mapping queensland theatre report by t4Ri061

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									MAPPING QUEENSLAND THEATRE

              A REPORT BY JOHN BAYLIS
                           MAY 2009
                                                                                                                                               Table of Contents
1    Terms of reference ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
2    Executive summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 4
3    Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................................ 6
4    Methodology ................................................................................................................................................................ 9
5    The context ................................................................................................................................................................. 10
  5.1       Queensland statistics ........................................................................................................................................ 10
  5.2       Global trends ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
     5.2.1 Rising costs .................................................................................................................................................... 11
     5.2.2 Government funding ..................................................................................................................................... 12
     5.2.3 Consumer behaviour ..................................................................................................................................... 12
  5.3       Funding .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
6    The survey ................................................................................................................................................................... 15
  6.1       The respondents................................................................................................................................................ 15
  6.2       Theatre work ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
  6.3       Connections ....................................................................................................................................................... 16
  6.4       Challenges ......................................................................................................................................................... 17
  6.5       Queensland theatre sector ................................................................................................................................ 18
7    Infrastructure .............................................................................................................................................................. 21
  7.1       Value chain ........................................................................................................................................................ 21
  7.2       Training and entry points .................................................................................................................................. 22
     7.2.1 Tertiary training ............................................................................................................................................ 22
     7.2.2 Other theatre training ................................................................................................................................... 24
     7.2.3 Support for emerging artists ......................................................................................................................... 24
  7.3       Development ..................................................................................................................................................... 25
  7.4       Creating and presenting .................................................................................................................................... 27
     7.4.1 Quantity of work ........................................................................................................................................... 27
     7.4.2 Quality of work.............................................................................................................................................. 28
     7.4.3 The independent sector ................................................................................................................................ 28
     7.4.4 The role of the main funded companies ....................................................................................................... 30
  7.5       Presenters ......................................................................................................................................................... 32
     7.5.1 Queensland Performing Arts Centre ............................................................................................................. 32
     7.5.2 Brisbane Powerhouse ................................................................................................................................... 34
     7.5.3 Judith Wright Centre for Contemporary Arts ............................................................................................... 35
     7.5.4 Metro Arts ..................................................................................................................................................... 36
     7.5.5 Brisbane Festival ........................................................................................................................................... 37
     7.5.6 Other Brisbane presenters ............................................................................................................................ 38
     7.5.7 Regional venues ............................................................................................................................................ 38
  7.6       Producers .......................................................................................................................................................... 39
  7.7       Regional theatre ................................................................................................................................................ 40
8    National participation ................................................................................................................................................. 43
9    Audiences.................................................................................................................................................................... 46
10       Appendices ............................................................................................................................................................ 51
  1.     Creators and developers of work .......................................................................................................................... 52
  2.     Theatre funding 2008 – Arts Queensland and Australia Council ........................................................................... 77
  3.     Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................... 79
  4.     Consultations ......................................................................................................................................................... 81
  5.     Mapping Theatre survey ........................................................................................................................................ 83

                                                                                          2
1 TERMS OF REFERENCE
The consultant was contracted by Arts Queensland to develop a focussed and strategic framework that informs:
negotiations with operationally funded companies; priorities for project grant applications; and discrete initiatives and
strategies in support of the development of high quality, demand driven contemporary theatre practice in Queensland
for the period 2010 – 2013 by:

   researching and mapping theatre practice in Queensland, including individuals, institutions and organisations that
    have a stake in the sectors maintenance and development;

   developing a value chain that articulates where and what the identified organisations are delivering, from training
    of practitioners to the development presentation and export of product;

   identifying gaps, duplications and opportunities in the value chain;

   reporting back findings to the sector;

   developing information in a format that could inform Arts Queensland’s negotiating of roles and responsibilities of
    organisations in receipt of Queensland Government funding (program, statutory and major organisations), to
    ensure that their activities and focus support a harmonious ecology; and

   developing a set of recommendations that could inform discrete initiatives and strategies, either unilaterally, or in
    partnership with statutory bodies, other Queensland Government Departments or Commonwealth Government
    Departments or Agencies.




                                                            3
2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Queensland has a well-resourced state theatre company led by a highly respected artist. It also has a solid second-tier
company in the process of redefining itself and moving in promising new directions. It has an outstanding physical
theatre company with an increasing international reputation. It has in Cairns a national leader in regional theatre
practice. In New Farm it has one of the most dynamic arts centres in the country and in Edward Street an organisation
that is a national model for what a development organisation for theatre artists should look like. Its major festival is led
by another respected artist with a track record of creating innovative structures for creating and presenting work. And
it offers some of the country’s best programs for supporting emerging artists.

So what’s the problem?

A vibrant theatre culture needs diverse activity, and lots of it. Such activity of course needs audiences, but before that,
it needs artists. Without the artists to make it happen, solid foundations for audience development will not exist. There
need to be artists from across the full range of experience and practice. Young artists can make work in sparse
circumstances and present it in bare spaces – for a while. However, for them to persist, they need pathways – they
need to see a future for themselves and their work. Theatre being a collaborative process, these pathways cannot just
be for individual careers: they must also be for the small companies that provide the platform for new creative energies
to emerge. If artists can’t see these pathways in Queensland, they go elsewhere.

This report finds that theatre activity in Queensland is low compared to other parts of Australia. It further finds that the
biggest gap in the Queensland infrastructure is a supportive environment for the maturation of small companies. As in
all industries, innovation starts in the smaller enterprises, as they have the most to gain from change. Ian Roberts wrote
in his landmark report on the small-to-medium theatre sector that small companies ‘are the major source of new and
                                                                                                        1
innovative Australian theatre. They are the exploration division of the theatre industry in Australia.’

There is no lack of small companies in Brisbane. Nor is there a lack of support at the initial stages: while there are some
gaps in tertiary training, Queensland has good programs for emerging artists and Metro Arts plays an exemplary role in
                                                                         2
providing space and sustenance to independent companies and artists. It is the pathways for them to develop beyond
Metro that are missing. Compared to other parts of Australia, far fewer of these companies survive to make a lasting
contribution.

This report argues that filling this gap is a shared responsibility. Funding programs play a part, but all institutions with a
stake in the future of Queensland theatre have a role. What is needed is a supportive infrastructure of co-producing
and co-presenting arrangements, and the logical partners in Brisbane are the Brisbane Powerhouse, Judith Wright
Centre of Contemporary Arts, La Boite Theatre Company and Queensland Theatre Company.

The independent sector too must aspire higher, must open out if it is to increase its own quality, diversity and risk-
taking. Isolation is the theme that came through most strongly during the consultation. Artists feel disconnected from
what is happening elsewhere. There needs to be a more vigorous curiosity about the rest of the world, a hunger for
dialogue, exchange and influence, complemented by the means to satisfy that hunger. Artists within Queensland need
to compare themselves with their interstate and international peers and honestly place themselves in the continuum
between mediocrity and greatness, and be willing to judge and be judged by the highest standards.




1
  Ian Roberts, An Analysis of the Triennially Funded Theatre Organisations of the Theatre Board of the Australia Council
(Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2003). p. 17
2
   ‘independent’ in this paper means theatre work in any genre made by groups or individuals without ongoing
government funding.
                                                              4
So the challenge is: how to make Queensland in general and Brisbane in particular a place that attracts theatre artists
rather than sheds them. This demands long-term investment. There is no quick solution. Queensland will not be
recognised as a vibrant centre for theatre tomorrow, but the seeds are there.




                                                          5
3 RECOMMENDATIONS
In the process of researching this report, the consultant heard the views of many people. Some advocated their own
interests, some suggested minor changes, while others argued that the basic infrastructure was flawed because it was
based on imitating the institutions of Sydney and Melbourne and did not grow out of the specific conditions of
Queensland. Whatever the historical validity of these claims, the consultant has taken the view that what exists now
must be the basis for the future, that radical changes to the fundamentals are both unlikely to be implemented and
uncertain in their effect. Thus, the recommendations are pragmatic in nature, focusing on what is possible, on the small
steps towards the creation of a robust theatre culture that would allow Queensland artists to realise their potential in
Queensland.

INCREASE SUPPORT FOR THE INDEPENDENT THEATRE
A rich mix of independent theatre is the key to any vibrant theatre culture. It is where most artists begin their practice
and it is where new forms of theatre practice and audience engagement arise. It is vital to have a diverse network of
small companies, each committed to its own practice yet in creative dialogue with its peers within Queensland and
beyond. Quality will be variable and attrition rates high – but there should be pathways so that those with a
commitment to quality and a capacity to learn can see a destination.

The sustenance of vibrant independent theatre is the shared responsibility of the whole theatre sector. Specific funding
programs are part of the solution, but just as important is a supportive infrastructure that makes creative growth
possible. All play a part.

Recommendation 1           Arts Queensland considers different funding models that can provide clear funding access
                           points for companies with a record of achievement.

Recommendation 2           Queensland Theatre Company articulates its leadership role and value to the theatre industry
                           in Queensland, outlines what support it can offer for independent artists and companies and
                           how it should be approached, and makes this information available on its website.

Recommendation 3           Circa supports at least one emerging Queensland group through its production hub.

Recommendation 4           Queensland Performing Arts Centre articulates the rationale for its support for independent
                           artists and companies, outlines what it can offer and how it should be approached, and
                           makes this information available on its website. Queensland University of Technology also
                           does this concerning its rehearsal spaces and venues.

Recommendation 5           The Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts include in its positioning a focus on becoming
                           Brisbane’s centre for physical theatre and related practice with an articulation of its artistic
                           visions, an allocation of appropriate resources and an active investigation of interstate and
                           international partners for this work.

Recommendation 6           Arts Queensland, Brisbane City Council and the Brisbane Powerhouse enter into partnerships
                           for initiative based investment in the Powerhouse and a greater commitment by the
                           Powerhouse to presenting local work.

Recommendation 7           Arts Queensland seeds a new structure that supports projects by independent artists
                           through their development and presentation phases.

Recommendation 8           Consideration is given to developing a mechanism within Queensland to extend the life of
                           independent work through touring, similar in concept to Critical Stages and complementing


                                                            6
                          its national role. The most appropriate body to take this on can be decided when the
                          Queensland touring strategy is finalised.

Recommendation 9          Arts Queensland conducts a Statewide survey of publicly owned cultural infrastructure to
                          provide a profile on arts and cultural facilities across Queensland which can be used to
                          inform investment decisions on infrastructure.

CONNECTING QUEENSLAND THEATRE ARTISTS WITH THEIR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PEERS
Quality theatre work depends on collaboration and interchange. More flow of artists, work and ideas between
Queensland and elsewhere will both enlarge the frame of reference within which work is made and increase the
opportunities for Queensland theatre.

Recommendation 10        Creative residency programs and exchanges are created that encourage the best artists
                         nationally and internationally to spend time in Queensland making their work and interacting
                         with local artists. Arts Queensland, funded organisations, arts statutory bodies, festivals and
                         tertiary institutions could all be hosts of these residencies.

Recommendation 11        Similar partnerships are negotiated to support Queensland artists and arts managers to work
                         collaboratively in interstate institutions such as Performance Space, Company B, Malthouse,
                         Next Wave etc. and to gains skills and insights overseas, and encourage them to share their
                         experiences upon return.

Recommendation 12        Brisbane Festival, Queensland Theatre Company, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Judith
                         Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts and Brisbane Powerhouse create formal and informal
                         structures that provide opportunities for local artists to engage and network with visiting
                         artists.

Recommendation 13        Arts Queensland supports the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts to position itself as a
                         national leader in Indigenous performing arts development.

Recommendation 14        Local artists welcome outsiders, and commit themselves to taking every opportunity to see
                         the best work across all creative practices and open themselves to its influence.

SUPPORTING REGIONAL THEATRE PRACTICE
In contrast to most of Australia, Queensland has a strong regional theatre network and Just Us Theatre Ensemble (JUTE)
already plays a national leadership role. Future strategies for regional cultural development should lever off this
strength.

Recommendation 15         Develop regional touring strategies in Queensland that enable the emergence of more
                          regional producers, networks and niche circuits

Recommendation 16         Regionally-based artists are given a high priority in any residency or exchange initiatives
                          mentioned in the Connecting section above.

Recommendation 17         Performing arts centres are supported to develop local theatre-making, and the expertise of
                          the existing regional theatre companies is called on to help this happen.

AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT
A strong theatre sector and sound audiences development strategies need to go hand in hand. There is much work to
be done in audience research and analysis.




                                                          7
Recommendation 18   Arts Queensland commissions audience research to identify the demographic segments with
                    the most potential to become new theatre audiences with particular consideration of age
                    and gender factors.

Recommendation 19   Brisbane Powerhouse conducts audience research to determine who its audience is and
                    what strategies could be put into place for moving current audiences towards more
                    adventurous work.

Recommendation 20   Brisbane Powerhouse, Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts, La Boite Theatre
                    Company, Queensland Theatre Company and Arts Queensland develop and coordinate
                    strategies to develop audiences for independent theatre work.

Recommendation 21   Arts Queensland evaluates the effectiveness of Test Drive the Arts and Talking Theatre and
                    works with theatre companies to develop a coordinated approach to future audience
                    development initiatives

Recommendation 22   Arts Queensland works with the sector to develop a collaborative marketing strategy to
                    re-position and promote the theatre through coordinated marketing and branding with a
                    particular emphasis on social media

OTHER MATTERS
Recommendation 23   Queensland University of Technology considers reviewing its production courses in
                    consultation with the Queensland theatre sector to align with current and future needs.

Recommendation 24   Queensland University of Technology considers reviewing its acting course to ensure it is
                    meeting the needs of the Queensland theatre sector.

Recommendation 25   All organisations publish their annual reports online in the interests of transparency and
                    better cross-sector communication.




                                                   8
4 METHODOLOGY
This report was created in the period between February and May 2009. It was researched through the following
processes:

     An examination of existing documentation relevant to the Queensland theatre sector, including Arts Queensland
      and Australia Council policy documents, grant applications and acquittals, histories of Queensland theatre and
      website material;

     Consultations with the staff of Arts Queensland and the Australia Council;

     Interviews, email correspondence and focus group discussions with theatre stakeholders in Brisbane, Cairns,
      Townsville, Mackay, Surfers Paradise and Toowoomba;

     Interviews and email correspondence with selected theatre professionals outside of Queensland;

     A public call for submissions; and

     An online survey of individuals and organisations that had produced professional theatre in Queensland in the
      previous three years.

Appendix 4 is a full list of those involved in these consultations.

The information gathered through this process was analysed through a value chain model to establish the current gaps
in the theatre sector and to determine the actions that could address these gaps.

The definition of theatre used in this report is descriptive rather than categorical: theatre is that which is funded as such
by Arts Queensland and the Australia Council. It can include circus, physical theatre, text-based work, contemporary
performance, cabaret, music theatre, theatre for children and young people, puppetry, visual theatre and youth
theatre.

The report’s focus is on the work made by professional artists as defined by Arts Queensland – those who:

     have specialist training in their field (not necessarily in academic institutions);

     are recognised by their peers (professional practitioners working in theatre);

     are committed to devoting significant time to the artistic activity, and
                                               3
     have a history of public presentation.

This report does not deal in detail with two areas in particular: Indigenous theatre and touring. These are the subject of
other Arts Queensland’s consultations.




3
    http://www.arts.qld.gov.au/publications/grantsglossary-ps.html
                                                                9
5 THE CONTEXT

5.1 QUEENSLAND STATISTICS
The estimated population of Queensland in June 2008 was 4,293,915, which is 20% of the Australian population as a
                                                         4
whole (21,431,781). The overall spread of population is:

State                          Population             Percentage of total
New South Wales                 6,984,172                         32.6%
Victoria                        5,313,823                         24.8%
Queensland                      4,293,915                         20.0%
Western Australia               2,171,197                         10.1%
South Australia                 1,603,361                           7.5%
Tasmania                          497,529                           2.3%
Aust Capital Territory            345,551                           1.6%
Northern Territory                219,818                           1.0%

The population of Brisbane was 1,945,639. It is Australia’s third largest city: Perth is 82% its size and Adelaide 60%. The
populations of the all Australian capitals are:

City                           Population
Sydney                          4,399,722
Melbourne                       3,892,419
Brisbane                        1,945,639
Perth                           1,602,559
Adelaide                        1,172,105
Canberra                          345,257
Hobart                            209,287
Darwin                            120,652

A smaller proportion of Queensland's population lives in its capital city than any other mainland state. Brisbane
represents 43% of the population; for the whole country, capital cities represented 64% of the total population.

Queensland does not however have the largest regional population in Australia: approximately 2.6m people in NSW live
outside of Sydney, while 2.3m Queenslanders live outside of Brisbane. But it does have the largest Australian
population living in areas classified as outer regional, remote or very remote areas – almost 790,000. On the other
hand, Queensland’s population is very concentrated in the southeast: Brisbane, the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast and
Toowoomba account for 67%.
                                                                                                         5
Queensland has some of the largest non-capital city population centres, five of the country’s top ten:

Centre                                Population
Gold Coast-Tweed                        583,683
Newcastle                               523,680
Canberra-Queanbeyan                     388,179
Wollongong                              280,173
Sunshine Coast                          230,366
Geelong                                 169,502
Townsville                              157,478
Cairns                                  135,930
Toowoomba                               123,376

4
  Australian Bureau of Statistics, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2007-08 (Canberra: Australian Government,
2009).
5
  Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australia Demographic Statistics (Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008).
                                                            10
Launceston                                 104,110
Albury-Wodonga                             101,516

Queensland also has six of the ten fastest growing local government areas in the country – these include five in the
southeast corner, plus Cairns. While Western Australia is currently the fastest growing state overall, Queensland is
projected to replace Victoria by 2050 as the second most populous state, with Queensland's share of Australia's
                                                               6
population increasing from 20% to 25% over the next 50 years. Much of this growth is coming from migration from
other states.
                                            7
Other notable facts from the 2006 census:

   Indigenous persons made up 3.3% of the state’s population in 2006, compared with 2.3% for Australia.

   Only 17.9% of Queenslanders were born overseas, lower than the figure of 23.3% for the rest of Australia.

   7.8% of Queenslanders spoke a language other than English at home, lower than the figure of 16% for the rest of
    Australia.

5.2 GLOBAL TRENDS
The performing arts are subject to forces that go well beyond the borders of Queensland or Australia. In 2007 the
Australia Council commissioned research to identify the most significant trends and factors that would act on the
                                                              8
organisations funded through its Major Performing Arts Board. Much of this section is a summary of the main points in
that report that appear relevant to the Queensland theatre sector.

5.2.1 RISING COSTS
Theatre is labour-intensive. People make and perform theatre work, and, being defined by its liveness, it cannot take
full advantage of new modes of distribution created by digital technology. Many other forms of cultural and leisure
activity are falling in price due to mass production and electronic distribution. This means that theatre is growing more
expensive in comparison with its competitors.

These inflexible labour costs are exacerbated by increases in other costs such as fuel and insurance. While some
transport costs like airfares are currently falling due to the effects of the global financial crisis, the long-term trend will
be upward given the depletion of fossil fuels. Touring in particular will become increasingly expensive.

There will also be increasing pressure from government and the community for all organisations to be more
environmentally responsible. Eventually this may lead to more efficient forms of operation, but the more immediate
effect is likely to be further increases in costs through compliance regulations and taxation on unsustainable practices.

All theatre organisations need to attract good personnel and this is subject to market forces. While the current
economic downturn may ease this pressure, in the long-term organisations will have to pay more to attract the best
staff. Managerial and marketing staff are particularly in demand because they have skills and experience that can be
applied outside the cultural sector where salaries are higher.

Venue costs are also rising, and unless the owners of these venues (usually local or state governments) are prepared to
increase their operational funding, they will become increasingly reliant on hirings and profitable co-productions to
cover their costs, and less able to take risks in their programming.


6
  Australian Bureau of Statistics, Population Projections, Australia, 2006 to 2101 (Canberra: Australian Government,
2008).
7
  Office of Economic and Statistical Research, "Queensland Characteristics: A State Comparison"
(http://www.oesr.qld.gov.au/publications/index.shtml, 2008).
8
  AEA Consulting, Anticipating Change in the Major Performing Arts (Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2008).
                                                              11
5.2.2 GOVERNMENT FUNDING
While government arts funding in general is increasing, it is often linked to other agendas. As the AEA Consulting report
says:

     Internationally, investment in culture is robust, as governments employ it in the service of revitalizing cities and
     neighbourhoods, increasing social cohesion, and stimulating economic competitiveness. But in Australia, as
     elsewhere, increased government appropriation comes with strings, and expectations that arts organisations will
     deliver instrumental, as well as intrinsic, benefits to the public. Arts organisations must demonstrate “public value,”
     and are therefore vulnerable to shifts in government priorities, in some cases committing themselves to programs
                                                                                                  9
     and services that tax the organisation’s resources and capacity, and lead them off mission.

The duration of the current economic downturn cannot be known, but even a short recession will have a significant
effect on the theatre sector. The federal government’s stimulus package combined with lower taxation revenue mean
that it will be many years before its budget is once again in surplus. With less GST revenue being distributed to state
governments and the end of the resources boom, Queensland will experience similar pressures. In these circumstances,
government capacity to increase funding for any activity will be diminished for at least the next few years, and there
will need to be considerable political will to position the arts as a priority area.

5.2.3 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Attendance at cultural events is linked to having a strong social network – those in such networks are more likely to
                                             10
attend, and more often, than those without. While some statistical indicators suggest a move away from traditional
social structures such as the family (higher divorce rates, more couples without children, more one-parent families),
other surveys suggest a desire for increased community connectedness. This is shown in growth within religious
organisations, more social gatherings in restaurants and bars, and more people doing adult education courses and
taking part in book clubs. Social networking tools such as Facebook and Second Life also show this trend. Research in
the US has suggested that people attend cultural events as much for the social interaction as for the intellectual
stimulation.

Mitigating this is the increasing call on people’s time. Longer working hours and other pressures are making people
more selective about their free-time activities and less likely to plan too far in advance. The worldwide trend has
therefore been towards more flexible tickets purchase models and away from the more traditional subscription model,
though the latter model is still quite strong in Australia for larger organisations.

The internet and other digital media are changing people’s behaviour patterns. An ever-increasing variety of content is
available which is making the computer one of the main sites of recreational activity, and the advent of true broadband
will see this expand exponentially. There are already a range of choices for those who want to consume as well as
opportunities to interact for those who want to participate and create. The challenge for theatre is find ways to use
these new tools not just for marketing, but also for distribution, and as a new creative platform for extending the live
performance experience.

     In a globalizing world, hierarchies, boundaries and categories of culture are blurring, becoming more flexible and
     fluid. Clear distinctions between artforms are eroding, as are the boundaries between artist and audience. With
     ready access to the means of producing art (inexpensive musical instruments, video cameras, sound systems, etc.),
     more people are involved in actually making artistic products and expressing themselves creatively. These amateurs
     are looking for participatory experiences and, in effect, are levelling the traditional hierarchy between “professional”
                       11
     and “audience.”



9
  Ibid p. 22.
10
   Ibid p. 37.
11
   Ibid p. 44.
                                                             12
                                                           *****
                                                                   th
To summarise, the challenges theatre faced throughout the 20 century will continue: high cost structures, increased
competition by other leisure activities, constraints of access and distribution dictated by its liveness. Theatre’s demand
that people assemble at a certain time and place, and the costs that this entails, risks becoming increasingly
burdensome as time-poor people seek more flexible entertainment and cultural options.

At the same time, government support for the arts is not a given. High culture is having its claims to special status
(including the right to subsidy) questioned on many fronts, and is being increasingly expected to deliver quantifiable
benefits to the public.

On the other hand, theatre’s liveness is also its competitive advantage. There is a general desire to reconnect with
notions of community, and younger people especially are seeking experiences that are more active and participatory,
and are less inclined towards the traditional passive spectator role. The theatre experience is capable of delivering this.

5.3 FUNDING
To a great extent, theatre is reliant on government support. Even those organisations or individuals that do not receive
funding directly often make use of venues and other facilities that are themselves funded by government.

The following table shows cultural funding per person for each state and territory government over the most recent
                                                  12
four-year period for which figures are available.

State/territory governments                             2003–04          2004–05           2005–06          2006–07
New South Wales                                         $125.66          $116.67           $124.22          $130.08
Victoria                                                 $90.10           $94.20           $113.62          $108.36
Queensland                                              $105.71           $91.72           $119.81          $103.29
South Australia                                         $123.65          $118.74           $125.65          $131.65
Western Australia                                       $135.98          $147.06           $155.56          $157.89
Tasmania                                                $135.93          $156.80           $204.11          $187.33
Northern Territory                                      $501.98          $573.20           $425.28          $326.08
Australian Capital Territory                            $139.51          $179.11           $193.09          $182.97
State and territory government average                  $118.10          $115.96           $130.01          $126.09

At least for the period in question, this shows that Queensland does not provide as much support for culture as other
jurisdictions. However, the figures are somewhat better when looking at expenditure on drama alone in the year
2006/07:

Year                            NSW        Vic.      Qld         SA       WA        Tas.       NT        ACT      Aust.
Drama                           $0.63    $0.72     $0.86      $2.60     $2.25      $0.93     $1.81      $2.18     $1.05

As this shows, Queensland outspends both NSW and Victoria on a per person basis when it comes to theatre, though it
is considerably behind South Australia and Western Australia.

The following table shows both state and federal funding in 2008 for all theatre companies funded through the Major
Performing Arts Board.

Company                                            Australia Council           State            Total
Bell Shakespeare Company NSW                               $568,617        $568,617        $1,137,234
Black Swan Theatre Company WA                              $327,873       $1,200,000       $1,527,873
Circus Oz Vic                                           $1,292,362         $142,902        $1,435,264

12
  Australian Bureau of Statistics, Cultural Funding by Government, Australia, 2006-07 (Canberra: Australian Bureau of
Statistics, 2007). Note that ‘cultural funding’ in these figures includes libraries, nature parks, museums as well as arts
organisations.
                                                            13
Company B Belvoir NSW                                       $572,927         $572,927        $1,145,854
Melbourne Theatre Company Vic                             $1,852,228         $463,057        $2,315,285
Malthouse Vic                                               $964,795         $964,795        $1,929,590
Queensland Theatre Company Qld                              $687,554       $2,749,901        $3,437,455
State Theatre Company of SA                                 $505,189       $2,020,756        $2,525,945
Sydney Theatre Company NSW                                $1,886,032         $471,508        $2,357,540
Total                                                     $8,657,577       $9,154,463       $17,812,040

As can be seen, Queensland offers its state theatre company significantly more support than any other state.

Turning to funding for Queensland theatre in general, the following table shows the amounts provided by Arts
Queensland over the past seven years.

Arts Queensland                    2002          2003          2004          2005          2006          2007         2008
Qld Theatre Company base     $2,275,440    $2,318,014    $2,347,615    $2,377,594    $2,432,279    $2,490,654   $2,749,901
Ongoing grants               $2,517,731    $2,588,007    $2,726,568    $3,461,447    $4,052,956    $3,791,250   $3,214,325
Project grants                 $247,311     $177,847      $212,214      $309,615      $306,451       $216,698    $430,554
Initiatives                     $35,260       $52,573       $10,000             –       $65,500      $180,347    $653,090
TOTAL                        $5,075,742    $5,136,441    $5,296,397    $6,148,656    $6,857,186    $6,678,949   $7,047,870

These figures show a 39% increase in Arts Queensland support for theatre over this period. It also shows a pattern of
increasing support for projects (up 74%) and initiatives (up 1752%), while ongoing grants to Queensland Theatre
Company and s2m funded companies have increased at a lesser rate (21% and 28% respectively).

The next table shows Australia Council funding over a similar period for theatre activity by Queensland-based artists.

Australia Council               2001-02       2002-03       2003-04      2004-05         2005-06     2006-07       2007-08
MPAB – QTC base grant          $573,657      $584,393      $591,855     $599,413        $613,199    $627,916      $687,554
Other MPAB initiatives          $71,000      $104,900      $143,000      $40,000               –     $23,350       $45,000
Theatre Board ongoing
grants                         $349,181      $419,000      $443,000     $428,000        $388,670    $520,800      $511,254
Theatre Board project
grants                         $113,467     $183,883      $132,669      $145,650      $200,567        $62,739    $127,949
Other initiatives               $19,040     $139,804        $81,789     $140,000      $289,054      $225,200     $436,287
TOTAL                        $1,126,345    $1,431,980    $1,392,313    $1,353,063    $1,491,490    $1,460,005   $1,808,044

While the overall level of Australia Council funding for Queensland is low, the figures show an upward trend, with a 61%
increase over the period. This has been mostly to companies receiving ongoing grants (up 46%) and in the area of
initiatives (up 2101%). Project funding has risen at a much lower rate: 13%.

There is further analysis of Australia Council funding in section 8 below, and there is a full outline of the 2008 recipients
of funding from both agencies in appendix 2.




                                                             14
6 THE SURVEY
This is a summary of notable findings from the survey undertaken to inform this report. Note that the survey sought
information about 2008 activities, so all references are to that year. The full results are in appendix 5.

6.1 THE RESPONDENTS
The first section of the survey gathered information about the respondents themselves.

   The majority of respondents (61%) were creators of theatre work, two-thirds of whom said that making their own
    original work was their predominant activity

   43% gave their annual turnover as less than $50,000

   45% had received Arts Qld support and 29% had received Australia Council support

   31% received no government or philanthropic support

   48% had no full-time staff

   Volunteerism was high: only 20% said they had no volunteers, while 52% had between 1-20 volunteers and 16%
    had 51-100 volunteers

6.2 THEATRE WORK
This section asked about the level of theatre activity through four phases: developing, producing, presenting and
touring.

   166 new works were given some form of development

   About 72 of these works came from two development programs (Playlab and the emergeproject)

   Respondents considered 26% of the works developed were now ready for production

   There were 110 works produced

   45% were co-productions with a partner

   77 of these were new works, and 70 were Queensland works

   There were 245 works presented to the public, 34% of which were co-presentations with a partner

   There were 57 tours: 52% in Qld, 30% interstate and 18% international

   The total audience was 510,000, comprised of 320,000 at home and 190,000 on tour

   There were 1456 public performances in home venues, and another 808 on tour.

   The average audience size in home venues was 220, and on tour 235.

   Only 20% said that they regularly conducted audience or market research

   37% said they had done no such research in recent years


                                                          15
   The most prevalent theatre genre was text-based theatre, followed by devised work/contemporary performance,
    cabaret and comedy, and theatre for children and young people.

It is notable that the respondents considered 26% of developed work was now ready for production: 43 potential
theatre works in all. The number of Queensland works that were actually produced in 2008 was 70 – presumably, they
were given some form of development in previous years. Does this suggest that more work is being produced than is
truly ready?

The real figure for the number of works presented to the public could be more than what is given here, as many venues
did not participate in the survey. This would also increase the audience numbers.

The lack of audience research is notable. This no doubt reflects the lack of resources on the part of many smaller
companies and groups, but perhaps may also indicate their priorities.

6.3 CONNECTIONS
This section asked respondents about their contacts with other parts of the theatre sector, first within Queensland,
then interstate, and finally internationally.

Within Queensland

   For these respondents, Metro Arts is the most contacted organisation in Queensland – 39% contact it at least once
    a month

   Next most contacted are Arts Queensland, La Boite, Queensland Arts Council and Playlab

   65% seldom or never contact Queensland Performing Arts Centre

   65% seldom or never contact Brisbane Powerhouse

   61% seldom or never contact the Australia Council

   53% seldom or never contact Queensland Theatre Company

   Judith Wright Centre is the least contacted Brisbane venue apart from the State Library

   Only 16% thought their Queensland connections were unsatisfactory, though 53% thought they could be better.



Interstate and international

   The most common form of contact is with interstate theatre companies, followed by independent producers and
    venues

   67% seldom or never contact interstate festivals

   33% thought their interstate connections were unsatisfactory and a further 37% thought they could be better

   There are few international connections – those that exist are mainly with international theatre companies

   Over 80% seldom or never contact international producers, festivals, venues or agents.

   52% thought their international connections were unsatisfactory, though 32% considered them adequate for their
    needs.


                                                          16
There is no benchmark for the optimum connectedness of a theatre artist or organisation, and no data exists from
other states that can act as a control. However, the respondents’ self-assessment as well as the face-to-face
consultations both suggest that this is an issue, and the theme of Queensland’s relative isolation is picked up later in
the report in section 8.

Also surprising are the findings regarding connections within Queensland. While acknowledging that the survey sample
is a very diverse group of people and organisations, it seems that there are gaps in communication between various
parts of the sector.

6.4 CHALLENGES
This section asked about the challenges respondents faced in developing, producing, presenting and touring theatre
work.

   Overwhelmingly, securing funding, from government or elsewhere, was the key challenge at every stage, but most
    especially at the development phase

   The next biggest challenges in developing work are: having enough time (which is linked to funding), accessing
    good administrative support and having suitable rehearsal space

   For producing work, the next biggest challenges are: having enough rehearsal time (again, linked to funding),
    finding a producing partner and accessing good administrative support

   For presenting work, the next biggest challenges are: marketing or publicising the work, followed by accessing
    suitable venues, accessing good administrative support, and finding a presenting partner

   For touring work, the next biggest challenges are: promoting the work to presenters, followed by access to
    performing arts markets and forums, and access to information about touring mechanisms – all three of which are
    inter-related.

The survey then asked about long-term challenges, and the top 10 issues were:

   the amount of overall funding available (very high or quite high challenge for 80%)

   capacity to plan two or three years ahead (very high or quite high challenge for 64%)

   access to touring opportunities (very high or quite high challenge for 62%)

   process of applying for funding (very high or quite high challenge for 62%)

   networking internationally (very high or quite high challenge for 58%)

   networking nationally (very high or quite high challenge for 68%)

   access to skilled managers and producers (very high or quite high challenge for 56%)

   exposure to the best work, nationally and internationally (very high or quite high challenge for 54%)

   access to marketing/audience development expertise (very high or quite high challenge for 48%)

   departure of key people to better opportunities elsewhere (very high or quite high challenge for 52%).

