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             RESOURCE ADVISOR’S GUIDE

                                           Region 1




     Designed to assist the Resource Advisor in fulfilling responsibilities to the
        Line Officer and coordinating with the Incident Management Team




                                                 3/25/03
This Resource Advisor‟s Guide was produced by the Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center
(ACNWTC) for the R1 Resource Advisor‟s training session held in Missoula, MT on 3/25/03. It is
intended as an update of the previous Resource Advisors packet furnished by ACNWTC to participants at
Resource Advisor training sessions. The objective of this guide, and the accompanying CD is to provide
Resource Advisors with the latest examples and information pertaining to the Resource Advisor task and
help facilitate accomplishment while on an incident.

The compilation of materials and examples is largely the work of Marty Almquist, Bitterroot National
Forest with help from John Anarella, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests. Many other Resource
Advisors contributed excellent examples for inclusion in this guide. Further updates and revisions of this
guide for a national audience are planned.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION                                                                                  1

FIRE POLICY                                                                                   3

Overview of the 1995 Wildland Fire Policy                                                      3
 Major Components of the Wildland Fire Policy                                                  3
 Agency Administrator and Incident Commander Roles and Responsibilities                        4
 The Wildland Fire Situation Analysis                                                          5
 Understanding How Resource Advisors Can Effectively Interact With Incident Command Team (ICT)
 Members                                                                                       5
 The ICT Planning Process                                                                      7

NWCG Wildland Fire Management Flowchart                                                       9

ICS Charts                                                                                   10

Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Fire Management Risk Zones                                      14

Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA'S) and Incident Action Plans (lAP'S)                  18

Definitions                                                                                  19


RESOURCE ADVISOR OPERATING TIPS                                                              23

Prerequisites                                                                                23

Draft Wilderness Resource Advisor Taskbook                                                   24

The Resource Advisor’s Position Related To ICS Structure                                     29

Operating Procedures                                                                         30

General Safety                                                                               33

Draft!!!! Disengagement Guidelines for Indirect Operations                                   34

Resource Advisor’s Tool Kit                                                                  36

Resource Advisor’s Personal Gear                                                             38

Authority Of The Resource                                                                    39


SAMPLE BRIEFING PACKAGES                                                                     45
West Fork Visitor Resource Briefing Package                                  45

Valley/Skalkaho Complex Resource Guidelines for Fire Suppression             51

Minimizing Soil & Water Resource Damage While Constructing Dozer Firelines   53

Hayman Fire Wilderness Suppression Guidelines                                54

Wilderness Briefing Paper for Crews                                          57

Bitterroot NF Fire Behavior Characteristics                                  58

Fire History Map                                                             59

Delegation of Authority for Mt. Zirkel Complex Fires                         60

Delegation of Authority for the Green Creek Fire                             63

Delegation of Authority for the Lost Green Complex                           65

Delegation Of Authority Fire Use                                             67


SUPPRESSION CONSIDERATIONS                                                   69

Minimum Impact Strategies & Techniques (MIST)                                69
  Draft Policy & Guidelines (Under Review By NWCG)                           69
  Mini-MIST Guidelines                                                       77
  Northwest Colorado Fire Management Plan                                    75

MIST Graphics                                                                76

Advantages & Disadvantages of Line-Building Options                          82

Tactics Overview                                                             84


WILDERNESS CONSIDERATIONS                                                    85

Request For Authorization To Use Mechanization                               85

Wilderness Resource Advisor Overview                                         86

Wilderness Resource Advisor Evaluation Form                                  87


LNT PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO WILDLEND FIRE MGMT                                 89
NOXIOUS WEEDS                                                                             99

Region 1 Best Management Practices For Weed Prevention & Management                       99

Deena’s Noxious Weeds Briefing Paper                                                     103


HERITAGE RESOURCES                                                                       105

Northern Region Forest Service Programmatic Agreement for Cultural Resources             105

Sample Heritage Concerns                                                                 110

Sample Briefing Paper                                                                    111

Magruder Ranger Station Protection Plan                                                  112


FISHERIES AND T&E                                                                        117

Boise Instructions for Reporting/Managing Fires in Anadromous Drainages                  117

Guidelines for Aerial Delivery of Retardant or Foam Near Waterways                       119

Wildland Fire Chemical Products Toxicity and Environmental Issues and Concerns –
November 1999                                                                    121

Fire Chemical Toxicity                                                                   123

Wildfire Suppression, BAER and Emergency Endangered Species Act                          124
 Consultation Process and Questionnaire                                                  124
 Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation Implementing Regulations, 50 CFR 402.05   129
 ESA Section 7 Consultation Process and BAER                                             133

Programmatic Biological Assessment For TE&S Fish Species                                 141

BURNED-AREA REPORT                                                                       142

BURNED-AREA REPORT – Completed Sample                                                    147


SPILL PREVENTION CONTROL                                                                 153


AND COUNTERMEASURE PLAN                                                                  153


REHABILITATION                                                                           159

ABC’s of the Suppression Rehabilitation Plan                                             159
Clearwater/Nez Post-Fire Evaluation Report                             160

Fridley Fire Resource Guidelines For Fire Suppression Rehabilitation   162

Taco Fire Suppression Rehabilitation Plan                              174

Skalkaho Complex Rehabilitation Plan (Division M)                      184

Pack Trail Fire Wilderness Rehabilitation Plan                         186

BAER Flowchart                                                         191

Gallatin Restoration Project Worksheet                                 193

The Five-D System for Effective Fireline Waterbars                     199

Illustration of Trail Structures                                       201
   Clearing Limits                                                     201
   Removing Down Trees                                                 202
   Removing Leaning Trees                                              203
   Grade Dip Profile on 10% Trailtread                                 204
   Grade Dip Construction                                              205
   Log or Treated Waterbar Construction                                206
   Alternate Drawing for Waterbar Construction                         207

Rehab Graphics                                                         208

FIRE INFORMATION                                                       209

Wildland Fire Use in the Flat Tops Wilderness                          209
                                            INTRODUCTION

The Resource Advisor is not a classified position in the Incident Command System (ICS). There are no
National Interagency Fire Qualifications System (NIFQS) standards for training, qualification and
certification for the position. Consequently, many Resource Advisors have learned their job through
experience only, perhaps not appreciating the intricacies of their responsibilities or the range of support
they may give to both the Agency Administrator and the Incident Management Team (IMT)

There are existing guides compiled by various agencies and units available to assist Resource Advisors,
Agency Administrators and IMT to take advantage of the position of the Resource Advisor on wildland
fire incidents. This guide was developed using material and information from several of those, as well as
the experience of practicing Resource Advisors and Incident Commanders. It is intended to provide the
best available information, recognizing that there are no exact standards for the role of the Resource
Advisor.

The use of a Resource Advisor on wildfires to work with Incident Management Teams and provide
constant linkage between the suppression objectives of the Team and the resource interests of the hosting
unit has become critically important in recent years. Increased awareness of the value of complete
ecosystems and the possibility of long-term impacts of fire suppression efforts being as significant, or
more so, to resources than fire effects has necessarily complicated the responsibilities of managers. The
Resource Advisor is a critical position in the organization of both the Agency Administrator and the fire
suppression specialist to help ensure that those responsibilities are effectively met.

When a wildfire has escaped initial attack and the Agency Administrator has determined that suppression
actions should be managed by Type I or II Incident Management Teams, the Resource Advisor position
should be filled.

The Resource Advisor should be an individual pre-determined by the Agency Administrator to have the
qualifications and availability for the job. Ideally, the Resource Advisor is a resource specialist and a
member or the Agency Administrator‟s staff. The individual selected for this position should have enough
experience with the resources, personnel, public, and issues and objectives of the unit to have the Agency
Administrator‟s confidence that they can represent the policies and objectives of the unit to the Incident
Management Team.

In addition to the need for a Resource Advisor being assigned to work with the Incident Management
Teams, there has become an increasing need for their assistance on extended attack types of incidents.
This is sometimes necessary due to the increasingly more complex issues with regard to critical habitat for
T&E Species and the guidelines we set for ourselves to protect these resources.




                                                      1
.




2
                                             FIRE POLICY
                             Overview of the 1995 Wildland Fire Policy
                        Major Components of the Wildland Fire Policy
The challenge of managing wildland fire in the United States continues to increase in complexity and
magnitude. Catastrophic wildfire now threatens millions of wildland acres, particularly where vegetation
patterns have been altered by past land-use practices and a century of fire suppression.
Serious, potentially permanent ecological deterioration is possible where fuel loads exceed historical
conditions. Enormous public and private values are at high risk. Our nation's capability to respond is
becoming overextended. While many policies and procedures are similar among the agencies, some
significant differences may hinder efficient interagency cooperation.
The Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, together with Tribal governments, States, and other
jurisdictions, are responsible for the protection and management of natural resources on lands they
administer. Because wildland fire respects no boundaries, uniform Federal policies and programs are
essential. As firefighting resources become increasingly scarce, it is more important than ever to
strengthen cooperative relationships.

In 1995, the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture ensure that Federal policies are uniform and
programs are cooperative and cohesive through the Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and
Program Review Committee. Their report addressed five major topic areas, crafted nine guiding
principles fundamental to wildland fire management, and recommended a set of thirteen Federal wildland
fire policies.
While unique agency missions may result in minor operational differences, this report, for the first time,
created a single set of "umbrella" Federal fire policies to enhance effective and efficient operations across
administrative boundaries thereby improving overall capability to meet the challenges posed by current
wildland fire conditions.

Public input and employee review provided the foundation upon which many of the policy and program
goals and actions contained in this report. Initially, broad policy and program issues were presented for
comment. These initial comments sharpened the focus and were used in preparing a draft report. The draft
was made available for both internal and external comment.

Key points of the Wildland Fire Policy:

      Firefighter and public safety is the first priority in every fire management activity.

      Protection of human life is reaffirmed as the first priority in wildland fire management. Property
       and natural/cultural resources jointly become second priority, with protection decisions based on
       values to be protected and other considerations.

      The role of wildland fire as an essential ecological process and natural change agent will be
       incorporated into the planning process. Wildland fire, as a critical natural process, must be


                                                      3
       reintroduced into the ecosystem, across agency boundaries and based upon the best available
       science.

      Agencies will create an organizational climate that supports employees who implement a properly
       planned program to reintroduce wildland fire.

      Where wildland fire cannot be safely reintroduced due to hazardous fuel build-ups, some form of
       pretreatment must be considered, particularly in wildland/urban interface areas.

      Every area with burnable vegetation will have an approved Fire Management Plan.

      Wildland fire management decisions and resource management decisions go hand in hand and are
       based on approved Fire Management and land and resource management plans. At the same time,
       agency administrators must have the ability to choose from the full spectrum of fire management
       actions, from prompt suppression to allowing fire to function in its natural ecological role.

      All aspects of wildland fire management will be conducted with the involvement of all partners;
       programs, activities, and processes will be compatible.

      The role of Federal agencies in the wildland/urban interface includes wildland firefighting, hazard
       fuels reduction, cooperative prevention and education, and technical assistance. No one entity can
       resolve and manage all interface issues; it must be a cooperative effort. Ultimately, however, the
       primary responsibility rests at the State and local levels.

      Structural fire protection in the wildland/urban interface is the responsibility of Tribal, State, and
       local governments.

      The Western Governors' Association will serve as a catalyst to involve State and local agencies
       and private stakeholders to cooperatively achieve to fire prevention and protection in the
       wildland/urban interface.

      Federal agencies must place more emphasis on educating internal and external audiences about
       how and why we use and manage wildland fire.

      Trained and certified employees will participate in the wildland fire program; others will support
       the program as needed.

      Good data and statistics are needed to support fire management decisions. Agencies must jointly
       establish an accurate, compatible, and accessible database of fire- and ecosystem-related data.


       Agency Administrator and Incident Commander Roles and Responsibilities

Once a fire exceeds the capability of the local unit to suppress a fire, the local Agency Administrator
decides to call for additional help. Through the use of a Prussian military model, extensive interagency
cooperation and agreement the Incident Command System (ICS) was established. The ICS is used to
manage an incident, whether the incident is a wildland fire or an earthquake and regardless of agency
jurisdiction. The flexibility of having one command structure, with defined roles and responsibilities
makes this system unique in its wide application.
                                                      4
An Agency Administrator provides the Incident Command Team (ICT) with two key documents: the
delegation of authority and the Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA). These documents are the
Agency Administrators direction to the Incident Commander (IC) on how the incident is to be managed.
The Delegation of Authority provides the IC with written permission to act for the Agency Administrator.
It gives the IC direction, permission to spend funds and act upon strategic goals.


                              The Wildland Fire Situation Analysis
Specific Agency Administrator direction is usually provided to the Incident Commander via the Wildland
Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA). The WSFA is a strategic planning document that provides:
     Alternative strategies for controlling the incident
     A comparison of strategies
     An outlines that weighs the influences of safety, social, economic and resource considerations
     Probabilities of success and expected costs
     Probabilities of failure and associated costs/loss
     A decision on the selected alternative, including justification for selection

The Agency Administrator will usually provide a representative (the Resource Advisor) to advise the IC
and serve as a ready conduit to the Agency Administrator. Additionally Resource Advisors are provided
to help Incident Command team functional areas in the development of tactics to achieve the Agency
Administrators‟ strategic goals.

Once briefed and provided with authority and direction, the IC will set objectives for the IMT. Each
functional area will provide input to the tactics needed to perform, support and accomplish the objectives.
The IC will establish, through the Plans Section Chief a regular, daily planning cycle to review incident
objectives, prepare the tactics for the next operational period, and determine if Agency Administrator
strategic direction is being met.

Often, by the time Resource Advisors are incorporated into the incident structure, the WSFA and
Delegation of Authority have been accomplished. A revision of the WFSA will not occur unless the IC
determines the costs, overall strategy, or safety issues exceed the original direction of the Agency
Administrator. The Plans Section will track this information for the IC daily. Resource Advisors may
expect that their involvement in a WFSA will vary greatly between incidents.


    Understanding How Resource Advisors Can Effectively Interact With Incident
                       Command Team (ICT) Members

The Resource Advisor is key to many functional areas in the performance of their job. The IMT members
need to be able to "lean" upon Resource Advisors for a wealth of local knowledge, technical advice and
alternatives.

The best way to help is to understand how the functional areas divide and conquer the work. Reference
the ICS organizational charts on the following pages for clarification. .

Operations Section: Operations has control over all of the suppression resources. Operations primary
directive is fire fighter and public safety. Consequently, Operations is responsible for providing the
                                                     5
framework for the tactical plan. They propose tactics that meet safety standards and work towards IC
objectives.

Based upon fire behavior, suppression resource capability and availability, topography, weather and a
wide range of other factors, Operations determines the best approach and achievable tactics for each
operational period.

Operations tend to depend upon Resource Advisors for local knowledge. Operations needs to know where
things are and how they can or should not be impacted. Examples of the types of information needed are:
pin-pointing exact locations of wilderness boundaries, providing coordination assistance with local
archeologists, and identifying T&E species habitat.

Resource Advisors can help Operations minimize resource damage by being proactive with information.
Resource Advisors are local experts and Operations is a "hired gun". No one on the IMT will know your
area like you.

Another way to be extremely helpful to Operations is to have the basic fireline qualifications. A Resource
Advisor who can "walk the fireline", flag items and talk with Operations in the field is invaluable. This
means at minimum having the basic required training and passing the Pack Test.

Plans Section: This is the section that does most of the intelligence gathering through Field Observers and
debriefing fireline resources. Plans also does the incident resource tracking, Incident Action Plan
development, mapping, and demobilization. Technical specialists, Training Specialist, Human Resources
and Union representatives typically work for Plans. The Plans section also provides contingency planning
and incident resource need projections.

Resource Advisors usually report to the Plans Section Chief. The Plans Chief needs the Resource Advisor
for mapping information, local knowledge, contingency planning, and local contacts.

Logistics section: This function deals with everything from where and how to establish ICP and base
camp, medical emergencies, showers, toilets, radio operations, food, radio systems, ground transportation,
supplies, ordering and just about anything need to support the tactical and camp functions. This is the
section responsible for creating cities overnight.

Resource Advisors will be essential to this function by using their local knowledge to help determine the
locations for spike camps, drop points, staging areas, gas trucks, helibases, etc and how they are supplied
and maintained. In addition local input and knowledge from Resource Advisors are useful for determining
where to get water to keep base camp or helibases dust free, what rehabilitation needs are required,
Resource Advisors are needed by Logistics during all phases of the incident.

Finance Section: This section is essential on the incident to ensure that fire management activities are
within cost constraints. They track all incident costs daily. Their input to Operations is the cost
effectiveness of resources as the incident winds down. They ensure we are all paid. They deal with all
comps/claims issues.

Resource Advisors will be used to provide local agreements, clarify local issues and help determine the
best contracting method to retain resources after the IMT leaves. Resource Advisors can help Finance find
local equipment.

                                                     6
Information Officer: This is our version of agency media folks with a strong fire prevention twist.
Information folks gather and disseminate information about the incident to impacted communities.
They rely on Resource Advisors for the local knowledge, key contacts and ideas.

Safety Officer: This is our contingency plan for ensuring fire fighter and public safety. They are
independent from Operations, although Safety and Operations usually work hand in glove. This second
set of eyes, that is not directly supervised by Operations provides the IC with an insurance clause of safe
tactics and practices anywhere on the incident.

Resource Advisors are invaluable to Safety for the local knowledge, key contacts and local solutions.


                                        The ICT Planning Process

Every Incident Command Team (ICT) establishes a regular, daily planning cycle. This formalized cycle is
used to:
    Ensure all members of the ICT know the tactics for the next operational period
    The components parts of the tactics are supportable
    The tactics and support meet incident objectives.

The Planning cycle is generally the same. There is a formal strategy planning meeting held that requires
the attendance of all Command and General Staff members. This is the time everyone is together to see
the whole plan and formally acknowledge their ability to support it. In preparation for these meetings,
IMT members talk with one another frequently while formulating their portion of the plan. By the time
the formal meeting occurs, critical issues are resolved. These meetings have a formal agenda that review:

      The current situation

      The current and predicted fire weather

      Current and predicted fire behavior

      Incident resource availability

      Tactical plans by branch/division

      Resources needed to meet the tactics

      Safety considerations and mitigations

      Logistical capability to support

      Finance capability to support

      Incident Commander approval

Resource Advisors are usually involved in the planning with each functional area before the Strategy
planning meeting. Resource Advisors are usually invited to attend the final meeting, however, critical

                                                     7
issues over tactics should be resolved prior to this meeting. If a major concern occurs during the meeting,
the Plans Chief should provide an opportunity for input during the meeting.

If an incident is running two operational periods a day, this planning meeting will occur twice a day -once
in the morning planning for the next night operational period; once in the evening to plan for the next day
operational period.
Conclusion:

The Resource Advisor is key to the success of the IMT and the overall management of the incident. IMT's
respect, and heavily rely upon, the Resource Advisor to be knowledgeable and proactive, and to be able to
communicate and help craft solutions. The entire ICT is there to help the Agency Administrator deal with
an emergency situation. The more a Resource Advisor understands the need for sharing, closing
information loops and is willing to find alternatives the better for the entire incident. Thanks for taking the
time to be at this workshop and good luck this season!




                                                      8
NWCG Wildland Fire Management Flowchart




                   9
   ICS Charts

Operations Section




       10
Plans Section




     11
Logistics Section




       12
Finance Section




      13
Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Fire Management Risk Zones




                          14
Review & Update of the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy

The Interagency Federal Wildland Fire Policy Review Working Group (Working Group), at the direction
of the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture, reviewed the 1995 Federal Wild/and Fire Management
Policy & Program Review (1995 Report) and its implementation. The Working Group found that the
policy is generally sound and continues to provide a solid foundation for wildland fire management
activities and for natural resources management activities of the federal government.

In this Review and Update of the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (Review and Update),
the Working Group recommends selected changes and additions to the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire
Management Policy (1995 Federal Fire Policy) to clarify purpose and intent and to address issues not
fully covered in 1995.

The Working Group further found that implementation of the 1995 Federal Fire Policy remains
incomplete in many areas, especially those that involve collaboration, coordination, and integration across
agency jurisdictions and across different disciplines. The Working Group recommends a number of
strategic implementation actions to ensure that federal wildland fire management policy is successfully
implemented in all applicable federal agencies on a collaborative, coordinated, and integrated fashion as
quickly as possible. The revisions, additions and implementation actions recommended in this report are
presented in Chapter 3 as the 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy.

In summary, the Working Group finds and recommends that federal fire management activities and
programs are to provide for fire fighter and public safety, protect and enhance land management
objectives and human welfare, integrate programs and disciplines, require interagency collaboration,
emphasize the natural ecological role of fire, and contribute to ecosystem sustainability.

The 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (2001 Federal Fire Policy) contained in this report
replaces the 1995 Federal Fire Policy. It should be adopted by all federal agencies with fire-management
related programs and activities as appropriate through directives, manuals, handbooks, and other
documents.

Subsequent to the initiation of this review and update of the 1995 Federal Fire Policy, the Secretaries of
the Interior and Agriculture prepared a report, Managing the Impact of Wildfires on Communities and the
Environment: A Report to the President in Response to the Wildfires of 2000 and the Congress provided
substantial new appropriations and guidance in the Fiscal Year 2001 Interior and Related Agencies
Appropriations Act. The activities resulting from the Secretaries' report and the Congressional action are
generally known as the National Fire Plan.

While this Review and Update supports and complements the National Fire Plan, the two efforts are
different. This Review and Update, with its findings and recommendations, provides a broad
philosophical and policy foundation for federal agency fire management programs and activities,
including those conducted under the National Fire Plan. In contrast, the National Fire Plan and similar
interagency activities, focus on operational and implementation activities. A major feature of the National
Fire Plan is the interagency (especially between federal and non-federal entities) aspect of risk reduction
planning and implementation. In summary, the 2001 Federal Fire Policy contained in this report is
focused on internal federal agency strategic direction for a broad range of fire management related
activities while the National Fire Plan is a more narrowly focused and tactical undertaking involving both
federal and non-federal entities.

The 1995 Report produced the first single comprehensive federal fire policy for the Departments of the
Interior and Agriculture. That review was stimulated by the 1994 fire season with its 34 fatalities and
growing recognition of fire problems caused by fuel accumulation. The resulting 1995 Federal Fire Policy
recognized, for the first time, the essential role of fire in maintaining natural systems.


                                                    15
In the aftermath of the escape of the Cerro Grande Prescribed Fire in May of 2000, the Secretaries of the
Interior and Agriculture requested a review of the 1995 Federal Fire Policy and its implementation. Their
charge to the Working Group included:
     Review the implementation status of the 1995. Federal Fire Policy.
     Address specific issues related to interagency coordination, cooperation, availability, and use of
        contingency resources.
     Provide recommendations to the Secretaries for strengthening the organizational structure of
        wildland fire management programs to ensure effective implementation of a cohesive federal
        wildland fire policy.
     Provide any other recommendations that would improve federal wildland fire management
        programs.
     Recommend a management structure for completing implementation of the recommendations.

