PCA Project Guidelines
1.   Family Status/Current Stressors (context)
2.   Child’s Developmental Progress
3.   Pattern of Parent/Child Relationship
4.   Observations of Parenting Ability
5.   Impulse Control
6.   Parental Acceptance of Responsibility
7.   Behaviours Affecting Parenting
8.   Manner of Relating to Society
9.   Parent’s Use of Clinical Interventions

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