Just as notable were the issues rated the lowest:

   access to business training (very low or quite low for 48%)


                                                           17
   networking locally (very low or quite low for 46%)

   process of accounting for funds (very low or quite low for 40%)

   access to skilled artists (very low or quite low for 44%)

   compliance issues (very low or quite low for 42%).

Apart from funding issues, responses suggest the following gaps in the current infrastructure: access to rehearsal
spaces, administrative support, producing partners, marketing expertise, networking opportunities and brokers to
negotiate partnerships and touring opportunities. These will be picked up later in the report.

The low rating for business training is significant, given the emphasis given to this by funding bodies over the past
decade. This could indicate that theatre professionals now consider their skills levels are sufficient in this area, and that
it is time to move on.

6.5 QUEENSLAND THEATRE SECTOR
The final part of the survey asked respondents for their perspectives on the current state of the Queensland theatre
sector and the way forward. The first question asked which organisations contributed most to the creation of an
environment where high quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish.

   Metro Arts was nominated as contributing the most, followed by Brisbane Powerhouse

   the next three were Circa, Judith Wright and La Boite

   the bottom three were Youth Arts Queensland, Queensland Arts Council and Queensland Performing Arts Centre.

The next question moved away from particular organisations and asked more generally what factors contributed most
to the creation of an environment where high quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish.

   independent theatre was the highest rated, followed by devised work/contemporary performance, text-based
    theatre then circus and physical theatre

   amateur theatre was rated lowest, then Indigenous theatre and visual theatre/puppetry.

Respondents were then asked to nominate which organisations, groups or individuals are currently making the best
theatre in Queensland. The five mentioned most often were, in order:

   Matrix Theatre (Michael Futcher and Helen Howard)

   Metro Arts

   Queensland Theatre Company

   La Boite

   Circa.

Respondents were asked what were the highest priority ingredients for great theatre to happen in Queensland. The top
five priorities, in order, were:

   engagement with audiences

   quality of the performers


                                                                18
   quality of the writing

   government support

   quality of the original concept.

The lowest five priorities were:

   telling Queensland stories

   visual quality

   high production values

   good quality spaces

   critical discourse about the work.

Respondents were then asked to consider these same ingredients with the current situation in Queensland in mind, and
to indicate what was strong and what was weak.

The strongest five were:

   quality of the performers

   high production values

   visual quality

   telling Queensland stories

   quality of the writing.

The weakest five were:

   critical discourse about the work

   government support

   risk and innovation

   opportunities to see the best national/international work

   quality of training.

The final question was an open one: ‘what changes would make Queensland theatre great?’ The responses were
diverse, but a few themes can be picked out.

   more opportunities for Queensland artists see the best work from interstate and overseas, whether by the work
    coming here or the artists travelling

   more spaces for work to happen in

   more flexible funding structures

   more risk


                                                          19
   more diversity: in particular more companies supported, whether small independents or a third company to
    provide an alternative to Queensland Theatre Company and La Boite

   more dialogue: between producers and presenters, smaller and bigger companies, regional and city artists, senior
    and younger artists.

This section is most usefully viewed as a self-diagnosis by the theatre sector, indicating where the pressure points are.
There is considerable consensus that the independent groups are key to the well-being of Queensland theatre, and that
Metro Arts plays a pivotal role here. The strong support for Matrix Theatre in the open responses is also worth noting,
especially as it was unprompted – the survey did not include the company’s name in any multiple-choice list. The theme
of the independent sector will be taken up later in the report.

The support for the role of Brisbane Powerhouse is notable, as it seems in part to be valued as a window to the
performing arts beyond Brisbane. This links to the theme of Queensland’s relative isolation.

The alignments and discrepancies between what the respondents consider to be the qualities of a thriving theatre
culture, and what actually exists in Queensland, are revealing. There is considerable agreement that high quality
performers are crucial, and that Queensland has them. There is also a similar feeling about the quality of the writing.

On the other hand, respondents do not consider telling Queensland stories, visual quality or high production values to
be of high importance, yet they find them to be relatively strong in Queensland theatre. Does this indicate that at least
parts of the sector have the wrong priorities? If so, what is driving them? Funding bodies? Audiences?

If the latter, this needs to be considered in the light of the collective agreement that ‘engagement with audiences’ is the
main ingredient for great theatre – 92% rated this either the highest or a high priority. This is coupled with an
assessment that it is not being done particularly badly or well, most of the responses clustering around ‘moderate’, with
a small group opting for ‘quite weak’. Yet as the earlier response indicated, there is comparatively little research being
done on audiences.

Finally, confirming what is noted elsewhere, government support is seen as being a high priority but not strong in the
current situation.




                                                            20
7 INFRASTRUCTURE

7.1 VALUE CHAIN
This value chain maps the process whereby theatre works are made and sold, each link in the chain adding more value
to the work before it finally ‘realises’ that value when consumed. While the standard business chain usually assumes
that this value is monetary, the value that accumulates as a theatre work moves through the chain is cultural as well.
There are complexities here that go beyond what can be represented in a diagram, and there are other places for
                              13
discussions of cultural value. The main purpose of the value chain in the context of this report is to see which links in
the chain are in place in Queensland, and which are missing.

                                           SUPPLY                                                        DEMAND
                                                                                                         
       Training                Creation              Distribution            Presentation               Audiences

                                                                                               
             Service organisations         Producers and                                     Marketing
                                              brokers

TRAINING
This refers to the main labour force needs of the theatre sector – how artists and other arts workers are prepared for
the task of making theatre work. It includes formal training at tertiary institutions as well as other activities that lead
people towards becoming theatre professionals: school or post-tertiary skills workshops, writing courses and other
forms of professional development. Section 7.2 summarises the main players and gaps. Service organisations such as
Youth Arts Queensland have a role here in creating entry points to professional practice.

CREATION
This is the phase where the work is made, either though developmental stages or as a single activity. Those
organisations and programs that assist development are listed in section 7.3 below. The main organisations and groups
that make work are profiled in appendix 1 and the challenges are discussed in 7.4. Service organisations such as Playlab
play a strong part here.

DISTRIBUTION
This refers to how the work, once made, is brought to its market. This happens in many ways. At its simplest, the
company that made the work also does this, and – if it also has its own venue – it might handle the presentation stage
as well. However, most theatre works go through some form of mediation before being presented to an audience. The
structures and processes at this stage including negotiations with presenters to secure venues, performing arts
markets, state touring agencies, agents, broadcast media etc. Organisations with a producing or a brokering role are
especially important at this stage. There are significant gaps in the Queensland infrastructure here.

PRESENTATION
This is where the work meets its audience. In conventional business terms, this is the retailing phase. The presenter
may be a venue, a festival, another theatre company or cultural institution, a school or an event. The creators of the
work may do this themselves, but it is more likely that it will be done at least in partnership with another entity that

13
     John Holden, Capturing Cultural Value: How Culture Has Become a Tool of Government Policy (London: Demos, 2005).
                                                            21
specialises in this stage, with or without shared risk. This is where marketing expertise is applied. The main presenters
are discussed in 7.5.

7.2 TRAINING AND ENTRY POINTS
7.2.1 TERTIARY TRAINING
Queensland University of Technology (QUT) has the only degree acting course in Queensland – the three-year Bachelor
of Fine Arts (Acting). Entry is highly competitive, with about 400 auditioning for 16 places each year. While the course
prepares actors for work in all areas, the emphasis for the past decade has been explicitly on training for film and
television.

QUT also offers a Bachelor of Fine Arts (Drama) that is less vocationally specialist in its focus. The course outline states
that graduates work as directors, performers, producers, playwrights, arts administrators, community artists and youth
arts workers, while some use their applied theatre skills in corporate training settings. QUT’s Bachelor of Creative
Industries can also include a drama component within a degree aimed more generally at careers in the creative
industries. This degree is highly flexible and can be taken with a business minor or major in order to provide career
preparation for arts administrators. There is also a postgraduate Master of Creative Industries (Creative Production and
Arts Management).

In addition, there is a Bachelor of Fine Arts (Technical Production) which aims to provide the skills needed to work at
stage managers, production managers, lighting and sound designers, operators and technicians.

The University of Southern Queensland had offered a three-year acting major in its Bachelor of Theatre Arts at its
Toowoomba campus but this course has been discontinued. It now has an interdisciplinary Bachelor of Creative Arts
that includes both academic and artistic experience across music, theatre, creative media and visual arts, with the
opportunity to do acting or stage management in the latter two years of the course. The careers it prepares for are
listed as: collaborative artist, events manager, play and screenwriter, arts administrator, community arts officer, youth
arts officer, researcher, actor, marketing officer and secondary school teacher.

James Cook University offers a Bachelor of Arts (Theatre) on its Cairns campus that focuses on the practical and
theoretical study of plays as performance texts, and provides an introduction to acting, directing and writing for the
theatre. It states that it prepares graduates for careers in theatre and arts administration roles or, with further study,
for teaching drama at a secondary level.

Central Queensland University (CQU) offers a Bachelor of Theatre (Specialisation) on its Mackay campus. With a focus
on music theatre, the course is designed for students seeking a profession in the entertainment industry as an actor,
dancer, musical theatre performer or, through a combination of these skill sets, as a collaborative artist. Graduates can
undertake further study toward gaining professional skills as a director, choreographer, designer, technician or theatre
manager. CQU also offer arts administration units within its Master of Creative Enterprise (Specialisation).

Griffith University’s Mt Gravatt campus has a Bachelor of Arts in Applied Theatre which its website says will prepare
graduates for work in the following areas: theatre or screen production, performance management, arts management,
youth and community leadership, community education, arts development or as drama teacher when coupled with a
teaching qualification. The Gold Coast campus offers a Master of Arts and Media that has some arts administration
application.

The Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA) trains Indigenous performing artists in acting, singing, dance and
music. While it does not currently offer degree courses, its training is accredited at Certificate III, IV, Diploma and
Advanced Diploma in the Performing Arts. It is funded both through the training programs of Department of Education,
Training and the Arts and through Arts Queensland. It also accepts applicants from around Australia: 25% of its students
come from outside Queensland. With the decline of Kooemba Jdarra over the past few years, ACPA has also become


                                                            22
the de facto focus for the creation and production of new Indigenous theatre work, and its productions of Reflections at
Queensland Performing Arts Centre in 2007 and 2008 has led to a closer partnership between those two organisations.

Southbank Institute of Technology has recently begun offering an Advanced Diploma of Arts – Acting which ‘provides
students with practical skills and theoretical knowledge to engage in the performing arts initially as actors/performers
and performance makers’. The course emphasises dramaturgical research, cultural studies and practice in
contemporary performance. It also has a Diploma of Live Production, Theatre and Events – Construction &
Manufacturing. This is a one-year course focused on the design and construction of sets and props and developing the
skills necessary for employment as a stagehand.

The consultation has suggested that the biggest gaps in Queensland tertiary training are in the areas of directing and
design (apart from lighting design – available as major in QUT’s Technical Production degree). There is no specialist
training in these areas, though it is available to a greater or lesser extent within more general creative industries or
creative arts courses. Directing can however be studied at a postgraduate level through QUT’s MA (Research) or Doctor
of Creative Industries (DCI). The MA (Research) can be undertaken in a practice–based form with production outcomes
and a minor exegesis. The DCI is similar to a PhD but is designed more for professionals than researchers, with the focus
on a number of major projects, such as productions rather than a thesis.

The consultation has also revealed a considerable amount of dissatisfaction within the Brisbane theatre community
regarding the QUT acting course. While any course with a large number of unsuccessful applicants will attract its share
of detractors, the negative comments were quite widespread and included many senior figures. Some took issue with
the course’s focus on film and TV at the expense of theatre, maintaining that this resulted in poor vocal and physical
skills and too great an emphasis on emotional realism. More generally, there was an obvious frustration with the fact
that the course encourages its graduates to go where the work is, and in most cases this means that they leave the
state. QUT flies agents to Brisbane to see the graduates as well as showcasing them in Sydney (usually Sydney Theatre
Company or Belvoir St). Recent internal research on the 160 graduated actors from 1997-2007 showed that 75% of the
graduates are still working in the industry (based in CVs in Showcast), though of these, 78% are based in Sydney or
Melbourne, 6% overseas, and only 16% are in Brisbane. This suggests that the emphasis on employment opportunities
over the past decade has paid off – 75% is a good figure in the acting business – but at a cost. One can understand
QUT’s emphasis on putting the career interests of the students first, but it does mean that the local sector is being
drained of creative talent.

The consultant is not in a position to assess the validity of the concerns about the graduates’ skills for a career in
theatre, and if the course states that film and TV are the prime focus then one must judge success against this.
However, from the perspective of this project’s brief – the Queensland theatre sector and its strengths and challenges –
the QUT acting course cannot be said to be a strength. Great theatre will happen in Queensland when it both retains
the artists it has and attracts artists from elsewhere. Achieving this situation is obviously not QUT’s responsibility alone,
but it could take the lead in mapping out a new approach to actor training that both retains the intensity of its current
conservatorium-based approach but encourages more integration of its students with the local theatre sector.

It is notable that Queensland actors have been increasingly successful in applying to the National Institute of Dramatic
Art (NIDA) in Sydney, having contributed 20% of actors in the years 2005 to 2007, up from 11% for the preceding three
       14
years. While this provides some hard evidence for the survey’s finding regarding the strength of Queensland
performers, it is also indicative of further leakage of Queensland talent southwards.

The Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts is a key infrastructure for the future of Indigenous theatre. Queensland
has been notable for the Indigenous theatre artists it has produced over the years: Wesley Enoch, Deborah Mailman,
Stephen Page, Leah Purcell, Wayne Blair, Rhoda Roberts and Lydia Miller, to name just a few. Yet in recent years this
has not been matched by a similar quality in the theatre work itself. With its partnerships with organisations like


14
     National Institute of Dramatic Art, Annual Reports (Sydney: NIDA, 2005-07).
                                                             23
Queensland Performing Arts Centre, its plans for a graduate company and its increasingly national positioning, ACPA
has the potential to be the catalyst in this area – training performers, creating pathways for them into employment and
taking on a producer-like role within the sector.

Recommendation 13         Arts Queensland supports the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts to position itself as a
                          national leader in Indigenous performing arts.

Recommendation 22          Queensland University of Technology considers reviewing its production courses in
                           consultation with the theatre sector on current and future needs.

Recommendation 23          Queensland University of Technology considers reviewing its acting course to ensure it is
                           meeting the needs of the Queensland theatre sector.

7.2.2 OTHER THEATRE TRAINING
Some organisations have made the provision of training a core part of their business. Harvest Rain Theatre Company,
Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble, Zen Zen Zo, Frank Theatre and Circa all put considerable energy into this area,
either as a way of earning income to support their creative activities, or as a means to create and maintain ensembles,
or both.

Zen Zen Zo, for example, has a six-month internship program that trains 14 emerging artists in performing, networking,
marketing, grant-writing, administration and other skills, and includes working closely with a sports psychologist to
build ‘mental strength, goal-setting skills, and an understanding of peak-performance’. It also runs a wide range of
physical theatre courses that include weekly training, intensives and schools programs, and includes interstate and
international partners.

Harvest Rain runs after-school classes as well as having an one-year internship program designed to produce artists
who are equipped to enter the entertainment industry as either performers or technical practitioners; the Queensland
Shakespeare Ensemble offers, among other things, Linklater voice training; and Frank Theatre has monthly public
intensive workshops in its own Suzuki-derived training method; while Flipside Circus offers a range of circus skills
training for young people.

While the consultant is not in a position to assess the quality of the training courses offered by these and other
companies, their range and depth suggest both a strong entrepreneurial spirit in the companies involved, and a ready
market for this form of industry-linked training. This form of company-based training appears more prevalent in
Queensland than elsewhere else in the country.

7.2.3 SUPPORT FOR EMERGING ARTISTS
While the first professional steps of an artist are always difficult, there is a range of programs in Queensland that help.
Some examples:

   The Young Artists Mentoring Program (YAMP) – run by Youth Arts Queensland (YAQ) since 1999 – has been a
    national model for the management of structured mentorships, and led to it being the successful tenderer to
    deliver SPARK, the Australia Council’s national mentorship program. YAQ runs other programs of support such as
    the Transit Lounge that offers advice and access to office resources and various networking and professional
    development opportunities.

   Backbone Youth Arts has strong partnerships with organisation such as Queensland Theatre Company, Queensland
    Opera and the Brisbane Powerhouse that link artists with the professional infrastructure. Their annual 2High
    Festival at the Powerhouse showcases the work of young artists, and, even more importantly, young people are
    empowered to manager the festival under the leadership of industry mentors.



                                                            24
      Queensland Theatre Company has an Emerging Artists Program that in 2008 supported three artists to practise
       their craft and undertake professional development and training programs specially tailored to their individual
       goals. QTC also had five Creative Assistants positions for emerging directors and designers, and there is the Young
       Playwrights Program that provides young and emerging playwrights with an opportunity to develop short plays
       over an extended period with assistance from a professional dramaturg and QTC staff. The company also has work
       experience programs for school students and secondments for tertiary students.

      La Boite offers internships in direction, design, stage management, arts administration and marketing. Applicants
       come from the professional sphere as well as the tertiary sector. In 2008 the company took on four assistant
       directors and offered 10 secondments.

      World Interplay is a biennial event for local and international playwrights aged 18-26 that provides two weeks of
       play development, workshops, forums, and cultural exchange. It will be held in Cairns in 2009.

      Brisbane City Council’s Visible Ink, which, among other things, gives young people access to low-cost spaces and
       resources.
                                                                                                          15
Taken together with the other strategies and programs outlined in Arts Queensland’s Arts Culture + Me as well as the
support offered through Metro Arts, this suggests that Brisbane at least (if not regional Queensland) is comparatively
well served in this area. The challenge for Queensland theatre artists comes later in their careers.

7.3 DEVELOPMENT
For good quality theatre work to happen, there needs to be support for its development. This is especially so in the case
of new work, but it applies as well to the creation of new productions of extant scripts. It can take many forms,
depending mainly on the genre and working methods of the artists involved. Writers need time to write, then the
collaboration of directors, dramaturgs, actors and others to prepare the work for production. Devised work needs
research time, then studio work with the artists involved to create the scenario and actions. Physical theatre usually
also needs its studio space to have a sprung floor and space above for aerial work. Any form of ensemble work needs
space for ongoing training both to develop skills and for knitting the artists together. And most need opportunities to
show the developing work to either industry peers or the public.

Playwrights have the most structured forms of support, reflecting the fact that text-based work remains the dominant
form of theatre-making. Some examples:

      Playlab is the main support organisation for playwrights, providing workshops, script assessment and dramaturgical
       advice to members, as well as offering dramaturgical and other support to theatre companies.

      Queensland Theatre Company in 2007 changed its program The Works from readings of completed (and
       sometimes published) scripts to focus on the development of new work through creative development workshops
       culminating in public presentations.

      The biennial Queensland Premier’s Drama Award – Theatre And Public Life, the best such award available in
       Australia, is managed by Queensland Theatre Company. The award encourages Queensland playwrights to develop
       a body of work focusing on Queensland life. As part of the process, QTC develops the work of three writers over a
       year and commits itself to staging the work of the winning writer. Recipients since its inception have been Sven
       Swenson (2002-03), Adam Grossetti (2004-05), David Brown (2006-07) and Richard Jordan (2008-09).

      JUTE Theatre in Cairns runs Enter Stage Write, its regional script and playwright development program that gives
       support to up to 15 regional writers, some of whose work is then produced by the company. It also runs an annual
       National Regional Playwrights & Theatre Makers Conference that is aimed particularly at regionally-based writers

15
     Arts Queensland, Arts Culture + Me (Brisbane: Queensland Government, 2008).
                                                             25
    and offers opportunities to create new work, to hear new plays by regional writers and to build artistic
    relationships.

   The emergeproject is a partnership between The Judith Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts (JWC) and
    Switchboard Arts and offers a structured program aimed at developing playwrights. It includes seminars, readings
    and dramaturgical support, with regular public presentations at JWCoCA.

   Arts Queensland’s Creative Fellowships (for up to $40,000) have also been a means for writers to buy time to work
    on projects. The program is currently under review, but since 2003 has benefited such writers as Jill Shearer, Billie
    Brown, Sue Rider and Michael Futcher (and other theatre artists such as Andrea Moor).

PlayWriting Australia, the NSW-based national script development organisation, has two major events each year: the
National Script Workshop, at which writers develop new works in the early stages of creative development in an
intensive studio environment with directors, dramaturgs and an ensemble of actors; and the National Play Festival, a
showcase event for new work, bringing peers, producers and presenters together to view new plays in order to secure
full professional productions.

Apart from these programs focused on script work, there are also programs for taking development further into the
studio, making them suitable for other forms of theatre-making and ensemble work.

   Metro Arts has since 2006 run a four–week Creative Development Festival, which it describes as a professional and
    rigorous platform for artists to test, develop, workshop and cultivate new works for the stage, and to engage with
    industry leaders. Metro Arts offers participants free access to rehearsal space within the building, as well as the
    opportunity to engage in public showings and readings in the Sue Benner Theatre. In addition, Metro Arts offers
    participants dramaturgical support and critical feedback, rehearsal and performance space, marketing and
    publicity, event management, audience development and box office management. The festival also includes
    masterclasses, networking events and a series of workshops.

   Metro Arts also offers a 12-month residency to an independent performing arts company which, among other
                                                         rd
    things, provides that company with studio space. 23 Productions was company-in-residence in 2008, and
    Imaginary Theatre is in residence in 2009.

   The Brisbane Powerhouse also has companies-in-residence – in 2008 they were Imaginary Theatre, Splintergroup,
    the Restaged Histories project and Topology.

   Circa has established a new arm of its operations that focuses on supporting independent circus artists and groups
    across Australia. It does this by offering rehearsal space, mentoring and direct financial support for the
    development of work, and then seeking performance opportunities for this work. In effect, it acts as a production
    hub for the groups it supports and its curated showcases New Circus Now in 2008 and 2009 were part of this.

   Queensland University of Technology has studios and other resources for developing work as well as venues for
    presentation. QUT offers these to artists on a case-by-case basis, usually to those who have a connection with the
    university. In particular, the university wants to be able to attract artists to their postgraduate practice-based
    research degrees, and the availability of resources is an obvious inducement.

   La Boite supports independent artists to develop their projects through the provision of dramaturgical support,
    rehearsal space and auspicing services.

On a national level, there is Time_Place_Space, a residential laboratory produced by Performance Space (Sydney) that
aims to strengthen the area of hybrid arts practice in Australia, with an emphasis on performance. Also managed by
Performance Space in partnership with Arts House (Melbourne) is TransLab, which invites proposals from artists to
undertake the creative development of new intercultural performance projects. Another opportunity is A Month in the


                                                           26
Country, an on-going national residential program offered by Hothouse Theatre in Albury-Wodonga for creative teams
of performing artists for the creative development stage of their projects.

Beyond these opportunities, artists make their own way. While they can seek financial support for development from
funding bodies, a considerable amount of work happens with no such support, especially among younger artists still
finding their aesthetic. A constant theme in the consultation was the lack of suitable rehearsal space in Brisbane,
though it was also an issue in Cairns. This is also reflected in the survey, where access to time and space for
development was the second most important issue after the securing of funding for those who listed their main role as
making new work. This is confirmed by Metro Arts, which reports that it is increasingly unable to meet the demand on
its spaces.

7.4 CREATING AND PRESENTING
This report does not attempt to review the work of all individuals, groups and organisations that make theatre in
Queensland, though there are profiles of the main creators in appendix 1 with material drawn from the survey and
other sources. Rather, this section reviews the overall situation then looks at the role of some of the main funded
organisations, focusing in particular at how they support the sector as a whole.

7.4.1 QUANTITY OF WORK
The survey indicated that 110 professional works were produced by the respondents in 2008, while there were 245
works presented. The difference between these figures is primarily made up of the work toured into performing art
centres.

Of the 110 productions, 49 were produced by theatre companies with some form of ongoing funding (Queensland
Theatre Company, La Boite, Circa, JUTE, Backbone and Zen Zen Zo). While some of the other productions may have
been project-funded, most would have been unfunded. Given that there would have been many other unfunded
productions not captured in the survey, it is fair to say that no more than 45% of theatre activity, and probably much
less, has any form of direct funding.

An examination of the staffing figures in the survey shows 48% of respondents have no full-time staff. Of those
producing work in 2008, 42% had neither full-time nor part-time staff – all work was done on a casual basis. While there
are some unfunded organisations that manage to support a staff structure, in general those without ongoing funding
are those without ongoing staff.

All this confirms what is already known within the sector: that it is possible to make work without government subsidy,
but it is difficult to develop a structure that provides continuity and stability for the artists involved.

Co-productions are common, with 45% of productions being done with a partner. Yet it is notable that this was more
prevalent amongst the funded companies: 59% of their works were co-productions against 38% for the others. This
suggests that, while the latter group may be in greater need of partners than the former, those with resources are more
able to negotiate partnerships than those without.

Of the 110 works produced, 77 were described as new works (they had never been produced before anywhere, though
this could include radical reworkings of extant texts) and 70 were described as Queensland works (they were written or
devised by locally based artists).

All these numbers are useful, but the story they tell depends on how much theatre activity is considered necessary in
order to create a vibrant theatre culture. There is no easy answer to this, but comparisons are possible.

PlayWriting Australia (PWA) has done a survey of the number of productions of new Australian work over the period
2001-2006. These figures are under revision and will soon be placed on the PWA website for theatre companies to
supplement or correct. However, this is how they currently look:

                                                          27
     ACT        NSW           NT          QLD          SA          TAS          VIC          WA         Other        Total
     20          317          12           54          53           21          384          201          84         1146
     1.7%       27.7%        1.0%         4.7%        4.6%         1.8%        33.5%       17.5%         7.3%        100%

Another source of information is the AusStage online database of all performing arts events in the country. The
following table shows all events coded as theatre over the period 2001-08, whether new Australian work or
           16
otherwise.

     ACT        NSW          NT          QLD           SA          TAS           VIC          WA         Other       Total
     707        4530         111          733         1144         189          2798          663          94        10696
     6.4%       41.3%       1.0%         6.7%        10.4%         1.7%        25.5%         6.0%         0.9%       100%

While neither set of figures is perfect – there are likely to be gaps in the collecting – they do tell a similar story
regarding Queensland: despite having 20% of the Australian population, it generates a dramatically lower amount of
theatre activity.

7.4.2 QUALITY OF WORK
At various times in the consultation, the question of quality has arisen. Is Queensland work good enough? Section 8
below looks at the comparative lack of participation by Queensland theatre artists in a number of national events, and
the evidence presented could be used to argue that Queensland work is not there because it is not of sufficient quality.

Theatre is a collaborative public artform that is intensively attuned to its context. The historical periods of great theatre
have come in waves, with many outstanding artists and work appearing at the same time. It is not a solitary activity and
rarely flourishes in isolation. It needs critical mass – many groups and artists working separately but in constant
dialogue with each other. The broader the spectrum of practice and ideas, the greater the likelihood of great theatre
emerging. This is not to deny the role of brilliant individual artists – they are obviously where the energies find focus
and form. But without the right setting, they will find other outlets for their creativity.

From this perspective then, the consultant’s answer is that the context for great theatre is not yet in place in
Queensland, and that therefore works of outstandingly high quality will be rare.

The issue therefore not whether the work is good enough, but how to create the conditions for great work to emerge.

7.4.3 THE INDEPENDENT SECTOR
A strong theme that has come through the consultation is the key role of the independent sector. The results of the
survey show that 66% of respondents considered independent theatre as having a strong or very strong role in creating
an environment in Queensland where high quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish, and the main site to this
work, Metro Arts, has wide support.

There has been an increasing recognition in recent years that the theatre sector is one interconnected system and that
the health of any one part affects that of the whole. The role of the independent sector is renewal – it is the continual
arrival of new companies that keeps the artform contemporary, and it is in these emerging companies that theatre
artists find their collaborators and develop with them their particular aesthetic. From these come the new companies
of the future.

The Cultural Ministers Council commissioned research on the small-to-medium sector in 2001, and the subsequent
report concluded:



16
  AusStage, "AusStage - Gateway to the Australian Performing Arts" <HTTP://WWW.AUSSTAGE.EDU.AU/> [accessed 26 April
2009]
                                                             28
     …that this sector’s key contribution is to artistic advancement and further notes that the sector plays a fundamental
     role in research and development, experimentation, innovation and risk-taking with a commitment to new
     Australian work and diversity of artistic form. The sector is seen within the arts more broadly as the crucible for new
                                                              17
     ideas and approaches to creating and presenting work.

The consultation has also suggested that there is currently considerable vitality in the local independent sector. The
periodic efflorescence of a lively independent scene has been a notable feature of Queensland theatre in the past, as
has the dissipation and dispersal of its energies when many of its players see no way forward except career change or
emigration. The challenge now is to ensure that this does not happen to the current wave.

There are two aspects to any independent sector. On the one hand, there are those who are making work to showcase
their talent and energy. The commitment of those involved is great, but many would achieve their goal if they were
offered work within the existing companies, either here or interstate. On the other hand, there are those who are
making distinctive work that does not fit easily into other contexts and are therefore driven to create their own
producing structures. Both activities are necessary, but they have different trajectories and needs.

It is healthy in any theatre ecology for there to be spaces like Metro Arts for new artists to test themselves and for the
more established artists to try out different things. It is equally healthy for much of this work to go no further –
experimentation is as much about learning through failure as it is about success. However, it is decidedly unhealthy for
there to be few destinations for the best of this work or for independent work that is not suitable for Metro’s theatres.
This is the current situation in Brisbane.

What is needed are next-tier venues that have better production capabilities, supportive co-presenting arrangements
that offer the independent artists the opportunity to get a return on their investment to date, and (perhaps most
important of all) an existing audience. As noted in section 7.5 below, Brisbane has no equivalent to the Victorian Arts
Centre’s Full Tilt, Adelaide Festival Centre’s iNSPACE program or the Sydney Opera House’s Studio. Nor is there
currently an equivalent to the Malthouse’s collaborative programming or Company B Belvoir’s B Sharp program.

There are also few role models in Queensland for what the successful career of small company would look like
(successful meaning that it is both creating acclaimed work and providing some degree of financial security to its
members). One measure of such success (though not necessarily the only one) is securing ongoing funding support
from either state or federal sources, and no company in Queensland has made that transition for many years. The most
recent company to receive ongoing funding is Zen Zen Zo, which was founded in 1992. This is in contrast to other parts
of Australia, where the following new companies have attained ongoing support in the last ten years: ThinIce
Productions (WA), PVI Collective (WA), Windmill (SA), Slingsby (SA), The Border Project (SA), Ladykillers (SA), Red Stitch
(Vic), Version 1.0 (NSW), Monkey Baa (NSW) and Big hART (NSW/Tas).

Some Queensland independent companies have created space for themselves from a mixture of project funding and
                                          rd
partnerships with larger organisations. 23 Productions was in residence at Metro Arts in 2008 while both the Restaged
Histories project and Imaginary Theatre have been in residence at the Brisbane Powerhouse. Imaginary has also been
supported by Queensland Performing Arts Centre through its Out of the Box commissions.

Others have found niche markets for themselves that have given them a financial base: Markwell Presents with its
cinematic production services for other companies, and the training noted above that many companies offer. The
Brides of Frank, Flipside Circus and Polytoxic all do events and corporate work.

The resilience of the sector is remarkable and diverse income sources are good. But the obvious danger is that
companies’ energies are drawn too far away from their core business: making high quality theatre work. To maintain
their momentum, there need to be pathways so that new companies can imagine a future for themselves.

17
  Cultural Ministers Council, Report to Ministers on an examination of the small to medium performing arts sector
(Canberra: Cultural Ministers Council, 2002)
                                                             29
An interstate example of how this has been addressed is the Theatre Development Strategy implemented by Arts SA in
2007. Its aim was to support emerging SA theatre companies and it did this by offering three such companies funding
for three years so that they could develop their long-term planning. The recipients were Ladykillers, The Border Project
and Slingsby, and together they received $657,000 over the three-year life of the strategy.

Recommendation 1          Arts Queensland considers different funding models that can provide clear funding access
                          points for companies with a record of achievement.




7.4.4 THE ROLE OF THE MAIN FUNDED COMPANIES
LA BOITE THEATRE COMPANY
La Boite has recently indicated a new approach to its programming. Its focus since 2001 had been on new Australian
plays, but the company is now looking to cast a wider net to include other genres of work apart from the text-based,
and to include contemporary international plays and renovated classics. What this will mean in practice will become
clearer when the company’s 2010 program is announced.

There are times for giving priority to nurturing the local and there are times when engagement with the wider world is
what’s needed. As with the change from Playbox to Malthouse in Melbourne in 2004, La Boite’s timing appears right. As
this report argues in other places, Queensland theatre artists would benefit from more exposure to and interaction
with their national and international peers. The survey shows that of the 110 works that respondents produced in 2008,
70 were Queensland works. This indicates that the local theatre culture is robust enough to handle a greater admixture
of work from elsewhere.

La Boite has also in recent years been considering its role in the development of new theatre energies. In 2007 it
initiated its Roundhouse Theatre Presents program, which presented work in partnership with independent artists and
companies. In that year, it supported Linda Hassall’s Post Office Rose (which had been presented at Metro Arts in 2003).
In 2008, though differently branded, La Boite supported The Wishing Well (Matrix Theatre) and Attack of the Attacking
Attackers (created by Jonathon Oxlade, Matthew Ryan, Lucas Stibbard and Neridah Waters).