The Working Group reached the following principal conclusions:
.
    The 1995 Federal Fire Policy is still generally sound and appropriate.
    As a result of fire exclusion, the condition of fire-adapted ecosystems continues to deteriorate; the
      fire hazard situation in these areas is worse than previously understood.
    The fire hazard situation in the Wildland Urban Interface is more complex and extensive than
      understood in 1995.
    Changes and additions to the 1995 Federal Fire Policy are needed to address important issues of
      ecosystem sustainability, science, education, communication, and to provide for adequate program
      evaluation.
    Implementation of the 1995 Federal Fire Policy has been incomplete, particularly in the quality of
      planning and in interagency and interdisciplinary matters.
    Emphasis on program management, implementation, oversight, leadership, and evaluation at
      senior levels of all federal agencies is critical for successful implementation of the 2001 Federal
      Wildland Fire Management Policy (2001 Federal Fire Policy).

Each of the departments or agencies participating in the review should adopt the Guiding Principles, 2001
Federal Fire Policy statements, and Implementation Actions found in Chapter 3 of this Review and
Update. All federal fire program activities should take place in cooperation and partnership with State and
other organizations. Full implementation of many specific Action Items from the 1995 Federal Fire Policy
remains critical for the successful implementation of the 2001 Federal Fire Policy. The Review and
Update contains a detailed listing of the status of those Action Items, along with appropriate future actions
based on the 2001 Federal Fire Policy and associated Implementation Actions.

The 2001 Federal Fire Policy and its implementation are founded on the following Guiding Principles:
   1. Firefighter and public safety is the first priority in every fire management activity.
   2. The role of wildland fire as an essential ecological process and natural change agent will be
      incorporated into the planning process.
   3. Fire management plans, programs, and activities support land and resource management plans and
      their implementation.
   4. Sound risk management is a foundation for all fire management activities.
   5. Fire management programs and activities are economically viable, based upon values to be
      protected, costs, and land and resource management objectives.
   6. Fire management plans and activities are based upon the best available science.
   7. Fire management plans and activities incorporate public health and environmental quality
      considerations.
   8. Federal, State, tribal, local, interagency, and international coordination and cooperation are
      essential.
   9. Standardization of policies and procedures among federal agencies is an ongoing objective.



                                                     16
Ecosystem Sustainability:
The 1995 Federal Fire Policy recognized the role fire plays as a critical natural process. This Review and
Update builds on the 1995 Report to include policies recognizing the role of fire in sustaining healthy
ecosystems, the restoration and rehabilitation of burned lands, and the importance of sound science in fire
management activities.
Fire Planning:
The 1995 Federal Fire Policy requires Fire Management Plans for all areas with burnable vegetation.
Significant work remains to complete these plans for many areas. Many plans need updating and
integration with underlying land management plans. Agencies such as the Departments of Defense and
Energy need to coordinate their planning efforts based on the 2001 Federal Fire Policy. Fire Management
Plans that address all aspects of fire management activities remain the foundation for implementing the
2001 Federal Fire Policy and must be completed as promptly as possible.
Fire Operations:
The 1995 Federal Fire Policy statements on operational aspects of fire management including safety,
protection priorities, preparedness, suppression, use of wildland fire, prevention, and Wildland Urban
Interface roles and responsibilities, are carried forward in the 2001 Federal Fire Policy. The 2001 Federal
Fire Policy clearly states that response to wildland fire is based on the Fire Management Plan, not the
ignition source" or location of the fire. The Review and Update recognizes the need to reach agreement on
the requirements for weather products and services, and the best means to meet those requirements.
Interagency Coordination and Cooperation:
A key theme of the 1995 Federal Fire Policy is the importance of standardization and interagency
cooperation and coordination among federal agencies and between federal agencies and non- federal
organizations. The Review and Update recognizes the importance of including additional federal land
managing agencies (e.g. Department of Defense and Department of Energy) and agencies with supporting
or related programs (e.g. National Weather Service, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological
Survey, Federal Emergency Management Agency) as full partners in wildland fire management activities
and programs. The Review and Update also adds a specific policy on communication and education to
ensure that the 2001 Federal Fire Policy is well understood inside the fire management agencies and by
the public.
Program Management and Oversight:
The Working Group found that there is no effective means of overseeing and evaluating implementation
of fire policy, especially across agency and program lines. A new policy on evaluation is therefore
included in the 2001 Federal Fire Policy. The need for a mechanism for coordinated interagency and
interdisciplinary fire management program leadership and oversight is included in the Implementation
Actions. Other actions to improve program management include analyses of workforce requirements and
of fire management and suppression organizational structures.




                                                    17
        Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA'S) and Incident Action Plans (lAP'S)


Fire management programs are planned and executed to minimize the sum of the fire program costs plus
the cost of damages due to fire to the value of planned resource outputs. The objective of fire suppression
is to extinguish the fire at the minimum total cost, which consists of expected costs plus losses.

There are two levels of planning - the WFSA and the lAP. The WFSA is prepared for the duration of the
fire with adequate specificity to compare alternatives. It is updated anytime the situation changes
sufficiently to modify the strategy. If the WFSA is no longer valid due to a changed situation, it is the
responsibility of the agency administrator to change it. The incident command team will keep the agency
administrator apprised of current or projected situations that would warrant a revision of the WFSA. The
agency administrator approves it.

A WFSA is the plan from which the plan of action to suppress a fire is developed. The analysis requires
development of alternative suppression strategies, and identifies the probable costs, potential resource
effects, and political considerations associated with each. It allows for a systematic approach to decision
making. The WFSA is not absolute and allows for relative comparison of alternative strategies only.

A WFSA is a legal document, required on all federal lands.

Resource damage costs are the most difficult to quantify in the WFSA and are where the resource advisor
can be most helpful. The pro-active resource advisor and interdisciplinary team will quantify the value of
water quality, fisheries, visual resources, and recreation in advance of fire season.

The resource advisor needs to be involved in the development of the WFSA. The role of the resource
advisor is to provide inputs to the criteria put forth by the agency administrator, and identify areas of
concern. The resource advisor may provide costs for resources at risk, as well as costs of mitigation or
rehabilitation of suppression efforts. It is the role of the agency administrator to change the WFSA and to
provide input to the incident management team. -

It is recommended that resource advisors attend WFSA training, and participate in mock document
preparations. All areas of special concern on a unit should have WFSA's drafted in advance of fire season.
The pro-active resource advisor can help raise awareness of the agency administrator and unit staff of the
importance of advance fire planning.

The lAP is prepared for each operational period and is as site specific as possible. The lAP is usually
prepared by the planning section and approved by the Incident Commander. The resource advisor should
attend the planning meetings and give advice to the plans section on incorporation of resource concerns
into the lAP. This may include information on spike camp etiquette, fire line, water bar standards, etc.




                                                     18
                                                Definitions

Appropriate Management Response -Specific actions taken in response to a wildland fire to implement
protection and fire use objectives. This term is a new term that does not replace any previously used term.

Expected Weather Conditions* -Those weather conditions indicated as common, likely, or highly
probable based on current and expected trends and their comparison to historical weather records. These
are the most ~ probable weather conditions for this location and time. These conditions are used in
making fire behavior forecasts for different scenarios (one necessary scenario involves fire behavior
prediction under "expected weather conditions").

Experienced Severe Weather Conditions* -Those weather conditions that occur infrequently, but have
been experienced on the fire site area during the period of weather records. For example, rare event
weather conditions that significantly influence fires may have occurred only once, but their record can be
used to establish a baseline for a worst-case scenario. These are the most severe conditions that can be
expected. These conditions are used in making fire behavior forecasts for different scenarios (one
necessary scenario involves fire behavior prediction under "experienced severe weather conditions").

Fire Management Plan (FMP) -A strategic plan that defines a program to manage wildland and
prescribed fires and documents the Fire Management Program in the approved land use plan. The plan is
supplemented by operational plans such as preparedness plans, preplanned dispatch plans, prescribed fire
plans, and prevention plans. .

Fire Management Unit (FMU)* -Any land management area definable by objectives, topographic
features, access, values-to-be-protected, political boundaries, fuel types, or major fire regimes, etc., that
set it apart from management characteristics of an adjacent unit. FMU's are delineated in FMP's. These
units may have dominant management objectives and pre-selected strategies assigned to accomplish these
objectives.

Fire Management Area (FMA)* -A sub-geographic area within an FMU that represents a predefined
ultimate acceptable management area for a fire managed for resource benefits. This predefined area can
constitute a Maximum Manageable Area (MMA) and is useful for those units having light fuel types
conducive to very rapid fire spread rates. Predefinition of these areas removes the time-lag in defining an
MMA after ignition and permits preplanning of the fire area; identification of threats to life, property,
resources, and boundaries; and identification of initial actions.

Holding Actions*- Planned actions required to achieve wildland and prescribed fire management
objectives. These actions have specific implementation timeframes for fire use actions but can have less
sensitive implementation demands for suppression actions. For wildland fires managed for resource
benefits, an MMA may not be totally naturally defensible. Specific holding actions are developed to
preclude fire from exceeding the MMA. For prescribed fires, these actions are developed to restrict the
fire inside the planned burn unit. For suppression actions, holding actions may be implemented to prohibit
the fire from crossing containment boundaries. These actions may be implemented as firelines are
established to limit the spread of fire.

Initial Attack -An aggressive suppression action consistent with firefighter and public safety and values
to be protected.

Management Action Points* (also called "trigger points"). Either geographic points on the ground or
specific points in time where an escalation or alteration of management actions is warranted. These points
are defined and the management actions to be taken are clearly described in an approved Wildland Fire

                                                     19
Implementation Plan (WFIP) or Prescribed Fire Plan. Timely implementation of the actions when the fire
reaches the action point is generally critical to successful accomplishment of the objectives.

Maximum Manageable Area (MMA)* - The firm limits of management capability to accommodate the
social, political, and resource impacts of a wildland fire. Once established as part of an approved plan, the
general impact area is fixed and not subject to change. MMA's can be developed as part of the FMP and
described as an FMA. They can also be developed as part of the planning and implementation of
management actions after a fire has ignited. If they are developed after the ignition, their definition will
occur during the Wildland Fire Implementation Plan Stage III process. In the event a fire occurs in a
preplanned MMA or FMA and the local unit determines that this MMA is not the best-suited alternative
for the present conditions, a new MMA can be developed as part of the Stage III process. Once this
occurs, the Stage III MMA becomes the firm limits of the fire and is fixed.

Mitigation Actions* -Those on-the-ground activities that will serve to increase the defensibility of the
MMA; check, direct, or delay the spread of fire; and minimize threats to life, property, and resources.
Mitigation actions may include mechanical and physical nonfire tasks, specific fire applications, and
limited suppression actions. These actions will be used to construct firelines, reduce excessive fuel
concentrations, reduce vertical fuel continuity, create fuel breaks or barriers around critical or sensitive
sites or resources, create blacklines" through controlled burnouts, and to limit fire spread and behavior.

Preparedness -Activities that lead to a safe, efficient, and cost-effective fire management program in
support of land and resource management objectives through appropriate planning and coordination. This
term replaces pre-suppression.

Prescribed Fire - Any fire ignited by management actions to meet specific objectives. A written,
approved prescribed fire plan must exist, and NEPA requirements must be met, prior to ignition. This
term replaces management ignited prescribed fire.

Prescribed Fire Plan* -A plan required for each fire application ignited by the managers. It must be
prepared by qualified personnel and approved by the appropriate agency administrator prior to
implementation. Each plan will follow specific agency direction and must include critical elements
described in agency manuals. Formats for plan development vary among agencies, although content is the
same.

Prescription - Measurable criteria that define conditions under which a prescribed fire may be ignited,
guide selection of appropriate management responses, and indicate other required actions. Prescription
criteria may include safety, economic, public health, environmental, geographic, - administrative, social,
or legal considerations.

Trigger Points* - See Management Action Points.
Wildfire -An unwanted wildland fire. This term was only included to give continuing credence to the
historic fire prevention products. This is NOT a separate type of fire.

Wildland Fire* -Any non-structure fire, other than prescribed fire, that occurs .in the wildland. This term
encompasses fires previously called both wildfires and prescribed natural fires.

Wildland Fire Implementation Plan (WFIP)* -A progressively developed assessment and operational
management plan that documents the analysis and selection of strategies and describes the appropriate
management response for a wildland fire being managed for resource benefits. A full WFIP consists of
                                                      20
three stages. Different levels of completion may occur for differing management strategies (i.e., fires
managed for resource benefits will have two- three stages of the WFIP completed while some fires that
receive a suppression response may only have a portion of Stage I completed).

Wildland Fire Management Program* -The full range of activities and - functions necessary for
planning, preparedness, emergency suppression operations, and emergency rehabilitation of wildland
fires, and prescribed fire operations, including non-activity fuels management to reduce risks to public
safety and to restore and sustain ecosystem health.
Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA) -A decision-making process that evaluates alternative
management strategies against selected safety, environmental, social, economic, political, and resource
management objectives.
Wildland Fire Suppression* -An appropriate management response to wildland fire that results in
curtailment of fire spread and eliminates all identified threats from the particular fire. All wildland fire
suppression activities provide for firefighter and public safety as the highest consideration, but minimize
loss of resource values, economic expenditures, and/or the use of critical firefighting resources.
Confine* -Confinement is the strategy employed in appropriate management responses where a fire
perimeter is managed by a combination of direct and indirect actions and use of natural topographic
features, fuel, and weather factors.
Wildland Fire Use* -The management of naturally ignited wildland fires to accomplish specific pre-
stated resource management objectives in predefined" geographic areas outlined in FMP's. Operational
management is described in the WFIP. Wildland fire use is not to be confused with "fire use," which is a
broader term encompassing more than just wildland fires (see definition below):
       Fire Use* -The combination of wildland fire use and prescribed fire * application to meet resource
        objectives

Many traditional terms have either been omitted or made obsolete by the policy. The following terms may
have uses or connotations that are contrary to the new policy. Thus, these terms are not recommended for
use and are not included in policy implementation procedures descriptions.

Confine/Contain/Control -These terms, when used in the context of suppression strategies, are
confusing since they also have tactical meanings. Containment and control will continue to be used to
represent the status of a particular fire for reporting purposes (e.g., a controlled fire, date of control, date
of containment, etc.) and not to represent a type of management strategy.
Escaped Fire Situation Analysis -This term is replaced by Wildland Fire Situation Analysis.

Management Ignited Prescribed Fire -This term is replaced by Prescribed Fire.

Prescribed Natural Fire -This term no longer represents a type of fire and has no further use other than
in historical descriptions. This term is replaced by wildland fire use.

Pre-suppression -This term is replaced by the term "preparedness" to match policy and appropriation
language.




                                                       21
22
                RESOURCE ADVISOR OPERATING TIPS
                                          Prerequisites

RA’s Are Not Always Line Certified, But:
   Resource Advisors who won‟t leave base camp are required to have Standards for Survival.
   Resource Advisors who are not line certified and go on the line must have:
         o Taken Standards for Survival.
         o Passed a Light Work Capacity Test.
         o Carry a red card
         o All PPE with them (gloves, hardhat, nomex, fire shelter & tool)
         o And must be with someone who is line certified

To Be Line Certified and work independently on the line, Resource Advisors must have:
                  Taken:
                         Standards for Survival.
                         I-100 – Introduction to ICS (self-study available).
                         S-130 – Basic Firefighting Training.
                         S-190 – Introduction to Fire Behavior.
                  Passed the Light Work Capacity Test.
                  Carry a red card
                  All PPE with them (gloves, hardhat, nomex, fire shelter & tool)
                  Received permission from the Division Supervisor.




                                                23
                 Draft Wilderness Resource Advisor Taskbook


                    Task                          Evaluator   Date

                GENERAL

1. Obtain and assemble information and
materials needed for assignment:
     PMS 410-1 Fireline Handbook
     Pocket Response Guide
     The Wilderness Act
     LNT Principles (paper and disk)
     GPS/software/cables
     Compass
     Radio
     Camera (digital preferred)
     Laptop (optional?)
     Samples on Disc:
           1. Press releases
           2. Delegation of Authority
               Letters
           3. WFSA/WFIP
           4. Rehab. Standards
           5. MIST guidelines
           6. Incident Objectives


                    ICS

2. Understands basic ICS structure and the
functional roles of each unit.
        Incident commander
        Fire Use Manager -FUMA
        Agency representative
        Fire Information
        Operations
        Logistics
        Planning
        Finance
        Safety




                                             24
             MOBILIZATION

3. Obtain information from dispatch upon
initial activation.
      Incident Name
      Incident order number
      Request number
      Reporting location
      Reporting time
      Transportation agreements/travel
         routes
      Contact procedures during travel

                PLANNING
3a. Get involved in preparation of WFSA,
WFIP, and/or briefing packet if possible
     WFSA
     WFIP
     Briefing Packet
     Maps
     Resource Information
     Works with Situation Unit Leader to
       assure Wilderness Boundary is on
       maps

        INCIDENT ACTIVITIES

4. Arrive at incident
     Check in at check-in location
        according to agency guidelines.


5. Locate work supervisor(s) and obtain
briefing.
     Agency Administrator (Line Officer)
     IC/FUMA or designated liaison
     Resource Advisor




                                           25
6. Obtain work material
     Enabling legislation
     Forest and/or wilderness management
       plan
     Fire Plan
     Delegation of Authority
     WFSA/WFIP
     Briefing Packet
     Wilderness maps/ boundary
       descriptions
     Incident Action Plan (IAP)

7. COMMUNICATIONS

      Ensure working communications with
       established contact points.
      Understands use of radio and knows
       how to program it.
      Understands incident communication
       plan.


8. DOCUMENTATION

      Provide all written documentation
       developed during the incident
       assignment to the documentation unit.


9. MIST

      Prepares MIST guidelines for
       incident.
      Assures MIST is in the incident
       objectives.
      Monitors MIST success on the
       ground.
      Provides feedback to the line offices
       on MIST success.




                                           26
10. FIRE INFORMATION

      Conveys wilderness values and MIST
       guidelines to Fire Information
       Officer.
      Keeps Fire Information abreast of
       current situation.

11. SAFETY

      Take immediate corrective actions as
       the situation may warrant.
      Adhere to agency specific and
       incident appropriate safety standards
       while performing all tasks.

12. REHAB

      Monitors and documents impacts
       from suppression activities on the
       ground and reports to supervisor.
      Makes recommendations for
       suppression activity rehab needs.
      Involved with rehab operations
      Works with BAER Team on fire
       rehab. Needs and tactics


DEMOBILIZATION

13. Demobilization and check out
     Receive demobilization instructions
      from supervisor
     Insure that incident and agency
      demobilization procedures are
      followed.




                                            27
#1       Evaluator‟s name:
         Incident/office title & agency:

Evaluator‟s home unit address & phone:


  Name and Location             Incident Kind          Management Level or
    of Incident or              (wildland fire,          Prescribed Fire
     Simulation                search & rescue,         Complexity Level
   (agency & area)                   etc.)




The tasks initialed & dated by me have been performed under my
supervision in a satisfactory manner by the above named trainee. I
recommend the following for further development of this trainee.
_______ The individual has successfully performed all tasks for the position
and should be considered for certification.
_______ The individual was not able to complete certain tasks (comments
below) or additional guidance is required.
_______ Not all tasks were evaluated on this assignment and an additional
assignment is needed to complete the evaluation.
_______ The individual is severely deficient in the performance of tasks for
the position and needs further training (both required & knowledge and
skills needed) prior to additional assignment(s) as a trainee.
Recommendations:
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

Date:________________________ Evaluator‟s initials:_______________

Evaluator‟s relevant red card (or agency certification) rating:




                                      28
        The Resource Advisor’s Position Related To ICS Structure


               Direct lines of communication and responsibilities

               Indirect lines of communication and responsibilities




                      Agency Administrator                      Resource Advisor




                       Incident Commander



   Safety Officer                                       Public Information




Operations               Plans                      Logistics              Finance




                                       29
                                        Operating Procedures

Preparedness:
      Review the Forest Plan and other local guidelines for resource and fire management.
      Coordinate with other resource managers on the unit to be familiar with current and panned
       activities and areas of concern.
      Maintain current fire training and qualifications in the ICS, various fire suppression techniques
       and tactics, and their impacts in similar resource environments.
      Be familiar with the WFSA process.
      Monitor local weather trends for estimating influences on fuels and fire behavior.
      Review policy and procedures for resource advisors, including expectations of the Agency
       Administrator.
      Review with unit staff current operational procedures for IMT and any changes in national,
       regional or local fire policy.
      Participate with fire management staff in appropriate spring operations/planning meetings.
      Become acquainted with District fire personnel's philosophy, standard operating procedures,
       wilderness considerations, etc.
      Prepare or update your personal gear and resource advisor‟s kit.
      Maintain physical fitness standards and proper conditioning.
      Acquire and maintain a complete set of wildland firefighter personal protective equipment.
      Participate in annual Standards for Survival Refresher training
During Fire Season:
      Maintain your program schedules as much as possible to allow a rapid transition from normal
       duties to those of resource advisor.
   Remember, once committed to an incident, even on your home unit, those responsibilities will
   supersede the daily routine of your normal duties and you will likely be “out of touch” for the duration
   of the assignment.
      As with any individual qualified for fire assignments, keep fire dispatch or fire management staff
       aware of your general schedule and how you may be reached.
      Maintain awareness of local fire environment and regional situation.
When Dispatched To An Incident:
      Discuss objectives and expectations with the Agency Administrator to whom you will report.
      Review the WFSA and selected alternative (get copy).
      Review the Agency Administrator‟s briefing package (get copy).
      Acquire maps, aerial photos, pre-attack plans and any other aids pertinent to the area involved.
      Make arrangements to suspend or delegate responsibilities for normal duties to others (tie up loose
       ends).




