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					Robert Gagné



     Nine Events of
     Instruction


               by Jennifer Landwehr
Robert Gagné (August 21, 1916– April 28, 2002)

                    Education
                   •Bachelor's degree from Yale university in
                   1937.
                   •Ph.D. from Brown University in 1940.

                    Work
                   •Connecticut College (1940 - 1949)
                   •Penn State University (1945 - 1946).
                   •The US Air force (1949 - 1958)
                   •Princeton University (1958-1962).
                   •University of California at Berkeley (1966-
                   1969)
                   •Florida State University (1969-2002)
Robert Gagné

   Gagné’s theories have been applied to the
    design of instruction in several domains
   His theory is classified as an instructional
    theory
   His instructional theory has behaviorist
    principles
   His theories are also influenced by cognitive
    theorists
Gagné’s Taxonomy of Learning
   Verbal information: Reciting something from memory
   Intellectual skills:
           Discrimination: Recognizing that two classes of things differ
           Concrete concept: Classifying things by their physical
            features alone
           Defined concept: Classifying things by their abstract (and
            possibly physical) features
           Rule: Applying a simple procedure to solve a problem or
            accomplish a task
           Higher-order rule: Applying a complex procedure (or multiple
            simple procedures) to solve a problem or accomplish a task
   Cognitive strategies: Inventing or selecting a particular mental
    process to solve a problem or accomplish a task
   Attitudes: Choosing to behave in a way that reflects a newly-acquired
    value or belief
   Motor skills: Performing a physical task to some specified standard
Nine Events of Instruction
1.   Gain attention
2.   Inform learner of objectives
3.   Stimulate recall of prior learning
4.   Present stimulus material
5.   Provide learner guidance
6.   Elicit performance
7.   Provide feedback
8.   Assess performance
9.   Enhance retention transfer
Event 1: Gain attention of learners

   Interest/motivation/ curiosity
   Giving background information creates
    validity.

Internal Mental Process
 Stimuli activates receptors
Event 2: Inform leaner of objectives

 Clarify expectations and relevance
 Make learners aware of what to expect so
  that they are aware and prepared to receive
  information.
Internal Mental Process
 Creates level of expectation for learning
Event 3: Stimulate recall of prior
learning

   Previous experience, previous concepts
   Correlate new information with prior
    knowledge.

Internal Mental Process
 Retrieval and activation of short-term
  memory
Event 4: Present stimulus material

   Provide/present the new material to be
    learned
   The goal is information acquisition

Internal Mental Process
 Selective perception of content
Event 5: Provide learner guidance

   Guidance on the new content
   Guidance strategies (case studies,
    examples, mnemonics)

Internal Mental Process
 Semantic encoding for storage long-term
  memory
Event 6: Elicit performance

   Practice (new skills or behavior)
   Confirm correct understanding
   Demonstrating learning
   Retrieval, responding

Internal Mental Process
 Responds to questions to enhance encoding
  and verification
Event 7:Provide feedback

   Teacher gives immediate feedback to
    learners after eliciting responses.
   Regular feedback enhances learning.
   Reinforcement, error correction

Internal Mental Process
 Reinforcement and assessment of correct
  performance
Event 8: Assess performance

   Post-test, final assessment
   No additional coaching; feedback
   Assessing gives instructors a means of
    testing student learning outcomes.

Internal Mental Process
 Retrieval and reinforcement of content as
  final evaluation
Event 9:Enhance retention transfer

   Determine whether or not the skills were
    learned
   Apply the skills that were learned

Internal Mental Process
 Retrieval and generalization of learned skill
  to new situation
References
     Campos, Tracy. 1999. Gagné’s Contributions to the Study of Instruction
     http://chd.gse.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/cognitivism/gagne.htm
    Conditions of Learning. http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html
    Conditions of Learning: Exponent/Originator
     http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm
    Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction, 2nd edition. New York: Allyn &
     Bacon. Unit 6: Gagne’s Instructional Design theory.
     http://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/gagne.html
    Gagne's Learning Outcomes--
     http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'slearningoutcome.html
    Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction --
     http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'snineevents.html
    Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction.
     http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/gagnesevents/index.htm
    Kruse, Kevin. Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction.
    www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm
    Selwyn. 1999. A Constructivist Learning Event Following Gagne’s Steps of Instructional
     Design. http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/constructionist-Gagne.htm

				
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posted:11/11/2011
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