La Boite recently announced that in 2010 it will present six or more three-week seasons of independent work in a re-
configured Roundhouse Theatre that would turn it from a 400-seat theatre-in-the-round to a 100-seat end-on theatre.
While the details are yet to be worked out, this will be a welcome addition to the sector’s infrastructure and will go
some way to addressing the issues mentioned above.

JUTE THEATRE
Cairns-based JUTE Theatre plays a strong national leadership role within the regional theatre sector.

As mentioned in section 7.3, JUTE develops the work of regional playwrights through its Enter Stage Write program and
its annual National Regional Playwrights & Theatre Makers Conference. All the work that JUTE subsequently produces
comes through these programs. The company also offers two opportunities each year for local independent theatre
makers to produce their own work in JUTE’s venue. JUTE provides artistic advice and marketing and production support
as well as a financial investment, but leaves the creative decisions to the independents themselves.

Despite its remote location, JUTE has developed better structures than many Brisbane-based companies for networking
and collaborating with its peers both within Queensland and interstate. The Theatre to the Edge initiative allows the
company to develop, co-produce and tour work with Tropic Sun Theatre in Townsville, Crossroads Arts in Mackay and
Darwin Theatre Company. While it is at heart a touring structure, its effect has been to create a collaborative network
of companies that share resources, skills and knowledge. Looking further afield, JUTE drives the Regional Wave Cohort,


                                                           30
a consortium of regional theatre makers around the country aimed at developing work from concept to co-production
then touring.

Section 7.7 below looks at regional theatre in general and notes that JUTE has gone against the national trend that has
seen many regional companies disappear. Its resilience appears to be based on two interlinked factors: it has remained
committed to its original mission of championing the regional voice, but it has avoided the danger of parochialism by
staying outwardly facing – linking up with its peers within Queensland and interstate.

CIRCA
Circa has re-positioned itself considerably over the past decade and in recent years has emerged as one of
Queensland’s leading cultural ambassadors. Its distinctive form of physical theatre has blended local traditions of circus
with the sophisticated aesthetic of contemporary dance, and it has found a ready market for its work internationally. It
has achieved this by forming the connections and partnerships that placed it in an international context, and by then
being prepared to measure itself against this broader standard. It has paid off, with such international peers as Joseph
Mellilo (Executive Producer at the prestigious Brooklyn Academy of Music) stating publicly that the company is
producing some of the best new work in contemporary circus.

As mentioned in section 7.3, the company sees itself not just as a producer of its own work, but also as a support
organisation for the Australian physical theatre sector. It has created Circulation, which it describes as a ‘boutique
circus and physical theatre production hub’, through which it provides active support for small independent artists and
groups from across Australia. It aims by 2011 to present four seasons of work created by artists outside Circa each year.
It also provides rehearsal space, creative expertise, mentorship and direct financial support, and it acts as the agent for
the groups it helps, seeking paid performance opportunities for them both within Australia and internationally. They
are already undertaking this role with the Melbourne-based group Scattered Tacks.

Circa’s initiative is a good example of how a funded organisation can have a distinct artistic vision with a total
commitment to quality while also extending both its resources and the credibility of its brand to others. The resulting
benefit goes two ways: smaller groups get access to the resources, expertise and markets of the larger company, while
the company itself is strengthened by the interaction with a wider circle of artists and artistic visions.

The company might consider ensuring that Queensland continues to have a strong circus and physical theatre culture
by including at least one Queensland group for intensive mentoring through its Circulation program.

Recommendation 3           Circa supports at least one emerging Queensland group through its production hub.

QUEENSLAND THEATRE COMPANY
As the largest theatre organisation in Queensland, the Queensland Theatre Company has a leadership role within the
local sector. It fulfils this role in a number of ways. As noted above, it offers support for local writing and for local
theatre artists through a range of programs. In addition to these, it has an education program and a regional
partnerships program.

The education program is extensive and includes both skills workshops and productions specifically for young
audiences. In recent years, the productions have ranged from explorations of contemporary classics like The Caucasian
Chalk Circle to new local work such as this year’s Maxine Mellor’s Mystery Project in partnership with the State Library.
In the past, some of these education performances have been in partnership with local companies such as Real TV and
deBASE Productions.

The regional partnerships program takes a number of forms: skills or devising workshops for young people, professional
development in Brisbane for regional artists, and funding professionals from Brisbane to work with local companies or
artists. An example of the latter is the company’s support for Carol Burns to perform in a work for JUTE’s 2008 program
and its support for two actors to provide professional development for Tropic Sun’s ensemble in Townsville in 2007.


                                                            31
The company has a strong commitment of the development of individual theatre artists through its various programs.
There is no doubt that the opportunity to work in the environment of a state theatre company provides great benefit to
the artists involved. However, the company could also play a complementary role to La Boite and Metro Arts in the
development of the local independent theatre sector by co-producing with local companies.

Indicative of the increasing awareness of the theatre sector’s interconnectivity, the Major Performing Arts Board of the
Australia Council published a paper last year which noted that:

     The future vibrancy and sustainability of the major performing arts (MPA) theatre companies depends on the
     ongoing health of the Australian theatre ‘ecology’ – independent theatre artists, small, medium and large
     companies, venues and festivals. The MPA companies are in a position of relative financial strength and recently
     received a funding injection to address artform and artist development. It is timely, then, for the major performing
     arts board (MPAB) and the MPA theatre companies to consider some of the key issues which will affect the sector’s
                       18
     future viability.

The report recommends, among other things, that MPA companies could expose their audiences to greater risk-taking
through collaborations as part of their subscriptions seasons. They could do this by:

         Artistic directors incorporating a gradual approach to cultivating audience’s appetite for risk in their artistic
         plans for the company, which includes collaborations between performance-based and text-based companies
                                                 19
         and large and small theatre companies.

The Major Performing Arts Board went on to create an interconnections fund for 2009, 2010 and 2011 to support a
program of co-commissions and innovative collaborations between MPA companies and small-to-medium
organisations, the first round of which was released in April 2009 and funded projects such as partnerships between
Sydney Theatre Company and ThinIce and between Company B Belvoir and Urban Theatre Projects. The Queensland
Opera was also supported to work with Backbone Youth Arts.

Apart from the education program, the Queensland Theatre Company’s only local co-production this decade was with
JUTE Theatre in 2002, Kathryn Ash’s Bag o’ Marbles. By way of comparison, the State Theatre Company of SA did eight
co-productions in the same period with local companies such as Brink, Tutti Ensemble, Vitalstatistix, Windmill and
Urban Myth. The Adelaide and Brisbane theatre sectors are very different, with South Australia having a richer field of
resourced companies for the state theatre to partner with. But leadership from the Queensland Theatre Company in a
more direct engagement with the local independent sector is one of the ways to achieve a similar richness in Brisbane.

Recommendation 2           Queensland Theatre Company articulates its leadership role and value to the theatre industry
                           in Queensland, outlines what support it can offer for independent artists and companies and
                           how it should be approached, and makes this information available on its website.


7.5 PRESENTERS
At first glance, theatre appears well served by Brisbane’s presenting infrastructure. In the past ten years, four new
venues have opened: Judith Wright Centre, Brisbane Powerhouse, Bille Browne Studio and the Roundhouse, while the
Gardens Theatre has been refurbished. A closer examination however suggests significant gaps.

7.5.1 QUEENSLAND PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE
Queensland Performing Arts Centre (QPAC) has four main theatres – the Lyric Theatre (2000 seats), the Concert Hall
(1800 seats), the Playhouse (850 seats) and the Cremorne Theatre (312 seats) – as well as various other spaces. It is a

18
   Australia Council, Love your work: training, retaining and connecting artists in theatre (Sydney: Australia Council for
the Arts, 2008), p. 2.
19
   Ibid. p. 29.
                                                           32
Queensland statutory authority, managed by the Queensland Performing Arts Trust, and its income in 2007/08 was
approximately $36m, about 26% of which was from the Queensland Government.

It sees itself as having a unique curatorial framework, functioning as both a performing arts centre and an
entrepreneurial producer of performing arts product. In the latter role, it has become a major investor in and presenter
of commercial musicals, The Phantom of the Opera, Miss Saigon and Chicago being recent examples. QPAC also
developed and presented its inaugural comedy festival, In Stitches, in June 2008.

A highlight of QPAC’s programming is the Out of the Box Festival, which is designed for 3–8 year olds and happens
every two years. Since its inception in 1992 it has established a reputation for its innovative approach to programming
for children, with its emphasis on making the venues child-friendly and its commitment to deep engagement with
children, and it has commissioned a significant body of children’s theatre, including Wake Baby, Twinkle Twinkle Little
Fish and The Red Tree. The last festival was in 2008 and extended to include the State Library and the Queensland
Museum, though it was on a smaller scale than previous events.

Kite Arts Education Program primarily presents performances and other arts experience to school students and their
parents and teachers. Previously run as Kite Theatre by Education Queensland, it has been a collaboration with QPAC
since 2005 and works predominantly in schools in south east Queensland. It produced an in-theatre work, Boat, in
2007, reviving it for the 2008 Out of the Box Festival.

Apart from the children’s program, music theatre and comedy, there were 13 adult theatre productions at QPAC in
2007/08: seven by Queensland Theatre Company, one by Bell Shakespeare, one by Company B Belvoir, one by the
visiting New Zealand company Indian Ink, and two smaller local shows. The previous two years had followed a similar
pattern and 2009 promises the same. Aside from Queensland Theatre Company, the local companies have included
Harvest Rain, Backbone, Kooemba, Contact, Warehaus Theatre and the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts. Frank
Theatre is being presented later in 2009.

For a venue of QPAC’s size, this is not a lot of theatre. By way of comparison, the Adelaide Festival Centre (which has a
similar turnover to QPAC and fewer theatres) presented 21 adult theatre productions in the same period. Only six were
by the State Theatre Company of SA – most of the others were smaller works presented as part of its iNSPACE program
that is specifically aimed at presenting innovative and independent work from Adelaide and interstate.

Similarly, the Arts Centre in Melbourne has Full Tilt, a special program for development of new performance works by
independent artists and small-to-medium companies through workshops, forums, creative development projects and
fully staged presentation seasons in the Fairfax Studio and Blackbox. Most of the work is either new or a return season
that had its original run in a small venue like La Mama. Since 2006 Full Tilt has given over 30 new projects their first
stage of development and presented 15 productions at the Arts Centre.

The Sydney Opera House has its Studio program, which also regularly presents independent work from around the
country. Queensland work presented at the Opera House in recent years has included Circa’s The Space Between, Strut
and Fret’s The Tom Tom Club, Christine Johnston’s Fluff, La Boite’s The Narcissist (through Sydney Theatre Company)
and Polytoxic’s Teuila Postcards.

QPAC does have an artists-in-residence program that has assisted local artists and groups over the years to develop
new work in a supported environment. Recipients have included Zen Zen Zo, Billie Brown, The Kransky Sisters and
Stephen Carleton. This year, QPAC began a partnership with Harvest Rain to present a number of its works in its venues.
It is also supporting Indigenous theatre through an agreement with the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts and
Bungabura Productions.

However, while acknowledging that it has had great success in the area that it has chosen to specialise (musicals), it
must be said that in comparison to the country’s three other major performing arts centres, QPAC engages less with
independent and small-to-medium theatre companies. It has not developed its own theatre audience separate to that

                                                           33
of Queensland Theatre Company and would need considerable investment to do so. Therefore, given its current
priorities, the consultant does not consider QPAC to be the best site as a next-step space for independent Queensland
theatre.

QPAC could however consider articulating more clearly what forms of support it can currently offer smaller theatre-
makers and how it can be accessed. This would both promote to the sector the role that QPAC does play, as well as give
artists a better idea of when QPAC might be the appropriate partner and how it should be approached.

Recommendation 4           Queensland Performing Arts Centre articulates the rationale for its support for independent
                           artists and companies, outlines what it can offer and how it should be approached, and
                           makes this information available on its website. Queensland University of Technology also
                           does this concerning its rehearsal spaces and venues.

7.5.2 BRISBANE POWERHOUSE
Brisbane Powerhouse opened as an arts centre in 2000. It has two main theatres: the Powerhouse Theatre (425 seats)
and the Visy Theatre (200 seats). Its program includes work from local, national and international artists across all
genres of music, theatre, dance, comedy, children’s programming, community-based arts and visual art exhibitions. It is
a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brisbane City Council and its income in 2007/08 was approximately $8m, of which
$3.2m was an operational grant from the Council.

Brisbane Powerhouse has a strong presence in the local theatre scene, though this more based on its programming of
work from elsewhere as on its presentation of local work. For example, it marketed a selection of its theatre program in
2008 under the IS THEATRE brand that offered ticket packages for six works, three of which were international, two
interstate and one local (A Mouthful of Pins by The Nest). Other local work presented over the last two years included
The Greater Plague (the Restaged History project), Gaijin (Benjamin Knapton), Tashi (Imaginary Theatre) and Storm in a
Teacup (Flipside Circus).

The Powerhouse is a member of the Mobile States consortium, touring theatre and dance work between Melbourne’s
Arts House, Sydney’s Performance Space, Perth Institute of Contemporary Arts, Hobart’s Salamanca Arts Centre and the
Adelaide Festival Centre. It is also a partner with Metro Arts in the MAPS for Artists project.

As well as being a venue, the Powerhouse also acts as a producer. It supported Splintergroup to create Lawn and co-
produced The Importance of Being Earnest with the UK company Ridiculusmus.

Despite the small amount of Queensland theatre presented by the Powerhouse, the consultation has shown that it is
generally valued highly by the local theatre sector. The survey ranked it second only to Metro Arts as contributing to
the creation of an environment where high quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish. The focus groups told a
similar story: while there was some frustration that so few local groups were being presented, there was strong support
for its role as a window to the wider world – bringing in high quality theatre work from interstate and abroad and
thereby creating a context for local work. Given this, the Powerhouse could enhance this role by ensuring there were a
range of structured opportunities for local artists to engage with visiting artists such as informal networking events,
forums and master classes.

Brisbane Powerhouse is currently a considerable asset to the Queensland performing arts, with a national profile and
increasing international standing. These have the potential to be further leveraged to the benefit of local artists,
creating opportunities for both partnerships and touring. However, its funding status makes it vulnerable. While
Brisbane City Council deserves great credit for its vision in initiating the redevelopment of the building and its continued
support for its operations, its funding for the venue has reduced in recent years, from $3,324,000 in 2007, to
$3,168,024 in 2008, then to $2,995,000 in 2009. This creates increased pressure on the Powerhouse to program more
comedy and popular music and to invest less in work that cannot guarantee a return. If this trend continues, Brisbane
risks the diminution of one of its distinctive cultural institutions.

                                                            34
The Powerhouse also has challenges finding a consistent audience for its more serious work. The theatre subscription
package offered in 2008 did not sell sufficiently to justify a separate marketing campaign, and was not repeated in
2009. While some of the individual productions have done very well, such as Holding the Man (Griffin) and Being Harold
Pinter (Belarus Free Theatre) and Kommer (Kassys), others have struggled to find an audience.

Despite the high visitation rate (629,000 in 2007/08), little audience research has been conducted with those who
attend its various events and activities, research that could form the basis of strategies to encourage greater cross-over.

Recommendation 6           Arts Queensland, Brisbane City Council and the Brisbane Powerhouse enter into partnerships
                           for initiative based investment in the Powerhouse and a greater commitment by the
                           Powerhouse to presenting local work.

Recommendation 12         Brisbane Festival, Queensland Theatre Company, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Judith
                          Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts and Brisbane Powerhouse create formal and informal
                          structures that provide opportunities for local artists to engage and network with visiting
                          artists.

Recommendation 19          Brisbane Powerhouse conducts audience research to determine who its audience is and
                           what strategies could be put into place for moving current audiences towards more
                           adventurous work.




7.5.3 JUDITH WRIGHT CENTRE FOR CONTEMPORARY ARTS
The Judith Wright Centre opened in 2001. It includes within it a theatre (300 seats), a gallery, studios, offices and
rehearsal spaces. It is the base for a number of local arts organisations, including Circa, Kooemba Jdarra and Youth Arts
Queensland. It is owned by the Queensland Government and is managed by Arts Queensland.

Theatre work programmed in 2008 included SubCon Warrior 2.0 (Zen Zen Zo), Tarnished (La La Parlour) and Juice
(Vulcana Women’s Circus) while Circa presented Furioso, Chroma and New Circus Now. It was the site for various
performance art events including parts of the live art festival Exist in 08, and it also hosted a number of Brisbane
Festival events: The Navigator (Elision) and alice 21. In partnership with Switchboard Arts, there was a series of
showcases and readings of new local plays under the title of the emergeproject.

All of this adds up to a considerable amount of work, yet the consultation suggested that the Judith Wright Centre does
not have a strong identity within the sector. The survey showed it to be the least contacted of the main venues in
Brisbane, and comments during the focus groups discussions suggested that many considered it primarily either a music
venue or a vehicle for its resident companies. There was very little sense of what it stood for in its own right.

Given its programming, its tenants and its physical attributes, the Judith Wright appears already to be the de facto
Brisbane home of physical theatre and cross-artform collaborations. The centre might therefore like to consider a
clearer articulation of this, a more explicit allocation of resources in this direction, and an active investigation of
interstate and international partners for this work.

The centre might also consider publishing an annual report or similar document each year. While as a part of a
government department it is not obliged to do so, it would increase the transparency of its operations by providing it
with the opportunity to announce what it stands for, what it has achieved and what resources it used to do so. This is
standard practice with most arts organisations.

Another of the issues that emerged in the consultation was the lack of a Brisbane site for artists to congregate and
informally network – particularly across artforms. With its various spaces, its resident companies and its Brunswick
Street position, the Judith Wright seems a logical place for this.

                                                            35
Recommendation 5           The Judith Wright Centre include in its positioning a focus on becoming Brisbane’s centre for
                           physical theatre and related practice with an articulation of its artistic visions, an allocation
                           of appropriate resources and an active investigation of interstate and international partners
                           for this work.

Recommendation 25          All organisations publish their annual reports online in the interests of transparency and
                           better cross-sector communication.

7.5.4 METRO ARTS
Metro Arts began in 1981 under the name of Brisbane Community Arts Centre. The building was owned by the
Australian Government until 2001, when Metro Arts purchased it with the help of a federal grant. It has two theatres:
the Sue Benner Theatre (97 seats) and the Studio (120 seats). It also has two galleries and a variety of office and studio
spaces. It is a company limited by guarantee, its income in 2007 was approximately $670k and its primary funding is
through Arts Queensland’s s2m program – its 2008 grant being $220,000.

Metro Arts focuses on the performing arts and the visual arts, and sees its role as supporting the professional
development of artists – helping them to achieve a sustainable creative practice.

One of its primary activities is the Independents Program, a curated series of productions in the Sue Benner Theatre.
Metro Arts describes this as providing ‘early-career and established independent artists with opportunities to develop,
experiment and challenge themselves, their practice and their audiences’. There are five three-week seasons each year.
In 2008, the program included Hollow Crossing (Markwell Presents), Magda’s Fascination with Wax Cats (Forward
Movement), Several Words Associated with Revenge (Daniel Santangeli and Erin White), Bronte (Three Sisters
Productions) and Risk (Umber Productions).

Artists in the Independents Program have free access to the venue and are provided with marketing, administrative and
technical support. They also receive all of the resulting box office. Artists’ fees for rehearsal and performance are the
responsibility of the groups themselves.

As mentioned above, Metro Arts assists the development of artistic practice through its annual four-week Creative
Development Festival and through its company-in-residence program. It is also the site for Brisbane Festival’s Under the
Radar program.

This work is complemented by its Biz Arts MAkers program, which offers its participants business skills workshops,
mentoring, strategic planning and administrative support with the aim of helping them to become sustainable
businesses. Theatre artists who have participated since its inception in 2003 include Brad Jennings and Steven Maxwell
(Markwell Presents), Belinda Berrington (green mango theatre), Christina Koch and Sean Dennehy.

Importantly, Metro Arts houses a number of theatre organisations such as Backbone Youth Arts, Playlab, and deBASE
productions, and it makes available a range of inexpensive rehearsal, training and meeting spaces.

Metro Arts describes its artistic policy as being guided by ‘open platform programming’. By this, it means that it does
not have a curatorial framework that prescribes the type of work it supports. It has resisted developing such a
framework, arguing that it aspires to be a neutral space and that this more open approach creates the foundation for a
culture of nurture and trust that allows artists to develop in their own direction and at their own pace.

It is worth noting that, despite its disavowal, Metro Arts self-evidently does make curatorial decisions: it makes its
resources available to artists on a competitive basis; it has an artistic advisory group made up of local and interstate
representatives that, among other things, selects the work for the Independents Program and the Creative
Development Festival; and it has selection criteria for these opportunities that, for example, in 2009 favour
‘experimental works’. The issue then is not so much whether one has a curatorial framework or not, but how well one
articulates and implements it.

                                                            36
The consultation shows that Metro Arts is highly valued by the sector. Both the survey and the focus group point to it
having very strong support. It is seen as providing the vital space where new things can be tried out: new groupings of
artist, new works, new approaches to performance, all of which are crucial to the development of theatre as an
artform.

Equally crucial however is a rigorous approach to development, one that questions easy choices and encourages
constant further exploration. Some in the consultation expressed the view that this was lacking in Queensland theatre
and that Metro Arts might sharpen its contribution in this area. This is a matter that the organisation might like to
consider further. It already provides structured artistic feedback as part of its Creative Development Festival. Perhaps it
could play an even greater role in this area, encouraging artists to aspire higher, to push further. Given the isolation
that many Queensland theatre artists feel, Metro Arts could also play a role in encouraging greater artistic dialogue
between local artists and interstate artists through forums and residency programs focused on artistic practice. These
could complement the industry development forums that it has been holding in recent years.

7.5.5 BRISBANE FESTIVAL
Brisbane Festival began in 1996, evolving out of the previous Warana Festival. It was a biennial festival until 2008, but,
having merged with the Riverfestival, will happen annually from 2009. The festival is jointly funded by the Queensland
Government and Brisbane City Council. It operates under the board of Major Brisbane Festivals Pty Ltd.

The 2008 festival included nine works under the ‘theatre’ heading in its program. Among them, two works were by local
Brisbane companies (Queensland Theatre Company’s The August Moon and Elision’s The Navigator) while another two
works were specially commissioned by the festival: alice21 (written and directed by Stephen Rowan and Linda Hassall)
and The Fiveways (written, composed and directed by Eugene Gilfedder). The program also included Under The Radar.
This was presented at Metro Arts and it was comprised of 25 productions, nine of which were from Queensland.

Under the Radar is unusual: a fringe-like event within a main festival. While not every festival spawns a fringe (Sydney
Festival for one), they have historically emerged as local alternatives to the main festivals and have been artist-driven,
oppositional (to some extent) and open to all comers. Under the Radar is curated: only those meeting its selection
criteria are chosen. On the other hand, Brisbane Festival cushions the risk usually associated with fringe events. No
performance fees are paid for the in-theatre shows, and out-of-town artists need to organise their own travel and
accommodation, but venue and most equipment costs are covered, works are marketed through the festival, and
participants receive all of the box office takings.

That Under the Radar now exists is a good thing for Brisbane theatre – it is another showcase opportunity and a chance
to position work in a bigger context. In this way, it complements the Metro Arts Independents. It does not address the
issue of a production’s next destination beyond Metro as a venue (and beyond profit-share as the financial
arrangement), but it is not necessarily the role of a major festival to do this.

Whether it has a long-term future as part of the festival is another matter. While the 2009 Under the Radar is opening
up to include street performance (with performance fees), there are limits to how far it can develop under the umbrella
of a major festival which will inevitably have other priorities.

The consultation suggested mixed views on the festival. The survey shows that there is considerable division within the
sector about its role in the development of high quality contemporary theatre practice. Comments in the focus groups
reflect this. Some wanted more adventurous programming of international theatre to act as a stimulus to local artists,
while others wanted it to showcase or commission more local work to increase the profile of Queensland theatre. That
balance is obviously for the festival to determine, given that it must also meet the community’s expectations as well as
those of its funders. Unlike the other large cities in Australia, Brisbane is still developing a festival culture: a time of the
year when audiences are prepared to loosen their expectations and take risks in their choices. It is debatable whether
adopting a similar festival model to those already established was the right decision to make – the Queensland Biennial
Festival of Music (now the Queensland Music Festival) proved that there is still plenty of space to devise new festival-

                                                              37
like events that can reflect the distinctive characteristics of a particular time and place. However, that decision has been
made, and one now hopes that it succeeds and helps create a year-round audience for diverse forms of contemporary
theatre. Brisbane Festival’s move to becoming an annual event is a positive step in this direction, and the theatre sector
as a whole will benefit if the festival takes its place amongst its international peers.

As was noted with regard to Brisbane Powerhouse, the festival could increase its benefit to the local sector by ensuring
there are opportunities for local and visiting artists to network and exchange ideas.

Recommendation 12          Brisbane Festival Queensland Theatre Company, Queensland Performing Arts Centre, Judith
                           Wright Centre of Contemporary Arts and Brisbane Powerhouse create formal and informal
                           structures that provide opportunities for local artists to engage and network with visiting
                           artists.

7.5.6 OTHER BRISBANE PRESENTERS
The Roundhouse on the Kelvin Grove campus is obviously a key venue and it has already been mentioned in connection
with La Boite. QUT has a number of other venues: the Gardens Theatre, the Loft and others. Apart from the Gardens
Theatre, they are often also used as teaching spaces, and while they can be accessed to a certain extent, they are
unlikely to become significant hubs of activity for the general public without a thorough re-examination of their roles.

Southbank Institute of Technology and the University of Queensland also have a variety of spaces with the same issues.
In the latter case, the one venue that has played a role in Queensland theatre in the past (the Avalon Theatre) is no
longer available.

What other Brisbane venues are there? The consultation suggests: none. It is unusual in a city of Brisbane’s size that
there is not a network of smaller rough spaces where work can be given its first outing. The Princess Theatre and Van
Gogh’s Earlobe have played that role in the past, and the now-defunct Straight Out of Brisbane festival facilitated access
to various spaces between 2002 and 2006, but they appear to have no successors. With Metro Arts struggling to meet
current demands on its spaces, this dearth of cheap bare spaces must have an inhibiting effect on the entry of new
players.

Recommendation 9           Arts Queensland conducts a Statewide survey of publicly owned cultural infrastructure to
                           provide a profile on arts and cultural facilities across Queensland which can be used to
                           inform investment decisions on infrastructure.

7.5.7 REGIONAL VENUES
The consultant did not examine in detail the issues of touring within Queensland nor do an audit of venues in the state,
as both these matters are the subject of other Arts Queensland research. However, there were consultations with a
number of regional venues that provided some insights into the perception and marketability of theatre in regional
areas.

Most regional presenters indicated that theatre was a challenge for them. The main issues cited were: the difficulty in
attracting audiences, the inconsistency in the supply of work on offer, and the frequent unsuitability of that work to the
venues in terms of scale and production needs.

The following is a list of theatre works touring in 2009 to one or more of the performing arts centres in Cairns,
Townsville, Mackay, Toowoomba and the Gold Coast: The Seed (Company B Belvoir), Baby Boomer Blues (Perth Theatre
Company), Lotte's Gift (Christine Dunstan Productions), The Taming of the Shrew (Bell Shakespeare Company), The
Kursk (Matrix Theatre), Dealer's Choice (Albedo Theatre), Cake (JUTE and Tropic Sun), Tarnished (La La Parlour), The
Burlesque Hour (Moira Finucane), Fastest Boy in the World (Patch Theatre Company), Walking by Apple Tree Creek (La
Boite), 61 Circus Acts in 60 Minutes (Circa) and Thursday's Child (Monkey Baa).



                                                            38
While no one venue is presenting all the productions listed above, it is an impressive cross-section of recent Australian
work. It suggests that the foundation for more theatre touring exists but that it depends on a certain critical mass of
suitable work being consistently available for presenters to invest in appropriate audience development strategies.

There appears to be an opportunity for touring Brisbane-based work straight out of its first season to nearby centres
such as Toowoomba, the Gold Coast and the Sunshine Coast, allowing local presenters to make use of the publicity
already generated by the Brisbane season. La Boite is the obvious candidate for such touring, given the scale and
regularity of its work. A variation on this is Circa’s recent practice of touring some of these venues as a prelude to its
international touring.

Independent companies are less well positioned for touring because of their lack of infrastructure, but the success of
Critical Stages suggests that there are ways through this. Critical Stages was developed by Darlinghurst Theatre in
Sydney as a vehicle for promoting and managing tours of independent theatre productions in Australia. It has been very
successful at finding opportunities for such work, a local example being this year’s 34-venue tour of Matrix Theatre’s
            20
The Kursk. A similar Queensland-specific venture could offer, for example, the best of Metro’s Independent’s program
each year.

Recommendation 8                Consideration is given to developing a mechanism within Queensland to extend the life of
                                independent work through touring, similar in concept to Critical Stages and complementing
                                its national role. The most appropriate body to take this on can be decided when the
                                Queensland touring strategy is finalised.


7.6 PRODUCERS
The word ‘producer’ is used in a variety on contexts. For most of this report, it has been used to distinguish the makers
(producers) of theatre work from the presenters of such work. A more recent meaning of the word has emerged in the
past ten years to describe the role of those who, while not artists themselves, create the conditions for artists to make
and present work. An Arts Council England report describes such producers thus:

      Producers are individuals and organisations who work with artists to make great ideas happen. The producer takes
      the lead in navigating between a bold vision of an idea, and how feasibly – and brilliantly – to deliver it. Working
      with the artist, the producer works out how to locate the idea and bring it to life in the world of its audience.

      The artist and the producer are the two primary roles in the creation of great new work and its engagement with the
      public.

      The producer’s job is to:

               work closely with artists to develop and realise the project’s ideas and vision

               work out how to present it to its public

               raise finance

               conceive, deliver and be responsible for the project financially

               create and manage its contractual and delivery framework

               create external support and involvement

      But being a producer is not just about the job you do, it’s also about how you do it. Those who fulfil the role to its
      true potential have a zeal, a distinctive artistic judgement, a driving sense of purpose, and a range of talents and

20
     See more information at www.criticalstages.com.au
                                                               39
     skills harnessed to the creation of great new work and its life with an audience, that mark them out from other arts
                                                      21
     professionals in other broadly managerial roles.

Producers have become more in demand in recent years for a number of reasons. Funding constraints have made
forming viable small companies difficult, and, even with funding, compliance and governance requirements can make
them unattractive to many artists. Increasingly, artists are seeking more flexible structures for creating work, and
producers can provide the support for independent artists that the artistic director of an established company gets
from a full-time general manager. Moreover, opportunities for theatre artists are more diverse than they were in the
past, especially in the area of touring, both nationally and internationally. Good independent producers, less bound by
day-to-day administration than those working within larger organisations, can keep abreast of emerging opportunities
and connect artists with them.

The challenges for those aspiring to this role are both how to gather the requisite skills, and how to create a viable
career. This is an issue across Australia, and particularly so outside of Sydney and Melbourne.

Brisbane-based producers include Jo Thomas, Chloe Goodyear and Pauline Bell. Queensland is also the base of Strut &
Fret Production House, one of the more successful independent producers in Australia. Founded in 1997 and with
offices in both Brisbane and Melbourne, Strut & Fret produces events, manages artists and organises national and
international tours. Events include the Garden of Earthly Delights at the Adelaide Fringe and artists managed include
Tom Tom Club. While mostly associated with circus and cabaret, the company also develops work for touring into
schools. Strut & Fret also managed MAPS (Managing and Producing Services) in Melbourne.

The presence of this homegrown well-networked producer in Brisbane is a considerable resource and there would be
value in exploring further how Strut & Fret could be better used to increase the profile of Queensland work and artists
nationally and internationally, and to help develop local producers.

The Queensland MAPS equivalent is a joint initiative of Arts Queensland and the Australia Council and takes the form of
a partnership between Metro Arts and the Brisbane Powerhouse. Under the name MAPS for Artists, it is managed by
Katherine Hoepper and provides managing and producing support to Imaginary Theatre, Restaged Histories, Polytoxic,
Sven Swenson, Lisa O’Neil and Brian Lucas. It aims to assist these independent artists to make work and then to find
wider touring opportunities for them in Australia and overseas.

Arts Queensland has been considering the development of a creative production hub to support small and mid scale
                               22
performing arts in Queensland.    While the concept is still in development, its broad purpose would be to act as an
interface between makers and presenters, creating opportunities for individual artists and small groups to pursue their
own work while drawing on larger collective resources. If implemented, it would be a great resource for the
independent sector.

Recommendation 7            Arts Queensland seeds a new structure that supports projects by independent artists
                            through their development and presentation phases.


7.7 REGIONAL THEATRE
A unique feature of Queensland theatre is the relative strength of its regional theatre. This goes against the national
trend, which has seen the slow demise of regional theatre companies over the past twenty years. In 1990, there were
many such companies, such as Riverina Theatre Company (Wagga), Hunter Valley Theatre Company (Newcastle),
Mainstreet Theatre (Mt Gambier), Barnstorm (Ballarat), New England Theatre Company (Armidale), Woolly Jumpers
(Geelong), Theatre South (Wollongong), Freewheels (Newcastle), Murray River Performing Group (Albury-Wodonga)

21
 Kate Tyndal, The Producer: the issues and opportunities (London: Arts Council England, 2005).
22
  See www.arts.qld.gov.au/projects/creativehubs.html for information of work done on this to date by Arts
Queensland.
                                                            40
and Tropic Line (Townsville). Only the latter two still exist, under different names and structures, and since 1992,
NORPA in Lismore and JUTE Theatre have come into being.