                                                    30
Mobilization
      Obtain complete information from dispatch upon initial activation
          o Incident Name
          o Incident order number
          o Reporting location and time
          o Transportation arrangements
      Gather information necessary to assess incident assignment and determine immediate needs and
       actions.
          o Incident Commander's Name
          o Incident location
          o Current resource commitments and situation
          o Terrain and weather
Upon arrival at Incident:
      Check in with: Status/Check-in Recorder and Incident Commander
      Establish your availability to members of the IMT and coordinate contact and communication
       procedures while on the incident. If you must be absent from the incident at any time, advise the
       Planning Section of your whereabouts and how you may be reached.
      Receive initial briefing
      Ascertain planning schedule and time/location of planned meetings and briefings
During The Incident
      Attend all appropriate meetings and daily briefings and make presentations on the resource issues
       and suppression damage mitigation.
      Determine (normally from Planning Section Chief) how the timing of your input to incident
       strategy and tactics can be most effective.
      Maintain a positive and professional attitude. Know and respect your limitations
      Provide information to any revision of the Wildland Fire Situation Analysis
      Be sure that you have the approval of the Incident Commander or Fire Information Officer before
       dealing with the media.
      Determine those areas where your attention is most needed and budget your time accordingly.
       Contact the Operations Section Chief regarding options to efficiently view line operations.
      Maintain Unit Log and submit daily.
      Assist in the selection of camps and other logistical and operational decisions. You are the local
       expert in the consideration of local sensitive areas.
      Review strategy and tactics for the incident and recommend methods of reducing the impact on re-
       sources.
      If you need additional personnel to assist you, make arrangements with your incident supervisor to
       place appropriate overhead orders.
      Communicate effectively with all incident personnel. Be sure that you know and observe
       appropriate radio communication protocol as identified in the incident communications plan.
                                                  31
   Be sure that you know and observe the chain of command. Do NOT give orders or attempt to
    direct personnel assigned to the incident – you are an advisor the IMT representing unit policy and
    objectives, not an operational director. If you have a concern with actions of a crewmember, ask to
    talk to their crew boss.
   Recognize individuals and crews that demonstrate higher levels of environmental and resource
    concerns.
   Contact Division Supervisors prior to entering an Incident Division and keep him or her apprised
    of your location. Checkout when leaving a Division.




                                                32
                                              General Safety

Safety is the primary concern for all people engaged on an incident.

The minimum required training for anyone to visit the active fire area is 1-100, Introduction to ICS, 5-
130, Basic Firefighting; 5-190, Basic Fire Behavior; eight hours of Standards for Survival, passed the
Light Work Capacity test and carry a red card. This applies to resource advisors, assistants, and resource
specialists. All appropriate personal protective equipment is required, including nomex clothing, 8"
leather boots with lug soles, hardhat, gloves, fire shelter, tool and any other equipment the situation
dictates, including communications.

Work with the incident command team on how you and your assistants will be deployed in the field. Be
sure you are listed on the shift plan and contact the division supervisor prior to entering an area. Maintain
communications and inform the division supervisor as you leave the fire or cross into another division.

Consult and carry the 10 standard firefighting orders and the 18 situations that shout watch out.

Stop and think about where you are going and assess safety risks. Consult with the team as to the need
and value of resource information if there is any risk involved in the collection.

Resource Advisor Safety

Work with the incident command team when you go on a fire. Depending on the nature of the incident,
your experience and the team, you may go with someone else or go alone. It is imperative that you contact
the division supervisor in the area and keep them apprised of your whereabouts. It is also imperative that
you check out as you leave a division.

An Incident Action Plan with map and communications plan is a must. The resource advisor should be
listed on the plan. A programmable radio is a useful communication device.

A pack containing map, compass, altimeter, water, food, and clothing to last a few days is advisable. A
pro-active resource advisor should carry an extra pair of gloves, headlamp, spare flashlight and a fusee.

If you can come to the fire with a vehicle it will greatly increase effectiveness and mobility.

Resource Specialist Safety
Ensuring the safety of resource specialists is the responsibility of the resource advisor. Assure they follow
the guidelines outlined above. Choosing a resource specialist who is familiar with suppression and fire
effects will not only increase the safety of the individual but the quality of their input.




                                                     33
                   Draft!!!! Disengagement Guidelines for Indirect Operations

Examination of tragedy and near-miss wildland fires reveal several common denominators. The best
known are those discussed in “Common Denominators of fire behavior on tragedy and near-miss forest
fires”, NFES 2225, Wilson and Sorenson, 1992. This publication should be read by all firefighters and
reviewed each season. In addition to the topics discussed in this publication are a few other common
denominators that are also important to consider:

               Drought Conditions are often present
               Temperatures are usually 90° or higher
               Relative Humidity is usually 24% or lower
               Fine fuel moistures are less than 6%, and often 3% or 2%
               Ignition Probability is usually 80%-90%
               Frequent spotting is occurring
               A significant wind event often occurs, but little wind or slope is needed for rapid rates of
               spread in these weather conditions
               Minutes and seconds are usually the difference in escaping or becoming entrapped

In spite of these fairly obvious indicators firefighters still are not always identifying the appropriate time
to disengage from their tactical efforts in time to avoid entrapments.

The Disengagement Guideline Chart was developed to provide the wildland firefighters with a quick
reference tool to help them identify when they are pushing the envelope, and losing precious minutes
needed to safely exit the area. It is also effective as a predictive tool to determine how soon
Disengagement Conditions may be reached. It is hoped that by using this Chart wildland firefighters will
disengage form their tactical operations sooner, thus saving lives.

This tool is intended for indirect attack operations, working in patchy burned fuels, areas where there is
reburn potential, and when there is a risk of spot fires burning from below.

When Disengage conditions are reached firefighters WILL retreat by way of their escape routes to
anchor points and areas of previously burned, black areas where there is no risk of reburn.

Once all firefighters have safely reached these areas they WILL re-evaluate the fire behavior and weather
conditions and develop reengagement suppression tactics. To reengage, the Fire Orders MUST not be
compromised. Consideration should also be given to what the probability of success of the new strategy
is.




                                                      34
                                              DRAFT!!!!!




 1. Draw a line from the Temp value to the RH value. 2. Draw a line from the Midflame Windspeed value to
                 the Percent Slope value. 3. Where the lines intersect is the guideline value.

When Disengage conditions are reached, firefighters WILL retreat by way of their escape routes to
anchor points and areas of previously burned, black areas where there is no risk of reburn. Once all
firefighters have safely reached these areas they WILL re-evaluate the fire behavior and weather
conditions and develop reengagement suppression tactics. To reengage, the Fire Orders MUST not be
compromised.

Contact Tom Leuschen with Comments 509-997-9732




                                                   35
                                    Resource Advisor’s Tool Kit

(Based on the NWCG Resource Advisor‟s Guide Book. Suggested additions and/or comments from R2
Wilderness/Fire session presentations January 2003 are in italics)

The following are examples of supplies and equipment that may be needed before leaving for an incident.
It may be necessary to resource order supplies that cannot be obtained from your home office
environment.

    Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (MIST) Guidelines – may also be referred to as Minimum
     Impact Management Actions (MIMA). Some areas may have area specific minimum impact
     concerns – need to use local contacts to get this information.
    MIST video to show at Incident Base – not currently available but in development.
    NWCG Resource Advisor's Guide Book
    Fireline Handbook or Field Operations Guide – add Incident Response Pocket Guide
    Extra applicable ICS forms – may want to specify which forms
    Rehabilitation documents and forms – see examples in NWCG Resource Advisor’s Guide Book
    When applicable - Field identification guides, i.e., birds, mammals, plants, etc. -
    When applicable - Endangered and threatened plant and animal documents
    Consider adding noxious weed list/identification guide
    Pencils, pens, felt tip markers, ruler, scale, dot grid, flagging, paper, graph paper, envelopes,
     calculator, clipboard, etc. – some of these may not be convenient in field situations, use judgment,
     consider adding zip lock bags to protect documents
    Acetate overlay material
    35mm camera with print film – or digital camera
    Binoculars
    Hand-held GPS unit
    Belt weather kit (optional)
    When applicable, fuel and soil moisture sampling equipment
    When applicable, altimeter and/or global positioning equipment, etc.
    Compass, clinometer, mapping equipment, etc.
    When applicable, forest mensuration equipment and tally sheets
    Maps (2 of each), 7 1/2or 15 minute topographic maps. Maps should cover incident area and at
     least 6 miles around the perimeter.
    When applicable SCS soil surveys
    Maps showing: wilderness areas, wilderness study areas, significant or known cultural sites,
     threatened or endangered species, critical habitat areas, and other areas of concern.
    Aerial photographs and LANDSAT imagery if available.
    Reference list of area resource specialists with phone numbers. –this includes contact people to
     provide info on environmental issues, private property issues, ingress/egress options, water
     sources, etc.
    Resource Advisor nametag for hardhat and Resource Advisor sign for office.
    Radio – make sure radio is correctly programmed and that you have spare batteries
    Sample Rehab Plan – with diagrams of rehab structures


                                                   36
 Fire pack with the following items: Nomex, 8" boots with lug soles, hard hat, Nomex gloves,
    leather gloves, goggles, fire shelter, and any other equipment the situation dictates, including
    communications.
   Administrative unit and resource management plans, area specific plans, analysis files, EFSA
    drafts and scenarios prepared by the interdisciplinary (ID) team, unit maps, quad maps of fire area,
    aerial photos, Desired Future Condition for watershed or planning area, wilderness plans,
    prescribed natural fire plans.
   Copy of Wilderness Act and/or enabling legislation
   Information packet with Wilderness quotes, line drawings, wilderness logos, and wilderness theme
    IAP covers.
   Tool – carry a tool! This is a safety item.
   When applicable, laptop computer with disc or CD
   Recommend that the local fire cache have the following items available:

       1.          Several "wilderness packs" made up and available for immediate use with good
                   food, water filters, lightweight tents, sharp bow saws, etc.
       2.          Lightweight pumps on pack frames ready to deploy to back country fires.
       3.          Plastic sheeting in to remote fires to construct a tank for water containment.
       4.          Small hoses and blivets in the unit fire cache ready to go.
       5.          Log carriers and peavies in the cache for rehab and line construction.
       6.          Fire pans available for spike camps in areas where open fires may cause serious
                   resource damage.
       7.          Small pumps to reduce the amount of disturbance created by line construction and
                   mop-up activities.
       8.          Use bear proof food storage containers for spike camps.
       9.          Portable toilets for spike camps.
       10.         Scrim – tough porous ground cloth that can be used to protect vegetation/soils in
                   high use areas.




                                                 37
                                 Resource Advisor’s Personal Gear

Personal equipment needs for the RA should include the same inventory as for any fire suppression
personnel with a field assignment, including all Personal Protective Equipment required for presence on
the fireline. A list of the items identified for fire suppression personnel is as follows:

FIRE PACK

45-pound maximum weight for overnight pack; 20 pounds maximum for web gear. Failure to meet weight
requirements may result in abandoning some items at airports or heliports. No additional packs, gear,
boots, etc. strapped onto outside of packs. Label pack with your name and home unit address.

NO alcohol or illegal drugs. These will cost you your job. You may bring prescription and over-the-
counter drugs. Walkmans, personal cameras, etc. are not recommended. They are easily damaged, lost, or
stolen. Bring them at your own risk.

Items to include in your overnight pack:

Nomex pants (2 pair)                       Washcloth & towel

Nomex shirts (2 pair)                      Small tent

Socks (5-7 pair, good quality, never       Light weight raingear
skimp on socks!)

Underwear (5 or more) 100% cotton          Sleeping bag & air mattress

Tee-shirts (4 or more)100% cotton          Plastic bag for dirty laundry

Bandanas (4 or more)                       Toiletries: Deodorant, shampoo & conditioner, Foot powder,
                                           moleskin, toothbrush & paste, vitamins, soap, chapstick

Warm jacket                                Feminine protection

Stocking hat                               Lotion

Extra bootlaces                            Bug repellant

Extra supply of medication                 Sunscreen

DAILY FIRE & PERSONAL GEAR PACK:

Tool, hardhat w/ chinstrap, leather gloves (& extra set), goggles/safety glasses, earplugs, fire shelter (all
PPE), boots (sturdy leather with at least 8 tops & lug soles), headlamp w/ batteries (not lithium), personal
1st aid kit, canteens (totaling 1 gallon), compass, jacket-brush jacket or wool shirt (not synthetic), nomex,
lunch

                                                     38
                                      Authority Of The Resource

Wilderness Management Newsletter, March 11, 1991 Page 3

LAW ENFORCEMENT AND THE "AUTHORITY OF THE RESOURCE".

by Dr. George N. Wallace, Assistant Professor of Recreation Resources and Landscape Architecture,
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, Reprinted from Legacy, Volume l, No.2, pp. 4-8

According to Webster, "authority" means "the power to influence or command thought, opinion or
behavior." Wild nature can be said to have its own authority,' Nature has her own rules, operates in certain
ways, and has certain laws; there are consequences when we violate that order, Wilderness areas are
among the few places on earth where we have agreed to allow nature, for the most part, to operate on her
own terms. Desirable behavior is more likely to occur if people understand how their actions affect the
way nature operates.

Much of the undesirable behavior which managers must deal with in the Wilderness is behavior that
disrupts the natural order or the ability of others to experience wild nature, All too often in dealing with
visitors who are causing some sort of impact to soil, vegetation, water quality, wildlife or the experience
of others, we tend to focus on the authority of the agency, By this we mean the visitor ends up thinking
about laws, regulations, badges, and the ranger's presence rather than focusing on the natural authority
inherent in the requirements of a healthy ecosystem,

The "Authority of the Resource Technique" (ART) attempts to compensate for his tendency. It transfers
the authority (or that which asks a person to think or behave in a certain way) from the manager ranger or
agency, to those things in nature (resources) that have their own requirements. Where Hammit and Cole
(1987) and Hendee et al. (1990) have rightly emphasized the need to explain the reasons for Wilderness
regulations and the expected behavior, the AR technique goes one step further and asks the
ranger/manager to subtly de-emphasize the regulation and transfer part of the expectation back to the
visitor by interpreting nature's requirements,
Compare the two styles of addressing visitors whose dog .is running free in a Wilderness area that
requires dogs to be on a leash. The ranger/manager approaches the visitors and their dog on the trail.

Authority of the Agency

Ranger: Hello, my name is Jack Russell and I'm a ranger with the Rio Blanco District (pause or small
talk). I'm going to have to ask you folks to keep your dog on a leash. We have a regulation that all dogs
are to be kept on a leash unless you are in camp and the dog can be controlled.
Visitors: That dog has to be on a leash all the time in town. You would think that up here where he can't
hurt anything that it wouldn't matter. Besides, he doesn't: range very' far unless he's on to a rabbit or
something.
Ranger: Well, your dog may be well behaved but many aren't, and I have to enforce the regulation that
says dogs must be on a leash for everyone. This is just a warning notice, but if the dog is seen running
again, I will be forced to give you a citation. The fine would be $25. Do you have any questions, or is
there anything I can help you with?
Visitor: No, I don't believe so.
Ranger: Well, I won't bother you any more. You folks have a nice day.
                                                       39
Authority of the Resource
Ranger: Hello. How are you today? I'm Jack Russell, the backcountry ranger in this unit. (Uniform,
nameplate and shoulder patch can speak for themselves, or the agency can be identified.)
Visitors: Fine, thanks.
Ranger: (After some more ice breakers) I noticed earlier that there was a dog running free in the aspen
stands where the trail crosses that saddle I (turns and looks at the aspen in the distant saddle).
Visitor: Yeah, that was probably Rocco here (gestures at the dog).
Ranger: Well, this is the time of year when the mule deer are dropping their fawns, (points at the bench
above the saddle where he has seen several fawns) and they are very vulnerable to disturbance. We have
found that dogs that are running free often put a lot of stress on the does and their fawns. This is just one
of several re'1sons for the regulations that asks visitors to keep their dogs on a leash (if the regulation
clearly exists): or, we would feel better if folks could keep their dogs on a leash unless they are in camp
and the dogs stay in camp with them.
Visitors: Ok, thanks for the reminder.
Ranger: That's quite all right. He is a nice looking dog. Is he full-blooded Australian? (Return to small
talk or questions the visitors might have.)

I had the privilege of working periodically over several years with David Hawkins, former Director of the
Mountain View Center for Environmental Education in Boulder, Colorado. As we trained teachers we
listened, watched, and analyzed the language and actions that teachers used. Hawkins and his associate
Marie Hughes taught me to look and see if teachers and pupils appeared to be "face to face" or "shoulder
to shoulder" as they talked or worked. They maintained that in every face-to-face relationship there exists
a certain amount of tension. If, on the other hand, both people turn and share an interest in something in
the world around them, and their attentions are) focused on this third thing (deer, aspen, saddles, or the
special qualities possessed by an Australian Shepherd), the relationship is more authentic and less
threatening to the person who may know less.' He felt that it was possible to teach--in this case, without
the coercion of authority--that the authority lay in the "stuff" which both people found interesting. Perhaps
the original inspiration for developing this concept comes from Freeman Tilden as well as philosopher
Martin Buber. In his book “L and Thou,” Buber describes how concern or care for the progress or
development of another person (much as a ranger hopes that wilderness visitors will move to higher levels
of respect for Wilderness resources) often best occurs during mutual and reciprocal interaction with some
interesting phenomenon in the world, rather than by directly confronting the person. Tilden's (1957) first
principle of interpretation seems based on this as well.

Before we get too far into the wild reaches of philosophy, let's try another example of a manager/ranger
who is dealing with an undesirable behavior but using only the Authority of the Resource Technique this
time. In this case, our backcountry ranger notices a group of backpackers was camping below a small-
mountain lake. After opening conversation the ranger brings up the issue with the goal of influencing
future behavior rather than issuing a citation.

Ranger: We have noticed that on several occasions lately, people have washed or bathed directly in the
stream or the lake. Researchers tell us that even small amounts of nutrients, like those found in most soap,
are enough to change the growth of aquatic plants. Normally, in these high lakes, there aren't many
nutrients to begin with (squats looking into the water, possibly picking up some rocks or plants from the
bottom). Once the number of water plants increases above normal, lakes like this may experience changes
in temperature, clarity, and the amount of oxygen available. Then, other organisms that live here now
begin to change as well. We would like to keep these lakes crystal clear, cold, and as natural as possible,
                                                      40
so we are asking campers to carry water for washing, bathing, or packstock back to camp. Also, by
pouring leftover water on the vegetation near camp, it is possible to help it recover a bit.

Once again, the ranger in our hypothetical example has shifted the focus away from him self as an
authority figure representing the agency and focused the visitor's attention on the resource. He has used
the undesirable behavior--washing dishes in the lake inlet - to create an opportunity to talk about water
quality, the nutrient cycle and the changes that can be set in motion by a series of seemingly innocent acts.
Washing dishes in an inlet is something that many people would not consider harmful. If so, it may be an
example of willful noncompliance. The ranger can change that by revealing the authority of the resource.
The best reason for not washing dishes in the lake is not because there is a regulation on the back of the
map' or "a ranger that I asks you not to. Ideally, once the visitors understand how the lake and stream
function and might be affected by their actions, they respect the integrity of those systems and act
accordingly. Tilden speaks to this issue of presenting the "whole picture" in his fifth principle of
interpretation. Concepts that unify the workings of nature and our bonds with the natural world are those
that reveal the authority of the resource.

Another aim of the ART is to remove the tension that often occurs when teacher and pupil or land
manager and land user are face to face--one supposedly knowing more than the other. Like Tilden, we
wish to get past " instruction" to that which he chooses to call, in his fourth principle, the "provocative." It
is especially appropriate for use with wildland visitors that are causing natural resource or social impacts
that they may not be fully aware of. The ART message in each case can be viewed as systematic. It has
several sequential parts that can be described and later practiced.

Step 1. Give An Objective Description of the Situation

After opening conversation, the manager or ranger simply makes an objective statement about the visitor's
actions as they were observed. Any reference \:0 the agency, the regulations, or the visitor as violator is to
be avoided at this point. Example:

Ranger: I noticed that there was a salt block left near the campsite at Darby's Meadow.
It is important to avoid value laden terms. Phrases like "you really shouldn't," "Don't you know that it is
harmful to…" or "it's against Regulation 32(a) under the…" don't need to be used. In fact, the above
statement is made without attributing the act directly to the party in question even if it is highly likely that
they did leave the salt.

Since a backcountry manager cannot and should not attempt to keep track of all .the details of any group's
actions, there is often some question as to exactly what happened. Secondly, it is a matter of diplomacy
and tact to avoid the implication. Languages like French and Spanish, for example, hardly ever choose to
assign blame to an individual choosing rather to use reflexive verbs that say "it left itself" (was left), "it
broke itself on you" (was broken), etc. We are doing the same here and at no loss to the message.

Step 2. Explain the Implications of the Action or Situation that was observed.

It is here that the manager/ranger attempts to reveal the authority of the resource or interpret what will
happen in nature if the action is continued. This may also be thought of as including social impacts or
what will happen to the interaction that others are having with nature if the action continues.



                                                       41
Ranger: In places where salt has been left behind in the past (ranger turns toward the area in question),
deer and elk return repeatedly to the site, and it begins to look like any artificial salt lick, compacted and
denuded of vegetation. They continue to paw at the ground afterwards, which is their habit at naturally
occurring salt licks. It also tends to sterilize the soil in the immediate area. Other visitors frequently
complain about finding these sites in a Wilderness area. .

Once again, the most important implications of leaving salt behind are not that it is against the regulations
or that the outfitter's special use permit may be put in jeopardy (authority of the agency). The implications
are that it is an unnatural occurrence that can cause impacts. The "authority" lies in the behavior of elk
and the nature of soil organisms, or what happens to soil macrospores, roots, water infiltration, or the
recovery period when a site is compacted. This part of the message should be interesting. The
ranger/manager should demonstrate interest in the topic rather than impatience with the offender. It is an
opportunity to employ the art of interpretation and help people see the subtle workings of all things wild
or, as Holmes Rolston puts it, "to let them in on nature's show." Instead of threatening the individual "face
to face" with your power to constrain or alter their activities, you help them, "shoulder to shoulder,"
acquire new knowledge. Lawerence Kholberg (1974) suggests this approach allows the offender to self-
test existing values or attitudes and to move them to a higher level of principled thinking.

Wilderness users typically have high levels of education and assign a high value to Wilderness (Hendee et
al. 1990, pp. 1568). In keeping with these facts, the ART always uses the positive expectation that
assumes that once the person understands what is happening in nature, or in the Wilderness experience of
others, that they will want to stop what is recognized as undesirable behavior. This brings us to the last
step.

Step 3. Tell Them How You Feel About It and What Can (Should) Be Done to. Improve the Situation.

When the person using the Authority of the Resource Technique is both interested in and concerned about
what is happening, it is acceptable to state how you feel about the implications or probable results of the
undesirable behavior. Since you are wearing the agency's uniform, the visitor can assume that what you
say is also a statement of how the agency feels and what actions are desirable in the agency's eyes.

Ranger: I'd (we'd) feel a lot better if the deer, elk, and animals did not become accustomed to man's salt in
the Wilderness. We are (or the agency is) are asking all packstock users to place their salt on a board, log
or other surface that keeps it off the ground when it is offered to packstock, and to be sure and carryall salt
out with them when they break camp.

There are other communication techniques, like "I messages," which are similar to the ART technique.
Authors of such techniques tell us that once a non-threatening ("shoulder to shoulder") atmosphere has
been established, it is natural and effective to include a more personalized expression of concern like that
that is seen in the first sentence of the statement above. Each person, however, who deals with undesirable
behavior in the field must use their own judgment in deciding how to express the right mixture of their
own feelings, the agency's position, and the position of others who may be concerned (fish and game or
other wildlife officers relative to abandoned salt blocks)..'