The reasons for this decline are various and contested, but what is certain is that from the beginning of the 1990s
regional Australians had much more access to high quality touring theatre work than had previously been the case. This
was due mostly to the advent of Playing Australia, the federal touring program, which not only injected funds but also
catalysed the creation of better national touring mechanisms and a more professional programming culture within
performing arts centres. Many regional theatre companies did not know how to meet this challenge, especially those
whose programming was similar to that of metropolitan companies.

The demographics of Queensland obviously have much to do with the survival of regional theatre – no other state has
such large populations so far from their capital city. It is still not clear however whether the Queensland situation offers
new models for regional theatre that herald its resurgence, or whether it represents a temporary anomaly in an overall
decline. The crucial time for a company often comes when its founders depart and new artistic leadership takes over.
This is yet to happen with two of the Queensland companies (JUTE Theatre and Crossroads), while Tropic Sun is
currently in the midst of this transition after the death last year of founder Jean-Pierre Voos. Time will tell, though it is
notable that Tropic Sun has always managed to maintain an ensemble. This has been quite an achievement – very few
text-based companies have ensembles, despite considerable evidence of their artistic benefits. Tropic Sun obviously
made this a priority, and the result is a company with considerable ownership by its members. They have challenges
ahead, but that achievement should be recognised.

In addition to these three companies, there are also a number of independent theatre groups, especially in Cairns.
Another feature is the strength of amateur theatre in regional areas. For example, The Gold Coast Theatre Alliance, an
umbrella group for local amateur companies, has 21 member organisations, and between them they produced over
twenty shows between January and May in 2009. While much of this work is undemanding and unlikely to keep the
artform contemporary, this is not universally the case. The Cairns Little Theatre has produced some more challenging
work in the last few years. Its 2007 program included Gordon Graham’s The Boys and it will produce David Hare’s The
Breath of Life in 2009.

The need to stay connected is felt intensely in regional centres, and as mentioned above, the regional companies have
developed structures like Theatre to the Edge to address this. The Queensland Theatre Company has also played a role
in assisting these companies with artists through its Regional Partnerships Program, but more support like this is
needed if regional work is to continue to flourish. Any extension of Queensland Theatre Company’s role to work in
partnership with independent companies should include those who produce work in regional centres.

Theatre companies primarily dedicated to producing their own work are not the only vehicles for generating regional
theatre. The two main successful regional companies outside of Queensland (Hothouse in Albury-Wodonga and NORPA
in Lismore) have both combined producing their own work with both co-producing with others as well as presenting
touring work.

This hybrid model that blurs the distinction between producer and presenter has also been supported through the
Local Stages initiative that has seen presenters in NSW and SA funded to create opportunities for local theatre-
        23
making. The outcome has been the more effective use of the existing cultural infrastructure in regional areas, with
performing arts centres progressing from being simply venues to becoming dynamic hubs for local performance-




23
  For more information, see:
 http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/the_arts/projects/local_stages_-
_regional_performing_arts_centre_partnerships_nsw and
http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/news/news_items/local_stages_theatre_initiative_brings_regional_voices_to_the_
stage
                                                             41
making. A similar partnership has recently been announced between the Australia Council and Arts Queensland under
                          24
the name Regional Stages.

The Empire Theatre in Toowoomba is already moving in a similar direction, with plans to form a projects company that
would take an active role in producing work and developing local artists. If successful, the Empire could become a
model for other regional performing arts centres.

These all represent welcome additions to Queensland’s regional theatre-making infrastructure. However, JUTE
Theatre’s expertise in working with regional theatre-makers should be acknowledged and harnessed as a resource for
performing arts centres considering expanding their brief.

Recommendation 15          Develop regional touring strategies in Queensland that enable the emergence of more
                           regional producers, networks and niche circuits

Recommendation 17          Performing arts centres are supported to develop local theatre-making, and the expertise of
                           the existing regional theatre companies is called on to help this happen.




24
     http://statements.cabinet.qld.gov.au/MMS/StatementDisplaySingle.aspx?id=63786
                                                          42
8 NATIONAL PARTICIPATION
This section examines the extent to which Queensland theatre artists participate in the national theatre culture. The
survey indicated that 33% thought their interstate connections were unsatisfactory and a further 37% thought they
could be better. This was reinforced by the face-to-face consultations where many expressed the view that for various
reasons they felt isolated or excluded from opportunities beyond the border. Is this confirmed by evidence?

Looking firstly as developmental opportunities, the following table shows the participation of Queensland playwrights
in PlayWriting Australia’s programs. PlayWriting Australia has two main events each year, a script workshop held in
Canberra for developing scripts and a festival held in different locations (Brisbane in 2008, Hobart in 2009) for
showcasing scripts considered ready for production. Participation in either event is competitive.

Event                                  ACT       NSW         NT        QLD         SA        TAS         VIC        WA
National Script Workshop 2007            –         4          –          –          –          1          2           1
National Script Workshop 2008            –         3          –          –          1          –          5           2
National Play Festival 2008              –         4          –          1          1          –          2           –
National Play Festival 2009              –         2          –          –          –          –          4           –
Total participants                       0        13          0          1          2          1         13           3
                                       0.0%      39.4%      0.0%       3.0%       6.1%       3.0%       39.4%       9.1%

Looking at another form of practice: Time_Place_Space is a national residential workshop for artists working in hybrid
arts with an emphasis on performance. Artists are selected for participation competitively through a national
application process. The last two events were produced in Brisbane.

Year                                   ACT       NSW         NT        QLD         SA        TAS         VIC         WA
2002 - Wagga                             –         6          –          3          1          –          4           4
2003 - Wagga                             –         9          –          1          1          1          4           4
2004 - Adelaide                          –         6          –          3          1          –          4           4
2005 - Adelaide                          –         9          1          –          4          1          4           1
2006 - Brisbane                          1        11          1          2          –          1          3           1
2009 - Brisbane                          –         4          –          6          2          1          2           3
Total participants                       1        45          2         15          9          4         21          17
                                       1.0%      46.9%      2.1%      15.6%       9.4%       4.2%       21.9%       17.7%

Finally, A Month in the Country is a residential program managed by Hothouse Theatre that invites creative teams to
apply for residencies of between a week and a month to work in a country farmhouse six kilometres outside of Albury.

Year                                   ACT       NSW         NT        QLD         SA          TAS       VIC        WA
2006                                     –         7          –          1          2            –        3           –
2007                                     –         1          –          –          –            –        6           –
2008                                     –         4          –          –          –            –        9           –
2009 (as at 1 May)                       –         1          –          –          1            –        1           1
Total participants                       0        13          0          1          3            0       19           1
                                       0.0%      35.1%      0.0%       2.7%       8.1%         0.0%     51.4%       2.7%

In all three of these, Queensland participation is low. It is notable that the Time_Place_Space figures are higher because
its organisers specifically invited extra Queensland participants in 2009, while in the case of A Month in the Country,
there have only ever been two Queensland applications since it began in 2004.

Australia Council Theatre Board funding for Queensland has long been comparatively low, and the consultation showed
that this is a source of considerable frustration amongst Queensland theatre artists. The following table shows the
amount of Theatre Board funding that went to Queensland applicants since 2001:

Theatre Board funding        2001-02       2002-03       2003-04       2004-05       2005-06         2006-07        2007-08
All funding               $7,086,202    $7,424,235    $8,079,108    $6,284,268    $8,598,817      $8,653,265    $11,187,146

                                                           43
Queensland                   $481,688          $742,687        $657,458    $713,650     $878,291          $808,739    $1,075,490
% of total                       6.8%             10.0%            8.1%       11.4%        10.2%              9.3%          9.6%

These figures show that Queensland artists are indeed underfunded by the Australia Council, given that Queensland
represents 20% of the Australian population. However, it is also worth noting the comparative low number of
applications received from Queensland.

Theatre Board funding             2001-02          2002-03       2003-04     2004-05      2005-06          2006-07     2007-08
All applications                      374              421           395         393          383              377         305
Qld applications                       39               44            40          43           38               42          33
% of total                          10.4%            10.5%         10.1%       10.9%         9.9%            11.1%       10.8%

Queensland’s proportion of applications to the Theatre Board is almost half that of its proportion of the Australian
population.

Playing Australia is the national touring program managed by the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and
the Arts in Canberra. The following table shows the number of Queensland theatre productions that received funding
to tour nationally. The program is competitive, and the productions need to have sufficient interstate venues prepared
to buy the work to be eligible for funding.

Playing Australia funding round             ACT        NSW          NT      QLD         SA         TAS         VIC        WA
September 2005                                –          5           –        2          1           –          3          2
April 2006                                    –          4           –        –          1           –          8          2
September 2006                                –          7           –        1          –           –          4          –
May 2007                                      1          3           –        2          1           –          2          –
September 2007                                1          6           –        –          –           –          4          2
April 2008                                    –          3           –        2          1           1          2          2
September 2008                                –          5           –        2          –           –          3          –
April 2009                                    –          2           –        1          1           –          2          2
TOTAL                                         2         35         037       10          1           1         28          2
                                            2.2%       38.0%       0.0%    10.9%       5.4%        1.1%       30.4%      10.9%

One last figure: to ascertain how many works written by Queensland writers have been programmed by companies
outside of Queensland after their initial season, all 54 new works that the PlayWriting Australia research found had
been presented in Queensland in the period 2001-06 were cross-referenced with the AusStage database. Only one
                                                                                 25
Queensland play was found to be subsequently restaged by an interstate producer.

All this evidence suggests that Queensland theatre artists are in general not well connected with interstate peers and
national opportunities. This may be to some extent because many of the institutions that manage these opportunities
are based elsewhere and that this creates some bias, but there are sufficient indications that at least some of this
isolation is self-generated, that Queensland theatre artists are not making full use of the opportunities that are there.

This suggests that Queensland artists need to interconnect more with their national and international peers and
thereby take part in contemporary cultural conversations. The consultation has suggested there is a great desire among
artists for this but the evidence is that not much of it is actually happening. To some extent, this is the responsibility of
artists themselves. Many take up the challenge but do so by moving south permanently.

There is a need therefore for long-term strategies to develop company-to-company and artist-to-artist links that will
place Queensland artists firmly within national and international contexts. This is not about simply touring work
(though it is that too) and it is definitely not about ‘promoting Queensland’. Rather it is about creating the foundations
of career-long collaborations and creative partnerships that will both help Queensland artists to become better at what
they do here and create opportunities for them outside of Queensland.

25
  Constance Drinkwater and the Final Days of Somerset (written by Stephen Carleton) was separately produced in
Queensland by QTC and JUTE, and was also produced in Sydney by Tamarama Rock Surfers at the Stables.
                                                                  44
Recommendation 10   Creative residency programs and exchanges are created that encourage the best artists
                    nationally and internationally to spend time in Queensland making their work and interacting
                    with local artists. Arts Queensland, funded organisations, arts statutory bodies, festivals and
                    tertiary institutions could all be hosts of these residencies.

Recommendation 11   Similar partnerships are negotiated to support Queensland artists and arts managers to work
                    collaboratively in interstate institutions such as Performance Space, Company B, Malthouse,
                    Next Wave etc. and to gains skills and insights overseas, and encourage them to share their
                    experiences upon return.

Recommendation 14   Local artists welcome outsiders, and commit themselves to taking every opportunity to see
                    the best work across all creative practices and open themselves to its influence.

Recommendation 16   Regionally-based artists are given a high priority in any residency or exchange initiatives
                    mentioned in the Isolation section above.




                                                    45
9 AUDIENCES
This consultation has been predominantly with theatre makers and presenters, not with audience members
themselves. A truly sustainable theatre sector of course needs audiences.

The latest Australian Bureau of Statistics figures show that 15.2% of Queenslanders attended a theatre performance in
                                                                         26
2005-06, the lowest rate in Australia except for the Northern Territory:

State                              Theatre attendance
New South Wales                          16.9%
Victoria                                 17.9%
Queensland                               15.2%
South Australia                          17.6%
Western Australia                        16.8%
Tasmania                                 19.5%
Northern Territory                       12.1%
Aust Capital Territory                   25.5%
Australia                                17.0%

These same figures broken down by age show that Queenslanders attend theatre performances when younger, but
that they appear to lose the habit in the 25-34 year-old age range and never regain it.

State                                                                 Age range
                                    15-17         18-24   25-34      35-44        45-54      55-64       65-74     Over 75
New South Wales                     22.0%         13.0%   15.3%      15.0%        20.6%      21.4%       21.0%       5.2%
Victoria                            25.8%         17.9%   16.7%      14.6%        26.0%      19.0%       13.4%       9.2%
Queensland                          26.0%         16.7%   12.4%      15.2%        14.9%      17.4%       15.3%       5.7%
South Australia                     28.7%         16.4%   15.8%      13.0%        20.1%      24.7%       16.0%      10.2%
Western Australia                   22.3%         13.3%   17.5%      20.0%        15.5%      17.7%       13.6%      12.5%
Tasmania                            35.0%         21.9%   17.4%      20.2%        19.8%      20.4%       14.8%      11.5%
Northern Territory                     na         22.5%    8.9%      11.5%        18.6%       7.3%       14.6%          na
Aust Capital Territory              37.1%         25.7%   18.4%      26.0%        26.2%      36.8%       25.4%       6.4%
Australia                           24.5%         15.8%   15.4%      15.5%        20.3%      20.1%       16.8%       7.6%

Reinforcing this, the following table shows that young people in Queensland are quite culturally active, with 5.4% of
children (ages 5 – 14) participating in drama activities. The national average is 4.5%, and only the ACT has a higher rate
                   27
than Queensland.

State                          Drama activities
New South Wales                      4.5%
Victoria                             4.1%
Queensland                           5.4%
South Australia                      3.2%
Western Australia                    4.3%
Tasmania                             3.2%
Northern Territory                   2.2%
Australian Capital Territory         7.0%
Australia                            4.5%


26
   Australian Bureau of Statistics, Attendance at Selected Cultural Venues and Events, Australia, 2005-06 (Canberra:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007).
27
   Australian Bureau of Statistics, Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities (Canberra: Australian Bureau
of Statistics, 2006).
                                                            46
These figures suggest that while Queensland attendance figures are not high, there is a solid base to build on. In fact,
the audience attendance pattern has some parallels with the situation of theatre artists in Queensland: good support in
the early years, but few opportunities for sustainable career development after this. While this is too thin an evidence
base to draw firm conclusions, it is possible that the fall-off in audience interest in theatre is linked to the lack of
opportunities for theatre artists of a similar age to develop work that will speak to their generational peers. It would be
useful for more audience research to be done focusing on the 25-34 age group to determine what causes this drop off
and what forms of live performance would lead them to become more active theatre-goers.

However, there are issues here that go beyond theatre, Queensland or this particular age group. An extensive research
project by Saatchi and Saatchi published in 2000 into Australians’ attitude to the arts showed that:

    84% of people believe the arts should be ‘more accessible and available to average Australians’
                                                                                                             28
    81% would feel more positive if there were ‘a greater sense that the arts are available to everyone’.

The report made the observation that:

     … many Australians do not feel welcome to enjoy the arts, either by appreciating the creative and artistic output of
     others or by being creative or artistic themselves. There are a wide variety of impediments to their engagement with
     the arts which can be seen broadly as either practical or social. These include a perceived sense of exclusion and a
     lack of access due to financial or geographical barriers. There is a perceived lack of relevant information and
     education about the arts. The perceived social environment of the arts precludes many from feeling comfortable
     exploring the opportunities available.

     Despite a relatively high level of disinclination towards or disengagement from the arts, there is little evidence of
     anger or hostility towards the arts. The dominant negative feeling of these people is that the arts are irrelevant to
     their lives.

     As a result, a key focus of any strategy needs to be to make Australians feel welcome to explore their own creative
                                                        29
     and artistic talents and to enjoy those of others.

Arts Queensland commissioned complementary research in 2006 on the barriers to participation in the arts in
           30                                                                                                      31
Queensland. It focused particularly on those the Saatchi report had labelled as the Interested and the Disinclined
and recommended a range of strategies. To summarise very briefly, it noted the need for

    clear and complete information about events (including price)

    minimisation of the financial risk for those unsure about the work

    programming to be relevant to the potential audience

    venues to be welcoming places with a range of entry points.

The research specifically mentions the Brisbane Powerhouse (along with Tjapukai in Cairns) as being successful in
combating barriers to participation, noting the incidental value of bars and restaurants because they helped the
venues:



28
   Saatchi and Saatchi. Australians and the Arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2000. p 23
29
   ibid p. 29
30
   Colmar Brunton Research Services, A Statewide Report on participation in the arts (Brisbane: Arts Queensland, 2006)
31
   The Saatchi report proposed five population segments: the Arts Lovers, the Satisfied, the Interested, the Disinclined
and the Disengaged. The first two were seen as already committed to the arts, and the last unlikely to become
interested. Strategies for greater arts participation therefore should focus on the Interested and the Disinclined.
                                                            47
     …deliver arts activities in part ‘through the back door’. People attend the venues for the overall experience they offer
                                                                                     32
     and are less intimidated by the notion that they are taking part in ‘The Arts’.

There have been other audience development initiatives in recent years:

    The Test Drive the Arts program launched by Arts Queensland in 2007 in collaboration with the Australia Council
     aims to encourage more attendance at performing arts events by offering free tickets to those who have not seen
     the work of the company or venue for the previous three years, thereby mitigating the financial impediments to
                 33
     attendance.

    The Talking Theatre project is an example of where Queensland has pioneered new approaches to audience
     development. This was an audience development initiative implemented in regional Queensland and in the
     Northern Territory over 2004-2006. The project worked with performing arts centres and aimed to understand
                                                           34
     non-theatregoers and their reasons for not attending.

Evaluating the success of these projects would be a valuable foundation for future audience development initiatives.

                                                             ***

The current report has argued above that Queensland lacks a critical mass of theatre activity to develop a sustainable
theatre culture, and that the main gap is pathways for the smaller companies. With no few destinations beyond Metro
Arts and fewer role models for successful progression as a company, work does not develop, energy dissipates and
many artists move south. It further argues that a way through this is for the more established organisations, both
presenters and producers, to collaborate more actively with the independent companies to provide those pathways,
and to do this through co-productions and co-presentations.

The main three organisations consistently presenting theatre in Brisbane are La Boite, Brisbane Powerhouse and
Queensland Theatre Company. The following table shows their 2008 Brisbane mainstage attendances.

Company and show                    Performances       Attendance            Average
La Boite
The Danger Age                                19             4,399               232
Summer of the Seventeenth Doll                26             9,835               378
Kitchen Diva                                  19             3,131               165
The Narcissist (Return Season)                17             4,966               292
The Wishing Well                              19             3,601               190
Attack of the Attacking Attackers             19             3,126               165
Total                                        119            29,058               244

Brisbane Powerhouse
A Mouthful of Pins                             5               815               163
Aalst                                          6             1,004               167
Holding The Man                                6             3,155               526
Kommer                                         5               605               121
Metamorphosis                                  6               363                61
Hoods                                          9             1,191               132
Woyzeck on the Highveld                        5             1,358               272
Shorter and Sweeter                            6               831               139
Milli, Jack and the Dancing Cat                8             2,173               272
Tashi Stories                                 19             2,918               154
Gaijin                                         7               872               125
The Pitch                                      5               620               124

32
   Colmar Brunton Research Services, p. 110
33
   For more information see http://www.arts.qld.gov.au/projects/tdta.html
34
   Rebecca J. Scollen, "Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre," in Willmar in the world: young scholars exploring the
theatrical event, ed. Y. Feiler, R. Hoogland and K. Westerling (Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2007), pp 46-58.
                                                             48
Tashi Stories                                  19             2,502               132
Total                                         106            18,407               174

Queensland Theatre Company
The Female of the Species                      35            10,320               295
I Am My Own Wife                               27             5,983               222
The Prisoner of Second Avenue                  21            10,071               480
Rabbit Hole                                    35             6,476               185
August Moon                                    28             5,671               203
Travelling North                               20             9,119               456
Anatomy Titus Fall of Rome                     35             7,661               219
The Importance of Being Earnest                21            16,207               772
Stones in His Pockets                          33             8,079               245
Total                                         255            79,587               312

Judging by the audience figures for most on the smaller groups summarised in appendix 1, there is currently not a large
audience for independent work. Smaller companies and groups without a consistent public presence have considerable
challenges reaching a wide audience. They can develop their own niche audience, but only an association with a larger
organisation with an ongoing presence in the market place will give their work the requisite visibility and credibility to
attract people beyond that inner circle.

As the report has argued, the logical partners for this role in Brisbane are the Brisbane Powerhouse, Judith Wright
Centre, La Boite and Queensland Theatre Company. It is with these organisations therefore that audience development
strategies should be developed, drawing on the Arts Queensland research and initiatives mentioned above.

The consultation pointed to some promising foundations for future strategies. Comments by participants about
Queensland audiences included that they were loyal and that they were treated with respect by artists. Some noted
that a strength of Queensland theatre is the willingness of artists to explain their craft and process to the public. This
suggests that there is space to move the audience development debate beyond being about either the creation of
passive consumers of artistic product, or artists delivering only what audiences demand, and to develop a more
engaged relationship between artists and the wider community, one based mutual respect for each other’s role and
creative potential.

As John Holden put it in a recent paper:

      Mutual respect is vital. Cultural democracy does not imply art by plebiscite, with artists, cultural experts and
      professionals being told what to do by whimsical public ‘input’. On the contrary, it implies a mature relationship
      where the public recognises, respects and benefits from expertise, while simultaneously being alive to its dangers
      and able to question its credentials. It implies professionals recognising that their role is to release the talents and
      potential of the whole community, not just one bit of it, and realising that they are part of, not separate from, that
      community. Culture should be something that we all own and make, not something that is ‘given’, ‘offered’ or
                                                    35
      ‘delivered’ by one section of ‘us’ to another.

Recommendation 18            Arts Queensland commissions audience research to identify the demographic segments with
                             the most potential to become new theatre audiences with particular consideration of age
                             and gender factors.

Recommendation 20            Brisbane Powerhouse, Judith Wright Centre, La Boite, Queensland Theatre Company and Arts
                             Queensland develop and coordinate strategies to develop audiences for independent theatre
                             work.




35
     Holden, John . Democratic Culture: Opening the arts up to everyone. London: Demos, 2008. p. 32
                                                              49
Recommendation 21   Arts Queensland evaluates the effectiveness of Test Drive the Arts and Talking Theatre and
                    works with theatre companies to develop a coordinated approach to future audience
                    development initiatives

Recommendation 22   Arts Queensland works with the sector to develop a collaborative marketing strategy to
                    re-position and promote the theatre through coordinated marketing and branding with a
                    particular emphasis on social media




                                                  50
10 APPENDICES




                51
1. CREATORS AND DEVELOPERS OF WORK
BACKBONE YOUTH ARTS
The company began in 1972 as a program of La Boite, becoming La Byte in 1989 and finally an independent
organisation under its current name in 1996. Backbone’s stated mission is to generate and promote pathways for
children and young people through performing arts festivals, events and workshops. Andrew Cory is its Artistic Director.

Backbone runs term-based, school holiday and intensive workshops throughout the year, as well as short and longer
term programs for schools, businesses and community groups. It also partners with organisations across Queensland to
present a range of productions. In 2008 these were Holidaze, The Cafe! and An Unexpectedly Mind-Boggling Adventure.

The company produces the annual 2high Festival, a free multi-arts festival that showcases the work of young and
emerging artists in South East Queensland. The entire festival is coordinated by a team of people aged between 18 and
26 under the leadership of an industry mentor and Backbone Youth Arts.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                            2          Number of tours
Writer commissions                         1            In Qld                                         -
Now ready for production                   1            Interstate                                     -
Needing further development                1            Internationally                                -
To be taken no further                     -          Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                         -
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                     -
Works produced                             3            Internationally                                -
Co-productions                             1          Number of places visited
New works                                  3            In Qld                                         -
Queensland works                           3            Interstate                                     -
                                                        Internationally                                -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                            3            In Qld                                         -
Co-presentations                           3            Interstate                                     -
Average cast size                          6            Internationally                                -
Performances                             40
Total audience                         9000           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees           1 - 20%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                         1-5           Donations and philanthropic support       1 - 20%
Part-time staff                         1-5           Arts Qld                                 41 - 60%
Casual staff                          6 - 20          Other Qld government                      1 - 20%
Volunteers                           21 - 50          Australia Council                        21 - 40%
Trainees                              6 - 20          Other Australian government                      -
Participants                          > 100           Reserves                                         -
Other income sources                                                        workshop income 21 - 40 %
Government funding sources                                Arts Qld, Australia Council, Local government
Turnover                                                                           $200,000 - $500,000


                                                          52
BRIDES OF FRANK
The Brides of Frank began in 2003 and are an ensemble of artists, dancers and actors who create satirical comedy
performances by parodying popular culture, music and personae. The ensemble members are Caroline Dunphy, Lisa
O’Neill, Emma Pursey, Leah Shelton and Neridah Waters, who have all trained in the Japanese Suzuki Actor Training
Method through Frank Theatre.

The Brides specialise in performance and roving character work for festivals, night clubs, film clips, cabaret and
special/corporate events, but have also produced a full-length show 'Til Death Do Us Part which was presented at the
Brisbane Powerhouse in 2005 and 2007 as well as touring to Adelaide and Sydney.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                          1          Number of tours
Writer commissions                        -            In Qld                                      -
Now ready for production                  -            Interstate                                  1
Needing further development              1             Internationally                             -
To be taken no further                    -         Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                      -
Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                  7
Works produced                           1             Internationally                             -
Co-productions                                      Number of places visited
New works                                              In Qld                                      -
Queensland works                         1             Interstate                                  1
                                                       Internationally                             -
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                           -            In Qld                                      -
Co-presentations                          -            Interstate                               700
Average cast size                         -            Internationally                             -
Performances                              -
Total audience                            -         Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees          1 - 20%
People                                              Corporate sponsorship
Full-time staff                       1-5           Donations and philanthropic support
Part-time staff                           -         Arts Qld
Casual staff                              -         Other Qld government
Volunteers                                -         Australia Council
Trainees                                  -         Other Australian government
Participants                              -         Reserves                                 1 - 20%



Other income sources                   Income received from corporate work (ie. roving/performance)
Government funding sources                                                                  Arts Qld
Turnover                                                                           Less than $50,000




                                                        53
CIRCA
Circa began as Rock’n’Roll Circus in 1987 and became Circa in 2004. Its stated vision is to re-imagine circus as a
contemporary artform, and it aims to be a company of international significance renowned for great shows that push
the artform of circus. Yaron Lifschitz became Artistic Director in 1999 and the company has a core ensemble of three
performers. Recent works include Furioso, The Space Between, by the light of stars that are no longer… and 61Circus
Acts in 60 Minutes.

The company has an international market for its work, having toured to more than 16 countries since 2006. In 2008 it
toured internationally for 10 weeks,

Circa runs year-round circus training programs from its base at the Judith Wright Centre in Brisbane for all skill levels. It
also delivers circus training to schools, regional areas and corporate clients.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                  Theatre work toured
Works developed                             5           Number of tours
Writer commissions                           -             In Qld                                         3
Now ready for production                     3             Interstate                                     1
Needing further development                                Internationally                                4
To be taken no further                       2          Number of performances on tour
                                                           In Qld                                        34
Theatre work produced                                      Interstate                                     8
Works produced                               5             Internationally                               55
Co-productions                               8          Number of places visited
New works                                    5             In Qld                                         4
Queensland works                             4             Interstate                                     1
                                                           Internationally                               15
Theatre work presented                                  Total audience on tour
Works presented                              8             In Qld                                     7,372
Co-presentations                             8             Interstate                                 8,000
Average cast size                            5             Internationally                           28,576
Performances                              131
Total audience                          7,372           Income sources
                                                        Box office and performance fees            347,748
People                                                  Corporate sponsorship                        15,000
Full-time staff                              5          Donations and philanthropic support                -
Part-time staff                              1          Arts Qld                                   282,000
Casual staff                               30           Other Qld government                               -
Volunteers                                   1          Australia Council                          290,301
Trainees                                     -          Other Australian government                        -
Participants                                 -          Reserves                                           -
                                                        Participant/Workshop Fees                  183,767


Other income sources                                          International Government grants – $23,520
Government funding sources                                              Arts Queensland, Australia Council
Turnover                                                                                        $1,193,285

                                                             54
CREATIVE REGIONS
Creative Regions was formed in 2008 to deliver regional cultural services in the eastern Central Queensland and Eastern
South West Queensland regions during 2009. It is based in Bundaberg. It also acts as a producer, generating and
fostering new regional work, building creative teams and networks and promoting and presenting work across art
forms. Its directors are Rod Ainsworth, Sylvia Langford, Shelley Pisani and Judy Pippen.

The company to date has produced a piece of social justice theatre in collaboration with the Los Angeles–based Fringe
Benefits Theatre. It is currently working on the development of a play for children, a community-devised production
based on local Indigenous as well as the development of a new festival of regional arts in Bundaberg.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                               Theatre work toured
Works developed                           3          Number of tours
Writer commissions                        2             In Qld                                       1
Now ready for production                  1             Interstate                                    -
Needing further development               2             Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                     -         Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                       4
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                    -
Works produced                            2             Internationally                               -
Co-productions                            2          Number of places visited
New works                                 2             In Qld                                       4
Queensland works                          2             Interstate                                    -
                                                        Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                               Total audience on tour
Works presented                           1             In Qld                                     200
Co-presentations                          1             Interstate                                    -
Average cast size                        10             Internationally                               -
Performances                             16
Total audience                         1700          Income sources
                                                     Box office and performance fees                  -
People                                               Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                           –          Donations and philanthropic support              -
Part-time staff                        1-5           Arts Qld                                  1 - 20%
Casual staff                              –          Other Qld government                      1 - 20%
Volunteers                          51 - 100         Australia Council                         1 - 20%
Trainees                                  –          Other Australian government               1 - 20%
Participants                          > 100          Reserves                                         -



Other income sources                                  Local government (contract and project funding)
                                                           Local community development organisation
Government funding sources                Australia Council, Local government, Other Qld Government,
                                                       Regional Arts, Regional Arts Fund, International
Turnover                                                                            $50,000 - $200,000



                                                          55
DEBASE PRODUCTIONS
Established in 1998, deBASE productions creates original work that encompasses many comic forms — from sketch
comedy and clown, to comic dramas and satire. The deBASE principal artistic team is Bridget Boyle, Liz Skitch and
Robert Kronk. They employ a highly physical and collaborative approach to devising new work, which is strongly
influenced by the teaching of Philippe Gaulier.

Works include The Clown from Snowy River, which has toured to high schools in Queensland with the Queensland Arts
Council and in 2008, and Lily Can’t Sleep, which was commissioned by Queensland Theatre Company and The Out Of
The Box Festival and toured in Malaysia in 2007. Their work has also toured to the Melbourne International Comedy
Festival, The Melbourne Fringe Festival, the Adelaide Fringe Festival and The Woodford Folk Festival.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                            Theatre work toured
Works developed                         1         Number of tours
Writer commissions                       -           In Qld                                       -
Now ready for production                1            Interstate                                  3
Needing further development              -           Internationally                              -
To be taken no further                   -        Number of performances on tour
                                                     In Qld                                       -
Theatre work produced                                Interstate                                  3
Works produced                           -           Internationally                              -
Co-productions                           -        Number of places visited
New works                                -           In Qld                                       -
Queensland works                         -           Interstate                                  3
                                                     Internationally                              -
Theatre work presented                            Total audience on tour
Works presented                          -           In Qld                                      -
Co-presentations                         -           Interstate                                300
Average cast size                        -           Internationally                              -
Performances                             -
Total audience                           -        Income sources
                                                  Box office and performance fees                 -
People                                            Corporate sponsorship                           -
Full-time staff                          -        Donations and philanthropic support             -
Part-time staff                          -        Arts Qld                                41 - 60%
Casual staff                        6 - 20        Other Qld government                            -
Volunteers                           1-5          Australia Council                               -
Trainees                                 -        Other Australian government                     -
Participants                      51 - 100        Reserves                                 1 - 20%



Other income sources                                                   Sale of DVDs and scripts 20%
Government funding sources                                                                 Arts Qld
Turnover                                                                        $50,000 - $200,000




                                                       56
EMERGEPROJECT
The emergeproject began in 2005. It is a partnership between the Judith Wright Centre and Switchboard Arts, and it
aims to showcase new companies, creations, events and artists in Brisbane's performing arts scene, and provide
opportunities for local writers, actors, directors, performance artists, mixed media creators, designers, film makers and
others involved in any mode of performance to show their work. Errol Bray is its Artistic Director.

Productions in 2008 include Ten by Ten Squared (a 10-minute play festival), Tripping, Voyage to Prester John, “27” and
Carbon Footprint Cabaret as well as Picnic Playreadings, a series of rehearsed play readings.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                           35          Number of tours
Writer commissions                        35             In Qld                                             -
Now ready for production                   8             Interstate                                         -
Needing further development               12             Internationally                                    -
To be taken no further                    15          Number of performances on tour
                                                         In Qld                                             -
Theatre work produced                                    Interstate                                         -
Works produced                            26             Internationally                                    -
Co-productions                            26          Number of places visited
New works                                 26             In Qld                                             -
Queensland works                          25             Interstate                                         -
                                                         Internationally                                    -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                           35             In Qld                                             -
Co-presentations                          35             Interstate                                         -
Average cast size                          6             Internationally                                -
Performances                              16
Total audience                         1600           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees           81 - 100%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                                 -
Full-time staff                             -         Donations and philanthropic support          1 - 20%
Part-time staff                             -         Arts Qld                                              -
Casual staff                            1-5           Other Qld government                         1 - 20%
Volunteers                          51 - 100          Australia Council                                     -
Trainees                              21 - 50         Other Australian government                           -
Participants                           > 100          Reserves                                              -



Other income sources                                                                                   Nil
Government funding sources                                                                      Other Qld
Turnover                                                                                        Other Qld




                                                           57
FLIPSIDE CIRCUS
Flipside Circus began in 1998 and its Director is Deb Wilks. It is a youth circus that teaches circus skills to kids between
the ages of 4 to 18 years. Flipside also provide entertainment in shows, festivals and events in contexts such as Queens
Street Mall, Woodford Folk Festival, Adelaide Fringe Festival, Ikea launch Brisbane, The Variety Club bash, The Motor
Neuron Disease Benefit and The Brisbane Cabaret Festival

Recent works include Storm In A Teacup, Talk 2 Me and Xtreme Opera.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                 Theatre work toured
Works developed                              -         Number of tours
Writer commissions                           -            In Qld                                          1
Now ready for production                    1             Interstate                                      1
Needing further development                  -            Internationally                                 -
To be taken no further                       -         Number of performances on tour
                                                          In Qld                                          5
Theatre work produced                                     Interstate                                    11
Works produced                              1             Internationally                                 -
Co-productions                              1          Number of places visited
New works                                   1             In Qld                                          1
Queensland works                            1             Interstate                                      1
                                                          Internationally                                 -
Theatre work presented                                 Total audience on tour
Works presented                             1             In Qld                                      5000
Co-presentations                            1             Interstate                                  1400
Average cast size                       20-25             Internationally                                 -
Performances                               13
Total audience                          3700           Income sources
                                                       Box office and performance fees            21 - 40%
People                                                 Corporate sponsorship                              -
Full-time staff                          1-5           Donations and philanthropic support                -
Part-time staff                          1-5           Arts Qld                                           -
Casual staff                            6 - 20         Other Qld government                               -
Volunteers                              6 - 20         Australia Council                                  -
Trainees                                 1-5           Other Australian government                        -
Participants                            > 100          Reserves                                    1 - 20%



Other income sources                                      Workshop and School holiday programmes 60%
                                                                                  Gambling grants 10%
Government funding sources                                                           Local government

Turnover                                                                              $200,000 - $500,000




                                                            58
FRANK THEATRE
Frank Theatre was founded in 1992 by John Nobbs and Jacqui Carroll. Its central mission is ‘the creation of theatre
which combines Australian form and content with Asian sensibilities and integrity of purpose to produce a
Japan/Australian fusion theatre’. Much of the company’s work are reworking of classics: Salome, Oedipus Rex and Doll
Seventeen (based on Summer of the Seventeenth Doll).

Central of the company's work is the development of an ensemble whose training is based on the method devised by
Japanese theatre director, Tadashi Suzuki.

In 2008 the company had four new works in development. It presented one To Have Done With the Judgment of God at
the Judith Wright Centre in November and toured.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                          4          Number of tours
Writer commissions                        -            In Qld                                      -
Now ready for production                 4             Interstate                                  -
Needing further development               -            Internationally                             1
To be taken no further                    -         Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                      -
Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                  -
Works produced                           2             Internationally                             2
Co-productions                            -         Number of places visited
New works                                2             In Qld                                      -
Queensland works                         2             Interstate                                  -
                                                       Internationally                             5
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                          1             In Qld                                      -
Co-presentations                          -            Interstate                                  -
Average cast size                        6             Internationally                          150
Performances                             5
Total audience                         500          Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees                -
People                                              Corporate sponsorship                   21 - 40%
Full-time staff                           -         Donations and philanthropic support      1 - 20%
Part-time staff                           -         Arts Qld                                       -
Casual staff                              -         Other Qld government                           -
Volunteers                           6 - 20         Australia Council                              -
Trainees                              1-5           Other Australian government                    -
Participants                         > 100          Reserves                                       -



Other income sources                                                                             Nil
Government funding sources                                                                       Nil
Turnover                                                                           Less than $50,000



                                                        59
GRIN AND TONIC THEATRE
Grin & Tonic Theatre was founded in 1970 by Bryan Nason and has a long history of producing touring productions of
Shakespeare. The current artistic director of its education troupe is Nadine Kelly. The company’s main focus is on
schools but it also produced outdoor performances for all ages.

In 2008 the company presented what it called a ‘boutique production’ of Romeo and Juliet at the Roma Street Parkland
Amphitheatre as well as two in–schools shows: Shakespeare’s Word for senior students and an hour-long version of
Romeo and Juliet for junior students.

Apart from works derived from Shakespeare, the company has also recently produced such works as Monkey and His
Magic Journey to the West and C.J Dennis's The Sentimental Bloke.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                           -         Number of tours
Writer commissions                        -            In Qld                                       3

Now ready for production                  -            Interstate                                    -
Needing further development               -            Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                    -         Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                      70

Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                    -
Works produced                           3             Internationally                               -
Co-productions                            -         Number of places visited
New works                                 -            In Qld                                      20
Queensland works                          -            Interstate                                   -
                                                       Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                          3             In Qld                                 14,000
Co-presentations                          -            Interstate                                    -
Average cast size                        4             Internationally                               -
Performances                            90
Total audience                      18,000          Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees         81 - 100%
People                                              Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                       1-5           Donations and philanthropic support        1 - 20%
Part-time staff                       1-5           Arts Qld                                         -
Casual staff                         6 - 20         Other Qld government                             -
Volunteers                            1-5           Australia Council                                -
Trainees                                  -         Other Australian government                      -
Participants                              -         Reserves                                         -


Other income sources                                                                               Nil
Government funding sources                                                                         Nil
Turnover                                                                           $50,000 - $200,000


                                                        60
HARVEST RAIN THEATRE COMPANY
Founded in 1985, Harvest Rain is a pro–am company that aims to present ‘live entertainment that is fun, engaging, and
affordable for the whole family to enjoy’. Tim O’Connor has been the Artistic Director since 2004. It operates with a
professional administration and sees its role as providing emerging artists in Queensland with experience and exposure.

Productions in 2008 include A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Sound of Music, Jane Eyre (adapted by Polly Teale),
Disney's High School Musical and Hot Shoe Shuffle. In addition to its productions, the company also offers training for
school students through its various MAD Club programs: after-school drama classes and holiday workshops. It also has
adult classes and runs a one-year Theatre Internship Program.

In 2009 the company entered into a partnership with Queensland Performing Arts Centre to produce work in its
venues.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                               Theatre work toured
Works developed                           1          Number of tours
Writer commissions                        1             In Qld                                       2
Now ready for production                  1             Interstate                                    -
Needing further development                -            Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                     -         Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                      60
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                    -
Works produced                            8             Internationally                               -
Co-productions                             -         Number of places visited
New works                                 2             In Qld                                      60
Queensland works                          2             Interstate                                    -
                                                        Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                               Total audience on tour
Works presented                           8             In Qld                                    5000
Co-presentations                           -            Interstate                                    -
Average cast size                    15 - 25            Internationally                               -
Performances                               -
Total audience                       25,000          Income sources
                                                     Box office and performance fees          61 - 80%
People                                               Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                        1-5           Donations and philanthropic support       1 - 20%
Part-time staff                        1-5           Arts Qld                                         -
Casual staff                         21 - 50         Other Qld government                             -
Volunteers                            > 100          Australia Council                                -
Trainees                             21 - 50         Other Australian government                      -
Participants                          > 100          Reserves                                         -



Other income sources                                                                                Nil
Government funding sources                                                                          Nil
Turnover                                                                          $500,000 - $1 million

                                                          61
IMAGINARY THEATRE
Imaginary Theatre was founded in 2006, though it began as a student project in 2004 adapting Australian writer Anna
Fienberg’s Tashi stories for presentation at the 2004 Out of the Box Festival. Mark Radvan is its Artistic Director.
Imaginary's mission is to create world-class art for children and young people, and through a suite of performance,
workshop, research and community engagement projects, stimulate imagination and creativity, promote multiple
literacies (particularly reading), and celebrate cultural diversity.

The company has produced five works: Tashi, the Swan and the Dragon, Tashi and the Big Stinker, Tashi and the
Mountain of White Tigers, Tashi: Lost in The City and Tashi and the Demons.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                             2         Number of tours
Writer commissions                           -           In Qld                                      -
Now ready for production                    1            Interstate                                  -
Needing further development                  -           Internationally                             -
To be taken no further                      1         Number of performances on tour
                                                         In Qld                                      -
Theatre work produced                                    Interstate                                  -
Works produced                              4            Internationally                             -
Co-productions                               -        Number of places visited
New works                                   1            In Qld                                     -
Queensland works                            1            Interstate                                 -
                                                         Internationally                             -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                              -           In Qld                                      -
Co-presentations                            4            Interstate                                  -
Average cast size                           4            Internationally                             -
Performances                               76
Total audience                           5000         Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees        81 - 100%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                          -
Full-time staff                              -        Donations and philanthropic support            -
Part-time staff                              -        Arts Qld                                       -
Casual staff                            6 - 20        Other Qld government                           -
Volunteers                              6 - 20        Australia Council                              -
Trainees                                 1-5          Other Australian government                    -
Participants                                 -        Reserves                                       -



Other income sources                                                                               Nil
Government funding sources                                                                         Nil
Turnover                                                                            Less than $50,000




                                                        62
JUTE THEATRE COMPANY
Established in Cairns in 1992, JUTE Theatre is dedicated to the development and production of new work by regional
and geographically isolated writers & theatre makers. Its mission is to ‘develop and produce bold new work and drive
strategies to collaborate with a network of regional theatre companies, producers & venues to create and move new
work from regional theatre makers across Australia and internationally’. Suellen Maunder is its Artistic Director.

Most of the work JUTE produces itself comes out of its script development programs, which work with 10 – 14 local
writers each year. These programs include an annual National Regional Playwrights & Theatre Makers Conference. The
company is part of the Theatre to the Edge consortium.

Work produced in 2008 include Tiptoe (written by Michael Beresford), Gods of Spicy Things (written by Sue Hayes) as
well as an Indie Season for local independent work.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                         18          Number of tours
Writer commissions                       4             In Qld                                        2
Now ready for production                 9             Interstate                                    2
Needing further development              8             Internationally                                -
To be taken no further                   1          Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                       16
Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                   10
Works produced                          10             Internationally                                -
Co-productions                           8          Number of places visited
New works                                9             In Qld                                        4
Queensland works                         4             Interstate                                    2
                                                       Internationally                                -
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                         16             In Qld                                      916
Co-presentations                         4             Interstate                                  791
Average cast size                        4             Internationally                                -
Performances                            72
Total audience                        6758          Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees           21 - 40%
People                                              Corporate sponsorship                      1 - 20%
Full-time staff                      6 - 20         Donations and philanthropic support        1 - 20%
Part-time staff                       1-5           Arts Qld                                  21 - 40%
Casual staff                          1-5           Other Qld government                              -
Volunteers                          21 - 50         Australia Council                          1 - 20%
Trainees                              1-5           Other Australian government                1 - 20%
Participants                         > 100          Reserves                                   1 - 20%



Other income sources                                     Venue Hire 1 - 20% Food & Bev Sales 1 - 20%
Government funding sources        Arts Qld, Australia Council, Other Australian Govt, In Kind Corporate
Turnover                                                                         $500,000 - $1 million

                                                         63
LA BOITE
Founded in 1925 as the Brisbane Repertory Theatre, La Boite has recently changed artistic direction. Whereas the
company’s focus since 2001 had been on producing new Australian (and often Qld) plays, under new Artistic Director
David Berthold the company will also present international theatre and sees itself as ‘a platform for inspired
collaboration, seeking to produce and present theatre that draws on the full grammar of performance. Words, music,
dance, the visual arts and contemporary performance are among the contributors to a theatre that aims to invigorate
minds and emotions. We produce plays, but also create work that privileges other forms of theatrical expression.
Stories can be told in many ways, and our work is driven by a desire for fresh enunciations’.

Work produced in 2008 include The Danger Age (written by Kate Mulvany), Kitchen Diva (written by Norman Price), The
Narcissist (written by Stephen Carleton).

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                             Theatre work toured
Works developed                         11         Number of tours
Writer commissions                       3            In Qld                                       2
Now ready for production                  -           Interstate                                   1
Needing further development              3            Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                   8         Number of performances on tour
                                                      In Qld                                      19
Theatre work produced                                 Interstate                                  60
Works produced                           8            Internationally                               -
Co-productions                           2         Number of places visited
New works                                4            In Qld                                      11
Queensland works                         4            Interstate                                   4
                                                      Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                             Total audience on tour
Works presented                          6            In Qld                                   2000
Co-presentations                          -           Interstate                              25000
Average cast size                        5            Internationally                               -
Performances                           120
Total audience                      29500          Income sources
                                                   Box office and performance fees          21 - 40%
People                                             Corporate sponsorship                     1 - 20%
Full-time staff                      6 - 20        Donations and philanthropic support       1 - 20%
Part-time staff                       1-5          Arts Qld                                 21 - 40%
Casual staff                         6 - 20        Other Qld government                      1 - 20%
Volunteers                        51 - 100         Australia Council                         1 - 20%
Trainees                              1-5          Other Australian government                      -
Participants                          1-5          Reserves                                  1 - 20%



Other income sources                                                                              Nil
Government funding sources                                     Arts Qld, Australia Council, Other Qld
Turnover                                                                             Over $2 million


                                                        64
MARKWELL PRESENTS
Founded in 2002 by Brad Jennings and Steven Maxwell, Markwell Presents describes itself as ‘a theatre and media
company specialising in cinematic theatre: the fusion of live performance and the magic of the big screen’. The
company’s productions explores genres and narrative styles not usually experienced live on stage, such as sci-fi,
fantasy, horror. It works extensively in schools, producing live performance events fusing dramatic theatre, rock music
and cinema focusing on issues facing young people and also working with young people through its in-schools
workshops and artist-in-residence performance projects.

In addition this, Markwell Presents produces and operates cinematic effects for the productions of other theatre
companies such as La Boite, Zen Zen Zo and Qld Theatre Company.

Work produced in 2008 include Hollow Crossing and Rocks in my Head.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                               Theatre work toured
Works developed                            -         Number of tours
Writer commissions                         -            In Qld                                        -
Now ready for production                   -            Interstate                                    -
Needing further development                -            Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                     -         Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                        -
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                    -
Works produced                            2             Internationally                               -
Co-productions                            2          Number of places visited
New works                                 4             In Qld                                        -
Queensland works                          4             Interstate                                    -
                                                        Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                               Total audience on tour
Works presented                           2             In Qld                                        -
Co-presentations                          1             Interstate                                    -
Average cast size                         3             Internationally                               -
Performances                             19
Total audience                         2500          Income sources
                                                     Box office and performance fees           1 - 20%
People                                               Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                        1-5           Donations and philanthropic support              -
Part-time staff                            -         Arts Qld                                  1 - 20%
Casual staff                          6 - 20         Other Qld government                             -
Volunteers                             1-5           Australia Council                                -
Trainees                               1-5           Other Australian government                      -
Participants                          > 100          Reserves                                         -


Other income sources                      Products and services for young people and schools 41 - 60%
                                                   Commercial AV and video/editing services 41 - 60%
Government funding sources                                                     Arts Qld, Regional Arts
Turnover                                                                           $50,000 - $200,000


                                                          65
MATRIX THEATRE
Co-founded by Michael Futcher and Helen Howard in 1994, Matrix aims to provide an alternative platform for
Queensland theatre artists and to generate new and innovative work, as well as to present established texts. The
company is noted for its use of detailed improvisation in devising new works and for its physical style. It produces its
own work, often in collaboration other theatre companies and organizations.

Works produced include A Beautiful Life (a 1998 co-production with the Brisbane Festival and La Boite, then a national
tour in 2000 with Performing Lines) and The Wishing Well (presented by La Boite in 2008), both written by Michael
Futcher & Helen Howard. The latest work is The Kursk (written by Sasha Janowicz) which was presented at Metro Arts in
2007 and tours nationally with Critical Stages in 2009.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                            3          Number of tours
Writer commissions                         1            In Qld                                           -
Now ready for production                   1            Interstate                                       -
Needing further development                2            Internationally                                  -
To be taken no further                     -          Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                           -
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                       -
Works produced                             1            Internationally                                  -
Co-productions                             1          Number of places visited
New works                                  1            In Qld                                           -
Queensland works                           1            Interstate                                       -
                                                        Internationally                                  -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                            1            In Qld                                           -
Co-presentations                           1            Interstate                                       -
Average cast size                          8            Internationally                                  -
Performances                             19
Total audience                         2100           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees            61 - 80%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                              -
Full-time staff                            -          Donations and philanthropic support                -
Part-time staff                            -          Arts Qld                                    1 - 20%
Casual staff                          6 - 20          Other Qld government                               -
Volunteers                              1-5           Australia Council                          21 - 40%
Trainees                                1-5           Other Australian government                        -
Participants                            1-5           Reserves                                    1 - 20%



Other income sources                                                                                   Nil
Government funding sources                                                     Arts Qld, Australia Council
Turnover                                                                              $50,001 - $200,000




                                                          66
PLAYLAB
Founded in 1972, Playlab is a script development and playwright development organisation. It also operates Playlab
Press, Australia's second largest publisher of theatre and new work for performance. Playlab is membership-driven and
assists creators to develop their craft, publish their work and collaborate with companies to produce their work. The
Executive Director is Saffron Benner.

The company offers a Professional Development & Professional Services Program which includes workshops, script
assessment and dramaturgical advice to members, as well as an Industry Partnership Program which offers
dramaturgical and other support to Qld theatre companies.



2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                     25 - 50         Number of tours
Writer commissions                     <10             In Qld                                          -
Now ready for production                  2            Interstate                                      -
Needing further development             25             Internationally                                 -
To be taken no further                  30          Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                          -
Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                      -
Works produced                            -            Internationally                                 -
Co-productions                            -         Number of places visited
New works                                 -            In Qld                                          -
Queensland works                          -            Interstate                                      -
                                                       Internationally                                 -
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                           8            In Qld                                          -
Co-presentations                          2            Interstate                                      -
Average cast size                         -            Internationally                                 -
Performances                              -
Total audience                            -         Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees                    -
People                                              Corporate sponsorship                              -
Full-time staff                           -         Donations and philanthropic support                -
Part-time staff                        1-5          Arts Qld                                   41 - 60%
Casual staff                           1-5          Other Qld government                               -
Volunteers                             1-5          Australia Council                           1 - 20%
Trainees                               1-5          Other Australian government                        -
Participants                         > 100          Reserves                                           -



Other income sources                                                           Sales from publications
Government funding sources                                                   Arts Qld, Australia Council
Turnover                                                                            $50,000 - $200,000



                                                         67
POLYTOXIC
Founded in 2000 by Lisa Fa'alafi and Efeso Fa'anana, Polytoxic is a six–person dance ensemble that creates its own work
which it describes as ‘taking theatre, comedy and dance and mixing it up with a MTV twist, fusing traditional
Polynesian, contemporary and street-style moves’. It performs in various contexts: children’s performances, gallery
openings, fashion launches and festivals, as well as its own seasons. It also works in cross–cultural collaborations with
culturally diverse and Indigenous communities .

Works include Green Bananas (for young audiences) and the full-length work, Teuila Postcards, which was presented at
Brisbane Powerhouse's Pasifika Festival in 2006 and is touring nationally in 2009.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                            1          Number of tours                                 1
Writer commissions                          -            In Qld                                        -
Now ready for production                    -            Interstate                                    1
Needing further development                 -            Internationally                                -
To be taken no further                      -         Number of performances on tour
                                                         In Qld                                         -
Theatre work produced                                    Interstate                                   1
Works produced                              -            Internationally                                -
Co-productions                              -         Number of places visited
New works                                   -            In Qld                                        -
Queensland works                            -            Interstate                                   2
                                                         Internationally                                -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                            2             In Qld                                      500
Co-presentations                           1             Interstate                                  700
Average cast size                          3             Internationally                               --
Performances                              11
Total audience                         1200           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees           $46,450
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                             -
Full-time staff                             -         Donations and philanthropic support               -
Part-time staff                             -         Arts Qld                                    $1000
Casual staff                               3          Other Qld government                              -
Volunteers                                  -         Australia Council                                 -
Trainees                                    -         Other Australian government                       -
Participants                                -         Reserves



Other income sources
Government funding sources                                                                      Arts Qld
Turnover                                                                                        $47, 640




                                                           68
QUEENSLAND SHAKESPEARE ENSEMBLE
The Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble was founded in 2001 and aims to engage Southeast Queensland communities
with Shakespeare ‘in order to strengthen the connections and relationships between community members, and to
create evocative, engaging theatre that awakes the senses and impassions the lives of its audiences and artists’. Its
Artistic Director is Rob Pensalfini and it maintains a core ensemble on a profit–share basis, believing that ‘performance
is most potent when embodied by actors who train together, exchanging skills, experience and a sense of belonging
with one other’.

The company offers training both via an apprentice program and through regular classes that have a particular focus on
Linklater voice work. It also runs a community program at Borallon Correctional Centre that involve the ensemble
members working and performing with prisoners.

2008 productions include Twelfth Night and Metamorphoses (based on Ted Hughes’ selections from Ovid).

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                             -         Number of tours
Writer commissions                          -            In Qld                                        2
Now ready for production                   2             Interstate                                     -
Needing further development                 -            Internationally                                -
To be taken no further                      -         Number of performances on tour
                                                         In Qld                                        2
Theatre work produced                                    Interstate                                     -
Works produced                             4             Internationally                                -
Co-productions                              -         Number of places visited
New works                                  1             In Qld                                        2
Queensland works                           1             Interstate                                     -
                                                         Internationally                                -
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                            4             In Qld                                      300
Co-presentations                            -            Interstate                                     -
Average cast size                          7             Internationally                                -
Performances                              36
Total audience                         2000           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees           61 - 80%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                             -
Full-time staff                             -         Donations and philanthropic support        1 - 20%
Part-time staff                             -         Arts Qld                                          -
Casual staff                           6 - 20         Other Qld government                              -
Volunteers                             6 - 20         Australia Council                                 -
Trainees                               6 - 20         Other Australian government                       -
Participants                         21 - 50          Reserves                                   1 - 20%


Other income sources                                                       training fees, membership fees
Government funding sources                                                                            Nil
Turnover                                                                               Less than $50,000

                                                           69
QUEENSLAND THEATRE COMPANY
Established in 1970 by an Act of Parliament, Queensland Theatre Company is the state’s flagship professional theatre
company. The company’s vision statement is that it ‘aims to be one of the great theatre companies of the world’.
Michael Gow has been Artistic Director since 1999.

The company presents an annual main-stage season of nine plays which is a mix of new Australian work, international
contemporary work and classics. The company also supports artistic development across the state through its emerging
artists program, writing program – which includes the Queensland Premier’s Drama Award – and regional partnerships
program. It also has an education program that offers young people opportunities through specially devised education
performances, young playwrights program, theatre residency week, in-school workshops, secondment programs and
more.

Productions in 2008 included The Female of the Species, The August Moon and Anatomy Titus Fall of Rome.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                              Theatre work toured
Works developed                          2          Number of tours
Writer commissions Premier's Drama Award               In Qld                                        2
Now ready for production                 1             Interstate                                    1
Needing further development               -            Internationally                                -
To be taken no further                   2          Number of performances on tour
                                                       In Qld                                       53
Theatre work produced                                  Interstate                                   66
Works produced                          11             Internationally                                -
Co-productions                           3          Number of places visited
New works                                3             In Qld                                       29
Queensland works                         2             Interstate                                   15
                                                       Internationally                                -
Theatre work presented                              Total audience on tour
Works presented                         12             In Qld                                    5,394
Co-presentations                         1             Interstate                               22,247
Average cast size                      5.5             Internationally                                -
Performances                           255
Total audience                      86,000          Income sources
                                                    Box office and performance fees           21 - 40%
People                                              Corporate sponsorship                      1 - 20%
Full-time staff                     21 - 50         Donations and philanthropic support        1 - 20%
Part-time staff                      6 - 20         Arts Qld                                  21 - 40%
Casual staff                         > 100          Other Qld government                              -
Volunteers                           6 - 20         Australia Council                          1 - 20%
Trainees                              1-5           Other Australian government                       -
Participants                         > 100          Reserves                                   1 - 20%


Other income sources                                                     Touring income was 6% in 2008
Government funding sources                                      Arts Qld, Australia Council, Other Qld
Turnover                                                                                Over $2 million

                                                        70
TROPIC SUN THEATRE COMPANY
Tropic Sun was founded in Townsville by Jean-Pierre Voos in 1986 as Tropic Line, merging with Hard Sun Theatre
Company in 2002 to become Tropic Sun. The company sees its identity as being shaped by the challenges and
opportunities presented by its remote natural and social environment.

The company has been in transition since the death of its founder in 2008, Madonna Davies and Karen Gibb becoming
Co-Artistic Directors in early 2009. It maintains a six-member ensemble that regularly develops its skills together. They
help with running the company, are paid when working on productions and supported to make their own work when
not. The company also regularly tours workshops and shows to western Qld.

2008 productions include 3 Blokes & Their Barbies (Daynan Brazil), A Walk Through The End Of Time (Jessica Duchen),
Bombshells (Joanna Murray-Smith), Futz (Rochelle Owens) and His & Hers (Karen Gibb). Tropic Sun is part of the Theatre
to the Edge consortium.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                                Theatre work toured
Works developed                            1          Number of tours
Writer commissions                          -            In Qld                                        2
Now ready for production                    -            Interstate                                    2
Needing further development                1             Internationally                               1
To be taken no further                      -         Number of performances on tour
                                                         In Qld                                       16
Theatre work produced                                    Interstate                                    6
Works produced                             6             Internationally                               2
Co-productions                              -         Number of places visited
New works                                  3             In Qld                                        6
Queensland works                           2             Interstate                                    1
                                                         Internationally                               1
Theatre work presented                                Total audience on tour
Works presented                           11             In Qld                                    1000
Co-presentations                           2             Interstate                                  600
Average cast size                          4             Internationally                           3000
Performances                              64
Total audience                         5312           Income sources
                                                      Box office and performance fees           21 - 40%
People                                                Corporate sponsorship                      1 - 20%
Full-time staff                         1-5           Donations and philanthropic support               -
Part-time staff                         1-5           Arts Qld                                   1 - 20%
Casual staff                           6 - 20         Other Qld government                      21 - 40%
Volunteers                             6 - 20         Australia Council                                 -
Trainees                                1-5           Other Australian government                1 - 20%
Participants                                -         Reserves                                          -
Other income sources                              Local Government (cash 5% and in kind - equiv of 5%)
Government funding sources            Arts Qld, Local government, Other Australian, Other Qld, Regional
                                                                               Arts, Regional Arts Fund
Turnover                                                                          $500,000 - $1 million


                                                           71
VULCANA WOMEN’S CIRCUS
Vulcana Women’s Circus was established in 1995 to address the need to encourage women’s participation in physical
skills through innovative, non-competitive programs. It aims, among other things, to create ‘spectacular and innovative
cultural events that inspire and entertain, developed in collaboration with a diverse range of community members and
groups who are new to theatrical processes’. The position of Artistic Director is currently vacant.

Vulcana offers a series of circus workshops, a variety of performances projects, outreach programs and team
development workshops and creates performances for functions and events. It also stages large-scale community
shows.

In 2008 the company produced Juice at the Judith Wright Centre.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                               Theatre work toured
Works developed                            -         Number of tours
Writer commissions                         -            In Qld                                        -
Now ready for production                   -            Interstate                                    -
Needing further development                -            Internationally                               -
To be taken no further                     -         Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                        -
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                    -
Works produced                            1             Internationally                               -
Co-productions                            1          Number of places visited
New works                                 1             In Qld                                        -
Queensland works                          1             Interstate                                    -
                                                        Internationally                               -
Theatre work presented                               Total audience on tour
Works presented                           1             In Qld                                        -
Co-presentations                           -            Interstate                                    -
Average cast size                        15             Internationally                               -
Performances                              4
Total audience                          850          Income sources
                                                     Box office and performance fees           1 - 20%
People                                               Corporate sponsorship                            -
Full-time staff                            -         Donations and philanthropic support              -
Part-time staff                        1-5           Arts Qld                                  1 - 20%
Casual staff                         21 - 50         Other Qld government                             -
Volunteers                            6 - 20         Australia Council                        41 - 60%
Trainees                                  –          Other Australian government                      -
Participants                          > 100          Reserves                                         -



Other income sources                                                          Local Government 20-40%
Government funding sources                Arts Qld, Australia Council, Local government, Other Qld govt
Turnover                                                                             Less than $50,000



                                                          72
ZEN ZEN ZO
Founded in 1992 by the Co-Artistic Directors, Lynne Bradley and Simon Woods, Zen Zen Zo is a physical theatre
ensemble that creates physical theatre works that range from radical interpretation of classics to original new works.
The company states that its ‘aesthetic was forged partly in the ancient Asian dance-theatre traditions, in which
spirituality is at the fore, and partly in contemporary pop culture, where sound, light, movement and spectacle
communicate meaning and experience is god’.

The company runs extensive education and training programs which include weekly training, intensives and in-schools
training. It also has a 6-month Internship program for emerging artists.

Works produced in 2008 include two new major works, Zeitgeist and Sub-Con Warrior 2.0. It also worked in Japan with
Butoh company Dairakudakan on the production The Golden Show.

2008 summary
Theatre work developed                               Theatre work toured
Works developed                           2          Number of tours                                    0
Writer commissions                        0             In Qld                                          0
Now ready for production                  1             Interstate                                      0
Needing further development               -             Internationally                                 0
To be taken no further                    1          Number of performances on tour
                                                        In Qld                                           -
Theatre work produced                                   Interstate                                      -
Works produced                            2             Internationally                                  -
Co-productions                            1          Number of places visited
New works                                 2             In Qld                                          -
Queensland works                          2             Interstate                                      -
                                          -             Internationally                                  -
Theatre work presented                               Total audience on tour
Works presented                           2             In Qld                                          -
Co-presentations                          1             Interstate                                       -
Average cast size                        15             Internationally                                 --
Performances                             58
Total audience                       13870           Income sources
                                                     Box office and performance fees               66,500
People                                               Corporate sponsorship                          2,000
Full-time staff                           2          Donations and philanthropic support                0
Part-time staff                           1          Arts Qld                                      78,000
Casual staff                             16          Other Qld government                           1,500
Volunteers                               25          Australia Council                                  0
Trainees                                  -          Other Australian government                        0
Participants                          8467           Reserves                                      80,000


Other income sources
Government funding sources                                      Arts Qld, Australia Council, Education Qld
Turnover                                                           Performance Activities Only – 228,000



                                                         73
Summaries of 2008 activity were not available for the following three companies.

23RD PRODUCTIONS
23rd Productions was established in 2006 and is run by Artistic Director Kathryn Fray and Associate Artistic Director
Christopher Sommers. Its stated aim is to produce provocative contemporary international works with local artists, as
well as to remove the distance between ‘real life’ and theatrical storytelling by using texts that speak to the general
public and by staging them in an accessible manner.

Its productions to date include Closer by Patrick Marber in 2007, Motortown by Simon Stephens in 2008 and The
Pillowman by Martin McDonaugh in 2009. It also mounted two short seasons of staged readings of contemporary work
                                                                                         rd
in 2008 under the title of Cool Britannia I & II. All were staged at Metro Arts, where 23 Productions was Company-in-
Residence in 2008.

CROSSROADS
Crossroad Arts began in 1996 and is based in Mackay. Its Artistic Director is Steve Meyer-Miller. It works across the
mediums of theatre, dance, film , music and visual arts in partnership, and its stated purpose is to create dynamic, bold
and high quality new works in partnership with communities throughout Mackay, Central Queensland, Northern
Territory and the Asia Pacific Region. It aims to tell stories of the human and physical cultural landscape of the region.

Recent theatre work includes Animal Farm (2007), The Fishwife and the Changeling (2007) and Gods of Spicy Things
(2008, in collaboration with JUTE Theatre). Crossroads is part of the Theatre to the Edge consortium.

RESTAGED HISTORIES PROJECT
The Restaged Histories project was formed in 2004 by Nic Dorward and Kieran Swann. It makes ongoing contemporary
performance works informed by moments of history, combining vintage stories with modern storytelling. The work is
concerned with notions of post-colonialism, spectacle, entertainment, post-dramaticism, theatricality, and the
interweaving of performance making, direction, and design. The company is currently Artist-in-Residence at the
Brisbane Powerhouse. In addition to mainstage performance, they create installation performance as the Fathers of
Dead Europe, inspired by post-colonial attitudes and recreation.

Past productions include The Jack Tragedy (2004), Marat/Sade (2005), The Greater Plague (2005) and Omon Ra (2006
tour to Adelaide Fringe).

OTHER CREATORS IN 2008
There are many other creators of theatre work in Queensland. This brief selection is based on the responses to the
Mapping Theatre survey as well as internet research and focuses on new works presented in 2008.

...and moor theatre
…and moor theatre was set up by Andrea Moor in 2006 and produced Ross Mueller’s The Ghost Writer (in 2008 at
Metro Arts.

Anna Yen
Anna Yen directed Taboo, a physical theatre show that educates young people about domestic violence. It was a co–
production between Amnesty International, Queensland University of Technology and Vena Cava.

AS Theatre
This new company produced The Lieutenant of Inishmore (by Martin McDonagh) at Metro Arts in 2008. It aims to give
young professional artists the opportunity to work with experienced theatre makers




                                                           74
Benjamin Knapton
Gaijin was one-man-show about the journey of an Australian foreigner in contemporary Japan, produced, co-written
and directed by Benjamin Knapton in 2008 at the Brisbane Powerhouse.

Coalface Communications
Established in 1998, Coalface Communications produces quality productions that tour directly into schools. Shows
include i dot luv dot u. Managing directors are Sally McKenzie and Sean Mee.