The manager or ranger must make a decision in this third part of the message -whether or not it is
necessary to cite the-regulation. This can be debated and depends on several things. The National Park
Service is fairly consistent in its use of certain regulations. In other agencies, there are still a great many
inconsistencies in where, how, and if regulations are used. This may always be the case since there is
                                                       42
great diversity in size, location, and management needs between units in the National Wilderness
Preservation system. Many times a ranger will see undesirable behavior that is not specifically covered by
a regulation (type of fuel wood being burned, hunters who leave flagging behind, locations for picketing
horses, etc.). Managers may still wish personnel to make contacts and use techniques similar to the ART
even if specific regulations do not exist. In fact, Wilderness management guidelines ask us to minimize
regulations in the Wilderness,

Finally, it is important to qualify all of the preceding. Although by their very nature, wilderness and
backcountry areas are the most logical places to try a technique like this, the ART may not always work
or be appropriate. There are times when the manager must move to other, more traditional levels of law
enforcement. It may be necessary to use more of the "authority of the agency". Although an ART
approach will probably work for most Wilderness users who, studies show, are well educated and
supportive of the Wilderness concept, there will be a small percentage of violators who exhibit
undesirable behavior that is clearly illegal (poachers, marijuana growers, motorized entry, etc,). Cases that
clearly involve more than unavoidable, uninformed, unskilled, or even careless behavior may require that
those techniques which emphasize enforcement over education or interpretation be taught to most
commissioned law enforcement officers. Also, if management problems are not sufficiently reduced, after
a period of using an ART-type approach with the majority of visitors, it may be necessary to create or
emphasize existing regulations and enforce them to a greater degree.

It is good, however, to expect the best of people when we can. Combining interpretation with law
enforcement to reveal the authority of the resource., seems to be a good place to start we hope for long-
term changes in peoples' respect for nature in general and an intrinsically motivated stewardship of the
wilderness in particular. Such changes are likely to last longer when we help people to test their own
beliefs and values and arrive at a more principled Wilderness ethic of their own accord.

REFERENCES
Hammit, William E. and Cole, David N. (1987). Wildland Recreation and Management. John Wiley and
Sons, New York
Hendee. John C., George H. Stankey and Robert C. Lucas. 1990. Wilderness Management. Fulcrum
Publishing. Golden Colorado, 546 pp.




                                                     43
44
                      SAMPLE BRIEFING PACKAGES
                       West Fork Visitor Resource Briefing Package
                                 West Fork Ranger District
                                 Bitterroot National Forest




Included in this package are the following:
       1) West Fork Ranger District orientation briefing document
       2) Bitterroot National Forest map
       3) Fire Size-up and BNF Radio Frequency card
       4) Night time Dispatch Staffing Procedure Guide
       5) Northern Region Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (MIST) Handbook
                                                  45
                          WEST FORK FIRE PROGRAM ORIENTATION


This briefing package is intended as an additional supplement to a thorough, verbal briefing that
you will receive from a fire management program representative.

District Overview

The District consists of 800,000 acres, 500,000 of those acres are within the Frank Church-River of No
Return and Selway-Bitterroot Wildernesses. The fire management program consists of an FMO, AFMO
Fuels, AFMO Operations, a Fire Prevention Technician, 2 Supervisory Fire Engine Operators, 2
permanent seasonal Assistant Supervisory Fire Engine Operators, 1 permanent seasonal Fuels Technician
and 12 firefighters of varying experience and skills. The District, on average, has 65 – 75 natural ignition
starts in a fire season, 75% of which are outside of the wildernesses and appropriate suppression response
is taken. The remaining 25% are in the wildernesses. These fires are managed as Wildland Fire(s) for
Resource Benefit (WFRB). In certain cases, natural ignitions in the wilderness are suppressed.

Communications (Clone your radios in the District Dispatch Office ASAP.)

Communications on the forest are generally handled through a centralized dispatch center located in
Hamilton Montana. When the district receives multiple starts, dispatch responsibilities can move from
central to district dispatch. Hamilton Dispatch will broadcast this change to all stations and active
incidents to notify all personnel of the change.

Generally, radio communication is well covered throughout the district with few dead spots. Cell
coverage is very limited. With elevation, you can find some areas with cell coverage. South of Trapper
Creek Job Corps Center there are very few spots that have coverage. Most communications can be
conducted through Channel 1, South Zone. This frequency will get you through to the appropriate
dispatch office. In addition to Hamilton Dispatch, there are five staffed lookouts on the District. These
can be used as human repeaters when you can‟t get out on the normal radio repeater system. Rx and Tx
frequencies and tones can be found on the back of the size-up cards, however these frequencies should
already be cloned into your radios shortly after your arrival. The following are the radio repeater sites and
are general geographic locations. If one doesn‟t work, try another.

Hell‟s ½ Lookout – Channel 5
Hell‟s ½ can be used west of Nez Perce Pass in the upper reaches of the Selway River. Also can be used
in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness, which is located south of the Magruder Corridor
Road.

Lookout Mtn. Lookout – Channel 7
Use Lookout Mtn repeater when located in the Painted Rocks Reservoir area and in the West Fork
Bitterroot drainage.

There are also two other lookouts that are staffed and function as human repeaters when you are unable to
trip any of the repeaters.

Barecone Lookout – Outside the wilderness, about 9 air miles southwest of the West Fork Ranger Station.
                                                     46
Salmon Mtn. Lookout – Staffed with volunteers through mid September and is located inside the
wilderness in the far western reaches of the District south of the Magruder Corridor Road.

In any case, during any suppression action, establish positive radio communications with the District or
Hamilton Dispatch, whether through a repeater, a lookout or a firefighter placed on a high point.

Daily Communication/Status Protocol

Each morning, by approximately 1000 hours, a morning status check-in of Forest resources is conducted
by Central Dispatch through each District and is broadcast over the BRF Forest Net. The Forest Resource
Summary is then transmitted across the same channel to all personnel.

The morning (A.M.) weather (Zone 109) and any other critical fire information will be broadcast over the
radio at this time. Additionally, you can expect to hear a P.M. weather forecast at approximately 1400
hours each and every day.

FIRE WEATHER WATCHES are issued during the day if the potential exists for severe fire weather
within the next 72 hours. When forecast weather conditions, together with existing environmental
conditions could result in extreme fire behavior or – as in the case of dry lightning – numerous fire starts
within the next 24 hours a RED FLAG WARNING is issued. It is requested that IC‟s on fires that are
already staffed acknowledge receiving this information with Central Dispatch. Information about the
weekly Bitterroot Fire Behavior Forecast is located in the Fire Behavior Forecasts on following pages.

The District can either be in Central Dispatch (Hamilton) mode or on District Dispatch. During heavy fire
activity, we will generally be on District dispatch. During District dispatch all resource orders go through
the District Dispatch office. Likewise, the same procedure will be followed if we are in Central Dispatch.
So, you need to ask about the dispatch status before being assigned to a fire as an IC. Additionally, you
will be informed if that status changes.

Once on your incident, establish communications with either the West Fork Dispatch or Hamilton
Dispatch (Check prior to leaving West Fork on dispatch Status). Provide the dispatch office current status
of your incident and any additional immediate resource needs. Once suppression efforts have begun,
provide incident status to dispatch at beginning of shift, at least once during the shift and at the end of
suppression operations. You should also alert dispatch of when you take your resources off the line to
bed down.


District Fire Program Goals

Minimize exposure to risk and make every possible attempt to mitigate exposure to all associated
resources and personnel. This includes, but is not limited to the following:

Personnel on the fire line.

Aviation Resources – Keep in mind certain limiting factors such as: good ingress and egress for air
tankers, visibility (i.e. smoke and limited light), winds, fuel density, Single Engine Air tankers (SEAT)

                                                     47
instead of a heavy tankers, turn around times for bucket work, consolidating personnel and equipment
orders for efficient use of helicopter time, etc.

Natural Resources – Practice Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (MIST) when and where they are
applicable. Refer to the MIST guidelines section and the Northern Region MIST booklet included in this
package.

Safety Standards

No tree felling after dark. NO EXCEPTIONS.

Personal protective equipment will be worn at all times.

Follow 10 Standards Orders, 18 Watch outs and LACES at all times.

If a fire can be worked safely through the night, and the IC determines that it‟s necessary, proceed with
caution. If it is determined that a fire is unsafe to work through the night and hazards cannot be mitigated,
find a safe place to hunker and wait until daylight to reassess. No fire is worth jeopardizing the safety of
personnel.

It is expected that if personnel are off-line and sleeping, the CTR will reflect time accordingly. There
shall be no 24-hour shifts unless the crew is on the line for that period of time. Refer to the Night Time
Dispatch Staffing Procedures included in this package.

Medivac Plan

In the event of an injury that requires a medivac, an IC should keep in mind the following short list of
items and relay them to the appropriate Dispatch:
     Nature of the accident, injury or illness.
     Treatment rendered.
     Location of the patient.
     Location of the pick-up point and brief description of the area.
Arrangements will be made to transport the patient via air or ground based upon the above conversations.

Fire Weather (Hard Copy)

The West Fork District is located in fire weather zone 109. The AM forecast is posted daily on the wall
just outside of the Dispatch office and broadcast at approximately 1000 and 1400 every day.

Usual weather conditions on the West Fork are dry with daytime temps ranging from the 70‟s into the
90‟s with between ten to twenty days with highs over 100˚ at the lowest elevations. The district is in the
path of summer lightning storms. When high pressure sets up over the four corners area of the southwest,
high elevation subtropical moisture drawn into the zone can produce dry lightning activity. These dry
lightning storms track through the district producing numerous starts. During these events initial attack
dispatching is delayed until the storms have tracked through the district so that new ignitions can be
prioritized.

Wetting rains associated with these thunderstorms become more frequent in August.
                                                     48
Fire Behavior Forecasts

Fire behavior on the district can vary widely with elevation, aspect and fuel type.

The Bitterroot National Forest Fire Behavior Forecast is updated weekly and is posted on the wall just
outside the Dispatch office. It is broken into elevational zones (FMZ) and discusses anticipated fire
behavior characteristics and associated fuel types.

Suppression Standards

Engine Response – The District is not heavily roaded, however vehicle access is possible. Have your
truck or engine prepared for IA at all times.

Helicopter Access – The District utilizes helicopters for access on more than 80% of initial attacks. It is
important that you understand basic helicopter safety and procedure, i.e. chinstraps, hard hats, gloves, etc.
Before any helicopter mission, all crewmembers will be given a passenger briefing. When preparing for
helicopter insertion, prepare your initial attack gear for 72 hours of self-sufficient operations. When
ordering supplies, anticipate delivery via long line. Helicopter use will be prioritized on a Forest and
District level and your incident may not be the highest priority, plan accordingly.

Every attempt is made to minimize helicopter use, particularly in wilderness areas. The standard
protocol for helitacked fires is a pack out. Advise Dispatch of your demob plans and they will
advise otherwise if your resource is in demand for another assignment. Again, this is an action to
minimize pilot and firefighter exposure to risk, limit the number of landings in sensitive areas, and
be cost efficient. Additionally, it is expected that personnel will pack out with line gear and hand
tools. Always be fire ready. It is possible to be dispatched to a new fire from existing helispots in
the backcountry. Your other gear, if it was backhauled when you demobed the fire, can be
delivered by rotor wing aircraft to your new location.

Upon your arrival at West Fork, you will be issued a smoke chaser pack and other necessary items such as
food and water for three days. Bring other necessary personal item (e.g. toilet paper, tooth brush, extra
clothing, etc.) to get you through and extended period of time. Ask the local district firefighters for
suggestions when repacking your gear. Fresh food and water may be resupplied by helicopter long line or
paracargo after three days. Fresh water may be needed prior to three days and that is certainly an
acceptable reason to request resupply. You may begin to get food resupply at this point, however it is at
the Duty Officer‟s discretion and not a luxury that should be expected at this time. If you are ordering
meals for your incident, your resource order must be placed into dispatch with a minimum of 9 hours lead
time.

Occasionally, fires are accessed by foot. Smoke chaser packs will be utilized in this case to enable
firefighters to remain close to the fire, even when off the clock.

It is expected that personnel will remain on the fire until it is called “out”. If the situation warrants, it is
not unreasonable to release some IA firefighters and keep several on the fire until it can be left for the last
time. When planning the demob of your incident, do not leave for at least one burning period after the
last smoke has been seen. Use your best professional judgment; think your plans through and the District
Fire Management Program will support you as best possible.

                                                      49
Keep MIST tactics in mind at all times, both in and out of the wildernesses. If certain suppression tactics
can be safely and effectively implemented, the extended period of time and associated costs to do so
easily outweigh the long-term effects of aggressive fire suppression.

The FMO, AFMO and Duty Officer are here to support YOU on the fire line. If you need something,
order it. We will do everything within our control to get it to you. It is not our place to question your
needs and orders, so ask. If it is available and within reason, you will get it.

Think out ahead of your fire 12 – 24 hours. Place your orders after you‟ve thoroughly thought them
through and possibly conferred with other experienced firefighters that are with you. They may think of
something that y

Basic Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (MIST) Guidelines:

Here are some basic guidelines that can be followed. More information can be found in the Northern
Region MIST Handbook included in this package.

INSERT GUIDELINES

West Fork Fire Management Personnel

FMO: Curt McChesney
AFMO Operations: Stu Hoyt
AFMO Fuels: Vacant

Engine Supervisor: Todd Opperman
Engine Supervisor: Dennis Fogel
Prevention Technician: Rene Eustace

Pack up your smoke chaser gear, clone your radios, and if you have any further questions, additions, or
comments, please bring them to our attention.




                                                     50
              Valley/Skalkaho Complex Resource Guidelines for Fire Suppression
1. Hand Line
    a. Size and location consistent with Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics ("MIST").
    b. Water bar the hand line according to Bitterroot NF specifications.
    c. Avoid using stream bottoms as improved or constructed control points. If needed, consult with the
        resource advisor to minimize impacts to streams.
    d. Backfiring riparian areas is preferred over digging hand line in riparian areas or across streams.
2. Heavy Equipment
    a. Do not use dozers or feller/bunchers on slopes> 35% or in riparian areas.
    b. Avoid using dozers within 300 feet from live streams.
    c. Do not use dozers or feller/bunchers in roadless or wilderness study areas.
    d. Limit the depth and width of dozer line construction to that necessary to stop fire spread. If
        possible, tip the blade on dozers.
3. Introduction of Toxins
    a. Notify the forest dispatcher and resource advisor in the event of any significant spill.
4. Retardants, Foams, and Surfactants
    a. Avoid application near live streams or lakes (within 200 feet).
    b. Do not pump directly from streams if chemical products are to be injected into the system. If
        chemicals are used, pump from a fold-a-tank located at least 200 feet from water.
    c. Do not back flush pumps and charged hose into streams or lakes.
5. Fuel Spills
    a. Keep fuels at least 200 feet from streams, lakes, and riparian areas.
    b. Provide for spill prevention and containment measures for all pump operations.
    c. Develop a HAZMAT Plan for all refueling/fuel storage areas. Have HAZMAT materials and
        trained personnel at these locations at all times.
6. Spike Camp Locations
    a. Locate spike camp in consultation with the resource advisor.
    b. b. Do not locate helibases within 200 feet of water.
    c. Use portable toilets at spike camps whenever possible. Latrines can be used temporarily or for
        small camps and will be located at least 200 feet from water sources.
7. Water Drafting
    a. Helicopter bucket dip sites should be approved by the resource advisor before using.
    b. Avoid dipping from streams. Pump water into fold-a-tanks for dipping.
    c. Helicopter bucket dipping should be done only after chemical injection systems have been
        removed, disconnected, or rinsed clean. .
    d. All water pump intakes will have screens less than or equal to a 3/3200 inch pore size. d. Water
        pumps will have fuel containment/storage areas.
8. Roadless Areas
    a. No dozers or feller/bunchers in roadless areas.
    b. ATVs may be allowed on "ghost" roads on a case-by-case basis, after consultation with the
        resource advisor.
    c. Any motorized vehicles entering the roadless area must first be cleaned for weeds.
    d. If possible, do not cut trees to create new helispots.
9. Noxious Weeds
    a. All equipment will be washed upon entry to the incident and again before departing the incident.




                                                   51
10. Water Bar Specifications
    a. Bury the water bars to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. Spread the excavated soil to the downhill side of
       the water bar.
    b. Angle the water bars 30 degrees down the slope. Excavate soil at the bottom end of the bar to
       allow water to drain away from the fire line. Do not place water bars perpendicular to the fire line.
    c. Locate water bars in locations where run off will not return to the fire line below the water bar.
    d. Extend the uphill portion of the water bar well beyond the edge of the fire line so that runoff does
       not sneak around the top of water bar.
    e. Use the following spacing guidelines to estimate the number of water bars needed:


Fire line slope & Water bar spacing:

0-10% everv200 feet

10-20% every 150 feet


20-30% every 80 feet

30-40% every 50 feet


>40% every 30 feet




                                                     52
       Minimizing Soil & Water Resource Damage While Constructing Dozer Firelines


Following are considerations for construction of dozer firelines that will minimize soil & water resource
damage and facilitate rehabilitation following fire suppression:
1. When locating line, avoid springs, bogs, and other wet areas.
2. Do not construct lines through stream channels. Stop the line short of the streambank, cross the stream
and begin constructing line above the other streambank.
3. Approach streams at right angles, if possible, to minimize the amount of disturbance near the
streambanks.
4. Locate crossing points where machine damage to the streambanks will be minimized during crossing.
5. Avoid building fireline parallel to streams and within the riparian area. It will usually be less impact to
the stream to burn a few more acres of watershed than to have a dozer line parallel to the stream channel
for a significant distance.
6. Avoid constructing firelines either straight up or down slopes. A slight angle or zig-zag pattern will
facilitate drainage away from the fireline should a storm occur before post-fire rehabilitation is completed.
Stay on finger ridges as much as possible and out of swales.
7. Avoid traversing across a slope so steep that it is necessary to excavate the fire line resulting in a cut
and fill slope that will require extensive and complicated rehabilitation.
8. Scarify to mineral soil, but not deeper than necessary. Do not build trenches that will drain to the
streams.
9. Use the smallest machine practicable to build fireline. The maneuverability and narrower blade width
results in less overall ground disturbance.
10. Do not walk machines up or down stream channels to reach the area where fireline is to be
constructed.
It will never be possible to achieve all of the above recommendations or avoid all problems when building
dozer firelines. Creating a successful fireline, facilitating post-fire rehabilitation, and minimizing
subsequent soil and water problems will require good onsite decision making by the people locating the
firelines and the people on the machines constructing them. If an adequate level of oversight is
maintained, dozer lines can be constructed with acceptable soil and water resource effects.




                                                       53
                       Hayman Fire Wilderness Suppression Guidelines


                         Firefighter and Public Safety Comes Above All Else



                                              Line Tactics

Line Construction
    Fireline construction and other activities should be minimum impact and follow MIST principles.
    Maximize cold trailing and utilize natural features and barriers.
    Line construction should be the minimum necessary to hold the fire. Consider burnout from
       natural barriers to minimize handline construction.
    Locate line to go around downed logs or move them, rather than bucking and going through them.
       Whenever possible, build line around logs and allow fire to consume them.
Saw use
    The use of chainsaws has been approved, but is to be avoided if possible. Minimize the number of
       cuts.
    Locate line so as to minimize felling or limbing of trees. Limb standing trees if necessary to avoid
       felling.
    Flush cut stumps. Disguise cuts with dirt or mud. Scarring tops of stumps is not necessary.
    Unless firefighter safety or fireline will be compromised, allow burning trees or snags to burn out
       and fall.
Mop-up
    During mop-up, drag or roll logs into the interior and allow to them to burn themselves out. Avoid
       bonepiling.


                                               Helispots

      Minimize number of helispots and utilize natural openings where possible.
      Cut only as required for crew safety and support. For logistical support, use longline/remote hook
       for delivery and retrieval of equipment and supplies.
      Naturalize helispots upon abandonment. This includes feathering edges of openings cut for
       helispots and naturalizing appearance from the air and ground as much as possible.



                                                   54
                                           Spike camps

   Wilderness Resource Advisors will assist in spike camp location and will be assigned to each
    camp.
   Coyote tactics are preferred.
   Camps, and all associated facilities, will be located at least 100 feet from lakes, streams and
    system trails. Select durable sites (dry, rocky/sandy, previously-impacted, etc.) for camps. If
    hardened areas are unavailable, select resilient ones that will recover quickly.
   Every effort must be made to avoid impact. Designate eating, sleeping, washing, etc. areas paying
    attention to potential impacts, particularly to streams and water sources.
   Maintain a clean camp at all times. Police area for litter regularly. Designate a garbage collection
    point. To avoid wildlife conflicts, fly trash out daily or as needed.
   If possible, provide bearproof boxes for storage of food and garbage. Hang food and garbage if
    boxes are unavailable.
   For small, short duration camps, use individual “cat holes” (6-8“ deep) at least 200‟ from water for
    disposal of human waste. For larger, longer duration camps, use a portable backcountry toilet
    system and fly out waste with trash.
   Avoid creating new trails by using existing trails where present and avoiding walking single file
    where there are no existing trails.
   Naturalize all camp areas before leaving. Rake all sleeping areas and other compacted areas, and
    eliminate all visible signs of camp.


                                          Rehabilitation

   Eliminate visual impacts of suppression to the greatest extent possible.
   Collect and remove all equipment, supplies, trash, flagging, etc. from lines, travel routes and camp
    areas.
   Pull materials removed during line construction back onto the line and scatter it in such a way as
    to create a natural appearance. Where the line crosses an existing trail, care should be taken to
    disguise the line to discourage its use as a trail.
   Obliterate any berms created during line construction.
   Replace logs that have been removed from the fireline and replace sections of logs that have been
    cut out.
   Construct water bars on steep sections of line, as appropriate.
                          Line Grade (%)           Maximum Spacing (feet)
                                 6-9                        400
                               10-14                        200
                               15-24                        100
                                25+                          50




                                                 55
                                          Historic Structures


On an inholding owned by the Denver Water Board in the NW1/4, SW1/4, Sec. 1, T10S, R72W are two
log structures dating to the late 1800s-early 1900s, constructed during an unsuccessful attempt to dam
Lost Creek and create a reservoir. As a significant historical resource as well as popular recreational
destination, efforts should be made to defend them. Efforts would include reduction of any surrounding
ground fuels, use of pumps to draw water from Watkins Creek, directly west of the structures, possibly
wrapping the buildings in fireproof/resistant material, and removal of nearby limbs of adjacent trees.
While it would be desirable not to have to remove the large adjacent trees, this would be preferable to
losing the buildings.




                                                   56
                                Wilderness Briefing Paper for Crews


Please keep in mind basic principles that will help portions of the Sapphire Wilderness Study Area
recover more quickly from fire suppression impacts:

1. The Sapphire Wilderness Study Area is relatively weed - free and we'd like to keep it that way! Before
getting on the helicopter, ask crews to check boots, tools and gear for dirt that may be carrying seeds.

2. Ask your sawyers to keep in mind that each cut they make will be around for years to come and cut
only as necessary for suppression and safety.

      Disperse brush and bucked materials rather than building piles.
      Minimize cutting trees or snags and limbing. On unburned side of line, where practical, flag
       hazard trees. On burned-out side cut only those that will reach the fireline when they fall.
      Where practical, route around large downed material or burning logs and allow fire to consume
       these fuels.

3. When fuel types permit, build "jumper line".

      Use the minimum width and depth that will hold.
      Use frequent patrols to ensure the line is holding.
      Where possible, follow fire edge to avoid "straight" line.

4. Pack out all trash - including orange peels and used batteries!

5. Practice good sanitation - dig catholes!

6. And last but not least, remember YOU are our most important resource - BE SAFE!




                                                     57
                            Bitterroot NF Fire Behavior Characteristics




WEATHER EFFECTS
Fire behavior characteristics should be based upon the following weather scenarios:
      On the annual average, daily temperatures will range from the mid-80's to 90's, RH's will range
       from the mid-teens to mid-40's, and the prevailing afternoon and evening winds will be
       southwesterly at 10 to 15 mph.
      Cloudy overcast days with RH's greater than 40 percent and light showers with up to 0.25 inches
       of precipitation will significantly reduce fire spread for 3 to 5 days after the temperatures recover
       to the warmer and drier conditions.
      A precipitation event with 0.25 to 0.50 inches of rain has the potential to delay fire spread for 6 to
       10 days after the temperatures recover to the warmer and drier conditions.
      During a typical dry cold frontal passage, the winds will be westerly and sustained at greater than
       20 mph for 6 to 8 hours. On an annual average, these frontal wind events occur about 80 percent of
       the time, and the associated fire spread will be easterly.
      During an atypical cold frontal passage that originates out of the Gulf of Alaska, the winds will be
       north to northeasterly and sustained at greater than 20 mph for 4 to 6 hours. On an annual average,
       these frontal wind events occur about 20 percent of the time, and the associated fire spread will be
       south to southwesterly.
      Typically, a high elevation killing and curing frost occurs on or about August 20th each year, and
       the cured vegetation begins to interact with the fire behavior on or about August 30th. Fairly larger
       fire growth can be expected after the end of August threw mid-September.
      Usually, the lower elevations receive a killing and curing frost, on or about September 1st, and the
       low elevation vegetation begins to interact with fire behavior on or about September 10th. Again,
       if warm and dry weather persists, fairly large fire growth can be expected during mid-September.
      A season ending event typically occurs at the end of August or prior to the middle of September.
       These events are usually 3 to 5 days in duration, and provide good general precipitation coverage
       ranging from 0.75 to 1.50 inches for the event.


HISTORIC FIRE EVENT EFFECTS
Utilize the Historic Fire Map to identify previously burned areas, and adjust the spread rates and direction
for the duration of the event. In addition, this information can be used to summarize the local fire history
and set priorities for any particular area(s).




                                                     58
Fire History Map




      59
                        SAMPLE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY LETTERS

                      Delegation of Authority for Mt. Zirkel Complex Fires


??? is assigned as Incident Commander for the Mt. Zirkel complex comprised of the Hinman Fire and the
Burn Ridge Fire. You have full authority and responsibility for managing the fire suppression activities
within the framework of laws, Agency policy, and direction provided in the Wildland Fire Situation
Analysis (WFSA). Your primary responsibility is to organize and direct your assigned resources for
efficient and effective suppression of the fire. You are accountable to the Agency Administrators or the
representatives below.

Specific directions for this incident, covering management and environmental concerns follow. Unless
direction to either specific IC is noted, it applies to both teams‟ actions:

   1. Protection of life and private property is your highest priority task.
          Use management tactics that will facilitate efficient and safe achievement of management
              objectives;
          Give special consideration to firefighter safety, especially with respect to LCES, work/rest
              guidelines (2:1 ratio), aviation operations, working around snags and blowdown, and
              potential entrapments. When in doubt, sacrifice acres – not your people – in your strategic
              and tactical decisions;
          Conduct reconnaissance to locate and protect civilian forest visitors;
          Development and clarify joint management and team responsibilities on the fires that will
              provide for maximum firefighter and aviation safety;
          Ensure compliance with the Thirty Mile Hazard Abatement and Implementation Plan;

   2. Our selected WFSA Alternative G calls for a combination of direct and indirect suppression
      utilizing natural and constructed features such as rock outcroppings, meadows, clearcuts, green
      aspen, and roads. Wildlife, watershed, and heritage constraints and considerations have been
      documented in the fire management plan. Please review and consider the pages of this plan
      (attached to the WFSA) pertinent to this fire. I have validated those considerations with
      specialists, as necessary. There is additional concern with fish species in Coulton Creek and any
      barriers that could potentially be placed in the steam bed. Specific mitigation measures will be
      provided to the team (wildlife biologist input). USF&WS has been contacted and consulted. No
      additional mitigations or concerns have been identified at this time.

       For fire within the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness, follow guidelines listed in the Craig-Routt Fire
       Management Plan to manage the fires, develop mitigation actions to eliminate or mitigate, to the
       highest degree, threats to the wilderness boundary, and utilize management actions to meet
       resource management objectives, including MIMA standards in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness.

   3. The Elk River Wild and Scenic River corridor and Diamond Park Road are within the fire
      perimeter. Diamond Park Road is being converted and rehabilitated into a non-motorized trail
      to implement Forest Plan direction and reduce impacts to the riparian area. It is an objective
      that suppression activities be planned to be consistent with achieving our goal of rehabilitating
      that road to a trail and to maintain the character of the Wild and Scenic River management
      objectives (Forest Plan Standards and Guidelines provided).

                                                    60
4. These fires have high visibility due to national interest in the Routt Divide Blowdown, the
   subsequent bark beetle epidemic, and the fact that it is in a high recreation area, including a
   segment of the Continental Divide National System Trail, with businesses and full time residents
   impacted. The local public is very aware of the natural fuel load. It is important for the team to
   collaborate with the Forest/District to keep the public updated and informed about the fire. The
   ICs will initiate and maintain good and consistent communication with the FMOs and/or the
   district rangers to insure that strategies are validated regularly and public information is current.

5. Manage the human resources assigned to the fire in a manner that promotes mutual respect and is
   consistent with Forest Service policies for preventing discrimination and sexual harassment.

6. Be cost effective; guided by the estimated costs of the preferred WFSA alternative and limit costs,
   commensurate with values at risk. Utilize local vendors and contractors for fire supplies and
   services, as much as possible.

7. Initial attack responsibilities will remain with the Craig-Routt protection area through the Craig
   Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team will support local initial attack resources by providing air
   support, as requested through Craig Dispatch.

8. Public information will remain a function of the Forest/District public affairs officer, Dianne
   Pipher, working with and through the Craig Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team will support
   the information transfer. Notify us of any accidents or unusual events.

9. Authorization to use chainsaws, portable pumps, helicopters and retardant in the Mount Zirkel
   wilderness is approved, and letters are in the transition package. No retardant use should occur
   within 300 feet of any body of water or stream. Use of water drops by helicopter is preferred.

10. Coordinate aerial resources through the Craig Interagency Dispatch Center.

11. Mitigation for threatened and endangered species will be determined through a list provided by the
    Forest.

12. Work in conjunction with Chuck Vale, Routt County Emergency Services Director, and County
    Sheriff to implement structural protection and evacuation plans on non-federal properties, as
    necessary. Incorporate Chuck into the ICT as Routt County Liaison.

13. The resource advisor assigned to this incident is Ray George or Andy Cadenhead. The
    consulting wildlife biologist is John Wells.

   John Anarella, John Halverson, and Ralph Swain are assigned to you as wilderness resource
   advisors and are to be consulted on all strategies, tactical plans, and any camp locations.

14. You should take over management of the incident on or before 1900 August 18, 2002.




                                                 61
Kim Vogel, HPBE District Ranger is the designated Agency Administrator. Mike Rieser and/or
Kent Foster will be available as agency representatives and reachable unless the need for a
designated acting should arise. You will be kept informed of any changes in authority.

Kim Vogel, or another designated agency representative, will do the daily validation of the WFSA for
the Hinman and Burn Ridge Fires.




Agency Administrator                                   Date



Incident Commander                                     Date



Routt County Emergency Management Director             Date




                                               62
                        Delegation of Authority for the Green Creek Fire


Joe Hartman is delegated authority as the Incident Commander (IC) for the Green Creek Fire. You will
have full authority and responsibility for managing the fire management activities within the framework
of laws, Agency policy, and Agency Administrator‟s direction. You are accountable to the Agency
Administrator or the representatives below.

Specific directions for this incident, covering management and environmental concerns are:

       1. Protection of life and property is your highest priority task. Give special consideration to
           firefighter safety, especially with respect to LCES, work/rest guidelines (2:1 ratio) aviation
           operations, working around snags, and potential entrapments. When in doubt, sacrifice acres –
           not your people – in your strategic and tactical decisions. Conduct reconnaissance to locate
           and protect civilian forest visitors.
       2. Priorities for you and your team while on the unit are to manage the Green Creek Fire using
           appropriate suppression tactics to meet the objectives established in the Wildland Fire
           Situation Analysis (WFSA).
       3. Within the Sarvis Creek wilderness, follow guidelines listed in the Craig-Routt Fire
           Management Plan to meet resource management objectives, including MIMA standards.
       4. Maintain good and consistent communication with FMO‟s and/or District Ranger to ensure
           that strategies are validated regularly and public information is current.
       5. Manage human resources assigned to the fire in a manner that promotes mutual respect and is
           consistent with Forest Service policies for preventing discrimination and sexual harassment.
       6. Cost efficient incident management must be a consideration in all decisions and
           implementation of strategies and tactics. Utilize local vendors and contractors for fire supplies
           and services, as much as possible.
       7. Initial attack responsibilities will remain with the Craig-Routt protection area through the
           Craig Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team will support local resources for initial attack as
           requested through Craig Dispatch. Public information will remain a function of the
           Forest/District working with and through the Craig Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team
           will support the information transfer. Notify us of any accidents or unusual events.
       8. Authorization to use chainsaws, portable pumps, helicopters and retardant in both the Sarvis
           Creek wilderness has been approved, and letters are in the transition package. Retardant use
           should be limited to that necessary to maintain firefighter and public safety, structure
           protection, and protect critical resource values at risk. Where possible, avoid retardant use
           within 300 feet of any body of water or stream. Use of water drops by helicopter is preferred.
       9. Coordinate through the Mt. Zirkel Complex helibase or Air Operations Branch Director for
           aerial resources.
       10. The Routt National Forest has identified heritage resource sites in and near the fire areas. You
           will work with identified resource specialist to mitigate potential impacts to the resource.
       11. The Routt National Forest will conduct smoke management and air quality coordination with
           the Colorado Air Pollution Control Division.
       12. Work in conjunction with the Routt County Emergency Services director and Sheriff to
           implement structural protection and evacuation plans on non-federal properties.


                                                    63
You should take over management of the incident on or before August 19, 2002 at 1900 hrs.

John Anarella (Yampa RD) is assigned to you as the wilderness resource advisor and is to be consulted
with all strategies, tactical plans, and any camp locations.

Tom Florich, acting Yampa District Ranger, is the Agency Administrator. Mike Rieser or Cliff Hutton
can act as Agency Representatives and will be available and reachable unless the need for another
designated acting should arise. You will be kept informed of such changes in authority.

Tom Florich, or a designated acting, will do the daily validation of the WSFA for Green Creek.



______________________________________                  ________________
Agency Administrator – Routt National Forest              Date



___________________________________________             _______________
Incident Commander                                        Date




                                                   64
                      Delegation of Authority for the Lost Green Complex

Wayne Cook, Incident Commander (IC), and your Interagency Fire Use Management Team will manage
the Lost Green Complex. You will have full authority and responsibility for managing the fire
management activities within the framework of laws, Agency policy, and Agency Administrator‟s
direction. Dale Beckerman will remain as Incident Commander (IC) of the Green Creek Fire until
mutually agreed upon by both IC‟s. You are accountable to the Agency Administrators or the
representatives below.

Specific directions for this incident, covering management and environmental concerns are:

       1. Protection of life and property is your highest priority task. Give special consideration to
           firefighter safety, especially with respect to LCES, work/rest guidelines (2:1 ratio) aviation
           operations, working around snags, and potential entrapments. When in doubt, sacrifice acres –
           not your people – in your strategic and tactical decisions. Conduct reconnaissance to locate
           and protect civilian forest visitors.
       2. Priorities for you and your team while on the unit are to:
               a. Given the Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA) objectives, manage the Green
                    Creek Fire using appropriate suppression tactics.
               b. For the Lost Lakes Fire, complete the Stage III of the Wildland Fire Implementation
                    Plan (WFIP), gain approval and manage it accordingly.
       3. Follow guidelines listed in the Fire Management Plan to meet resource management
           objectives, including MIMA standards.
       4. Maintain good and consistent communication with FMO‟s and/or District Ranger to ensure
           that strategies are validated regularly and public information is current.
       5. Manage human resources assigned to the fire in a manner that promotes mutual respect and is
           consistent with Forest Service policies for preventing discrimination and sexual harassment.
       6. Cost efficient incident management must be a consideration in all decisions and
           implementation of strategies and tactics.
       7. Initial attack responsibilities will remain with the Craig-Routt protection area through the
           Craig Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team will support local resources for initial attack as
           requested through Craig Dispatch. Your team will assist with WFIP analysis as needed within
           the Flat Tops.
       8. Public information will remain a function of the Forest/District working with and through the
           Craig Interagency Dispatch Center. Your team will support the information transfer. Notify us
           of any accidents or unusual events.
       9. Authorization to use chainsaws, portable pumps, helicopters and retardant in both the Sarvis
           Creek and Flat Tops wildernesses has been approved, and letters are in the transition package.
           Retardant use should be limited to that necessary to maintain firefighter and public safety,
           structure protection, and protect critical resource values at risk. No retardant use should occur
           within 300 feet of any body of water, stream or flat. Use of water drops by helicopter is
           preferred.
       10. Coordinate through Hinman Fire helibase or Air Operations Branch Director for aerial
           resources.
       11. Constraints for threatened and endangered species will be determined through a list provided
           by the Forests.

                                                    65
       12. The Routt National Forest has identified heritage resource sites in and near the fire areas. You
           will work with identified resource specialist to mitigate potential impacts to the resource.
       13. Smoke management and air quality coordination with the Colorado Air Pollution Control
           Division by the Routt National Forest.
       14. Work in conjunction with the Routt County Emergency Services director and Sheriff to
           implement structural protection and evacuation plans on non-federal properties.

You should take over management of the incident on or before July 19, 2002 at 2000 hrs.

John Anarella (Yampa RD) and Ron Taussig (Blanco RD) are assigned to you as wilderness resource
advisors and are to be consulted with all strategies, tactical plans, and any camp locations.

Tom Florich, Cal Wettstein, Kent Foster or Mike Rieser can act as Agency Representatives and will be
available and reachable unless the need for another designated acting should arise and you will be kept
informed of such changes in authority.

The daily validation of the WSFA for Green Creek will be done by Tom Florich, and the daily validation
for the WFIP will be done by either of below Agency Administrators.



______________________________________                    ________________
Agency Administrator – Routt National Forest                Date


__________________________________________               ________________
Agency Administrator – White River National Forest         Date


___________________________________________              _______________
Incident Commander                                         Date




                                                   66
                                 Delegation Of Authority Fire Use
File Code: 5140 Fire Use
Date: July 17, 2000
Subject: Wildland Fire Use Approval -Anaconda Pintler Wilderness

To:

Pursuant to direction contained in FSM 5140.42 and the Anaconda Pintler Wilderness Fire Management
Guidelines, July 17, 2000, I am delegating acting authority for wildland fire use. The individuals and
WFIP stages for which authority is delegated are identified in the table below. Should significant fire
activity occur the responsible District Ranger or Forest Supervisor will be contacted immediately.


         Acting Authority for Wildland Fire Use in the Anaconda Pintler Wilderness FMU

                                              WFIP STAGE
              Name                                                          Ranger District Authority
                                      I        II        III    R*

         Dick Owenby                  X        X         X       X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


          Tom Heintz                  X        X         X       X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


          Mark Woods                  X        X         X       X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


         Darrell Schulte                                         X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


         Dennis Havig                 X        X         X       X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


         Craig Bobzien                X        X                 X            Wise River, Wisdom


          Diane Hutton                                           X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


            Gil Gale                                             X            Wise River, Wisdom


          Bob Gilman                  X        X         X       X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom


        Mark Giacoletto                                          X                   Pintler

        Assigned FUMA                                            X        Pintler, Wise River, Wisdom

                                                    67
*R = Re-validation authority in accordance with the specified assessment frequency identified in Stage II

In situations where a Maximum Manageable Area (MMA) crosses Forest or District boundaries, I
authorize Stage III approval to Mark Woods, Dick Owenby and Tom Heintz and re-validation authority to
Bob Gilman and Dennis Havig.



Janette Kaiser
Forest Supervisor

cc: Dillon Dispatch
Rodd Richardson




                                                   68
                        SUPPRESSION CONSIDERATIONS
                         Minimum Impact Strategies & Techniques (MIST)

                    Draft Policy & Guidelines (Under Review By NWCG)

POLICY

The change from fire control to fire management has added a new perspective to the role of fire
manager and the firefighter. Traditional thinking that “ the only safe fire is a fire without a trace of
smoke” is no longer valid. Fire Management now means managing fire "with time" as opposed to
"against time." The objective of putting the fire dead out by a certain time has been replaced by the need
to make unique decisions with each fire start to consider the land, resource and incident objectives, and to
decide the appropriate management response and tactics which result in minimum costs and minimum
resource damage.

This change in thinking and way of doing business involves not just firefighters. It involves all levels of
management. Fire management requires the fire manager and firefighter to select management tactics
commensurate with the fire‟s potential or existing behavior while producing the least possible impact on
the resource being protected. The term used to describe these tactics is “Minimum Impact Suppression
Tactics”, commonly called MIST. Simply put: MIST is a „do least damage‟ philosophy.

MIST is not intended to represent a separate or distinct classification of firefighting tactics but rather a
mind set - how to suppress a wildfire while minimizing the long-term effects of the suppression action.
MIST is the concept of using the minimum tool to safely and effectively accomplish the task. MIST
should be considered for application on all fires in all types of land management.

While MIST emphasizes suppressing wildland fire with the least impact to the land, actual fire conditions
and good judgment will dictate the actions taken. Consider what is necessary to halt fire spread and
containment within the fireline or designated perimeter boundary, while safely managing the incident.

Use of MIST will not compromise firefighter safety or the effectiveness of suppression efforts. Safety
zones and escape routes will be a factor in determining fireline location

Accomplishments of minimum impact fire management techniques originate with instructions that are
understandable, stated in measurable terms, and communicated both verbally and in writing. They are
ensured by monitoring results on the ground. Evaluation of these tactics both during and after
implementation will further the understanding and achievement of good land stewardship ethics during
fire management activities.




                                                      69
GUIDELINES
The intent of this guide is to serve as a checklist for all fire management personnel.
Be creative and seek new ways to implement MIST

INCIDENT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
Fire managers and firefighters select tactics that have minimal impact to values at risk. These values are
identified in approved Land or Resource Management Plans. Standards and guidelines are then tied to
implementation practices which result from approved Fire Management Plans.
     Firefighter and public safety cannot be compromised.
     Evaluate suppression tactics during planning and strategy sessions to ensure they meet agency
        administrator objectives and MIST. Include agency Resource Advisor and/or designated
        representative.
     Communicate MIST where applicable during briefings and implement during all phases of
        operations.
     Evaluate the feasibility of Wildland Fire Use in conjunction with MIST when appropriate for
        achieving resource benefits.


RESPONSIBILITIES

Agency Administrator or Designee
    Ensure agency personnel are provided with appropriate MIST training and
       informational/educational materials at all levels.
    Communicate land and fire management objectives to Incident Commander.
    Periodically monitor incident to ensure resource objectives are met.
    Participate in incident debriefing and assist in evaluation of performance related to MIST.
Incident Commander
    Communicate land and fire management objectives to general staff.
    Evaluate suppression tactics during planning and strategy sessions to see that they meet the
       Agency Administrator's objectives and MIST guidelines.
    Monitor operations to ensure MIST is implemented during line construction as well as other
       resource disturbing activities.
    Include agency Resource Advisor and/or local representative during planning, strategy, and
       debriefing sessions.
Resource Advisor
    Ensure interpretation and implementation of WFSA/WFIP and other oral or written line officer
       direction is adequately carried out.
    Participate in planning/strategy sessions and attend daily briefings to communicate resource
       concerns and management expectations.
    Review Incident Action Plans (IAP) and provide specific direction and guidelines as needed.
    Monitor on the ground applications of MIST.
    Provide assistance in updating WFSA/WFIP when necessary.
    Participate in debriefing and assist in evaluation of performance related to MIST.



                                                     70
Planning Section
    Use Resource Advisor to help assess that management tactics are commensurate with
       land/resource and incident objectives.
    Ensure that instructions and specifications for MIST are communicated clearly in the IAP.
    Anticipate fire behavior and ensure all instructions can be implemented safely.
Logistics Section
    Ensure actions performed around Incident Command Post (ICP), staging areas, camps, helibases,
       and helispots result in minimum impact on the environment.
Operations Section
    Evaluate MIST objectives to incorporate into daily operations and IAP.
    Monitor effectiveness of suppression tactics in minimizing impacts to resources and recommend
       necessary changes during planning/strategy sessions.
    Communicate MIST to Division Supervisors and Air Ops/Support during each operational period
       briefing. Explain expectations for instructions listed in Incident Action Plan.
    Participate in incident debriefing and assist in evaluation of performance related to MIST.
Division/Group Supervisor and Strike Team/Task Force Leader
    Communicate MIST objectives and tactics to single resource bosses.
    Recommend specific tasks on divisions to implement MIST.
    Monitor effectiveness of suppression tactics in minimizing impacts to resources and recommend
       necessary changes to Operations Section Chief.
Single Resource Bosses
    Communicate MIST objectives to crew members.
    Monitor work to ensure that crews are adhering to MIST guidelines and specific incident
       objectives.
    Provide feedback to supervisor on implementation of MIST.

IMPLEMENTATION
Keep this question in mind: What creates the greater impact, the fire suppression effort or the fire?