Forward Movement
Anthony Standish and Leesa Connelly presented Magda’s Fascination with Wax Cats as part of the Metro Arts
Independents program in 2008.

Jo Thomas
Jo Thomas co–produced and performed in Micro Trip II: The Return Journey at Metro Arts, as well as developing a stage
adaptation of Rosie Little’s Cautionary Tale for Girls.

Lisa O’Neill
Described as ‘a hybrid of movement, illustration, narration and sound’, The Pipe Manager is a solo work developed by
Lisa O’Neill in 2007 and 2008 and given a showing at the Brisbane Powerhouse in July 2008.

Oscar Theatre Company
Founded in 2004 by Emily Gilhome, Oscar Theatre Company presented Nana Café in 2008 as part of Metro Arts’
Creative Development Festival and A Slightly Sondheim Wedding at the Judith Wright Centre.

Sasha Janowicz
Sasha Janowicz produced deVils in Metro Arts’ 2008 Creative Development Festival. It was based on Dostoyevsky’s
novel, Devils.

shake & stir theatre co
Founded in 2006, shake & stir provides theatre-in-education with particular emphasis on Shakespeare. Artistic Directors
are Ross Balbuziente, Nelle Lee and Nick Skubij.

Sue Rider and Accolade Productions
Originally presented at the Wellington Fringe Festival in 2006, Sue Rider remounted Playing Miss Havisham (co-written
by her with Helen Moulder) for a Qld Arts Council tour in 2008.

The Forgetting of Wisdom
This is a collective of older Brisbane actors, writers and theatreworkers who have been creating, developing and
presenting new plays since 2003. I Don’t Want to Die in Melbourne (Lorna Bol) was produced at Metro Arts in 2006 and
The Brink (Bob Newman) in 2009.

The Nest
Established by Leah Mercer in 2006 to develop and produce new performance work, the Nest has produced The
Knowing of Mary Poppins in 2005 and A Mouthful of Pins in 2008, both at the Brisbane Powerhouse.

Three Sisters Productions
Formed by Hannah Levien, Kathryn Marquet and Rebecca Roberts with the aim of empowering young female
performers, Three Sisters presented Polly Teale's Bronte at Metro Arts in 2008.

Umber Productions
Umber Productions is a production house interested in developing and producing new Australian performance. It
presented Risk (written by Elaine Acworth) as part of Metro Arts Independents 2008.


                                                          75
Victoria Carless / Crunchy Theatre
Victoria Carless produced her own play The Rainbow Dark in 2008 at the Cairns Centre of Contemporary Arts as part of
JUTE Theatre’s indie program.




                                                        76
2. THEATRE FUNDING 2008 – ARTS QUEENSLAND AND AUSTRALIA COUNCIL
The following shows all Arts Queensland grants for theatre activity decided in 2008.

MAJOR PERFORMING ARTS
Queensland Theatre Company                 2008 activities                                                        2,749,901

S2M
                        36
Queensland Arts Council                    2008 activities                                                       $1,872,665
Metro Arts                                 2008 activities                                                         $140,000
JUTE Theatre                               2008 activities                                                         $190,000
Backbone Youth Arts                        2008 activities                                                         $102,000
Circa                                      2008 activities                                                         $280,000
La Boite                                   2008 activities                                                         $567,180
Zen Zen Zo                                 2008 activities                                                          $62,480
TOTAL S2M                                  2008 activities                                                       $3,214,325

INITIATIVES
PlayWriting Australia                      National Play Festival 08/10; National Script Workshop 09              $100,000
Cookie's Table Pty Ltd                     National Indigenous Theatre Company forum                               $10,000
Kooemba Jdarra Aboriginal Corp             Delivery of 2008 Services                                               $90,000
Matilda Committee - Auspice                The Matilda Awards                                                      $12,000
Youth Arts Queensland Inc                  2008 ASSITEJ World Congress and Performing Arts Festival                $15,000
deBASE Productions                         DeBASE Showcase at 2008 ASSITEJ Adelaide                                 $6,000
Australia Council for the Arts             Managing and Producing Services (MAPS)                                 $150,000
Frank Theatre                              Up Jumped the Devil                                                     $80,000
Townsville City Council                    Theatre in Townsville delivered by Tropic Sun Theatre Co.               $80,000
Zen Zen Zo Physical Theatre                Creative Development of a new work entitled of DOBU                     $15,000
Strut & Fret Production House              Post APAM - Tom Tom Club International Tour 2009                         $9,855
Circa                                      Post APAM - European Tour                                               $15,265
Interplay                                  Interplay Company Structure and Business Plan Development               $31,000
Sven Swenson                               APAM 2008                                                                $3,970
Queensland Theatre Company                 To tour "Funny Voices"                                                  $35,000
TOTAL INITIATIVES 2008                                                                                            $653,090

GRANTS
CAREER DEVELOPMENT GRANT
Jacinta Yelland                            Ecole Philippe Gaulier                                                    $2,500
Gayle MacGregor                            To attend the Costume Colloquium 2008 in Italy                            $1,029
Michael Futcher                            The Wishing Well                                                          $3,000
Sarah Houbolt                              Auckland Fringe International Collaboration                               $1,500
Rebecca Clunn                              Mentorship + Sentiments of War                                            $4,500
Kieran Swann                               Theatre Project                                                           $4,800
Warren Clements                            Caliban in "the Tempest"                                                  $4,725
Jodie Swales                               Attending Kidabra conference in the USA                                   $3,878
Nigel Adam Poulton                         Advanced Training in Theatrical Biomechanics                              $5,000

36
     Note that Queensland Arts Council works across artforms and its grant is therefore not for theatre activities alone
                                                              77
DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENTATION GRANT
Carclew Youth Arts Centre             Lowdown Magazine                                                          $8,000
Interplay                             World Interplay Festival Cairns 2009                                     $40,000
Sue Rider                             The Pink Twins - presentation                                            $33,238
The Human Company                     The Empty City                                                           $29,900
Crash Collective                      'Juice' Touring Project 2009                                             $31,180
Torres Strait Railway Histories Group Dancing The Line - Theatre Musical                                       $30,000
The Restaged Histories project        The Greater Plague                                                       $30,000
Jo Thomas                             Rosie Little's Cautionary Tales for Girls                                $29,500
Umber Productions                     Risk                                                                     $29,994
Daniel John Laws                      Fontaine                                                                 $15,130
Sue Rider                             The Pink Twins - creative development                                    $13,080
Mark Adrian Bromilow                  Dr Watt                                                                  $35,520
deBASE Productions                    Popping Lead Balloons                                                    $26,976
aSpire Theatre Arts                   The Passion                                                              $17,104
Rebecca Clunn                         EXIST in 08                                                              $30,000
TOTAL GRANTS                                                                                                  $430,554

GRAND TOTAL                                                                                                 $7,047,870


The following shows all Australia Council grants for theatre activity by Queensland-based artists and organisations paid
in the financial year 2007/08.

Major Performing Arts Board
Queensland Theatre Company            Base grant                                                              $687,554
Queensland Theatre Company            Initiative                                                               $45,000

Theatre Board
Rider, Sue                            New work – creative development                                          $32,900
Matrix Theatre                        New work – production                                                    $44,139
Zen Zen Zo                            New work – production                                                    $50,910
JUTE Theatre                          Program – general                                                        $91,200
Backbone Youth Arts                   Program – youth                                                          $48,000
Circa                                 Key organisations                                                       $164,514
La Boite Theatre                      Key organisations                                                       $207,540
Strut and Fret Production House       Developing independent producers                                         $50,000
Circa                                 Flying start                                                              $3,000
Circa                                 Playing the world                                                         $8,500
Circa                                 Playing the world                                                        $19,333
Circa                                 Playing the world                                                        $39,454
Youth Arts Qld                        SPARK – young and emerging artists                                      $147,000
La Boite Theatre                      Theatre biz –business development                                        $10,000
Arts Qld – Indigenous theatre         Other initiatives                                                       $159,000

TOTAL                                                                                                       $1,808,044


                                                           78
3. BIBLIOGRAPHY


AEA Consulting. Anticipating Change in the Major Performing Arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2008.

Arts on Tour NSW. OrienTouring: mapping the patterns of national tour development. Sydney: Arts on Tour NSW, 2008.

Arts Queensland. Arts Culture + Me. Brisbane: Queensland Government, 2008.

—. Coming to a Place Near You - Touring Strategy for Performing Arts in Queensland 2009-2014. Brisbane: Queensland
Government, 2008.

—. Queensland Arts Industry Sector Development Plan Progress report from February 2007 to February 2008. Brisbane:
Queensland Government, 2008.

—. Queensland Arts Industry Sector Development Planning Consultation Report 2006. Brisbane: Queensland
Government, 2006.

AusStage. AusStage - Gateway to the Australian Performing Arts. http://www.ausstage.edu.au/ (accessed April 26,
2009).

Australia Council. Annual Reports. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 1988 - 2008.

—. Don't panic: The impact of digital technology on the major performing arts industry. Sydney: Australia Council for the
Arts, 2008.

—. Love your work: training, retaining and connecting artists in theatre. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2008.

—. Securing the Future: an assessment of progress 2001-2007. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2008.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Arts and Culture in Australia: A Statistical Overview, 2008 (Second Edition). Canberra:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008.

—. Attendance at Selected Cultural Venues and Events, Australia, 2005-06. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics,
2007.

—. Australia Demographic Statistics. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008.

—. Children's Participation in Cultural and Leisure Activities, Australia, Apr 2006. Canberra: Australian Bureau of
Statistics, 2006.

—. Cultural Funding by Government, Australia, 2006-07. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007.

—. Performing Arts, Australia, 2006-07. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007.

—. Population Projections, Australia, 2006 to 2101. Canberra: Australian Government, 2008.

—. Public Attitudes to the Arts, Australia, Nov 1997. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997.

—. Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2007-08. Canberra: Australian Government, 2009.

Brisbane Powerhouse. Year in Review 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08. Brisbane: Brisbane Powerhouse.


                                                            79
Colmar Brunton Research Services. A Statewide Report on participation in the arts. Brisbane: Arts Queensland, 2006.

Comans, Christine A. La Boite Theatre: A Brief History. Brisbane: QUT ePrints, 2007.

Craik, Jennifer. Re-visioning arts and cultural policy : current impasses and future directions. Canberra: ANU E Press,
2007.

Cultural Ministers Council. Report to Ministers on an examination of the small to medium performing arts sector.
Canberra: Cultural Ministers Council, 2002.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Playing Australia - Program recipients. 2005-2009.
http://www.arts.gov.au/arts/playing_australia/program_recipients (accessed April 24, 2009).

Holden, John. Capturing Cultural Value: How Culture Has Become a Tool of Government Policy. London: Demos, 2005.

—. Cultural Value and the Crisis of Legitimacy. London: Demos, 2006.

—. Democratic Culture: Opening the arts up toeveryone. London: Demos, 2008.

Joss, Tim. New Flow. London: Mission Models Money, 2008.

Milne, Geoffrey. Theatre Australia (Un)limited: Australian Theatre since the 1950s (Australian Playwrights 10)
(Australian Playwrights). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2004.

National Centre for Culture and Recreation Statistics and Australian Bureau of Statistics. The Social and Demographic
Characteristics of Cultural Attendees. Canberra: Cultural Ministers Council, 2006.

National Institute of Dramatic Art. Annual Reports 2005-07. Sydney: NIDA, 2005-07.

Office of Economic and Statistical Research. Queensland Characteristics: A State Comparison.
http://www.oesr.qld.gov.au/publications/index.shtml, Brisbane: Queensland Government, 2008.

Pearn, Nigel, and Richard Fotheringham. A history of the Avalon Theatre, 1921-2007. St Lucia: The University of
Queensland, 2007.

PlayWriting Australia. PlayWriting Australia supported scripts. 2009. http://www.pwa.org.au/Info/Playography/
(accessed April 22, 2009).

Queensland Performing Arts Centre. Annual Reports. Brisbane: QPAC, 2005/06 - 2007/08.

Roberts, Ian. An Analysis of the Triennially Funded Theatre Organisations of the Theatre Board of the Australia Council.
Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2003.

Saatchi and Saatchi. Australians and the Arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2000.

Scollen, Rebecca J. “Theatre talks evolve into talking theatre.” In Willmar in the world: young scholars exploring the
theatrical event, edited by Y. Feiler, R. Hoogland and K. Westerling, pp 46-58. Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2007.

Tait, Peta. An Examination of Resources for Writing for Performance. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2005.

Throsby, David, and Virginia Hollister. Don't give up your day job : an economic study of professional artists in Australia.
Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts, 2003.

Tyndal,   Kate.   The    Producer:    the   issues   and    opportunities.   London:    Arts   Council    England,    2005.



                                                            80
4. CONSULTATIONS
The following people were consulted in the course of this project, through meetings, email correspondence, phone
calls or focus groups:

Andrew Cory, Backbone Youth Arts                                Lorna Hempstead, Tropic Sun
Andrew Ross, Brisbane Powerhouse                                Louise Bezzina, Judith Wright Centre
Annette Kerwitz, Qld Arts Council                               Lyn Wallis, Australia Council
Ann-Marie Ryan, Empire Theatre, Toowoomba                       Lyndon Terracini, Brisbane Festival
Anthony Ring, freelance artist, Cairns                          Lynn Cropp, Cairns Little Theatre
Arthur Frame, Qld Arts Council                                  Lynne Bradley, Zen Zen Zo
Athol Young, Brisbane City Council                              Madonna Davies, Tropic Sun, Townsville
Avril Duck, Tropical Arts, Cairns                               Marion Potts, Bell Shakespeare, Sydney
Bain Stewart, Bungabura Productions                             Mark Radvan, Imaginary
Ben Knapton, freelance artist                                   Michael Futcher, Matrix Theatre
Brad Haseman, Qld University of Technology                      Michael Gow, Qld Theatre Company
Cate Farrer, Youth Arts Qld                                     Milos Miladinovic, Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts
Cathy Hunt, Positive Solutions                                  Nadine Kelly, Grin and Tonic Theatre
Cheryl Jorgensen, Mackay Entertainment Centre                   Narelle Marlow, Arts Queensland
Collette Brennan, Circa                                         Nat Trimarchi, Tanks Arts Centre, Cairns
Daniel Santangeli, freelance artist                             Natasha Budd, Kite Theatre
David Berthold, La Boite                                        Nic Dorward, Restaged Histories
Debbie Wilks, Flipside Circus                                   Nick Marchand, Griffin Theatre, Sydney
Dianne Eden, Qld University of Technology                       Paul Bishop, Arts Evolution
Eamon Flack, Company B Belvoir, Sydney                          Penny Mullin, Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts
Elaine Acworth, freelance artist                                Peter Lavery, Qld University of Technology
Errol Bray, Emerge                                              Phil Finkelstein, Civic Theatre, Cairns
Errol O'Neill, freelance artist                                 Rebecca Lamoin, Qld Performing Arts Centre
Fiona MacDonald, Imaginary                                      Rita Pryce, Baiwa Dance Company, Cairns
Fiona Winning, freelance artist, Sydney                         Rob Brown, Civic Theatre, Cairns
Gill Birch, Cairns Little Theatre                               Rob Pensalfini, Qld Shakespeare Ensemble
Glenn Arboit, Riverway Arts Centre, Thuringowa                  Ron Pulman, Tropic Sun, Townsville
Hannah Levien, ThreeSisters Productions                         Ruby Wingrove, Tank Arts Centre, Cairns
Hilary Martin, La Luna, Townsville                              Ruth Hodgman, Judith Wright Centre
Jackie Bailey, Australia Council                                Sally McKenzie, Coalface Communications
Jacqui Carroll, Frank Theatre                                   Sarah Collins, RipArt, Cairns
Jan Irvine, Arts Queensland                                     Sarah Urquhart, freelance artist, Cairns
Jenny Galligan, Arts Queensland                                 Scott Maidment, Strut & Fret Production House
Jeremy Cheetham, Tropic Sun, Townsville                         Sean Mee, freelance artist
Jim Vilé, Qld Arts Council                                      Shane Rowlands, Arts Queensland
Jo Thomas, freelance artist/producer                            Stephen Carleton, freelance artist
John Kotzas, Qld Performing Arts Centre                         Stephen Foster, Tanks Arts Centre, Cairns
John Nobbs, Frank Theatre                                       Steve Meyer-Miller, Crossroad Arts, Mackay
Julian Meyrick, freelance artist, Melbourne                     Steven Maxwell, Markwell Presents
Karen Gibb, Tropic Sun, Townsville                              Sue Hayes, freelance artist, Cairns
Kate Hooper, Tropic Sun, Townsville                             Sue Hunt. Carriageworks, Sydney
Katherine Hoepper, MAPS for Artists                             Sue Rider, Accolade Productions
Katherine Lyall-Watson, freelance artist                        Suellen Maunder, JUTE Theatre, Cairns
                  rd
Kathryn Fray, 23 Productions                                    Susan Linge, Civic Theatre, Townsville
Keith Gallasch, Real Time, Sydney                               Sven Swenson, freelance artist
Kelvin Cordell, Gold Coast Arts Centre, Surfers Paradise        Tim O'Connor, Harvest Rain
Leigh Boswell, The Young Company, Cairns                        Tina Hill, Arts Queensland
Lenine Bourke, Young People and the Arts Australia              Tony Grybowski, Australia Council
Lewis Jones, Empire Theatre, Toowoomba                          Vanessa Pigrum, Arts Centre, Melbourne
Libby Anstis, Qld Theatre Company                               Vera Ding, Arts Qld
Lisa O'Neill, freelance artist                                  Wendy Blacklock, Performing Lines, Sydney
Liz Burcham, Metro Arts                                         Yaron Lifschitz, Circa




                                                           81
The following individuals and organisations participated in the online survey:

...and moor theatre                                        La Boite Theatre Company
aboriginal centre for the performing arts                  Lisa O'Neill
Anna Yen                                                   Liz Navratil
Arts Evolution pty ltd (Social Enterprise)                 MAPS for Artists
Backbone Youth Arts                                        Markwell Presents Pty Ltd
Barbara Lowing                                             Matrix Theatre
Benjamin Knapton                                           Moncrieff Theatre
Bernadette Cochrane                                        Mount Isa Civic Centre
Bob Newman                                                 Playlab Inc
Boonah Cultural Centre                                     Polytoxic
Brian Lucas                                                Queensland Performing Arts Centre
Brisbane Cabaret Festival                                  Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble
Brisbane Powerhouse                                        Queensland Theatre Company
Bungabura Productions PTY Ltd                              Redcliffe Cultural Centre
Capella Cultural Centre                                    Rockhampton Venues and Events
Claire Pearson                                             Sasha Janowicz
Coalface Communications Pty Ltd                            School of Creative Arts and Artsworx, USQ
Creative Regions Ltd                                       Sean Mee
Daniel Anderson                                            Stu Cochrane
deBASE productions                                         Sue Rider and Accolade Productions
Flipside Circus                                            Switchboard Arts/ Emerge Project
Frank Theatre                                              THE BRIDES OF FRANK
Grin & Tonic Theatre Troupe                                The Events Centre
Harvest Rain Theatre Company                               Thunder's Mouth Theatre
Imaginary Theatre                                          Top Chick Management
Ipswich Civic Hall                                         Tropic Sun Theatre
Irene Feuz                                                 Umber Productions
Janis Balodis                                              Victoria Carless / Crunchy Theatre
Jo Thomas                                                  Vulcana Women's Circus
JUTE Theatre                                               Zen Zen Zo Physical Theatre




                                                     82
5. MAPPING THEATRE SURVEY
This was a survey of organisations, groups and individuals in Queensland who had developed, produced or
presented professional theatre in the last three years. The survey took place in March 2009 and consisted of
both multiple choice and free responses.

The following definitions were used:

THEATRE is used broadly. It includes circus, physical theatre, text-based work, contemporary performance,
cabaret, music theatre, theatre for children and young people, puppetry, visual theatre and youth theatre.

PROFESSIONAL THEATRE means that the people involved have specialist training in their field (not necessarily
in academic institutions); are recognised by their peers (professional practitioners working in theatre); are
committed to devoting significant time to the artistic activity; and have a history of public presentation.

DEVELOP A THEATRE WORK means you carried the main responsibility for activities such as writer
commissions, creative development workshops or any other early stage in the creation of a new theatre work
short of actual rehearsal and a public season (though it may include a public showing or reading).

PRODUCE A THEATRE WORK means that you carried the main responsibility for the creation and rehearsal of
the work. You may or may not have also been responsible for presenting this work to the public.

PRESENT A THEATRE WORK means that you carried the main responsibility for presenting it to the public:
venue costs, marketing, etc. You may have also produced the work, or it may have been produced by others.

Note that the free comments have been edited for clarity, to avoid repetition and to protect the privacy of the
participants.




                                                      83
A.   THE RESPONDENTS
There were 61 respondents, 59% of whom were formally constituted organisations and 41% were unincorporated groups or individuals. The full list is Attachment 1.

1.   If you were formally constituted, what type of organisation are you?
                                                                        %

Incorporated association                                           25.7%
Company limited by guarantee                                       17.1%
Proprietary limited company                                        17.1%
Local government body                                              20.0%
State government body                                               8.6%
Tertiary institution                                                2.9%
Other                                                               8.6%


2.   Where did you begin operating?
                                                                       %
Since 2006                                                         14.5%
2000 - 2005                                                        18.2%
1990 - 1999                                                        27.3%
1980 - 1989                                                        18.2%
1970 - 1979                                                        12.7%
Before 1970                                                         9.1%

3.  Which of the following best describes your MAIN role in the Queensland theatre sector?
                                                         Predominantly               Often           Occasionally              Never
Making your own original work                                      42%                 19%                  19%                 19%
Making new productions of extant work                              19%                  5%                  56%                 21%
Presenting works made by others                                    27%                 27%                  20%                 27%
Organising tours of theatre works made by others                   10%                 10%                  26%                 54%
Providing services to those who make, present or                   21%                 35%                  26%                 19%
tour theatre

                                                                                  84
Providing training and other professional                           28%                  24%                  41%                  7%
development for theatre workers
Creating opportunities for young people or                          17%                  40%                  38%                  4%
communities to participate in theatre activities

Other unlisted roles that respondents considered important were:
     Producing works in collaboration with community arts organisations (local amateur theatre)
     Community education, training, entertainment
     Organising tours of theatre works created by the company
     Engaging marginalised communities (eg homeless, prisoners) in theatre practice
     Touring own works and organising those tours
     Publishing new Australian plays
     Providing a venue for meetings, seminars, expositions, balls and school functions etc.
     Development of emerging playwrights
     Training of Indigenous artists
     Engaging communities, telling regional stories, interpreting oral history, social justice, funding/production/management advice.
     Drive long term strategies for collaboration of regional theatre makers across Australia
     Performance writer
     Circus training (predominantly) and gigs for events (often)
     Service organisation to manage and produce independent artists
     Making our own original work


4.   What was your turnover in 2008?
                                                                        %
Less than $50,000                                                  43.4%
$50,000 - $200,000                                                 22.6%
$200,000 - $500,000                                                 5.7%
$500,000 - $1 million                                               7.5%
$1 million - $2 million                                             7.5%
Over $2 million                                                    13.2%


5.   What were your income sources in 2008 (approximately)?


                                                                                   85
This table maps the overall distribution of each income sources against the percentage of contribution to overall income. For example, it shows that corporate sponsorship
made up between 1% and 20% of the income of 38.2% of respondents.
                                                                                                   Percentage of total income
Income sources                                                       0             1 - 20%       21 - 40%          41 - 60%           61 - 80%          81 - 100%
Box office and performance fees                                    8.7%             37.0%         28.3%              6.5%               6.5%              13.0%
Corporate sponsorship                                              52.9%            38.2%          8.8%              0.0%               0.0%               0.0%
Donations and philanthropic support                                52.9%            41.2%          2.9%              2.9%               0.0%               0.0%
Arts Qld                                                           37.8%            27.0%         21.6%             13.5%               0.0%               0.0%
Other Qld government                                               50.0%            30.0%          6.7%              6.7%               3.3%               3.3%
Australia Council                                                  50.0%            28.1%          9.4%              6.3%               3.1%               3.1%
Other Australian government                                        75.9%            20.7%          0.0%              0.0%               3.4%               0.0%
Your own contribution                                              28.6%            57.1%          0.0%              2.9%               5.7%               5.7%
 Other unlisted income sources were:
      Non arts activity income (food and beverage 25%, venue hire 10%)
      Book sales, licensing fees (Film), acting fees, touring production administration
      Products and services for young people and schools 41 - 60%
      Commercial AV and video/editing services 41 - 60%"
      Training and workshop fees
      Membership fees
      Touring income 6%
      Local government
      Sales from publications
      Other functions 7%
      Venue hire 1 - 20%
      Food & bev sales 1 - 20%"
      PhD scholarship, casual teaching, freelance writing, project work
      Royalties
      Own contribution is impossible to compute; in reality it was hundreds of unpaid hours spent writing grant applications, chasing up artists, coordinating projects


6. Did you receive funding from the following sources in 2008?
This shows what percentage of respondents who received funding from the following sources
Source                                                               %


                                                                                    86
Arts Qld                                                          45.1%
Australia Council                                                 29.4%
Corporate sponsors                                                15.7%
Dept of Foreign Affairs and Trade                                   0.0%
Local government                                                  33.3%
Other Australian government                                         9.8%
Other Qld government                                              17.6%
Philanthropics                                                    11.8%
Regional Arts Development Fund                                      9.8%
Regional Arts Fund                                                  3.9%
None of the above                                                 31.4%



7. Approximately how many full-time staff did you have in 2008?
Number of full-time staff                                             %
None                                                              48.0%
1-5                                                               30.0%
6 - 20                                                            16.0%
21 - 50                                                            4.0%
51 - 100                                                           0.0%
More than 100                                                      2.0%

8. Approximately how many part-time staff did you have in 2008 (total numbers, not full-time equivalents)?
Number of part-time staff                                           %
None                                                            52.0%
1-5                                                             44.0%
6 - 20                                                           2.0%
21 - 50                                                          0.0%
51 - 100                                                         2.0%
More than 100                                                    0.0%

9.   Approximately how many casual staff did you have in 2008 (total numbers, not full-time equivalents)?

                                                                                 87
Number of casual staff                                                  %
None                                                                26.0%
1-5                                                                 16.0%
6 - 20                                                              38.0%
21 - 50                                                             14.0%
51 - 100                                                             2.0%
More than 100                                                        4.0%

10. Approximately how many volunteers did you have in 2008?
Volunteers were defined as those who work without pay.
Number of volunteers                                                    %
None                                                   20.0%
1-5                                                    26.0%
6 - 20                                                 26.0%
21 - 50                                                8.0%
51 - 100                                               16.0%
More than 100                                          4.0%

11. Approximately how many trainees did you have in 2008?
Trainees were defined as those who work with for no or nominal pay primarily to gain experience or receive training
towards a professional career.
Number of trainees                                                     %
None                                                              46.0%
1-5                                                               40.0%
6 - 20                                                              8.0%
21 - 50                                                             6.0%
51 - 100                                                            0.0%
More than 100                                                       0.0%

12. Approximately how many participants did you have in 2008?
Participants were defined as members of the community who work with you through some form of public access program,
whether free or fee-paying.
Number of participants                                              %
None                                                            34.0%

                                                                                   88
1-5                                                                 8.0%
6 - 20                                                              8.0%
21 - 50                                                             8.0%
51 - 100                                                            6.0%
More than 100                                                      36.0%


B. THEATRE WORK
13. Did you develop any theatre works in 2008?
Yes                                                                84.0%
No                                                                 16.0%


14. How many theatre works did you develop but not produce in 2008?
166 - the average number per respondent was 6 (it should be noted that this includes 72 works from writer development organisations)

15. Of these, how many were writer commissions?
32

16. Of the works that you developed in 2008, how many have you decided...
                                                                         %
Are now ready for production                                        26.3%
Need further development before being ready for production          36.9%
Will not be taken any further                                       36.9%


17. Did you produce any theatre works in 2008?
Yes                                                       76.0%
No                                                        24.0%


18. How many theatre works did you produce in 2008?
110


                                                                                  89
19. How many theatre works did you produce with other partners in 2008? (i.e. you co-produced the work, sharing the responsibility for creating the work with
    someone else)
50

20. If you co-produced in 2008, who were your main partners?
Professional organisations cited included:
 Bell Shakespeare Company                               Judith Wright Centre                                       Queensland University of Technology

   Brisbane Cabaret Festival                               Knock-em-Down Theatre, Darwin                           Queensland Arts Council.

   Brisbane Festival                                       La Boite                                                Queensland Gas Company

   Brisbane Powerhouse                                     Matrix Theatre                                          State Library Qld

   Crossroad Arts, Mackay                                  Metro Arts                                              Strut n Fret Production House

   Darwin Theatre Company                                  Opera Australia                                         University of Southern Queensland

   Doch                                                    Polytoxic                                               Woodford Folk Festival

   Essgee Entertainment Pty Ltd                            Qld Theatre Co                                          Zen Zen Zo

   Fringe Benefits Theatre (California, USA)               Queensland Performing Arts Centre

21. Of these works made by you alone or with others, how many were new works? (i.e. they had never been produced before anywhere, though this could include
    radical reworkings of extant texts.)
77

22. Of these new works made by you alone or with others, how many were Queensland works? (i.e. they were written or devised by locally based artists.)
70

23. Did you present any theatre works in 2008 in your home city or town?
Yes                                                               73.5%
No                                                                26.5%

                                                                                90
24. How many theatre works did you present in 2008 in your home city or town?
245

25. How many theatre works did you co-present with other partners in 2008 in your home city or town? (i.e. you shared the cost for the presentation of the work with
    someone else)
84

26. What was the average cast size of theatre work presented or co-presented by you in 2008?
Overall average: 9.1
Median average: 5.5
(the median is a better guide, as the sample included some large cast community productions)


27. How many performances of theatre work did you present or co-present in 2008 in your home city or town?
1456 – the average per respondent is 41.6

28. What was the total audience for theatre works presented or co-presented by your organisation in 2008 in your home city or town?
Total: 319,998

29. Who is your target audience? (i.e. audiences that you deliberately set out to attract)
                                                                   Solely            Mostly    Occasionally          Seldom           Never
Young adults 18-30                                                   0.0%             51.6%          41.9%             3.2%            3.2%
Young people 12-17                                                   3.3%             36.7%          50.0%             3.3%            6.7%
Children 2-11                                                        0.0%             20.7%          31.0%            17.2%           31.0%
Indigenous audiences                                                 0.0%              0.0%          44.0%            36.0%           20.0%
Culturally and linguistically diverse audiences                      0.0%              3.8%          53.8%            19.2%           23.1%
Regional audiences                                                 18.5%              22.2%          33.3%            14.8%           11.1%
People with disabilities                                             0.0%              4.3%          30.4%            34.8%           30.4%
No particular target                                               10.0%              40.0%          20.0%             5.0%           25.0%


30. Have you conducted any formal audience or market research since 2006? (eg surveys, interviews or focus groups)
No                                                     37.1%


                                                                                  91
Yes, but not as a regular activity                          40.0%
Yes, we do this regularly                                   20.0%
Not relevant                                                2.9%

31. Did you also present any of the following activities?
                                                          Regularly         Occasionally        Never
Theatre skills classes                                    38.2%             50.0%               11.8%
Lectures or presentations                                 22.6%             51.6%               25.8%
Other activities presented included:
     Music workshops
     Creative development festival
     Artist in residence projects
     Extensive youth and education program
     Masterclasses/winterschool
     Workshops, script assessments, networking events
     Presentations of short movies by local film-makers
     Audience feedback (on-line)
     Nights with the cast/crew/creatives
     Presentations to university groups - students of theatre and of creative and critical writing
     Presentation of online diaries
     Participation in online theatre blogs.
     Journal articles, performance-related professional writing (book chapters)
     regional workshop programs - occasionally
     Focus Forums - (group of up to 20 attending all productions throughout the year & giving group facilitated feedback) based on the 'Talking Theatre' model by
         Rebecca Scollen
     Live Book Club - based on the idea of book clubs but coming together to see the show and then take part in facilitated discussion.
     Theatre tours for schools.