                                                  Safety

      Apply principles of LCES to all planned actions.
      Constantly review and apply the 18 Watch Out Situations and 10 Standard Fire Orders.
      Be particularly cautious with:
                       Burning snags allowed to burn.
                       Burning or partially burned live and dead trees.
                       Unburned fuel between you and the fire.

                                    Escape Routes and Safety Zones

      In any situation, the best escape routes and safety zones are those that already exist. Identifying
       natural openings, existing roads and trails and taking advantage of safe black will always be a
       preferred tactic compatible with MIST. If safety zones must be created, follow guidelines similar
       to those for helispot construction.
      Constructed escape routes and safety zones in heavier fuels will have a greater impact, be more
       time consuming, labor intensive and ultimately less safe.

                                                     71
                                     General Considerations

   Consider the potential for introduction of noxious weeds and mitigate by removing weed seed
    from vehicles, personal gear, cargo nets, etc.
   Consider impacts to riparian areas when locating sites for water handling operations.
        Use longer draft hoses to place pumps out of sensitive riparian areas.
        Plan travel routes for filling bladder bags to avoid sensitive riparian areas.
   Ensure adequate spill containment at fuel transfer sites and pump locations. Stage spill
    containment kits at the incident.

                                        Fire Lining Phase

   Select tactics, tools, and equipment that least impact the environment.
   Give serious consideration to use of water or foam as a firelining tactic.
   Use alternative mechanized equipment such as excavators and rubber tired skidders rather than
    bulldozers when constructing mechanical line.
   Allow fire to burn to natural barriers and existing roads and trails.
   Monitor and patrol firelines to ensure continued effectiveness.

                                           Ground Fuels

  Use cold-trail, wet line or combination when appropriate. If constructed fireline is necessary, use
   minimum width and depth to stop fire spread.
 Consider the use of fireline explosives (FLE) for line construction and snag falling to create more
   natural appearing firelines and stumps.
 Burn out and use low impact tools like swatters and gunny sacks.
 Minimize bucking to establish fireline: preferably move or roll downed material out of the
   intended constructed fireline area. If moving or rolling out is not possible, or the downed log/bole
   is already on fire, build line around it and let the material be consumed.
Aerial fuels–brush, trees, and snags:
 Adjacent to fireline: limb only enough to prevent additional fire spread.
 Inside fireline: remove or limb only those fuels that would have potential to spread fire outside the
   fireline.
 Cut brush or small trees necessary for fireline construction flush to the ground.
 Trees, burned trees, and snags:
        Minimize cutting of trees, burned trees, and snags.
        Do not cut live trees unless it is determined they will cause fire spread across the fireline or
           seriously endanger workers. Cut stumps flush with the ground.
        Scrape around tree bases near fireline if hot and likely to cause fire spread.
        Identify hazard trees with flagging, glowsticks, or a lookout.
 When using indirect attack:
        Do not fall snags on the intended unburned side of the constructed fireline unless they are
           an obvious safety hazard to crews.
        Fall only those snags on the intended burn-out side of the line that would reach the fireline
           should they burn and fall over.

                                                 72
                                               Mopup Phase

       Consider using “hot-spot” detection devices along perimeter (aerial or hand-held).
       Use extensive cold-trailing to detect hot areas.
       Cold-trail charred logs near fireline: do minimal scraping or tool scarring. Restrict spading to hot
        areas near fireline.
     Minimize bucking of logs to check for hot spots or extinguish fire: preferably roll the logs and
        extinguish the fire.
     When ground is cool return logs to original position after checking.
     Refrain from piling: burned/partially burned fuels that were moved should be arranged in natural
        positions as much as possible.
     Consider allowing larger logs near the fireline to burn out instead of bucking into manageable
        lengths. Use a lever, etc. to move large logs.
     Use gravity socks in stream sources and/or combination of water blivets and fold-a-tanks to
        minimize impacts to streams.
     Personnel should avoid using rehabilitated firelines as travel corridors whenever possible because
        of potential soil compaction and possible detrimental impacts to rehab work.
     Avoid use of non-native materials for sediment traps in streams.
     Aerial fuels (brush, small trees, and limbs): remove or limb only those fuels which if ignited have
        potential to spread fire outside the fireline.
     Burning trees and snags:
             Be particularly cautious when working near snags (ensure adequate safety measures are
                communicated).
             The first consideration is to allow a burning tree/snag to burn itself out or down.
             Identify hazard trees with flagging , glow-sticks or a lookout.
             If there is a serious threat of spreading firebrands, extinguish with water or dirt.
             Consider felling by blasting, if available.
Aviation Management
Minimize the impacts of air operations by incorporating MIST in conjunction with the standard aviation
risk assessment process.
     Possible aviation related impacts include:
             Damage to soils and vegetation resulting from heavy vehicle traffic, noxious weed
                transport, and/or extensive modification of landing sites.
             Impacts to soil, fish and wildlife habitat, and water quality from hazardous material spills.
             Chemical contamination from use of retardant and foam agents.
             Biological contamination to water sources, e.g., whirling disease.
             Safety and noise issues associated with operations in proximity to populated areas,
                livestock interests, urban interface, and incident camps and staging areas.
     Helispot Planning
             When planning for helispots determine the primary function of each helispot, e.g., crew
                transport or logistical support.
             Consider using long-line remote hook in lieu of constructing a helispot.
             Consult Resource Advisors in the selection and construction of helispots during incident
                planning.
             Estimate the amount and type of use a helispot will receive and adapt features as needed.
     Balance aircraft size and efficiency against the impacts of helispot construction.


                                                     73
   Use natural openings as much as possible. If tree felling is necessary, avoid high visitor use
    locations unless the modifications can be rehabilitated. Fall, buck, and limb only what is
    necessary to achieve a safe and practical operating space.

                            Retardant, Foam, and Water Bucket Use

   Assess risks to sensitive watersheds from chemical retardants and foam. Communicate specific
    drop zones to air attack and pilots, including areas to be avoided.
   Fire managers should weigh use of retardant with the probability of success by unsupported
    ground force. Retardant may be considered for sensitive areas when benefits will exceed the
    overall impact. This decision must take into account values at risk and consequences of expanded
    fire response and impact on the land.
   Consider biological and/or chemical contamination impacts when transporting water.
   Limited water sources expended during aerial suppression efforts should be replaced. Consult
    Resource Advisors prior to extended water use beyond initial attack.

                          Logistics, Camp Sites, and Personal Conduct

   Consider impacts on present and future visitors.
   Provide portable toilets at areas where crews are staged.
   Good campsites are found, not made. If existing campsites are not available, select campsites not
    likely to be observed by visitors
   Select impact-resistant sites such as rocky or sandy soil, or openings within heavy timber. Avoid
    camping in meadows and along streams or shores.
   When there is a small group try to disperse use. In the case of larger camps: concentrate,
    mitigate, and rehabilitate.
   Lay out camp components carefully from the start. Define cooking, sleeping, latrine, and water
    supplies.
   Prepare bedding and campfire sites with minimal disturbance to vegetation and ground.
   Personal Sanitation:
          Designate a common area for personnel to wash up. Provide fresh water and
             biodegradable soap.
          Do not introduce soap, shampoo or other chemicals into waterways.
          Dispose of wastewater at least 200 feet from water sources.
          Toilet sites should be located a minimum of 200 feet from water sources. Holes should be
             dug 6-8 inches deep.
          If more than 1 crew is camped at a site strongly consider portable toilets and remove waste.
             (Backcountry Toilet Procurement Information can be found at the end of this MIST
             section.)
   Store food so that it is not accessible to wildlife, away from camp and in animal resistant
    containers.
   Do not let garbage and food scraps accumulate in camp.
   Monitor travel routes for damage and mitigate by:
          Dispersing on alternate routes or
          Concentrating travel on one route and rehabilitate at end of use.
   If a campfire is built, leave no trace of it and avoid using rock rings. Use dead and down wood for
    the fire and scatter any unused firewood. Do not burn plastics or metal.
                                                 74
                                 Restoration and Rehabilitation

   Firelines:
         After fire spread has stopped and lines are secured, fill in deep and wide firelines and cup
            trenches and obliterate any berms.
         Use waterbars to prevent erosion, or use woody material to act as sediment dams.

                        Maximum Waterbar Spacing
                  Percent Grade     Maximum Spacing, Feet
                       <9                     400
                     10 – 15                  200
                     15 – 25                  100
                      25 +                     50
           Table 1, Maximum Waterbar spacing.


        Ensure stumps are cut flush with ground.
        Camouflage cut stumps by flush-cutting, chopping, covering, or using FLE to create more
           natural appearing stumps.
        Any trees or large size brush cut during fireline construction should be scattered to appear
           natural.
        Discourage the use of newly created firelines and trails by blocking with brush, limbs,
           poles, and logs in a naturally appearing arrangement.
   Camps:
        Restore campsite to natural conditions.
        Scatter fireplace rocks and charcoal from fire, cover fire ring with soil, and blend area with
           natural cover.
        Pack out all garbage.
   General:
        Remove all signs of human activity.
        Restore helicopter landing sites.
        Fill in and cover latrine sites.
   Walk through adjacent undisturbed areas and take a look at your rehab efforts to determine your
    success at returning the area to as natural a state as possible.




                                                 75
Backcountry Toilet Procurement Information:

A GSA source for portable, self-contained backcountry toilets is listed below. This product , nor
any other, is specifically endorsed by the U.S. Forest Service.

Phillips Environmental Products, Inc.
106 Bartz Lane
Belgrade, MT 59714
406-388-5999, e-mail: pettinfo@thepett.com, web site: www.thepett.com

PETT Portable Toilet System

GSA-Federal Supply Service
Toilets, Portable, Field –FSC 4510
Federal Supply Schedule 539, Solutions and More
Contract GS-07F-0171K
Contract period: 3/1/2000 to 2/28/2005
On-line information via GSA Advantage: http:www.gsaadvantage.gov




                                                76
This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related
resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following
URL: http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=toolboxes&sec=fire. All toolboxes are products of the
Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center.
                                                                               natural landscape. Where needed, install water bars, as appropriate and
                Mini-MIST Guidelines                                           ensure they are not covered over or blocked:
                                                                               Line Grade (%)                Maximum Water Bar Spacing (feet)
    The safety of firefighters and the public is always Priority # 1.          6-9                           400
                                                                               10-14                         200
                              Line Operations                                  15-24                         100
Use natural barriers, wet line or cold trail techniques, rather than           25+                           50
constructing line. Consider burnout from natural barriers to minimize line     Replace sections of logs that were cut out of the line.
construction.                                                                  Avoid using rehabilitated lines as travel routes.
When constructed line is necessary, use the minimum width, depth and           Whenever soil has been newly exposed or compacted (camp areas, pump
canopy clearance necessary to check fire spread, based on fire behavior.       sites, travel routes, etc.), scarify them and naturalize with vegetative
Locate line to minimize impacts. Consider use of fireline explosives for       debris, rocks, etc.
line construction.
Do not put line construction debris in streams.                                                     Spike Camps and Camp Activities
Avoid building line straight up/down hill. This may alleviate the need         Camps and other facilities will be located outside of wilderness whenever
for water bars.                                                                possible. Resource Advisor will be consulted prior to establishing spike
                                   Mop-up                                      camps. A Spike Camp Manager, knowledgeable in these Guidelines and
Cold trail whenever possible, rather than digging up, to detect hot areas.     Leave No Trace techniques, will be assigned to each spike camp. Spike
Roll or drag fuels into the interior and allow them to burn out, rather than   camp managers will accompany the first personnel in to each camp to
mopping them up.                                                               identify/lay out camp components and to assist with implementing these
Pull hot material away from the bases of trees, rather than felling them.      Guidelines.
                                                                               For/at each camp:
                                   Saw Use                                     No more than two crews (one is preferable) and misc. overhead may
Minimize the amount of cutting. Limb standing trees, rather than felling       utilize at one time. Discontinue use of camp if resource damage is
them. Locate line to go around downed logs, or move them, rather than          occurring.
bucking them. Roll logs over, rather than bucking them, when mopping           Provide personnel the necessary equipment for staying warm and dry.
up hotspots.                                                                   Campsite must be selected and laid out carefully to minimize potential
Cut stumps low to the ground. Slope/angle saw cuts away from line of           impacts. All campsite components will be located a minimum of 100 feet
sight to minimize visual impacts. Rub dirt or ash on stumps and log ends       (200 feet preferred) from lakes, streams and Forest Development Trails.
to camouflage them. Do not crosshatch/etch.                                    Select hardened areas (dry, rocky/sandy, previously-impacted, etc.), to
Flag snags, or post a lookout to watch them, rather than felling them,         avoid denuding areas of vegetative cover, and confine camp activities to
while personnel are working in the area. When safe, allow burning trees        them. If hardened areas are not available, select resilient ones, which will
or snags to burn out and fall on their own.                                    recover quickly. Kitchen, eating, sleeping, latrine, washing, etc. areas will
If trees must be felled inside the line, do not limb or buck them. Allow the   be designated. Sleeping and other camp areas will be selected to avoid the
fire to consume them.                                                          need for trenching, excavating or removal of vegetation. Consider the use
Consider use of explosives for snag mitigation.                                of breathable ground cloth (scrim) in high-traffic common areas, such as
                            Portable Pumps                                     food preparation/service, washing, etc. areas. Good campsites are found,
Use containment kits with all pumps to prevent fuel spills and water           not made.
contamination.                                                                 Limit the use and number of campfires. Except in emergencies, no more
Exercise caution when using foaming agents to avoid water                      than one campfire per camp is allowed. Existing fire rings will be used, if
contamination.                                                                 available. If not, fire pans or mound/pit fire techniques will be used,
Naturalize pump sites when removing pumps. Remove structures used for          rather than building new rock fire rings. Campfires are not to be left
backing up water flow.                                                         without completely extinguishing them. Only wood and paper may be
                                                                               burned in fires. Use only dead and down wood and burn it down
                                     Misc.                                     completely to ash. Ashes are to be scattered away from site when cool. If
Confine travel to existing trails or other hardened travel routes, if          Fire Restrictions are in effect, campfires are not permitted.
available.                                                                     Chainsaws are to be used for activities directly related to fire suppression
Use individual “cat holes” (6-8“ deep, at least 200 feet from water) for       only, not for cutting firewood, making camp improvements, etc.
disposal of human waste when away from camp.                                   To avoid wildlife conflicts, separate kitchen/food preparation area from
                              Air Operations                                   main camp. All food is to be kept out of sleeping areas.
Minimize the number of helispots. Use natural openings to avoid                            Designate a common wash area for personnel at least 200 feet
constructing or improving helispots and sling sites. Avoid designating or                   from water. Wash water and biodegradable soap will be
constructing helispots for logistical support only. Use longline/remote                     provided. Scatter wastewater on dry areas at least 200 feet
hook for delivery and retrieval of equipment and supplies. Naturalize                       from water. Soap, shampoo, other personal grooming
helispots before abandoning. Consider use of explosives for site                            chemicals or wastewater must not get into lakes or streams.
naturalization.                                                                             Washing in lakes or streams is not permitted.
When doing bucket drops, avoid the transfer of non-native fish species,                    Designate a common latrine for disposal of human waste.
diseases, etc. between dip sites. Avoid the transfer of water from one side                 Select a dry, screened site at least 200 feet from water. Bury
of the Continental Divide to the other. Dip from the center of lakes/ponds.                 used toilet paper in the latrine or pack it out. Cover over
Limit the use of retardant. Use water drops (preferred) or foam instead.                    latrine when it is filled to within 6 inches of ground surface.
When foam or retardant use is appropriate, avoid dropping near surface                     Maintain a clean camp at all times. To avoid wildlife conflicts,
water.                                                                                      garbage and leftover food are to be removed from camp daily.
                                                                               Naturalize all campsite areas and components before vacated.
                               Rehabilitation
Remove all signs of human activity. Rehabilitate all areas disturbed by
management activities to as natural an appearance as possible.
Ensure all equipment, supplies, trash, flagging, etc. are removed from
lines, travel routes, camps, helispots, etc.
Obliterate constructed lines by pulling material back onto them and
scattering vegetative debris over them to blend them with surrounding
This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related
resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following
URL: http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=toolboxes&sec=fire. All toolboxes are products of the
Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center.

                         Northwest Colorado Fire Management Plan
The following Minimum Impact Strategies and Techniques (MIST) are guidelines that are
intended to significantly reduce the environmental impacts of incident management. Although
they are referred to in ―D‖ polygons (wilderness) they can be applied to a much broader land
base.

To ensure these protection measures are properly applied to an incident the following
recommendations are made:

      Consult a Wilderness Resource Advisor (WRA) on all Type IV fires. Assign a WRA to all
       Type I, II, and III fires.
      The Delegation of Authority to the Incident Commander will specify the assignment of a
       WRA. They are to be consulted on all strategies, tactical plans, camp locations, etc.
      The Delegation of Authority to the Incident Commander will include the use of MIST
       guidelines.
      Protecting the land using MIST guidelines is an Incident Objective.
      Use the WFSA to evaluate incident-related human impacts and degree of success in
       implementing MIST guidelines. Resource Advisors and/or wilderness personnel should
       provide input to these evaluations. Line Officer should incorporate this information into
       Performance Evaluations of incident management personnel.
MIST Graphics
  MIST Goals




     76
Fire Lining Phase




       77
Cutting Trees




     78
Mop-Up




  79
Camp




 80
Leaving The Fire




      81
                      Advantages & Disadvantages of Line-Building Options

  TACTIC                      ADVANTAGES                                               DISADVANTAGES
  Direct Line     Can immediately halt or greatly minimize         Creates ground disturbance. Firefighter are exposed to heat,
                  fire spread. Establishes an anchor point.        smoke, and fire. Requires rehabilitation.
 Indirect Line    Can tie into natural barriers. Can provide       Leaves unburned fuels between fire & line. Will almost
                  a safe route out during increased fire           always be compromised during increased fire activity and still
                  activity. Can lay out a line that will           require direct line. Tends to be built straight up & down
                  facilitate rehabilitation.                       slopes, causing erosion concerns.
Use of Natural    Can be more efficient than building line.        Fire fighter safety may be compromised when personnel are
   Barriers       Crew safety – may not require any                on the ground. Risk that changing conditions will increase
                  personnel on the ground.                         escape potential. Close monitoring will be required during
                  Reduces fuel loading (risk). Rule of             active fire and may require more holding.
                  thumb – if the fire will likely reach it in a
                  week, use it as an edge. Less ground
                  disturbance
   Burn-out       Can control fire intensity along line &          May increase fire beyond the management capability of
                  accomplish overall objective more                limited personnel. Burnouts need good weather conditions
                  quickly. Weather forecast is major               and are risky.
                  consideration.
     FLE          Safety (snag mitigation and fewer people         Needs to be patrolled. Costs a little more than a Type 1 Crew.
                  can accomplish line). Can be                     Skills not always available. Will still require follow-up
                  accomplished in shorter time frame than          cleaning, patrol & monitoring. Because of bulk, there may be
                  digging line. Reduces impacts and rehab          transport problems.
                  needs.
Retardant Drops   Can be effective during canopy runs.             Costs. Limits future burnout possibilities. Interferes with the
                  Reduces fire intensity for crew safety &         fire‟s ability to burn back on itself (which would reduce
                  line production.                                 fuels). Colored dyes can last years, depending on precipitation
                                                                   and exposure. Can compromise water quality. Use can be
                                                                   limited by weather or fire intensity. Pilot exposure is very
                                                                   high. Need to evaluate resource values at risk..
 Bucket Drops     Mobile. Reduce fire intensity for crew           Costs. Turn around time can be high. Safety concerns
                  safety. Ground disturbance can be reduced        (increased air time). Use can be limited by weather or fire
                  with wet line & mop-up. Can be delivered         intensity. Needs to be supported by people on the ground.
                  quickly with short turn-around time.             There are short-term gains on larger fires.
Pumps & Hose      Continuous water source. Effective when          Usually requires cutting down material to lay hose. High
   Lays           ladder fuels are spotting (esp. sub-alpine       water pressure can be erosive in denuded areas. Dependant on
                  fir) and hand line or retardant won‟t work.      water source within ½ mile. Takes a day to get system going.
                  Decreases mop-up time. Bumps hand line           Not effective in canopy fires. Chance of fuel spills (can use
                  effectiveness up to next fire intensity          40‟ gas line to distance fuel from creek and 25‟ hose to
                  category. Can be used in lieu of hand-line       distance pump from creek – loses pressure). Requires
                  and minimize the need for other tools.           experience to be effective. Bulk requires special transport
                                                                   needs. Noisy & can cause fumes.
Blivets & Hose    Mobile. Uses less pressure than pumps, so It‟s a limited water source.. Not enough pressure to get into
     Lays         less erosion). Decreases mop-up time      canopy effectively. Requires some level of maintenance form
                  Easily transported by air.                personnel. Limited holding capacity.




                                                                  82
 Cold Trail     Use in areas that have already burned.    Time consuming. Difficult to use for extended time.
                Fewer impacts than line building and
                reduces spading in mop-up. Effective
                when done right. Can be productive
                depending on specific
                direction/guidelines/standards.
Note: This and the following document are NOT intended to be the operational decision-making bible. They are
                         merely helpful aids. Please remember your role as “advisor”!




                                                         83
                                            Tactics Overview


I. ESTABLISHING A WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH OPERATIONS.
     Get involved as quickly as possible.
     If possible find out background of the Operations Folks. Some key questions to ask are:
          o What Agency or organization do they work for?
          o What is there job in that organization?
          o Do not assume anything.
     Be firm in what you want, but be willing to listen.
     Give your instructions or specifications in writing and make them as specific as possible.

II. TACTICAL OPTIONS.
A. Fireline Construction Methods.
1. Handline
a- Advantages: Generally low impact, easily tailored to geomorphic and/or fuel types.
b. Disadvantages: Labor intensive (cost), restricted to lower intensity fires, chance of slop over is greater.
2- FLE (Fireline Explosives)
a- Advantages: Can be the most rapid if all logistical needs are met, excellent vegetative recovery due to
nitrates in the explosive and loosening of soil.
b. Disadvantages: Logistical needs can make it slow to implement, sociological factors such as nearby
homes, safety concerns, and cost.
3- Conventional Dozerline
a. Advantages: Generally the quickest and cheapest, and has a better chance of holding than handline.
b. Disadvantages: Is usually the most disruptive environmentally, limited by slope and terrain, and can
cause long term mop-up problems if done improperly.
4- Excavator Fireline
a- Advantages: Impacts can be as light as handline, is not as limited as conventional dozers by terrain, and
can do a better job of fireline rehab than conventional dozers.
b- Disadvantages: Speed is slower than dozer and in some cases handline, walking speed is slow if needed
to move overland swiftly.
5- Retardant (Aerial Application)
a- Advantages: Very quick line construction rate.
b- Disadvantages: Works as a primary fireline only in light grass type fuels with low to moderate fire
intensity, can have a negative impact if deposited directly into bodies of water, in heavier fuels must be
reinforced by ground resources, and is very expensive.
6- Wet line (hose lay)
a- Advantages: Can be very rapid, can have little environmental impact, rehabilitation needs are usually
small.
b. Disadvantages: Works only as a primary fireline in light fuels, if foaming agents are used they can have
a detrimental effect if dumped into a open body of water, and if engines and tenders are used for support
there is a temptation to open access roads.

B. Mopup Options

1. Dry
a- Advantages: Requires the least extra logistical support, when done properly is the most thorough.
b. Disadvantages: Under dry conditions it is the most time consuming especially in heavy duff, and if
done improperly can be the most time consuming.


                                                     84
                       WILDERNESS CONSIDERATIONS
                        Request For Authorization To Use Mechanization
                                SARVIS CREEK WILDERNESS
                                 ROUTT NATIONAL FOREST
                                         July 14, 2002
                                          1400 hours


Situation: The Green Creek Fire is located in T4N, R83W, Sec 22. It is 1/2 to 1/4 mile inside the
northern Sarvis Creek Wilderness boundary, adjacent to a B polygon outside the wilderness. Fire use is
not appropriate in this situation. Fire at 1300 is 1-2 acres in size, on 26-40% slopes located on the lower
third of a hillside with moderate to high spread potential. Current fire behavior is creeping and torching
which indicates single tree ignition at 1300. However, sitting on a west-facing slope, it has potential to
make a run up the hill. Problems include lack of access and rugged terrain. We are in preparedness level
5.

Request: District FMO Foster is requesting permission for mechanized/motorized support to suppress a
fire within the Sarvis Creek Wilderness. He wants to deploy smokejumpers with chainsaw capability and
use a helicopter to extract them. He is also requesting portable pumps, if water is nearby. An aerial recon
has taken place and Foster is also requesting use of retardant drops.

Considerations: Based on the rate of spread of the Lost Lake Fire yesterday within the Flat Tops
Wilderness, lack of available resources, and proximity of this fire to the wilderness boundary, there is
concern that we would be able to suppress during initial attack. Support to an extended attack incident is
not likely, given the unit's/region's current situation (multiple fires). John Anarella, wilderness resource
advisor, has been consulted concerning the use of mechanized equipment and retardant within the
wilderness and given the situation and location, he concurs with this strategy.

Decision: It is my decision to authorize smokejumpers to jump the fire. I am authorizing the use of
chainsaws in their suppression activity. Wilderness MIST tactics should be utilized where feasible and
possible within the wilderness. I authorize use of a helicopter to transport and pick up firefighters, if
needed (if walking out is possible, that is the preferred option), and to transport equipment. I am also
authorizing use of retardant to fight this fire.

This decision only pertains to this wilderness fire. Direction and authorization for other wilderness fires
will be made on a case by case basis.



/s/ Mary H. Peterson
Forest Supervisor
Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and
Thunder Basin National Grassland



                                                     85
                             Wilderness Resource Advisor Overview

Who is this person? Someone who can represent the wilderness resource to ensure its values are
protected.

Who does this person work for? The Line Officer(s), Agency Rep, and/or Resource Advisor. Can be
assigned to Plans.

Who does this person work with? Almost everyone associated with the fire.

What does this person do?
   Ensures the Delegation of Authority is written to protect wilderness values.
   Ensures these protection measures are in the WFSA/WFIB and Incident Objectives.
   Ensures these protection measures applied to the incident.
   Communicates adherence of these measures to the Line Officer(s), Agency Rep, and/or Resource
      Advisor.

How is this done? See WRA Taskbook

How does this mesh with the ICS system? Where they can go.

     Qualifications               Where can they go?               Effectiveness
WRA training                  ICP                                Somewhat effective
WRA training, FFT2            ICP and spike camps/                   Effective
                              fireline w/ escort
WRA training, Certain         ICP and fireline/ spike               Very effective
Single resource               camps
qualifications (FOBS, ??)


   What is the ICS mnemonic for this position? THSP- Technical Help Specialist

   How do you get this on your card? This depends on the local FMO. We obviously need to work with
   the fire organization on this one.

   Why is it important to have this on a red card? This is for name request purposes off of the home unit.




                                                   86
                         Wilderness Resource Advisor Evaluation Form

The Bitterroot National Forest is looking for feedback on the use of Wilderness Resource Advisors during
fire suppression activities in our wilderness areas. Please evaluate the Wilderness Resource Advisor who
worked with you by putting a checkmark under either excellent, good or needs improvement. We have
attached envelopes that can be mailed to Judith Fraser, the Wilderness and Trails Coordinator for the
Bitterroot NF. Your time in completing this form will help improve the ability of Resource Advisors to
communicate wilderness resource needs. Thank you for your help on the fire and on this follow-up!


Fire Name:                                           Wilderness Resource Advisor:


Your job on the fire:                                Your name (Optional):




                   Criteria                     Excellent          Good         Needs Improvement*

 1. Knowledge of fire suppression
 activities.
 2. Knowledge of safety considerations.
 3. Ability to communicate Minimum
 Impact Suppression Tactics effectively.
 4. Was available when needed.

 5. Shows respect and professionalism.


* If needs improvement is checked, please explain.



Other comments or ideas:




                                                     87
88
                                    LNT PRINCIPLES
           APPLIED TO WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT
Hike on existing trails Impacts on wildlife, soil and vegetation can be minimized by walking on
constructed trails that are already highly disturbed and in many cases have been designed to
accommodate heavy use. When following existing trails, walk single-file on the designated path.
Walking outside the tread, to walk abreast or to avoid rocks or mud, breaks down the trail edge
and widens the trail. It can also lead to the development of multiple trails. Muddy stretches and
snow banks should be crossed, rather than skirted, to avoid creation of additional paths.
Shortcutting switchbacks causes erosion and gullying. If a trail is impassable, walk on hard
surfaces (such as rock, sand or snow) as much as possible and notify the agency officials
responsible for that area.

Rest breaks When taking a break along the trail, move off the trail some distance to a durable
stopping place. Here you can enjoy more natural surroundings and other parties can pass by
without contact. Durable stopping places include rock outcrops, sand, other non-vegetated
places and sites with durable vegetation, such as dry grasslands.

Choosing a high use campsite Selecting an appropriate campsite is perhaps the most
important aspect of low-impact backcountry use. It requires the greatest use of judgment and
information and often involves making trade-offs between minimizing ecological and social
impacts. A decision about where to camp should be based on information about the level and
type of use in the area, the fragility of vegetation and soil, the likelihood of wildlife disturbance,
an assessment of previous impacts and your party's potential to cause or avoid impact.

Avoid camping close to water and trails and select a site that is not visible to others. Even in
popular areas, the sense of solitude can be enhanced by screening campsites and by choosing
a more out-of-the-way site. Also, be sure to obey any regulations in the area related to campsite
selection. Allow enough time and energy at the end of the day to select an appropriate site.
Tiredness, bad weather and lateness of the day are not acceptable excuses for choosing a poor
or fragile campsite.

Generally it is best to camp on sites that are so highly impacted that further careful use will
cause no additional impact. In popular areas these sites are obvious because they have already
lost their vegetation cover. It may also be possible to find a site that naturally lacks vegetation,
such as exposed bedrock or sandy areas.

On high-impact sites, tents, traffic routes and kitchen areas should be concentrated on already
impacted areas. The objective is to confine impact to places that already show use and avoid
enlarging the area of disturbance. When leaving camp, make sure that it is clean, attractive and
appealing to other campers who follow.

                           Spread Use and Impact in Pristine Areas


                                                   89
Pristine areas are typically remote, seldom visited and have few obvious impacts from camping.
Consider the trade-off of ecological impacts when deciding whether to travel by trail or cross-
country. Visit pristine areas only if you are committed to and knowledgeable in the specific
techniques required to Leave No Trace.

Hike in small groups The impacts associated with cross-country travel are minimized when
group size is small, routes are carefully selected to avoid fragile terrain and critical wildlife
habitat, and special care is taken to avoid disturbance. If you are traveling with a large group,
hike in groups of no more than 4-6 people.
Cross-country travel is undesirable where user-created trail systems are developing, in wet
places, on steep and unstable slopes, on crusted desert soils, and in places where wildlife
disturbance is likely. It is most desirable on rock, sand, snow and ice, or stable non-vegetated
surfaces.
When traveling cross-country it is generally best to spread out rather than have everyone follow
the same route. This will minimize the amount of trampling any one spot receives and avoid the
creation of undesired trails. In some places it is not practical to spread out; avoid such routes if
other groups are likely to follow your footsteps, particularly if incipient paths are developing. In
extremely fragile places, such as desert cryptogam soils, it is best to walk single-file so only one
trail is created. Cross-country travel should be avoided in such fragile places.

Choosing a pristine campsite When selecting an undisturbed site, choose one that either has
no vegetation or a durable vegetation cover. Camp away from trails, other campers, lakes,
streams and critical wildlife habitat. Avoid "beauty spots" that might attract other campers.
Select a site well away from high impact areas and that shows no evidence of previous use and
is unlikely to be used after you leave.
Durability of the ground surface is the most important consideration in determining exactly
where to set up tents and the kitchen. Non-vegetated areas such as slickrock, rock outcrops,
gravel bars, beaches and snow are best. Forest duff is acceptable if it is possible to avoid
crushing any plants or seedlings (forest-floor vegetation is highly fragile). Grassy areas and dry
meadows can also make good pristine campsites. They are quite resistant and capable of
recovering rapidly from the effects of one night of low impact use. When deciding whether or not
to camp in a meadow, consider whether you will impact other users or wildlife.

Camping in remote areas On pristine sites it is best to spread out tents, avoid repetitive traffic
routes and move camp every night. The objective is to minimize the number of times any part of
the site is trampled. In setting up camp, disperse tents and the kitchen on durable sites. Wear
soft shoes around camp. Minimize activity around the kitchen and places where packs are
stashed, and watch where you walk to avoid crushing vegetation. Take alternate paths to water
and minimize the number of trips by carrying water containers. Check the regulations, but
camping 200' from water is a good rule of thumb.
When breaking camp, take time to naturalize the site. Covering scuffed areas with native materials (such
as pine needles), brushing out footprints and raking matted grassy areas with a stick will help the site
recover and make it less obvious as a campsite. This extra effort will help hide any indication that you
camped there and make it less likely that other backcountry travelers will camp in the same spot. The less
often a pristine campsite is used the better chance it has of remaining pristine.

                        Avoid Places Where Impact Is Just Beginning

                                                    90
Most campsites can withstand a certain level of use that will still allow the site to recover. However, a
threshold is eventually reached where the regenerative power of the vegetation cannot keep pace with the
amount of trampling. Once this transitional threshold is reached the site will deteriorate more rapidly with
continued use. This will result in the development of an established campsite with a discernible "barren
core." The threshold for a particular site is affected by many variables including climate, soil type,
elevation and aspect.

Hike on durable surfaces Seek out durable surfaces when traveling cross country, such as
bedrock, sandy or gravel areas, or snow. On these surfaces it is not important to spread out.
Use care when ascending or descending steep slopes. If slopes are so steep that it is necessary
to dig toes and heels into the soil to get a grip, some other route should be located. Either look
for durable surfaces or spread out.

Avoid sites and trails that show slight signs of use Campsites that show slight but
established use are best left alone. In remote pristine areas, camp on a previously unused site,
and in popular areas, select a campsite that is well established.
In pristine areas, adhere to the hiking practices described earlier and either spread out or hike
on durable surfaces. Many times faint user created trails are formed without consideration of the
potential damaging effects of erosion. Once they are established and the top soil is worn away
the damage caused by running water increases the likelihood of the trail becoming permanent.
As with slightly used campsites, avoiding faint trails will allow them to gradually recover.

Allow time for recovery Often, lightly used campsites and trails have not been so heavily
damaged that they cannot recover. Over the course of time and non-use these campsites and
trails will re-vegetate and revert back to their natural appearance. By spreading out while hiking
and camping on durable surfaces in remote areas and staying on well established trails and
campsites in popular areas, it is possible to minimize or prevent the proliferation of many
unnecessary user created campsites and trails.

                                       Pack It In, Pack It Out

Pick up and pack out all of your litter. Burying or leaving trash and litter in the backcountry is
unacceptable. On the way out--when your pack is light--try to pick up litter left by others.

Trash Trash is the inorganic waste brought into the backcountry, usually from over-packaged
products. It is best to get in the habit of packing out all your trash. Some paper trash items can
be burned in a campfire, but much of the paper packaging used today is lined with non-burnable
foil or plastic. Other items such as tin and aluminum cans, plastic, tin foil and glass are not
burnable and must be packed out.

Garbage Garbage is organic waste leftover from cooking. This type of waste can be easily
reduced by careful planning and preparation of meals. Food scraps should be picked up from
around the kitchen area and packed out. Careful meal planning will reduce the amount of
leftovers, but in the event you have some it should be either saved and eaten later or put in a
plastic bag or other container and packed out. Burning and burying this type of waste are
ineffective and inappropriate methods of disposal. It requires a very hot fire to burn garbage
thoroughly, and animals will dig it up if buried. Keeping food waste away from animals is

                                                     91
important so they do not become habituated to people as a food source and their normal
activities are not disrupted.

Consider the words "Leave No Trace" a challenge to take out everything that you brought into
the backcountry.

                      Properly Dispose of What You Can't Pack Out

Visitors to the backcountry create certain types of waste that cannot be packed out. These
include human waste and waste water from cooking and washing.

Human waste Proper disposal of human waste is important to avoid pollution of water sources,
avoid the negative implications of someone else finding it, minimize the possibility of spreading
disease and maximize the rate of decomposition. Burying human feces in the correct location
and manner is the most effective method to meet these criteria.

Contrary to popular opinion, recent research indicates that burial of feces actually slows
decomposition (at least in the Rocky Mountains). Pathogens have been discovered to survive
for a year or more when buried. However, in light of the other problems associated with feces, it
is still generally best to bury it in the ground. The slow decomposition rate emphasizes the need
to choose the correct location, far from water, campsites and other frequently used places. (See
information regarding self-contained portable toilet systems for backcountry use at the end of
the LNT section.)

Catholes Catholes are the most widely accepted method of waste disposal. Locate catholes at
least 200 feet from water, trails and camp. Two hundred feet is about 70 steps for an adult.
Select a site that is inconspicuous, where other people will be unlikely to walk or camp. With a
small garden trowel dig a hole 6-8 inches deep and 4-6 inches in diameter. When finished the
cathole should be covered and disguised with natural materials. If camping in the area for more
than 1 night or if camping with a large group, cathole sites should be widely dispersed.

Latrines Though catholes are recommended for most situations, there are times when latrines
may be more applicable, such as when camping with young children or if staying in one camp
for longer than a few nights. Use similar criteria for selecting a latrine location as those used to
locate a cathole. Since this higher concentration of feces will decompose very slowly location is
especially important. A good way to speed decomposition and diminish odors is to toss in a
handful of soil after each use.

Toilet paper Use toilet paper sparingly and use only plain, white, non-perfumed brands. Toilet
paper must be disposed of properly! It should either be thoroughly buried in a cathole or placed
in plastic bags and packed out. NOLS has used ―natural‖ toilet paper for years and advocates its
use in most situations. When done correctly, this method is as sanitary as regular toilet paper,
but without the impact problems. Popular types of natural toilet paper include stones, vegetation
and snow. Obviously some experimentation is necessary to make this practice work for you, but
it is worth a try!



                                                 92
Urination Urination has little direct effect on vegetation or soil. In some instances urine may
draw wildlife that are attracted to the salts. They can defoliate plants and dig up soil. It is best to
urinate on rocks and in places where urine is unlikely to attract wildlife.

Waste water from cooking Soap is unnecessary for most dish washing jobs. It is often difficult
to rinse thoroughly and introduces unnatural chemicals to the backcountry. Hot water and a little
elbow grease can tackle most cleaning chores. Waste water should be scattered over a wide
area away from camps and all water sources. Remove all food particles from the water before
disposing of it and pack them out with excess food and other litter. If you are in grizzly bear
country or expect to create large amounts of waste water, it may be best to concentrate it in a
sump hole.

Waste water from washing The primary consideration when washing yourself or your clothes
is to avoid contamination of water supplies. Soap must not enter lakes or streams, so it is best
to minimize its use. If bathing with soap is necessary, get wet, lather up on shore far from water
(200’) and rinse off with water carried in a pot. This procedure allows the biodegradable soap to
break down and filter through the soil before reaching any body of water. Clothes can be
cleaned by thorough rinsing. Soap is not necessary and residual soap can cause skin irritation.

Minimize site alterations On all sites, leave the area as you found it. Do not dig trenches for
tents or construct lean-tos, tables, chairs or other rudimentary improvements. If you clear the
area of surface rocks, twigs or pinecones, replace these items before leaving. On high impact
sites, it is appropriate to clean up the site and dismantle inappropriate user-built facilities, such
as multiple fire rings and constructed seats or tables. Consider the idea that good campsites are
found and not made.

Properly located and legal facilities, such as a single fire ring, should be left. Dismantling them
will cause additional impacts, because they will be rebuilt with new rocks and thus impact a new
area.

Avoid damaging live trees and plants Avoid hammering nails into trees for hanging things,
hacking at them with hatchets and saws, or tying tent guy lines to trunks and thus girdling the
tree. The cutting of boughs for use as a sleeping pad creates minimal benefit and maximum
impact. Inexpensive sleeping pads are readily available at stores catering to backcountry
travelers.

Picking a few flowers does not seem like it would have any great impact. If only a few flowers
were picked it wouldn’t, but if every visitor thought ―I’ll just take a few,‖ a much more significant
impact might result. Take a picture or sketch the flower instead of picking it. Enjoy an occasional
edible plant, but be careful not to deplete the surrounding vegetation or to disturb plants that are
either rare or do not reproduce in abundance.

Leave natural objects and cultural artifacts Natural objects of beauty or interest, such as
antlers or petrified wood, are appealing when you find them in the backcountry and should be
left for others so that they too can experience that sense of discovery. In National Parks and
some other areas it is illegal to remove natural objects.


                                                  93
The same ethic is applicable to the discovery and removal of cultural artifacts found on public
land. Cultural artifacts are protected by the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and it is
illegal to remove or disturb artifacts from any public lands. This act protects all artifacts ranging
from seemingly insignificant potsherds and arrowheads to ornate pots and clothing items.

                                      Use Fire Responsibly

The use of campfires in the backcountry was once a necessity and is now steeped in history
and tradition. This tradition is so entrenched in our minds that for some the thought of going on a
backcountry camping trip and not having a fire is almost unthinkable. However, a new attitude is
developing toward campfires. This attitude is a direct result of the past misuse of campfires and
the ugly scars caused when fires are built incorrectly or built in the wrong places.
Fires vs. stoves Though cooking on a fire is a skill and an art, backcountry visitors should not
embark on a trip intending to do all cooking on fires. A lightweight gas stove is essential
equipment for any overnight backcountry trip, no matter how long or short. The use of a stove
for cooking allows the greatest degree of flexibility in selecting a low-impact campsite and
avoids the problem of building fires in inappropriate places.
The most important factors in determining whether or not to have a fire are:

      The availability of the right amount and type of firewood
      Wind conditions and overall fire danger
      Administrative restrictions.

Firewood selection and gathering There is only one type of wood that is acceptable for
building a low impact campfire—dead and downed wood. Do not break dead branches off live
standing trees; this leaves a very discernible and long lasting impact. Breaking branches off
downed or fallen trees makes a subtle distinction from the term dead and downed wood. This is
not an acceptable source of firewood. There is a certain aesthetic appeal to a large fallen tree
lying on the forest floor with its branches aimed skyward.
The size of firewood is critical to building a Leave No Trace fire. Firewood should be no larger in
diameter than an adult’s wrist. The burning of this smaller firewood has a very small effect on
the ecology of the forest, because it is not large enough to significantly contribute nutrients to
the forest. Large rotting trunks, on the other hand, are significant and should be left alone.
These downed trunks provide crucial habitat to a variety of insects and other creatures and
return nutrients to the soil.
Firewood should be gathered from a wide area, not just in the immediate vicinity of camp. Take
the time to walk 15 or 20 minutes away and then begin to gather the wood. Pick up the wood as
you are walking so that no single place becomes devoid of wood.
In all campfire situations, the use of saws, axes and hatchets is unnecessary. Sawing and
chopping leave more impact and further detract from the naturalness of the area. Small firewood
can easily be gathered by hand.

Care and feeding of your fire Keep the wood in its natural lengths. When feeding the fire,
break the wood into burnable lengths as needed. If there is any unburned wood left when
breaking camp it can be scattered around the forest and will blend in naturally.
All firewood should be burned down to white ash or very small coals. Doing this may require
some extra time, but is a significant step in minimizing the impact of the fire. All fires should be
cleaned up before breaking camp.
                                                  94
Fires in high use areas In high use areas, where impacts should be concentrated, campfires
should be built in existing fire rings. In these sites, it is almost a sure bet that there will be a fire
ring present when you arrive. If there is still abundant firewood, build your fire in the existing
ring.
One of the simplest alternatives to rock fire rings is to build a fire right on the ground surface. In
highly visited, high-impact campsites where the vegetation has long been removed and the
ground is compacted to almost a concrete surface, this is a perfectly acceptable practice. The
ground under the fire may become a little blackened, but that is of little concern if every visitor
builds his or her fire in the same spot.
In popular campsites that will be used by many people during a season the intent is to get other
campers to use the same fire ring. Cleaning up the fire ring of food waste and trash plus burning
wood completely and scattering the coals and ashes when out, will make it more likely that it will
be used again. This helps avoid the proliferation of multiple fire rings in a popular site.

Fires in pristine areas In remote or pristine areas, it is possible to enjoy a fire and Leave No
Trace that it was ever there. The development of techniques for these types of fires has evolved
over the years to the point that there are some very practical alternatives to the traditional fire
ring.
When camping near large rivers or creeks, building a fire on exposed gravel bars well below the
high water line is an acceptable practice. In these locations the little bit of evidence left behind
after clean up will be swept away by the next flood. Scoop a shallow pit in the gravel or sand
and then cover those last little bits of charcoal to hide any sign of the fire until the next high
water. Whenever building a fire near water, it is important to take care to keep any food or waste
products from entering the water source if you are cooking on the fire.
In pristine areas away from water sources, any areas of exposed mineral soil can be used for
fires in the same method as described above. Be sure there is no small inconspicuous
vegetation growing in the mineral soil. Mineral soil is a term used to describe dirt that contains
no organic material. Fires built in non-mineral soil will blacken it by burning the organic material.
Fires built in pits dug in organic soil risk the chance of forest fire. The heat from the fire can
ignite the organic material that can burn underground and flare up into a forest fire under the
right circumstances.
The heat from fires or stoves can cause impact, but so can the concentrated trampling of people
cooking or socializing. Take care to select a durable site for any use of fire.
When building a campfire in a more remote area, special care and extra effort must be taken to
obliterate any sign that there was a fire. By burning wood completely it will be possible to scatter
the cold ash and small coals around the area. Fire is a natural process in the forest and a few
small coals will not be noticed.