32. Did you tour theatre work or other activities outside your home city or town in 2008?
Yes                                                                47.9%
No                                                                 52.1%

33. How many tours and on-tour performances did you do in 2008? (i.e. a consecutive series of performances outside of your home centre)
                                                                   Tours     Performances


                                                                                  92
In Qld                                                                      30                423
Interstate                                                                  17                270
Internationally                                                             10                115

34. On these tours, how many centres did you visit?
In Qld outside your home centre                                            191
Interstate                                                                  39
Internationally                                                             37

35. What was the total audience for theatre works toured by your organisation in 2008?
                                                                Total
In Qld outside your home centre                               84,383
Interstate                                                    68,138
Internationally                                               37,477

36. Did you also tour any of the following activities?
                                                                   Regularly      Occasionally            Never
Theatre skills classes                                               18.2%            36.4%              45.5%
Lectures or presentations                                            15.0%            35.0%              50.0%

37. What types of theatre work do you generally develop, produce and/or present?
(the rating average is determined by weighting the responses: eg ‘solely’ scores five, ‘mostly’ scores four etc)
Type                                                                 Solely             Mostly       Occasionally   Seldom   Never    Rating
                                                                                                                                     Average
Text-based theatre                                                     9.8%             56.1%             24.4%       2.4%    7.3%      3.59
Devised work/contemporary performance                                  2.7%             37.8%             32.4%      16.2%   10.8%      3.05
Cabaret and comedy                                                     2.9%             22.9%             40.0%      17.1%   17.1%      2.77
Theatre for children and young people                                  5.6%             22.2%             30.6%      19.4%   22.2%      2.69
Community theatre                                                      0.0%             17.1%             40.0%      17.1%   25.7%      2.49
Youth theatre                                                          3.0%             18.2%             30.3%      21.2%   27.3%      2.48
Circus and physical theatre                                            3.0%             18.2%             27.3%      21.2%   30.3%      2.42
Music theatre                                                          0.0%             18.9%             37.8%       8.1%   35.1%      2.41
Visual theatre/puppetry                                                0.0%              6.5%             29.0%      22.6%   41.9%      2.00
Other genres suggested include:

                                                                                      93
   Street theatre

   Cinematic theatre

   Dance theatre

C. CONNECTIONS
38. How many times would you be in contact professionally with the following organisations (on average)...
(the rating average is determined by weighting the frequency of contact –the more the organisation in question has been contacted, the higher the rating)
                                                                                 Regularly       Occasionally
                                                                                                                                                           Rating
                                                            Often (once a           (once a    (once in three    Seldom (once
                                                                                                                                                          Average
Organisation                                                        week)           month)           months)           a year)            Never
Metro Arts                                                           12%               27%               24%              16%               22%              2.92
Arts Qld                                                               8%              12%               35%              33%               12%              2.71
La Boite Theatre                                                       8%              14%               39%              16%               24%              2.67
Other theatre companies                                                6%              16%               29%              29%               20%              2.59
Other service organisations                                            0%              22%               33%              22%               24%              2.53
Qld Arts Council                                                       8%              12%               25%              29%               25%              2.47
Playlab                                                                4%              25%               14%              24%               33%              2.43
Qld Theatre Company                                                    6%              18%               24%              20%               33%              2.43
Brisbane Powerhouse                                                    8%              12%               16%              39%               25%              2.37
Qld Performing Arts Centre                                             6%               8%               25%              37%               24%              2.35
Australia Council                                                      0%              12%               27%              41%               20%              2.31
Other regional Qld venues                                            12%                8%               14%              27%               39%              2.25
Judith Wright Centre                                                   4%               4%               27%              41%               24%              2.24
Other Brisbane venues                                                  2%               6%               31%              33%               27%              2.22
State Library of Qld                                                   2%              10%               24%              22%               43%              2.06
Brisbane Festival                                                      0%               6%               18%              51%               25%              2.04
Youth Arts Qld                                                         2%              10%               14%              24%               51%              1.88
Just Us Theatre Ensemble                                               6%               6%               12%              22%               55%              1.86
Out of the Box Festival                                                2%               2%               10%              37%               49%              1.71
Circa                                                                  2%               4%                8%              31%               55%              1.67
Other unlisted organisations that respondents mentioned more than once are:



                                                                                   94
   NARPACA

   Crossroad Arts

   Tropic Sun Theatre

   Zen Zen Zo

39. How do you consider your connections within the Queensland theatre sector?
                                                                   %
Satisfactory for my needs                                      31.4%
Adequate but could be better                                   52.9%
Unsatisfactory                                                 15.7%
Comments on how interconnections within the sector could be improved include:

   Encourage new opportunities specifically for development and expansion of Indigenous and Multicultural Theatre practice

   A freelance artists' register could be developed by companies such as Queensland Theatre Company, La Boite, and Metro Arts with a view to connecting independent
    artists - eg writers with directors.

   Networking opportunities eg working together with tours, sharing advertising costs.

   Connections between presenters is very strong thanks to NARPACA and APACA however communication between presenters and producers is often limited to
    dialogue at Long Paddock or the NARPACA showcase. This is a major issue as most presenters are unaware of the quality and quantity of producers in Queensland

   Real support and interconnectedness can come when there is a real understanding about who/what a company is and where they are and where they want to go.
    Dare I say forums where both key organisations and significant independents discuss these matters? If nothing else, a higher level of awareness of who exists and what
    they are trying to achieve would be communicated. Could these be structured like a board meeting or an industry feedback meeting?

   Connections are not a problem. Capacity is a problem. The sector is unsustainable. This affects confidence, and undermines artists capacity to create sustainable
    careers. Without confident artists, there is no future for the sector as stories will come from political or branding needs... Improve the sector by making social
    enterprise a core fundamental principle for every project. Collaborative competition that inspires value beyond economics.




                                                                                   95
   For interconnections within the sector to be improved, there needs to be a transformation in the culture, which presently operates on the basis of 'top-down'
    constructed notions of what is appropriate for audiences, rather than facilitating and supporting the creative endeavours of the artists on the ground ( who do actually
    represent the audiences they serve!)

   Better access to venues, stronger engagement by key organisations in new artists and new work

   An association or networking vehicle that communicates with and/or brings the sector together on a regular basis. It needs to be something that participants commit
    to so that there is a critical mass - similar things have been tried in the past and have failed due to lack of participation across the sector.

   It really requires a change in culture to a less competitive approach to audience and business.

   Promoting the idea that a successful show by another company is a plus for the entire sector; encouraging open, informal communication within the industry via a
    number of easily-accessed means - eg ourbrisbane.com's performing arts blog; enjoining bureaucratically-highly placed members of arts orgs to understand that they
    don't own the venues /apparatus they control - the taxpayers of Qld do. Consequently, some mechanism to give free, unqualified access to these capital resources
    would be helpful and would work to cut across the pretty entrenched prejudice that exists in the upper echelons of arts orgs…The current patterns of thought and
    exchange are unhealthy.

   Queensland Theatre Company used to provide an excellent service to the smaller companies emailing information about job vacancies, auditions and general info on
    the industry - this service was much appreciated by many people in the Qld theatre sector and connected QTC very well with the grass roots level…Can another funded
    company do a similar service?

   It would be encouraging if larger organisations could hold a monthly access day either in the form of a 'gathering' or as arranged meetings where the smaller and
    independent org's could meet with them without having to go through the same process as the national and international orgs... Could help build networks and
    confidence.

   The regional network is strong. In our experience, connections between regional and metro companies needs improvement (this is a two-way street).

40. How many times would you be in contact professionally with the following types of interstate organisations (on average)...
(the rating average is determined by weighting the frequency of contact –the more the type of organisation in question has been contacted, the higher the rating)
Type of interstate organisations                            Often (once a         Regularly      Occasionally    Seldom (once             Never             Rating
                                                                    week)           (once a    (once in three           a year)                           Average
                                                                                    month)           months)
Theatre companies                                                     12%              18%               25%               27%              18%               2.78
Independent producers                                                  6%              20%               22%               27%              25%               2.53
Venues                                                                 8%              12%               25%               29%              25%               2.47

                                                                                     96
Peak bodies                                                              6%                 14%        20%               39%              22%         2.43
Service organisations                                                    2%                 20%        20%               33%              25%         2.39
Festivals                                                                0%                 12%        22%               43%              24%         2.22
Training organisations                                                   2%                 16%        16%               33%              33%         2.20
Agents representing you                                                 10%                 14%         4%               16%              57%         2.04
Examples of interstate organisations cited are:

   APACA                                                       Kultour                                                Playwriting Australia

   ArtPlay                                                     La Mama                                                Salubrious Productions

   Australian Script Centre                                    Malthouse                                              Strut'n'Fret

   Bangarra Dance Co                                           MEAA                                                   Sydney Children's Festival

   Carriageworks,                                              Melbourne Festival,                                    Sydney Opera House

   Come Out                                                    Melbourne Fringe                                       VCA

   Critical Stages                                             Merringong Theatre co                                  Windmill

   Full Tilt at the Victorian Arts Centre                      NICA

   Griffin Theatre Company                                     Performing Lines

41. How do you consider your interstate connections?
                                                                    %
Satisfactory for my needs                                       29.4%
Adequate but could be better                                    37.3%
Unsatisfactory                                                  33.3%
Comments on how interstate connections could be improved include:

   Perhaps supporting productions that have wider regional and national appeal - so more interstate organisations and personnel would be involved.

   National artists database where people can profile their work, aesthetics, interests and ideas


                                                                                       97
   As an independent it is often too expensive to travel to make these connections - any assistance with this would be beneficial. Some further training/forums bringing
    some of these networks to Qld.

   Current forums like Long Paddock and the APACA Conference provide a great opportunity to meet as an industry but again this is a presenter driven model

   We wish to take our work on tour but setting up relationships with venues interstate is proving to be very difficult and extremely time consuming and thus we don't
    think we are capable to doing this ourselves very successfully. We are in need of a producer who already has the relationships in place and can essentially sell us. We
    are frustrated at this point because we are ready to go, but haven't the means or the connections to make it all happen.

   Invite a range of reps from a range of small, medium and large service organisations and theatre companies to meet with a group of representatives from the Qld
    theatre sector with the objective of forging partnerships towards future production outcomes.

   My contacts are phenomenal, but in an unsustainable sector, I fail to see what good they are unless there is ethical, financial support for artists as core to any
    endeavour. This is less a whinge and more a fact of statistical reality for peers. See David Throsby 'Don't give up day job' wage fees & AMPAG wages decline over past
    10 years as well as 500 new graduates per year = supply/demand squeeze on artists

   A higher profile of Queensland artists invited to significant events to perform, speak, teach

   I haven't really made an effort to develop interstate connections at this stage.

   Me doing more researching and connecting

   We are primarily focused on Qld, but are beginning to expand our horizons beyond that. We just need to do our homework.

   It would be good for the interstate theatre companies, independent producers and festivals to keep a little more up to date with the Queensland arts scene.

   Knowing the options and better contacts especially for touring would be most useful. We tried contacting an interstate touring organisation on several occasions and
    despite emails, information sent and repeated phone calls can get no response and therefore no interest

   Interstate organisations that organise touring should come to Brisbane to see productions more often.

   It seems to me to be so personal, so reliant on people meeting and getting to know each other, a little. Apart from flying people down/up/about to do this, I'm not
    sure what to suggest.

   More visits to the south for meetings.


                                                                                       98
   We are in the process of implementing a series of planned visits to key organisations

   Encourage co-presentations and productions from all areas to allow people to feel like they are 'allowed' to work interstate and make connections.

   Provide quick response travel grants for networking

   At this early stage of the company's development, local/regional connections are most important and future engagement with the national and international scenes
    are envisaged in order to challenge perceptions of regional art. We recognise that it is our role to be more proactive in this area - it is not a failing of the national
    network.

   Creating opportunities for leaders of organisations to come face to face to discuss issues relevant to the sector. Need to be focused discussions that are relevant to
    particular organisations - not just all sorts of organisations thrown together - need common ground as a starting point. need at least 4 months notice of events so that
    busy small organisations can program to be available.

   Dedicated opportunities for companies to meet. Maybe in quite focussed situations - ie theatre co's from NSW and QLD then from QLD and VIC etc. There is a cold,
    blank, 'stone wall' that seems to exist between Brisbane and the rest of Aust. Emails are not returned.. etc. etc.

42. How many times would you be in contact professionally with the following types of international organisations (on average)...
(the rating average is determined by weighting the frequency of contact –the more the type of organisation in question has been contacted, the higher the rating)
Type of international organisation              Often (once a        Regularly     Occasionally    Seldom (once              Never            Rating
                                                       week)           (once a   (once in three           a year)                           Average
                                                                       month)          months)
Theatre companies                                         2%              10%              16%                32%             40%               2.02
Independent producers                                     2%               4%               8%                38%             48%               1.74
Festivals                                                 0%               4%              10%                38%             48%               1.70
Venues                                                    0%               2%              12%                28%             58%               1.58
Agents representing you                                   4%               0%               8%                10%             78%               1.42
Training organisations                                    0%               4%              10%                10%             76%               1.42
Peak bodies                                               0%               0%              12%                14%             74%               1.38
Service organisations                                     0%               2%               6%                12%             80%               1.30
Examples of interstate organisations cited are:

   Ya-Ling Peng from Uhan Shii Theatre Co in                  Arkhangelsk Regional Youth Theatre, Russia                  Individual artists coming to Australia - do not
    Taiwan,                                                                                                                  fit into any of the above categories
                                                               Nowy Teatre, Poland.

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   Ex Machina / Robert Lepage (Quebec)                          Linklater Centre                                         The National Theatre (UK)

   Peter Brook (France)                                         Harbourfront, Canada                                     Silo Intercambio Cultural

   Complicite (UK)                                              Societe des Auteurs et Compositeurs
                                                                  Dramatiques
   Theatre du soleil (France)
                                                                 The Royal Court (UK)
   Shakespeare & Company

43. How do you consider your international connections?
                                                                     %
Satisfactory for my needs                                       32.0%
Adequate but could be better                                    16.0%
Unsatisfactory                                                  52.0%
Comments on how international connections could be improved include:

   Again, we find ourselves in a position where we are after a producer who has the international networks and connections in place already who can sell us and support
    us. How we find this appropriate producer is proving difficult.

   When international companies tour here for festivals, stage a forum which introduces their work to Australian production companies and looks at ways of enabling
    future connections and possible production outcomes.

   More formal links between companies, individuals and organisations. Co-productions etc. I think this is about individuals and leadership - I believe there is a lack of
    international perspective in Queensland theatre.

   More resources - people to determine international strategy and to develop networks.

   We would like to pitch for national and international festival work - some support to make the right pitch and to the best-fit festivals would greatly assist us. Always
    this comes down to the resources of the company , when there is really no capacity to do such work - then someone who you trust sees a show and makes
    encouraging comments. In our case - our last 2 festival engagements were wondrous happenstance rather than pitched and planned ...

   Haven't got a clue about how to effectively promote to organisations in other countries.

   This is a big area I want to develop in. However it is very difficult to make contacts being based in Brisbane.


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    Provide a free access database for people to load contact information to assist in awareness

    At this stage, the company needs to work locally/nationally. International work will happen in the future.

    Time and resources to research and connect with like-minded organisations and ability to build relationships through electronic and some face to face contact. Time
     and resources to explore and understand the value of creating the opportunities for exchange of work, ideas, artists etc.

    We are little little fish. We have the potential to tour into the Asian market and have indeed made some very tentative overtures but orgs like State Development and
     AQ need to facilitate meetings, start conversations between artists and potential producers.

D.   CHALLENGES
44. How would you rate the following as challenges to your ability to develop theatre work? (asked of those who had developed work in 2008)
                                                   Highest         Quite high       Moderate         Quite low         Lowest     Not relevant                  Rating
                                                                                                                                                               Average
Access to other forms of funding                          40%               35%                7%                  7%            9%               2%               3.90
Access to government funding                              42%               16%               21%                 14%            5%               2%               3.79
Having enough development time                            28%               30%               19%                 12%            9%               2%               3.57
Access to good administrative support                      9%               33%               16%                 30%            9%               2%               3.02
Access to suitable rehearsal space                        19%               19%               21%                 19%           21%               2%               2.95
Finding the right artists                                 12%               23%               21%                 21%           19%               5%               2.88
Negotiating contracts                                      5%               12%               35%                 28%            9%              12%               2.71
Access to good dramaturgical support                       7%               16%               23%                 21%           26%               5%               2.55
Other issues and comments were:

    Marketing strategies/know-how - where does an independent artist access this information initially? I threw myself in the deep end and learnt by trial and error. There
     are a lot of issues around this to do with funding support for marketing, timelines as an independent (often multi-tasking) producer etc...

    I am reluctant to begin anything that does not pay artists a decent, ethical wage.

    Time and money! In order to develop new work you need time and money to support yourself through this period. In order to get the money you have to put your
     time into another job and so the circle has closed. In order to develop new work you also need an ensemble that exists not for a day or a week, but works together for
     years. Such ensemble are nonexistent in Brisbane.




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   Funding applications and acquittals and reporting and surveys take up so much of our time it often seems to be hard to find time to concentrate on delivering an
    artistic program.

   It is very difficult to secure funding for the creative development of a new work, so not enough time can be dedicated to this part of the process, especially wh en
    running a business as well.

   It is not so much access to good admin support that is the main challenge; it is more that as an individual creating work with a handful of other artists, one has to do all
    the admin work oneself, so that creative work, which should be at the forefront of one's priorities, takes a back seat. It is impossible to include, and get funded for, a
    realistic amount for admin in a grant budget.

   Funding and development time are totally interdependent as we would not earn sufficient at the box office to recoup outlays in salaries

   Perceptions of new work: the 'it's perfect or it's a flop' paradigm; identifying and persuading audiences to come to see a show they've not considered but they love
    when they see it - challenges seem to be the audience perception that work at certain venues is uncertain/unprofessional; that 'new' work is bad; that the unknown is
    not worth risking.

   Being increasingly guided by the funding bodies to seek co-presenters, we are often bound by the presenting company's artistic agenda, and have to choose our own
    projects that would best fit with their preferred genres - this can often be creatively limiting for the Independent companies, who need the larger companies to get
    work produced. A potentially dangerous problem.

   As a training institution development of more than one mainstage work of a week or more is challenging. However we develop lots of short works that play in various
    festivals, venues and events.

   Geographic distance to labour supply is critical to our company (transport, accommodation, travel costs)

   Funding timelines.

45. How would you rate the following as challenges to your ability to produce theatre works? (asked of those who had produced work in 2008)
                                                   Highest         Quite high       Moderate         Quite low          Lowest    Not relevant                      Rating
                                                                                                                                                                   Average
Access to other forms of funding                          31%               46%               10%                5%                 5%                3%               3.95
Access to government funding                              28%               21%               36%                8%                 5%                3%               3.61
Having enough rehearsal time                              15%               33%               33%                8%                10%                0%               3.36
Finding a producing partner                               15%               15%               28%               26%                 8%                8%               3.06


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Access to good administrative support                      8%               36%               15%                28%               10%                   3%        3.03
Finding the right production people                       13%               23%               26%                18%               15%                   5%        3.00
Access to suitable rehearsal space                        10%               21%               28%                15%               21%                   5%        2.84
Finding the right artists                                 10%               13%               26%                23%               26%                   3%        2.58
Negotiating contracts                                      5%               10%               26%                36%               15%                   5%        2.50
Other issues and comments were:

   As a work in progress our work was 'fed back' to each group at each workshop to gain community input, support, and approval - in order to proceed to the next stage.
    Our work was 'unrehearsed' however, was well received in each instance - and again depended on the 'performance' strengths of all artists who felt comfortable to
    share roles.

   In terms of admin support - there usually isn't a lot from my experience so it's usually DIY. It comes down to being very organised.

   Touring into schools is something that allows me to develop other works, including film projects. As a professional actor, my schools touring was done in 1979. 30
    years on, I have returned to it for reasons outlined here. Eating is good. That is not to say that I don't enjoy the work. There are several stages to it - including
    marketing, securing bookings, interacting with the schools, invoicing, liaising with teachers, developing and producing performance resource kits, tour management,
    rehearsals, touring prep and the actual tour followed by any post tour admin etc.

   Funding support is particularly needed to cover rehearsals. Currently the region is quite low on production people - but this is cyclical

   Not having to be both director/producer or writer/producer during the rehearsal period. It's possible to double-bill either of these pairings, but not during rehearsal,
    not without losing focus and energy in them both. And access to the means by which you convince others you are serious and deserve consideration - history, money,
    connections...

   Most of these issues come down to the production budget and the nature of the project. Eg. the length of a rehearsal is directly proportional to the amount of funding
    received. Again, geography (and the associated costs of getting the right artists to a regional Queensland community) can be a major barrier (cost) in producing works.

46. How would you rate the following as challenges to your ability to present theatre works?
                                                   Highest         Quite high       Moderate               Quite low            Lowest          Not relevant    Rating
                                                                                                                                                               Average
Securing other forms of funding                           33%               31%               17%                 3%                8%                   8%        3.85
Securing government funding                               36%               22%               19%                 6%                8%                   8%        3.79
Marketing or publicising the work                         14%               36%               28%                14%                6%                   3%        3.40
Access to suitable venues                                 11%               31%               17%                 6%               28%                   8%        2.91

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Access to good administrative support                    8%               28%              22%               25%              14%                3%              2.91
Finding a presenting partner                            17%               17%              14%               22%              19%               11%              2.88
Access to good production people                         8%               17%              33%               22%              19%                0%              2.72
Negotiating with presenting partner                      6%               14%              22%               28%              17%               14%              2.58
Availability of high quality theatre work to             8%               17%              11%               19%              25%               19%              2.55
present
Negotiating with producers                               3%               14%              17%               28%              14%               22%              2.52
Negotiating with artists                                 3%               11%              25%               36%              22%                3%              2.34
Other issues and comments were:

   Negotiating with presenting partners in their venue comes down to communication

   Availability of understanding and affordable ticketing outlets and arrangements.

   While audience development per se is not a challenge to our ability to present, there is no point presenting without audiences. The challenge is targeting projects to
    make them relevant to regional audiences. Local production/presenting is vital in the audience development mix (building on local relationships).

47. How would you rate the following as challenges to your ability to tour your work?
                                                   Highest         Quite high       Moderate           Quite low           Lowest      Not relevant           Rating
                                                                                                                                                             Average
Securing other forms of funding                         19%               33%              19%                0%               5%               24%              3.81
Securing government funding                             24%               24%              29%                0%               5%               19%              3.76
Promoting your work to presenters                       33%               19%              19%                5%              19%                5%              3.45
Access to performing arts markets and                    5%               29%              33%                5%              10%               19%              3.18
forums
Access to information about touring                     10%               29%              24%               10%              14%               14%              3.11
mechanisms
Securing an agent                                       14%               10%               5%                5%              14%               52%              3.10
Negotiating contracts with presenters                   14%               14%              29%               19%              14%               10%              2.95
Creating high quality promotional material              10%               14%              29%               29%              10%               10%              2.84
Access to good administrative support                    5%               19%              29%               24%              24%                0%              2.57
Negotiating contracts with artists                       0%               10%              24%               24%              24%               19%              2.24
Other issues and comments were:



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   If a touring organisation takes on the tour, it can be a huge relief

   Access to performing arts markets and forums is vital in the company's future development, but the costs can be prohibitive (eg. audiovisual records, live
    presentations, etc). There is a real cost in maintaining networks and this is one of the most vital components of running a company. Time from concept to tour is often
    significant (a number of years) which poses a real cost / barrier to production.

   Lack of relationship with presenters and their audiences. Touring mechanisms that have allowed touring to take place between companies under pressure as costs of
    touring increase and the drain on small companies to tour cheaply is becoming an issues as airlines clamp down on excess baggage costs. There is a fear that the
    current touring strategy will not have a realistic view of touring or further support previously successful models to overcome the real issues of touring to regional and
    remote communities.

48. Beyond the matters mentioned in the previous sections, how would you rate the following as long-term challenges to your ability to develop, produce or present
    theatre?
                                               Very high       Quite high       Moderate          Quite low        Very low        No opinion           Rating
                                                                                                                                                      Average
Amount of overall funding available                        62%             18%              10%                2%                6%                2%               4.31
Capacity to plan two or three years ahead                  44%             20%              20%                6%                6%                2%               3.94
Access to touring opportunities                            38%             24%              16%                4%               12%                6%               3.77
Process of applying for funding                            26%             36%              20%                8%                6%                2%               3.71
Networking internationally                                 32%             26%              16%                6%               12%                8%               3.65
Networking nationally                                      18%             50%              12%                6%               10%                4%               3.63
Access to skilled managers and producers                   28%             28%              14%               14%               10%                4%               3.53
Exposure to the best work, nationally and                  26%             28%              24%                6%               12%                4%               3.52
internationally
Access to marketing/audience                               22%             26%              30%               10%                 6%               6%               3.51
development expertise
Departure of key people to better                          20%             32%              20%               14%                 6%               8%               3.50
opportunities elsewhere
Access to low cost no-frills venues                        30%             20%              16%                8%               16%               10%               3.44
Quality of tertiary training in Qld                        14%             24%              22%               10%               14%               16%               3.17
Quality of Qld theatre work                                18%             18%              28%                6%               20%                8%               3.09
Access to skilled production people                        16%             20%              26%               20%               14%                4%               3.04
Access to critical feedback on artistic                    12%             18%              26%               18%               16%                8%               2.91
quality

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Compliance issues (insurance, health and                  22%                 8%               26%                20%               22%                 2%               2.88
safety etc)
Access to skilled artists                                 10%                18%               24%                26%               18%                 4%               2.75
Process of accounting for funding                         12%                14%               32%                14%               26%                 2%               2.71
Networking locally                                         8%                12%               34%                30%               16%                 0%               2.66
Access to business training                                8%                14%               28%                30%               18%                 2%               2.63
Other issues and comments were:

   Access to venue full-stop, as presenting partners become less inclined to take any risk on new local work.

   Most regional venues are in desperate need of major upgrades and developments. At present there are no state annual arts infrastructure funds available to support
    the ongoing investment made by local government. Inadequate cultural facilities throughout the State will be a more challenge in maintaining a healthy state and
    national touring circuit

   The funding relationship between Arts Queensland and The Australia Council. I think there could be more dialogue between the two to prevent artists from being
    short-changed if applying for funding for the same project through both organisations. More support from key organisations for established independent artists. Ability
    for artists to identify and contact producers relevant to their work. More interstate touring for Queensland artists: the quality work is here: we need to get it there.

   There is an increasingly impenetrable belief that the arts is just in a bit of a doldrums, the problem with the arts is that economics devalues the arts, for it is impossible
    to economically rationalise what they do. So you have a dilemma that will never appear in a report like this, because the arts is not a document, it is a passionate
    economic driver that is underutilised and misunderstood. Economics will never allow the arts to engage the community, because the arts makes meaning and sense
    and economics is more interested in dollars and cents.... That is why the artists must assume responsibility for as much of the evolution of the sector as possible -
    otherwise watch it roll around and continue to underperform - just watch - wait and see death by committee and economic rationalisation....

   Amount of overall funding should have an off-the-chart rating

   Inequitable distribution of the very limited funding available should also rate astronomically very high

   Virtually no formal infrastructure for Indigenous performing arts. Perceived difficulty in working with Indigenous themes by wider industry, little and unfocussed
    support for Indigenous performing arts

   Lack of coordination of funding application and advice dates is a major barrier to planning for production work. Access to production and touring networks is difficult
    from a regional community. Presenting new work to industry gatekeepers is costly - disadvantaging regional producers.

   Lack of faith even after excellent reviews, very good audiences and demonstrated administrative competence.

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E. QUEENSLAND THEATRE SECTOR
49. On a scale of 1 to 5 (with 5 meaning 'strong'), how would you rate the following organisations according to their contribution to creating an environment in Qld
    where high quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish?
                                                          5                  4                3                 2                1       No opinion            Rating
                                                     strong                                                             not strong                            Average
Metro Arts                                              34%               22%              22%               14%                4%               4%                3.71
Brisbane Powerhouse                                     26%               28%              32%                8%                6%               0%                3.60
Circa                                                   14%               28%              18%               12%                6%              22%                3.41
Judith Wright Centre                                     8%               32%              32%               14%                6%               8%                3.24
La Boite                                                 8%               24%              47%                8%                6%               6%                3.22
Playlab                                                 13%               23%              35%               13%                8%               8%                3.20
Brisbane Festival                                       22%               26%              20%               10%               22%               0%                3.16
Just Us Theatre Ensemble                                12%               14%              18%               14%               10%              32%                3.06
Qld Theatre Company                                     10%               24%              34%               16%               12%               4%                3.04
Qld Performing Arts Centre                              18%               14%              22%               22%               18%               6%                2.91
Qld Arts Council                                        16%               14%              20%               14%               26%              10%                2.78
Youth Arts Qld                                           6%               12%              20%               22%               10%              30%                2.74
Other comments were:

   Depends on what your own personal definition of 'high quality contemporary theatre practice' is...?

   The cost of tickets reduces audience number – trial more 'adventurous' approaches to widen the theatrical experience

   More inventive ideas for engaging with the public/community to develop innovative theatre with cultural merit - e.g. more multicultural / Indigenous theatre

   Invite strong creative collaborations, to created new networks, and promote Queensland stories and artists in a more supportive 'developmental' environment.

   High quality contemporary theatre practice: this is a very subjective idea - I answer strongly in most of the above sections because these venues house works and
    produce works that would be considered by the broader industry and public to be high quality contemporary theatre practice - however I would like to say that there is
    little avant-garde work being supported, or work that is not 'conventional' being supported by some of these venues. I think we are in very conservative times and this
    has an impact on what is being supported and what is not. Incredibly interesting and sophisticated works exist/ are in the making/ want to be made, though how they
    can be supported is a problem and will continue to prevent them from being seen.



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   Brisbane Powerhouse has a reputation of importing key creatives from Perth. This wouldn't be a problem if they left behind a footprint - i.e., it was a condition of
    Brisbane Powerhouse funding that Qld attachments were placed with their imports. As regards developing work. Sourcing rehearsal venues continues to be
    problematic. Subsidized theatre companies have their own needs to serve so space availability is at a premium there. Even community-based venue rates can be off-
    limits to the no-budget development process. As far as accessing development funds from Arts Queensland - I came away from their 2007 forum thinking they were
    following a Commissioning Editor model, where they would choose projects based on their own market place knowledge. In my last Letter of Support for an AQ
    application my referee wrote that it was ridiculous that an artist of my reputation and experience should even need one. Artists of considerable standing have a great
    deal to offer through their vast experiences of examining dramatic action through decades of interpreting text, structure, character and story. Our funding priorities
    need to favour mature artists, who often find themselves competing against every minority group possible. Also, types of offered programs should reflect their unique
    experience by providing programs that assist them to move between disciplines, e.g., writing, acting, directing and filmmaking. Given the dwindling work opportunities
    available to mature actors (ABS records that in 2006, 49% of all employed actors were under the age of 35), privileging them in the grants environment should be a
    given.

   Contemporary theatre practice: does this mean professional, growth opportunities that employ and return on investment a liveable wage to performers,
    administrators & crew? Or does it mean appearance of a vibrant arts scene with lots of posters and lots of profit/loss share for bleeding hearts? I value the arts more
    passionately and optimistically than many: I believe we sponsor business and governments, but the culture of the sector is that people give away their power and
    ideas. We need passionate culture change in the way the arts does business. We need to endorse and support success and advocate for self sustainability. that means
    yes, a degree of elitism & preferential support for exemplary people and projects that create value.

   While many presenters say they have an open door policy, it is not that easy to access the decision makers. There is definitely a lack of presenters working with smaller
    companies in giving them low risk opportunities to practice their work.

   The demise of Qld Arts Council will now remove many well organised touring opportunities

   QPAC and Brisbane Festival score highly because of quality bought–in productions and Out of the Box. Queensland Theatre Company has poor selection and
    production standards and is only saved by their brilliantly conceived and well-executed Premier's Drama Award project and occasional Bille Brown Studio
    events/shows. La Boite's novels-as-drama era has been bad enough but their new (2009-announced) policy of abandoning their all-Australian content is an
    unmitigated disaster for playwriting in Australia. Metro Arts gets 3 for sheer quantity and openness and generous spirit towards "the fringe". Brisbane Powerhouse
    seems like a glorious performing arts junk-yard which every major city needs. Playlab seems most useful now as a local publisher of plays - very useful!

   La Boite I've given a 3 because in the last 5 years that's the highest score I can give. La Boite has pursued the idea of audience development via the use of familiar other
    mediums. It has concentrated on poor quality adaptations of 'popular' novels it felt would guarantee audience, to the detriment of the notion of what theatre is and
    expanding audience development. The Qld Performing Arts Centre I've scored poorly because of its insular attitude to small and medium-sized practitioners; its



                                                                                     108
    laziness in following what's happening in the local sector; its waste of government funding; and the fact that it rarely (or only very, very recently) has considered
    making its state-owned facilities accessible to practitioners who weren't hirers (I'm speculating from a couple of pieces of info here).

   Whilst these responses are based on our broad knowledge of the theatre industry in Queensland, very few of these organisations offer any services to regional
    companies - that is, true engagement - not just by touring shows. We would measure true engagement through the formation of regional/metro partnerships between
    producing companies.

   Commercial imperative and importing shows rather than developing or producing skews ratings.

   Obviously every company/organisation is keen to create an environment for high quality contemporary practice to flourish. However, if companies are always
    struggling just to survive, expending very little to achieve a lot then you are never going to give people the space and time to generate extraordinary work. It does not
    help that the state funding body sees its role as 'delivering' government 'outcomes' rather than creating an environment where high quality contemporary theatre
    practice can flourish. For this to happen the funding body must loosen the reins and allow the creatives in the field to drive the sector creatively with support rather
    than being dictated to. There is a level of micromanagement which I believe is unhelpful and outside of the role of funding bodies. There seems to currently be an
    evangelical feel to Arts Qld "they know what is best for the arts and they will do whatever it takes to force us into the light". If the creatives of this state are to be truly
    valued then they need to be given some level of equal status with the officers within the funding body. Respect needs to be generated again on both sides. I am not
    naive, I understand that there will always be a tension between funding body staff and people working in the sector, however I believe that this relationship can be
    collegial and healthy and supportive rather than the current, I would say, condescending, dictatorial nature of the current staff to members of the sector. I believe
    there is an unhealthy level of power being held by officers within Arts Qld with the reduction of peer assessment, and I wonder about the level of discretionary
    initiative and other monies and about the processes that are in place for these. I believe that working within the sector is a choice, however, when you look at the
    salary discrepancies between those working in the sector and those working within government to 'support' the sector, some acknowledgement must be given to this -
    even if it is a shift in the thinking of the staff and a generosity of spirit in understanding the dedication and passion of those working in the sector.

50. On a scale of 1 to 5 (with 5 meaning 'strong'), how would you rate the following according to their contribution to creating an environment in Qld where high
    quality contemporary theatre practice can flourish? Note that these are not exclusive categories - some will overlap with others.
                                                          5                4                 3                2                  1    No opinion        Rating
                                                     strong                                                             not strong                    Average
Independent theatre                                        34%                32%               22%                10%                 2%                0%                3.86
Devised work/contemporary performance                      22%                24%               24%                18%                 0%               10%                3.57
Text-based theatre                                         18%                34%               28%                 8%                 8%                4%                3.48
Circus and physical theatre                                12%                30%               40%                10%                 2%                6%                3.43
Cabaret and comedy                                         12%                24%               40%                12%                 2%                8%                3.36
Theatre for children and young people                      16%                24%               22%                24%                 4%               10%                3.27

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Regional theatre companies                               8%               32%              28%               14%                6%              12%               3.25
Youth theatre (work made with young                     12%               24%              34%               12%                8%              10%               3.22
people)
Regional venues                                         12%               16%              28%               26%                8%              10%               2.98
Australia Council support                               18%               14%              22%               28%               12%               6%               2.98
Touring mechanisms nationally                           12%               16%              32%               20%               12%               8%               2.96
Community theatre                                       10%               14%              32%               20%               10%              14%               2.93
Touring mechanisms within Qld                            8%               22%              26%               20%               14%              10%               2.89
Qld government support                                   8%               26%              24%               28%               14%               0%               2.86
Local government support                                12%               22%              26%               16%               22%               2%               2.86
Music theatre                                            4%               14%              34%               26%               10%              10%               2.73
Visual theatre/puppetry                                  2%               10%              38%               18%               12%              20%               2.65
Indigenous theatre                                       4%               20%              24%               24%               18%              10%               2.64
Amateur theatre                                          4%               12%              20%               26%               22%              16%               2.40
Other comments were:

   I think that the idea of creating works with 4 to 5 weeks development then a 3 week season continuously is something that prevents theatre from truly achieving its
    full potential. Perhaps allowing works time to develop outside the conventional parameters would allow truly inspired works to flourish. Of course this is all bound up
    in funding...

   Why Youth theatre by young people? What is the use of generational segmentation when we are talking about culture? Box ticking is a big problem in the sector.
    Governments are unable to support enterprise - this is a problem it may be the biggest problem we face. We need to create ethical social enterprise opportunities for
    governments to see the value in quality assured collaborative partnerships. The whole commercial/ not-for-profit paradox can only be overcome by social enterprise. It
    is the future for a sustainable sector.

   Arts Queensland and the Australia Council will never make the proper contribution such bodies should and could make while overall arts funding in Australia is so
    inadequate and while the little there is, is so badly distributed.

   Support for the writing of new works is paramount

   1) Local government are key players in the sector through the provision of venues and their partnership with Arts Qld through RADF (funding available for regional
    performing/presenting/producing groups). However, occasionally political imperatives influence the nature of the product presented at major regional venues. Many
    local governments are not proactive as they do not see this as their major role. However, we see local government as key drivers in the sector in the long term. This
    will mean forming cross-tiered partnerships between local, state and federal governments to stimulate their policy directions. 2) Amateur theatre and community

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    theatre are integral in the overall picture of the industry in terms of being a breeding/training ground for emerging artists, research and development and audience
    development generally. This is a vital sector in engaging through regional communities due to established audiences and infrastructure. 3) Playing Australia keeps the
    national touring mechanism alive and is the only mechanism by which high quality contemporary theatre can flourish. However, if a regional area does not have a
    suitable venue (or a venue which actively participates in the NARPACA network), it may not experience any activity through this touring program. 4) While Indigenous
    theatre has been strong in the past, the cuts to funding (eg. Kooemba Jdarra) have meant a lowering of priorities in this sector. Our company has a priority for
    addressing this issue in a regional community. 5) Touring mechanisms in Qld (QAC and NARPACA) have been very strong in the past. It is vital to continue schools
    touring programs as well as the Arts Regional Touring Service programs into the future. These provide significant markets and ongoing employment in the sector.

51. Which organisations, groups or individuals are currently making the best theatre in Queensland?
Answers include:

   Brisbane Powerhouse as an organization is presenting some of the best theatre in Brisbane, most of which is imported from overseas, Christine Johnston and Annie
    Lee, Southbank Institute of Technology

   Ozfrank

   Queensland Theatre Company and Circa

   Writers - Michael Futcher and Helen Howard, Stephen Carleton; Directors - Michael Gow, Michael Futcher; Actors - many - but only under the right direction; I have
    been quite shocked at some young theatre makers who have received large Oz Co and Arts Qld support for very poor work. I think artistic maturity needs to be a more
    significant factor in funding.

   Lisa O'Neill, Attack of the Attacking Attackers collective, Sasha Janowicz, Matt Ryan

   Difficult question to answer. Various local companies on the Sunshine Coast are producing some great work at a regional level. Other companies that had a great
    audience response include Queensland Theatre Company, CIRCA, La Boite.

   La Boite, Expressions

   The ones that use passion to create content with purpose and suit it to the correct context and have principles that support artists who value audiences above all. The
    ones that pay artists liveable wages to freely create in this way...And they are... TBA

   Matrix Theatre Co.; Oscar Theatre Co.

   Judith Wright Centre, Metro Arts Centre, Circa, Flying Arts, Brisbane Cabaret Festival

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   Brides of Frank, Lisa O'Neill, 23rd Productions (Kathryn Fray)

   Flipside Circus, Harvest Rain Theatre Company, Zen Zen Zo, Markwell Presents,

   Restaged Histories, Imaginary Theatre, Matrix Theatre

   Opera Queensland, Queensland Ballet, La Boite, Queensland Theatre Company and Gold Coast Arts Centre

   CIRCA, Dance North, Splinter group, Michael Futcher and Helen Howard, Brisbane Powerhouse as a co-producer and presenter,

   La Boite, Zen Zen Zo, Restaged Histories, Forward Movement, Imaginary Theatre, Backbone, 23rd Productions, Matrix.

   La Boite, Zen Zen Zo, Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble, Metro Arts Independents Program, Edge Improv

   It's pretty hit and miss: Splinter Group in 'Lawn'; Circa's 'Stars' show; Matrix Theatre's 'Wishing Well'; Bell Shakespeare/Queensland Theatre Company's 'Titus'; Metro
    Arts Independents are seriously underfunded and yet are striving for better quality all the time (their best successes depend on the enormous dedication of the
    individuals involved); I've not seen JUTE for a while but their program of opportunities for theatre-making must place them amongst the best; Brisbane Powerhouse
    attracts some terrific national/international work; as did the last Brisbane Festival.

   Some of the best stuff I have seen in recent times is the stuff that has come out of Metro Arts and places like that. The work that has been put together by people with
    passion but no funding often tends to resonate better than a lot of the work that’s coming out of some of the major government funded companies.

   Circa, Matrix

   Playlab, Metro Arts

   Metro Arts

   Q.T.C., Matrix, Marge and Michael Ford, Forgetting of Wisdom and independents through Metro Arts.

   Judith Wright Centre, Ausdance Queensland, Brisbane Powerhouse, Queensland Theatre Company, Metro Arts.

   Over the past few years several women, individually, have done exciting things but they have been forced to seek professional careers elsewhere. Most Brisbane work
    seems muted in its impact by the poor resources available to the fringe, by egocentric, unsound choices made by the 2 big production companies, and by forced
    imposition of old-fashioned, inadequate, personality-driven dramaturgy.


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   It's very patchy. Metro Arts has been a great breeding ground for Independent companies and is one of the few venues that companies with virtually no money can
    afford. The links between Metro Arts and organizations such as Critical Stages were responsible for the success of Matrix's production of "The Kursk" which is now
    touring Australia wide. Queensland Theatre Company do work of a generally high standard, La Boite is hit and miss but will be very different now. Zen Zen Zo and Frank
    Theatre do their thing well but have a limited audience appeal, although Zen Zen Zo reaches out to young people very well.

   Umber Productions - new, challenging theatre with strong textual and physical leanings and a desire to work with other artists (eg sculptors) in making work; Matrix
    Theatre - actor-centric work, developing the idea of communication between audience and actor in many silent ways; Circa - physical circus story; Splintergroup - Lawn
    and Roadkill: narrative bodies in space; watch Metro Arts as a venue; JUTE as a hub of new ideas and growing form; Shaun Charles and Andrew McGahan; 23rd
    Productions who focus on the best new international work;

   Brisbane Powerhouse is having some of the most diverse and interesting performance shows to watch around town.

   Artist wise, Matrix Theatre always produce high quality theatre, Dan Evans, Queensland Theatre Company, La Boite and Metro Arts independent shows.

   Matrix Theatre consistently wins awards for high artistic standards.

   Independent sector

   There is little theatre for young people in Qld to comment on - DeBASE are doing pretty good works in this area. Independent artists - eg. in no particular order 23rd
    Productions, tilt, Maxine Mellor, Restaged Histories Project, The Brides of Frank, Brian Lucas (dance theatre), Lucas Stibbard et al. deBASE Some good work comes from
    Circa and Frank. Interstate artists who have hailed from Qld but have been run out of town ie Real TV project, Marcel Dorney, Emily Tomlins, This side up etc are
    making awesome works and returning it to Qld.

   JUTE Theatre, Crossroads Theatre, Brisbane Cabaret Festival, Matrix Theatre, deBASE Productions, bRash ensemble

   Independent theatre companies - the big funded companies do homogenous bland text based museum pieces

   Brisbane Cabaret Festival, QPAC, Circa, Southern Cross Soloists, Queensland Theatre Co, La Boite

   The 'best' theatre is subjective - one could write a thesis on what is 'best'. More importantly, I believe the question that could be asked is which organisations, groups
    or individuals are currently making work of integrity (at whatever level of resources) that is both creatively engaged in the contemporary language of theatre practice
    and engaging an audience (whether that be 10 people who recognise the creative boundaries that are being pushed or 1000 people who are in some connecting to the
    stories being told well on stage.). What is lacking is good critical review of work in this state, giving us a context for our work in the same way as Kathryn Brisbane
    provided a context for the new wave of Australian work taking place in the 60/70's. Quality analytical review of work can create an environment for a more rigorous
    discussion about what makes good work good and will push the sector to better evaluate the quality of work, and develop processes for building higher quality work of

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    integrity in the future. Of course we cannot know what is good unless we, as artists, are consistently aware of what is out there in the world of theatre - as Jim
    Sharman says - without knowing the history of theatre and understanding where we have come from, we cannot build upon the work that has already been done, and
    we are at risk of presenting, as new and ground breaking, what has already been and gone! We need, as a sector, to enter into a rigorous discourse about the work
    that is being created, so that we are consistently inspired and moving forward. We also need to discuss and articulate what it means to be creating theatre in
    Queensland, in Brisbane and in the vast expanse of the regions to better understand what is unique about the work, if anything, and to articulate, as a sector, how we
    want our work to be represented to the nation and to the world. I keep harking back to the emergence of new Australian work in the late 60's and 70's, at first it was
    derided but eventually it made a place for itself in the national psyche as an important element of our theatrical landscape. What is 'not best' is what I would call lazy
    theatre - theatre that has not engaged in any contemporary theatrical language but rather just reproduced, old fashioned theatre, with no engagement with the
    contemporary context of the work. Amateur theatre is often noted for keeping alive old fashioned styles of theatre and ignoring contemporary contexts. I believe
    every form of performance deserves a place in the theatrical environment - as long as it is actively engaging with the contemporary.

   Queensland Theatre Company, La Boite, Metro Arts, Brisbane Powerhouse, Out of the Box Festival, deBASE

   Metro Arts - Independents Season, Matrix Theatre - Helen Howard & Michael Futcher, La Boite Theatre Company, Queensland Shakespeare Ensemble

52. For great theatre to happen in Qld, what do you think are the most important ingredients?
                                                    Highest             High       Moderate                    Low    Lowest priority       No opinion            Rating
                                                    priority                                                                                                     Average
Engagement with audiences                                63%               29%                8%                0%                0%                0%               4.55
Quality of the performers                                49%               49%                2%                0%                0%                0%               4.47
Quality of the writing                                   57%               33%               10%                0%                0%                0%               4.47
Government support                                       53%               33%               10%                4%                0%                0%               4.35
Quality of the original concept                          51%               27%               18%                2%                0%                2%               4.29
Artistic ambition of the work                            53%               29%               10%                6%                2%                0%               4.24
Vision of the director                                   37%               51%                4%                8%                0%                0%               4.16
Quality of training                                      29%               51%               16%                2%                0%                2%               4.08
Opportunities to see the best                            39%               29%               24%                8%                0%                0%               3.98
national/international work
Risk and innovation                                      35%               35%               22%                6%                2%                0%               3.94
Critical discourse about the work                        31%               31%               27%                8%                4%                0%               3.76
Good quality spaces                                      24%               37%               31%                6%                2%                0%               3.76
High production values                                   22%               29%               39%                6%                4%                0%               3.59
Visual quality                                           18%               33%               37%                8%                4%                0%               3.53


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Telling Queensland stories                                 4%                8%               39%               29%               20%                 0%               2.47
Other high priorities were:

   Creative artists at the core of the sector engaging communities with stories created by and for the people addressing their most pressing issues in the most dynamic
    and life enhancing ways...

   It is a very wide subject. But most important to my mind is developing the theatre-going culture, starting from the youngest age. Bringing work to schools is fine but
    children should go to the theatres and see shows! Performing world classics and new work on Qld stage is important. Bringing productions from outside and exporting
    are critical for the development of the quality of theatre. Creation of academic theatre ensembles working full time developing generations within themselves,
    traditions and training. I believe that it is an abnormal situation when, as it is in Queensland Theatre Company, the management part of the company employs dozens
    of stuff, while there are just a few actors employed for periods of a few weeks at a time. It must be remembered that it is actors, who give jobs to the management,
    artistic or not, and not the other way round.

   Theatre creators and producers have to give the audiences what they want rather than what they think they need, they have to realise that commercially they are
    competing with a dynamic entertainment/arts environment of almost limitless choice, we've got to give our potential audiences something worth their time and their
    money.

   Connection to communities (beyond 'engagement with audiences' alone)

   Much, much more emphasis needed on playwriting and much, much less on directing. If the ‘vision’ is not in the script then it's a lost cause. Directorial interference
    with playscripts is an epidemic in Western theatre (and maybe elsewhere). Stanislavski is a naughty boy and recanting in his final years was no help. Training -
    innovative but logical (all actors should read David Mamet on acting), exciting and creative - is desperately needed at all levels of theatre and especially in playwriting.
    Great theatre will only ever come from great playscripts.

   Stemming the brain drain of good artists to Melbourne and Sydney; opportunities to extend the life of work through touring; encouragement of commercial producing
    sector in Qld; creative and artistic partnering with companies in other states; encourage regional companies to present in capital cities

   A solid promotional strategy and support by at least one larger organisation (ie a venue or a service provider - if only for moral support for the team)

   Re Telling Qld Stories - I don’t think every production should be about telling Qld stories but would be interested in articulating what is Qld theatre in the same way as
    we have articulated (to some extent) what is Australian theatre. Is there an ingredient that makes it recognisably Qld theatre - and that that be a positive, not a
    negative!

53. Thinking about these same ingredients, how does the Queensland theatre sector currently rate?


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                                                  Very strong      Quite strong         Moderate         Quite weak         Very weak        No opinion            Rating
                                                                                                                                                                  Average
Quality of the performers                                  4%               53%               37%                2%                2%                2%               3.56
High production values                                     4%               35%               55%                2%                2%                2%               3.38
Visual quality                                             6%               27%               49%               10%                2%                6%               3.26
Telling Queensland stories                                 6%               16%               53%               10%                2%               12%               3.16
Quality of the writing                                     0%               20%               61%               14%                2%                2%               3.02
Good quality spaces                                        4%               27%               37%               27%                4%                2%               3.00
Quality of the original concept                            0%               24%               49%               22%                2%                2%               2.98
Artistic ambition of the work                              6%               18%               41%               24%                6%                4%               2.94
Engagement with audiences                                  4%                8%               61%               22%                2%                2%               2.90
Vision of the director                                     0%               18%               43%               31%                2%                6%               2.83
Quality of training                                        2%               16%               39%               22%               14%                6%               2.67
Opportunities to see the best                              0%               20%               37%               24%               14%                4%               2.66
national/international work
Risk and innovation                                        2%                8%               45%               29%               10%                6%               2.61
Government support                                         0%               12%               45%               27%               12%                4%               2.60
Critical discourse about the work                          2%                0%               33%               43%               16%                6%               2.24
Other comments included:

   This is looking at the whole picture - there have been some outstanding work at Queensland Theatre Company and some excellent international shows at Powerhouse
    and Festival.

   I don't think that these answers are particular to Queensland. I think Australia. And these are general answers.

   Where is the question about viability of performers ability to pay bills, repay mortgages, HECS or feed children (meet childcare costs or rising food/petrol prices)?

   To summarize, as I see it, we have good writers and good actors, but directors lacking in skill. Any story worth its salt is a Queensland story, whether set in Qld or not.
    High production values are too often confused with high spending, i.e. money spent on sets and costumes do not necessarily amount to high production values. Critical
    discourse about the work is available if you know where to look, but there is a reluctance on the part of many involved in the theatre sector to seek it out, or to
    appreciate its value.

   The main ingredient missing is lack of diversity. Looking at other cities around the world the size of Brisbane or in many cases much smaller (eg Minneapolis which has
    one third of Brisbane's population), there is more diverse dedicated theatre (eg Minneapolis has a black theatre, an Asian theatre, a deaf theatre, a Jewish theatre,

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    several different kinds of physical theatre - and that's just dedicated companies with their own spaces, not even looking at the diversity of productions). Qld has too
    few theatres and too few (long-term) theatre companies.

   I have assumed Queensland writing in this response. Obviously, we have access to the best writing around the world but there appears to be little interest from the
    funding agencies in supporting the best international contemporary writing.

   Hard to categorise at times. For example, Queensland actors (generalising) have a particular weakness in their vocal work, even professionals. What passes for risk and
    innovation here is pretty bland. A phrase often heard is that Queensland audiences are not ‘ready for’ a certain play or a theatrical style or approach. Nonsense!

   Rating of these components is highly subjective. Measurement of any of these aspects needs further clarification in terms of the detail required. Any rating of these
    areas are work-specific. It is hard to draw an overall picture here.

   Re Artistic Ambition: I think artists need time and space to create work that is artistically ambitious and we are not funded in this country to take that time and
    certainly don't have the resources to extend artistic ideas.



54. What changes would make Queensland theatre great?
 It's important that Qld actors and theatre makers travel outside of Qld, interstate and overseas to view a range of work to keep their own performance practice alive
    and informed. I think the Qld theatre community suffers from being too self contained and self absorbed. It's important also as an actor and theatre maker to view a
    broad spectrum of performance work, not just to attend theatre.

   Encourage an atmosphere of risk within the industry and the society. It's all currently too safe and that comes back to an economic concern and a need to tick funding
    boxes. A second arm of a major theatre company that is specifically for local artists to experiment would be highly beneficial. Link this arm to some great interstate and
    international contemporary performance makers and let local artists have an opportunity to grow and fly. A sense of pride and encouragement in our own work would
    also help - always telling Qld artists they're not good enough does not encourage new innovative work.

   Great directors given great opportunities. New venues for independent theatre, accompanied by good curation.

   1. Queensland Theatre industry needs to consider more deeply 'what is theatre' and support that which falls outside the conventional concepts 2. Queensland
    artists/industry needs to see more international/interstate works 3. Queensland artists/industry needs to travel to see more of the above 4. Queensland
    artists/industry needs to become more dynamic, daring, risky 5. In order to achieve point 4, Queensland artists/industry needs to realise how conventional it has
    become 6. Dialogue between key organisations and independents needs to be strengthened 7. Queensland artists/industry needs to think about more cross-medium
    works and/or draw inspiration from more diverse sources in this respect 8. Queensland artists/industry needs to have a more international perspective and know


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    what's going on in the world of international theatre and not just in the West 9. Queensland artists/industry needs to not just stage 'plays' but look to create 'art'
    onstage. Epic works, etc.

   What would make Queensland theatre great is having audience supporting Queensland works as I see the key issue being one of awareness (or lack of). Most
    presenters do not have an understanding of the quantity or quality of theatre that is currently available unless it is presented at Long Paddock or the NARPACA
    showcase. Therefore if presenters are unaware of what’s out there, most regional audiences don't have a chance of gaining exposure to this work (under a presenter
    driven model). Many local producers also do not have a clear framework for touring or promoting their work beyond their own regional borders unless it is self-
    funded, so one bad tour will often financially cripple a grassroots producer, sometimes beyond the point of recovery. Queensland Arts Council was delivering a
    producer-driven touring model (agency-driven tour model might be more accurate). However, it was difficult to determine what were the artistic priorities of this
    program. It also seemed to be the same old groups being toured through this program. It is unclear as to whether Queensland Theatre Company is funded to tour the
    state. More than other state companies, they seem to almost solely rely on touring through Long Paddock with presenters meeting the cost. Developing a Queensland
    version of Roadwork could be one option for getting new works around the place.

   Less cultural cringe in relation to Qld and regional works

   If you sacked all of Arts Qld, you could save lots of money and you wouldn’t notice any difference in the product, as they are vastly overstaffed and lack any respect or
    vision.

   Here's a wild idea! Imagine if La Boite were to be funded to have a company of actors for 3 years. This company would work with the best writers and directors in the
    country. This would serve to develop the skills of emerging artists and offer opportunities for greater cross- fertilisation from around the country. The company would
    develop work designed for national and international touring. It would run like a company of old - with ongoing training as part of the every day life of the company.
    This would help to improve the skills of all concerned, adding to the fabric of the theatre community in Brisbane. It would be wonderful if audiences were attracted to
    Brisbane for the theatre as well as the GOMA. I think it's also important to have an affirmative action attitude in employing more women in key creative roles.

   Production of high calibre quality product for the specific purpose of touring nationally and then possibly internationally

   More support for Queensland companies to tour - greater dialogue between venues (presenters) and producers

   Change ‘great’ to ‘sustainable’ and we can start talking... It's a matter of government letting the sector take control of itself and facilitating ethical alliances between
    parties that maximise return on social, economic, environmental & cultural values. Will people or bureaucracies allow this to happen? Will artists be enabled to engage
    communities and explore democracy as the Ancient Greeks did when the theatre was most successful as a tool for social change, before economics began to control its
    messages? Queensland theatre would be great if artists were core to the sector and enabled by ethical leaders from community, business, government & academia to
    create a better future in a variety of platforms. Anyway, that's why I am still doing what I believe in. If I did not believe in change, I would have left long before now.
    Queensland will have a viable sector once artists are given responsibility to create the future. If they do so in concert with the aforementioned quadruple helix leaders

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    they will do a darn sight better than the jokers who have created an unsustainable sector, an economic meltdown and a disconnect between humanity and our own
    geosphere - but dollars and cents earned through taxpayer wages & consumption have got business & government hooked on something that does not make meaning
    or sense.... Viva la evolution, for the sake of the future of our children. Unless artists can help create the vision for a sustainable human future, our kids won't have
    one... That's the real issue.

   More support for independent theatre makers. Less need to make ‘business’ partnerships but more emphasis on great artistic relationships. More fellowships for
    experienced artists to follow through their visions and projects. More accessible rehearsal and performance spaces. Support for independent producers.

   Overhauling the system and clearing out the dead wood. Critical evaluation of the gate-keepers and the perceived bastions of culture. Greater investment in youth arts
    by Arts Qld with strategic policies and procedures in place that involve the youth arts sector (including university training institutions). Letting the ‘little people’ at the
    coalface of new emerging companies have their say (AS Productions, Shake and Stir, Three Sisters, etc)

   Anything which could be done to create a culture of respect for artists, and especially for the professionalism of the artist. Of course, the artist has to earn the respect,
    but at the moment our society seems to assume that artists are not worthy of recompense for their labour, let alone the years spent acquiring skills. In practical terms,
    it would serve Queensland theatre well to have a system of funding venues to buy in local product and independently produced work (such as existed in Scotland in
    the 1980s and early 1990s - a country with similar touring challenges of small scattered communities and large travelling costs). Brisbane, with the largest population,
    needs spaces where theatre makers can develop and experiment without fear of failure - failure should be mandatory on a regular basis! We also desperately need
    quality training facilities which focus on theatre skills and directing skills, rather than film and TV acting.

   Another high quality venue to bring ‘big’ shows to Qld.

   It is interesting that you have listed ‘artistic ambition’ as one of the ingredients that Qld theatre requires because it is often the forgotten ingredient. Once we deem
    ourselves ‘artists’, we expect things to be handed to us rather than pushing for things to happen. At times, we become complacent, because, let's face it, it is hard to
    be creatively on top of your game 100% of the time, particularly with all of the financial stresses. We need to individually re-invigorate ourselves, and surround
    ourselves with like-minded people who focus on the positives. We focus far too much on the negatives (e.g. what the government isn't doing for us) which inhibits our
    creative ambitions and outputs.

   Access

   Leadership. I really feel Queensland theatre is led by individuals. Many of the current leaders in Queensland don’t seem to be taking risks and pushing the artform of
    theatre. These risks could involve new partnerships, development of new works, different types of engagement with new artists and new works.

   More low cost, smaller venues. More exciting work for young people in good venues, they are after all, the next audience and they have so many cheap sources of
    entertainment available to them, if we don't capture their attention and patronage, then where is theatre headed??

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   Creating opportunities for the full spectrum of Qld theatre-makers to make the best possible theatre: eg funding independent theatre so that it is possible for
    emerging artists to engage with mid-career and senior artists in a real exchange of energies and experience. Currently, artists entering the profession have the energy
    and passion to exploit themselves for their work, envisioning this as the beginning to a long and successful career. Mid-career and senior artists still have the passion (if
    they've not left the industry broke and disillusioned) but cannot and should not have to work for little or no money. Funding properly programs like Metro Arts
    Independents so that there is at least token rehearsal pay.

   True collaboration between theatre makers, sharing plans and resources. Rather than the sense of competing for the same pie, let's have more pies! More
    philanthropic support, rather than a 'return for our money' model of govt and corporate sponsorship. Theatre artists actually taking ownership and responsibility for
    their artform, rather than expecting both funding and opportunities to be provided to them.

   Producing good theatre is expensive. I don't believe that it is the government's responsibility to fund the arts, but if they are going to make money available, they
    should make it available to all companies, not sink all their funds into a select few companies. Ultimately, I believe our work should be engaging - engaging enough to
    find an audience who will pay to see it. It should be audiences who should fund a production, not necessarily the government. I believe that what the government
    should do is fund the venues in Brisbane to make venue hire more affordable to theatre companies. Rather than sinking dollars into individual companies (which let's
    face it I wouldn't reject the money if we were offered some!), sink it into the theatre infrastructure in Queensland - sink it into venues etc so that the cost of producing
    theatre is not so high.

   Better access to international writing and productions to broaden the vision of Queensland artists.

   Stronger networking throughout Queensland, more Brisbane people seeing work in the regions and the regional artists getting to see more work in Brisbane. (This is,
    as ever a financial issue) More opportunities for intrastate touring.

   More funding, risk taking in programming, relationships with national companies, artists to see the best of Australian work in Queensland (being less parochial about
    jobs for Queenslanders).

   Greater intellectual rigour. Better use of production and research dramaturgs. Better funding.

   A third pro theatre company. More funding for independents to get proving runs of pieces up. Less concentration on youth. More funding for touring. More value
    given by funding bodies to text-based theatre and less to colour and movement. More small and medium sized venues that are easily got to by the public.

   Local playwrights - foster, nurture, encourage, pamper, mollycoddle, and develop them with sensible, no-nonsense projects and especially with productions to
    audiences. Use models from the Royal Court Theatre in London and New Dramatists in New York and others. And put playwrights into theatres, make that the air they
    breathe, give them jobs in theatres!!!!! Get rid of the silly, top heavy State-Theatre-flagship industry model and set up many moderately-sized production companies -
    some of which can do Shakespeare or West End and Broadway plays if they like. Prize real diversity and innovation with money rewards (i.e. grants). Allow about 20

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    years for the model to bear fruit - the present model has been barren for over 30 years. Discourage the worship of directors. Somehow open up more forums,
    possibilities, and open invitations for critical assessment of theatre work.

   The support from the government, and the media. To have a minister who actually has a desire to stand up for the arts and theatre - and who is interested, and
    passionate, and who is able to speak in a clear voice about the importance of the arts. Not everyone is passionate about sport. If a tenth of the funding that goes into
    promoting and supporting sport could be used to promote and support the arts and theatre, then we could allow the populace to discover the importance of the arts.
    The arts are vital in this world. They teach, they allow people to question, they are not elitist. They are just not about getting dressed up and going to QPAC - they are
    about everyone. The government must support the arts. I think their fear is that the population would become intelligent - and that is something they don't want,
    because then the populace will start to question. The government must support theatre more - to have an intelligent, questioning society.

   1) The creation of a high-quality acting ensemble, not as part of Queensland Theatre Company or La Boite, but run independently with the prime objective of touring
    regionally, nationally and internationally. This company would comprise the very best Queensland artists who would create original innovative works which would be
    exported worldwide and raise the profile and reputation of Queensland theatre. 2) Queensland Theatre needs its smaller independent companies to thrive to provide
    a healthy breeding ground for creativity. Funding bodies need to establish more flexible funding mechanisms to respond quickly when opportunities arise for
    independent companies to collaborate with presenting partners, outside of the usual funding rounds.

   I feel like so many artists feel like everything has to ‘mean’ something, and although of course every piece of work that is displayed in the theatre should have
    substance, I sometimes feel that so much rigmarole about something being ‘educational’, ‘Queensland’ ‘youth-orientated’ must occur for any grant or financial help to
    be obtained. What about just putting on a good story? To give to the community something in a passionate manner from the performers and artists who are
    professional, but are having real joy doing it. It's sad when politics and rules take over and creativity burns into what the government funding body thinks must be
    involved in a show to be claimed as valid (This is a general note and not all the time applicable and indeed there should be questions and shows that are "educational"
    or for youth etc and have very specific purposes). On the other side of this, I think there are certain artists/ producers who are courageous and have great ambition
    and find ways to put on the best theatre they can, and if one is passionate about their project, money, or anything else will not stop them to show that story and be
    involved with as many fellow minded people as possible. I do feel like so many people I know who are truly talented and still get rejected for grants - this means using
    their own personal money with no promise of profit. Putting shows on of course isn't about profit, but it feels as though the steps to take to get some form of help is
    so highly competitive and time consuming (on your own unpaid time to write grants in the first place) that there are artists who feel put down by this system and in
    turn under-appreciated by the system. I think so many things going well in Brisbane and Queensland and are on the right track or are improving greatly - eg. training,
    skilled artists and more and more creative development/ youth opportunities each year. The awareness of the arts in the public eye must continue and not be
    ‘lowered’ as something which the community does not need, when indeed it does!

   Recognise that Indigenous arts and stories can make a distinctive contribution to Australia's culture giving us a unique cultural brand internationally. Queensland
    performing arts has a central part to play in this strategy and should play a leadership role in the development of new works. A formal integrated plan that aims to
    develop Indigenous talent from prevocational secondary to tertiary training, leading into a viable small to medium Indigenous sector that works in partnerships with

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    the major organisations to create work, and then tours that work regionally, nationally and internationally would ensure the growth of a unique Queensland theatre
    sector.

   1) A high-end tertiary education institution focusing on art making not multi-skilling. (ie Queensland University of Technology scraps all staff and starts fresh with fine-
    art courses with GREAT lecturers) The intention of this is to bring better lecturers here, who in turn produce better artists, directors, technicians and managers and
    encourages people to make work here. Challenging the current mediocre artists, directors, technicians and managers to lift their game. 2) More venues - they can be
    run down and hideous, as long as they're an easy accessible venue! Preferably non-commercial venues. 3) Take the focus off Qld 4) make Qld stories as important as
    international stories. Make Queenslanders (artists or not) look outside this large state and be inspired. 5) Funding sections to be cut into slightly more detailed
    categories ie Theatre: Community, TYP, Young and emerging (up to age 30) and open. Both for development and production. 6) Provide a pool of travel grants - loosen
    restrictions on professional development - networking is suitable etc.

   Recognition of regional theatre culture in Queensland is essential. JUTE Theatre has been an instigator of this but the regional network needs further
    engagement/development. More flexible and increased funding. More pathways for partnerships between metro and regional producers/presenters. Better
    engagement between training institutions and regional companies in the development/production of work. Eg. Possibilities of 3rd/4th year theatre students
    undertaking internships with regional producers.

   A philosophical shift away from trying to do more with less. Paying theatre practitioners at the same rates as the public servants who administer programs and
    compliance. Supporting a lot of writing and theatre making rather than trying to pick the "winners". Eg. 100 plays/works might need to be commissioned to get 2 or 3
    very good ones. Don't keep looking at ‘Robert La Page’ but ask why we aren't bringing out many other Canadian groups. Perhaps the Robert La Page or Circe du Soleil
    model is the anomaly rather than the aspiration. Are these benchmark groups funded at the expense of other activity?

   a radical overhaul of current funding - radically reduce the big companies budgets and decentralise into smaller, entrepreneurial orgs that use smaller, lower quality
    venues but can genuinely take risk and innovation to create unique product that can be exported to the world.

   Quality critical review & discourse. Rigorous sector discourse - articulate what is good quality Qld theatre and how we can better strive for this. Ability to see other
    national and international quality work. The ability to take the time and have the resources to create extraordinary work. Identify those creating extraordinary work
    and fund them to keep pursuing artistic visions. Good writing needs to be given the ability to grow through producing the work so that the playwright can grow - allow
    for failure in order to grow towards excellence. Investigate the reality of creating quality theatre in the regions and invest in long term strategies to support a network
    of professional regional companies that engage broadly with and provide access for more remote regional centres. Fund companies and individuals to flourish not just
    to survive. Invest in the long term.

   Generally, more of it! More focus on making work that engages and can attract an audience. Perhaps cheaper venues for independent theatre?

   A cost effective touring program of works that engage and build a range of audiences

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