The mound fire An innovative method for building a Leave No Trace fire is the mound fire.
Mound fires can be built virtually anywhere and with simple tools: a garden trowel, large stuff
sack and a ground cloth.

This type of fire is constructed by first locating a ready source of mineral soil. The best places
are streambeds, where dry gravel is accessible during low water or from the cavity left when a
tree is blown over. The key concept to remember is to gather the mineral soil from a spot that is
already disturbed by the forces of nature and where the impact of digging and collecting the
mineral soil will not damage live vegetation.
                                                   95
With the garden trowel and stuff sack (turned inside out to keep the inside of the bag clean),
carry a load of mineral soil to the fire site. Lay a tarp or ground cloth on the fire site and then
spread the soil into a circular, flat-topped mound about 6 –8 inches thick. The ground cloth is
important only in that it makes cleaning up the fire much easier and adds some degree of
flexibility to the system. At NOLS we have been using retired forest fire emergency shelters cut
into 3x3 foot squares on which to build mound fires. They are lightweight and durable and will
not melt from the heat of the fire.

The thickness of the mound is critical for insulating the surface underneath from the heat of the
fire. This will also prevent the nylon ground cloth from melting if one is used under the mound.
The circumference of the mound should be larger than the size of the fire to allow for the
inevitable spreading of coals. It may take more than one bag of soil to make an adequate
mound.

After the fire is out and you are ready to break camp, the little bit of ash and coals that are left
can be scattered away from camp and the mineral soil returned to the source.

The beauty of this type of fire is that it can be built on flat exposed bedrock or on an organic
surface such as litter, duff or grass. Even with a thick mound, sometimes the heat generated
can be enough to kill grass or other plants, but it is only temporary and does not sterilize the soil
the way a traditional fire can.

Portable fire pans Another alternative that is becoming more popular is the portable fire pan.
Fire pans were first used by river runners to minimize the impact of fires. Some backcountry
hikers have been known to carry a fire pan with them on hiking trips. There are now companies
building and marketing portable fire pits. These are small lightweight stoves that require very
small amounts of fuel and can burn as hot as a gas-powered stove. They can also burn almost
anything! One model burns dried cow dung. These stoves can be used in place of gas stoves as
long as you know there will be a ready supply of fuel. They also burn very completely and the
result is a small tray of fine ash that is easily dispersed.




Backcountry Toilet Information:

A GSA source for portable, self-contained backcountry toilets is listed below. This product , nor
any other, is specifically endorsed by the U.S. Forest Service.

Phillips Environmental Products, Inc.
106 Bartz Lane
Belgrade, MT 59714
406-388-5999, e-mail: pettinfo@thepett.com, web site: www.thepett.com

PETT Portable Toilet System

GSA-Federal Supply Service
Toilets, Portable, Field –FSC 4510
                                                  96
Federal Supply Schedule 539, Solutions and More
Contract GS-07F-0171K
Contract period: 3/1/2000 to 2/28/2005
On-line information via GSA Advantage: http:www.gsaadvantage.gov




                                           97
98
                                      NOXIOUS WEEDS
         Region 1 Best Management Practices For Weed Prevention & Management

Current Direction

Direction for the development of weed prevention and management practices is provided in National
Policy FSM 2080 Noxious Weed Management, Executive Order on Invasive Species (Feb. 3, 1999) and
Stemming the Invasive Tide, Forest Service Strategy for Noxious and Nonnative Invasive Plant
Management.

National Policy outlines that preventing the introduction and establishment of noxious weed infestations
is a high priority for the agency. It also directs the Forest Service to determine the factors that favor the
establishment and spread of noxious weeds and design management practices to reduce the risk of spread.

Forest Service National Strategy identifies, among other elements, the development of prevention and
mitigation BMP's for all ground-disturbing activities as one of the agencies long-term emphasis items.

The Executive Order on Invasive Species, signed by the President on February 3, 1999 states that all
federal agencies will use relevant programs and authorities to prevent the introduction of invasive species,
and not authorize or carry out actions that are likely to cause the introduction or spread of invasive species
unless the agency has determined and made public documentation that shows that the benefits of such
actions clearly outweigh the potential harm and all feasible and prudent measures to minimize risk of
harm will be taken in conjunction with the actions.

The following practices have been developed to meet the intent of direction set forth in policy and
executive order. Many of the specific practices such as the use of certified noxious weed-free hay and
straw are already required by policy. The appropriate directive is stated at end of the practice description.
Many practices have already been integrated into projects and programs and are currently being
implemented.

The objectives of the Best Management Practices are to: 1) Reduce the risk of spreading noxious weeds;
2) Prevent the establishment of new invaders; 3) Integrate weed management practices into resource
programs; and, 4) build awareness within the agency. These practices would apply to those noxious
weeds identified by federal, state and county noxious weed lists.

The Best Management Practices are formatted by resource areas. The intent of this format is provide easy
reference of the practices for each resource areas without the necessity to review multiple sections. As a
result of the formatting, many practices repeat throughout the document.

Required Practices

Required means this practice must be integrated and implemented where appropriate to mitigate the
effects of the proposed project or program, unless an equally effective measure can be developed at the
forest level.


                                                     99
Recommended Practice
Recommended means this practice is not a requirement but represents an effective measure to reduce the
risk of spreading weeds and may be integrated where appropriate.



       10. Fire.

          a. Required Objectives and Associated Practices.

          (1) Increase weed awareness among all fire personnel. Include weed risk factors and weed
          prevention considerations in the Resource Advisor duties on all Incident Management Teams
          and Fire Rehabilitation Teams during pre-fire, pre-incident training.

          (2) Mitigate and reduce weed spread during wild fire activities

          (a) Initiate establishment of a network of helibases, camps and staging areas that will be
          maintained in a noxious weed-free condition.

          (b) Minimize weed spread in camps by incorporating weed prevention and containment
          practices such as mowing, flagging or fencing weed patches, designating weed-free travel
          routes and washing equipment.

          (c) Inspect all fire going vehicles regularly to assure that undercarriages and grill works are
          kept weed seed free. All vehicles sent off Forest for fire assistance will be cleaned before they
          leave or return to their home.

          (3) Minimize weed spread during smoke jumper operations.

          (a) Inspect, remove, and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts found on clothing and
          equipment.

          (b) Coordinate with Weed Specialist(s) to locate and/or treat practice jump areas.

          (4) Mitigate and reduce weed spread in Air Operations.

          (a) Initiate establishment of a network of helibases that will be maintained in a noxious weed-
          free condition.

          (b) Minimize weed spread at helibases by incorporating weed prevention and containment
          practices such as mowing, flagging or fencing weed patches, designating weed-free travel
          routes.

          (c) Provide weed prevention briefings for helibase staff.

          (d) Inspect, and if necessary clean, contract fuel and support vehicles before and after each
          incident when traveling off road or through weed infestations.

          (e) Inspect and remove weed seed and plant parts from all cargo nets.


                                                   100
(5) Mitigate and reduce weed spread from Logistics Operations activities.

(a) Look for weed-free camps, staging, drop points and parking areas.

(b) Regularly inspect and clean fire vehicles as necessary to assure that undercarriages and
grill works are kept weed seed free.

(6) Integrate weed prevention and management in all prescribed burning. Mitigate and reduce
weed spread during prescribed fire activities.

(a) Include weed risk assessment in environmental analysis for prescribed fire projects.

(b) Coordinate with local Noxious Weed Management Specialist to utilize helibases that are
maintained in a weed-free condition, whenever possible.

(c) All crews should inspect, remove, and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts found
on their clothing and equipment.

(d) Add weed awareness and prevention education to Fire Effects and Prescribed Fire training.

(7) Encourage desirable vegetation during rehabilitation activities.

(a) Revegetate only erosion susceptible and high risk areas (as defined in Regional Risk
Assessment Factors and Rating protocol) as described in the Roads (3) (a), (b), (c) section
above.

(b) Straw used for road stabilization and erosion control will be certified weed-free or weed-
seed-free.

b. Recommended Objectives and Associated Practices.

(1) Mitigate and reduce weed spread during fire activities.

(a) Initiate establishment of a network of helibases, camps, and staging areas on private land
that will be maintained in a noxious weed-free condition.

(b) Consider checking and treating weeds that establish at cleaning sites after fire incidents,
during rehabilitation.

(c) Emphasize Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (M.I.S.T.) to reduce soil and vegetation
disturbance.

(2) Minimize weed spread during smokejumper operations. Travel through weed infested
areas should be avoided or minimized.

(3) Mitigate and reduced weed spread from Logistics Operations activities. Traffic should be
routed through camps to avoid weed-infested areas.

(4) Integrate weed prevention and management in all prescribed burning. Mitigate and reduce
weed spread during prescribed fire activities.

                                         101
(a) Consider treating high risk areas (as defined in Regional Risk Assessment Factors and
Rating protocol) with weed infestations (such as roads, disturbed ground) before burning and
check and retreat after burning if necessary.

(b) Consider avoiding ignition and burning in high risk areas (as defined in Regional Risk
Assessment Factors and Rating protocol) that cannot be treated before or after prescribed fire.

(5) Encourage desirable vegetation during rehabilitation activities.

(a) Check and treat weeds at cleaning sites and all disturbed staging areas.

(b) Treat weeds within the burned area as part of rehabilitation plan to reduce weed spread.

(c) Check weed spread resulting from fire and fire suppression activities.

(d) Consider applying for restoration funding for treatment of weed infestations within the fire
area.




                                         102
                             Deena’s Noxious Weeds Briefing Paper

Our Incident Management Team will take a proactive approach to noxious weed management while on
the incident. This may include but is not limited to the following:
      All off road equipment will be pressure washed before being utilized on the Incident. Equipment
       should be cleaned prior to the inspection process.

   1. Soil Disturbances will be planned to minimize the establishment and spread of noxious weeds
      whenever possible. Strategies to consider:
          a. Mineral soil exposure during fireline construction should be to the minimum necessary for
             containment or control.
          b. Expand fuel breaks to minimize the amount of mineral soil exposure necessary for
             containment or control lines.
          c. Where feasible avoid heavy infestations of noxious weeds during line construction.

   2. If possible, locate ICP, Camps, Drop Points, and Staging in weed free areas. When weed free sites
      are not available, utilize containment practices such as removing seed bearing parts from the site
      through mowing, or hand pulling and bagging; and/or by flagging patches and routing traffic to
      avoid high density weed areas. Inspect, remove and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts
      on equipment before it‟s re-issued.

      Where feasible locate Helibase in weed free areas. If the Helibase is not weed free, utilizing
       containment practices such as removing seed bearing parts from the site through mowing or hand
       pulling and bagging; or by flagging patches to avoid. Remove weed seed and plant parts from
       cargo nets and other equipment.
      When the Incident area contains new invaders or heavy densities of noxious weeds; all off road
       equipment will be thoroughly cleaned before leaving the incident. If weed infestations are
       concentrated along access routes, all vehicles will be thoroughly cleaned before leaving the
       incident.

      Coordinate with the local Resource Advisor to provide noxious weed identification, awareness and
       prevention briefings to Incident Personnel.

      Coordinate with the BAER Rehab Team to ensure that follow up weed monitoring occurs within
       the Incident and the Suppression Rehab Team to ensure that monitoring occurs at equipment wash
       sites, ICP, Camps, Staging Areas, Drop Points, Helibase and Helispots.

      When the Suppression Rehab Team recommends seeding disturbed areas; ensure that the
       purchased seed is certified as noxious weed free. If straw is utilized for rehab, it should also be
       certified as weed-free or weed-seed free.
      When the ICP, staging areas, spike camps or crew work sites are located in areas with heavy
       densities of noxious weeds, the following recommendations might be applied at demob:
               a. Shake out line gear to remove all plant parts and dirt that may contain weed seeds. On
                   clothing; check cuffs, pockets, seams, etc.; on boots check treads, seams, tongues and
                   laces and remove all plant parts and dirt that may contain seeds.


                                                   103
b. Shake out tents to remove all dirt and plant parts, and roll them up on sleeping pads or
   tarps to avoid re-contamination.
c. Inspect, remove and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts on equipment before
   it‟s returned to the cache.




                                    104
                                HERITAGE RESOURCES
                                             Appendix 3 to the

    Northern Region Forest Service Programmatic Agreement for Cultural Resources
Between the USDA Forest Service Northern Region, the Montana State Historic Preservation Officer and
                          the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation


                                        Wildfire Suppression and
                                        Rehabilitation Protocol

This protocol establishes procedures to be employed during declared wildfire emergencies. It is
developed under 36CFR900.12 (b) (1) and (2). It addresses the need to standardize expedited historic
preservation procedures during wildfire emergencies by appending a protocol to our existing statewide
Programmatic Agreements, and it recognizes the rapid pace of suppression and rehabilitation actions
necessitated by the nature of wildfire. The protocol is based on the following key points:

        1. The USDA Forest Service, Region 1, has commitment to effective management and
           preservation of cultural resources found on National Forest System lands within its jurisdiction
        2. Forest Service policy in Region 1 is to take fast, appropriate action on all fires within Forest
           Service suppression responsibility and on adjacent fires that threaten National Forest System
           lands. Such action often takes place very rapidly and precludes normal consultation processes.
        3. The Forest Service has the responsibility to insure that proper action, consistent with land
           management objectives, is taken on all fires that occur on National Forest System lands.
        4. The Forest Service has determined it necessary and prudent to develop fire suppression and
           immediate suppression-related rehabilitation strategies with respect to cultural properties.
        5. The effective management of cultural properties and of wildfires is in the mutual interest of the
           parties to this agreement.

The Forest Service, the State Historic Preservation Officer, and the Advisory Council on Historic
Preservation agree the Forest Service management of cultural properties during declared wildfire
emergencies shall be implemented in accordance with the following stipulations to minimize the effect of
emergency fire undertakings on cultural properties. Fire emergencies of National Forest System lands are
declared by appropriate Forest Service line officers (Regional Forester, Forest Supervisor, or District
Ranger) depending on the scale and scope of the fire.

                                               Stipulations:
   I.      General Terms and Provisions

   This protocol outlines the procedures to be taken for the consideration of cultural resources during the
   fire suppression and suppression-related rehabilitation phases of wildfire emergency undertaking as
   provided for in 36CFR800.12. Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BEAR) projects are not
   covered by this protocol because they typically occur after a wildfire emergency is over.

        A. In accordance with this protocol, the Forest Service may carry out actions related to fire
        suppression under conditions, which create an imminent threat to human life, property, or cultural
        properties without consultation with SHPO or others prior to the implementation of the action.
                                                    105
B. Wherever it is possible and prudent in terms of firefighter safety, known cultural properties
will be avoided and protected. For the purpose of this protocol, all cultural properties not
previously formally documented to be ineligible for listing on the National Register of Historic
Places through consultation with SHPO or the Keeper of the National Register; will be treated as
eligible.

C. Definitions

    1. Eligible property means a property that may have historical archeological, architectural, or
    cultural value and hence be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.
    An ineligible property has been shown to lack such value.

    2. Evaluation means that process of applying the National Register criteria of significance to a
    property.

    3. Forest Service undertaking means an action, projects or program undertaken by the Forest
    Service, on behalf of the Forest Service, with financial or technical assistance for the Forest
    Service, or under the terms of any license, permit, easement, or other entitlement granted by
    the Forest Service as part of any Fire Recovery program.

    4. Fire suppression means activities intended to control, confine and extinguish a wildfire,
    conducted for the initial response until a wildfire is officially declared out.

5. Fire suppression-related rehabilitation means activities necessary to repair any damage to the
resource resulting from the fire suppression effort. Such work is carried out by fire crews during
and immediately after a wildfire.

    6. Identification means the location, classification and where applicable, the evaluation of
    cultural properties.

    7. Treatment means the management of cultural properties in accordance with
     Sections 106 and 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act.

8. To “contain” a fire means it is burning within natural and/or constructed fire breaks or fire
lines. Containment can change rapidly.

9. To declare a fire “controlled” means that all or portions of a wildfire are contained within
firebreaks or fire lines, that environmental conditions are such that the fire is not likely to expand
readily, and that sufficient firefighting resources are at hand to either extinguish the fire or to hold
it in containment until it burns out. It is often possible to enter, for restoration purposes, divisions
or sectors of a fire that are under control, while other sectors or divisions are still actively burning.

10. Declaring a wildfire to be “extinguished” or to be “out” means either all ignition sources have
been extinguished or all fuel has been consumed, and that the wildfire emergency is over.

11. Declarations of fire status are made by authorized Fire officials (e.g. Incident Commanders) or
by appropriate Forest Service line officers; depending on scale and scope of the fire.

                                              106
II.       Fire suppression

       A. When emergency fire suppression efforts may threaten known or suspected cultural properties,
       the Cultural Resource Specialist will notify the SHPO and appropriate Tribal authorities within 48
       hours of initial response, that this protocol is being invoked.

       B. The Forest Cultural Resource Specialist will consult the relevant cultural resource records,
       databases, and maps to identify previously recorded cultural sites what may be affected by the fire
       and by fire suppression activities. The Heritage Program Leader will brief the fire team and
       resource advisor to identify known cultural site locations or sensitive cultural areas, and will make
       recommendations on site protection or treatment. This information will be used by the fire team
       leader, the resource advisor, and/or the Incident Commander in planning fire suppression activities
       to avoid or protect such resources when feasible and prudent.

       C. Known cultural properties located within or near the fire will be protected to the degree
       possible from suppression related damage.

       1. Prehistoric sites lacking structures or combustible features will be avoided by suppression
       activities whenever prudent and feasible.

       2. To the extent practical, cultural properties containing structural features such as tipi rings,
       wooden lodges, chutes, and cabins will be protected. These sites will also be avoided by
       disruptive suppression-related activities wherever prudent and feasible.

       D. It is understood that protection may not always be possible in the context of fire suppression
       for reasons of public and fire fighter safety or other priorities. When avoidance or protection is
       not possible, measures such as monitoring or emergency stabilization and data recovery will be
       considered to minimize the effects to the cultural properties.

III.      Fire Suppression Rehabilitation:

       A. As all or portions of a wildfire are brought under control and entry becomes feasible, al fire
       suppression actions/impacts will be located and the effects to know cultural properties and
       identified and assessed under the supervision of the Cultural Resource Specialist. Survey of fire
       suppression areas such as fire lines, helipads, staging areas, will be done for any complications.
       Survey of temporary roads will be conducted and mapped for reference. Cultural properties
       discovered during the surveys will be mapped, photographed, and recorded on standardized site
       forms. Site boundaries will be flagged so that subsequent fire rehabilitation activities avoid
       further damage to the sites. Preliminary evaluation of sites will be made, if possible, and type and
       location of resource damaged noted. Any structural features exposed by suppression activity will
       be fully mapped and recorded, and that data incorporated into the site record.

       B. Previously recorded sites within the fire perimeter or disturbed areas will be inspected and any
       impacts mapped and assessed. When warranted, updated site forms will be submitted to the
       SHPO for entry into the CRABS database with the annual report required by this agreement.

       C. Rapid stabilization of cultural sites disturbed by suppression activities may be necessary. This
       may entail hand or machine treatments like the careful return of earthen berm on a fire line over
                                                     107
           the site, contour feeling on burned trees to reduce soil erosion, seeding, or covering the site with
           protective mesh and culturally sterile soil. These emergency actions will be considered on a case-
           by-case basis at the discretion of the Cultural Resource Specialist, and in consultation with the
           SHPO and appropriate Tribal authorities. Such consultation by telephone and within 48 hours of
           identification of stabilization needs whenever time permits.

           D. A Cultural Resource Specialist shall coordinate with the rehabilitation team to ensure cultural
           resources are considered in fire suppression restoration efforts implemented by the team. Site
           treatment plans will be prepared for cultural properties that have been damaged by fire suppression
           and which require more detailed or complex stabilization efforts than simple restoration of earthen
           berm. In such cases the treatment plan will be discussed with SHPO and appropriate Tribal
           authorities by telephone or transmitted by FAX or Email to facilitate rapid dialog. In rare
           instances where such dialog cannot occur in a timely enough manner to meet the demands of the
           fire team schedule and priorities; stabilization will take place and all documentation will be
           forwarded to SHPO and appropriate Tribal authorities.

           E. To ensure protection of cultural properties, monitoring or sensitive or high site probability
           areas will be conducted whenever fires suppression rehabilitation activities are planned within
           close proximity to cultural properties or culturally sensitive areas, or where possible indirect
           effects could occur. Monitoring will be conducted by a qualified Heritage specialist.

           F. Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) projects are usually conducted after a fire is
           declared out and after the fire emergency is over. Such actions are not within the scope of this
           protocol and will be carried out under normal Section 106 consultation procedures or under any
           applicable national interagency protocols or agreements, which may be developed.

     IV.      Preparedness

           A. National Forests employing the streamlining provisions of this protocol are encouraged to take
           prudent fire preparedness steps regarding cultural properties.

           B. Such steps may include, but are not limited to:

              1. Development of prioritized lists of known, significant, cultural properties.

              2. Development of fire defense plans for known, significant, cultural properties or site
              complexes.

              3. Development of fire caches for combustible historic structures or complexes, containing
              necessary quantities of aluminized cabin wrap, sprinkler, hoses, pipe, fasteners, etc.

              4. Development of GIS layers or other maps showing the location of known, significant
              cultural properties; for use by Incident Commanders and other fire officials.

              5. Development of defensible space around combustible historic structures and
              implementation of appropriate fuel reduction strategies for such sites and complexes.

V.         Annual Reporting/Post-Fire Inspections:
                                                       108
A. A comprehensive summary of all inventory, evaluation, stabilization, and monitoring activities
conducted under this Protocol will be included as a separate section in the annual activity report
required by this Programmatic Agreement. The summary will include the name, location and
dates of all wildfires to which this protocol is applied, a description of fire effects, a discussion of
fire suppression rehabilitation and any emergency data recovery activities, number and type of
cultural properties affected and any treatment plans prepared and implemented. Cultural Resource
Specialists employed on each wildfire in which this Protocol is utilized will be identified.

B. Wildfire areas will be made accessible to SHPO staff or Tribal cultural authorities as soon as
safety considerations permit.

C. Cultural Resource Specialist will be made available, upon request, to visit sites, rehabilitation
projects, or the general fire area with SHPO staff or Tribal cultural authorities to view fire effects,
suppression effects, or rehabilitation projects.




                                              109
                                      Sample Heritage Concerns

Cultural Resources –

Suppression:

In this vicinity is the highest density of buffalo kill sites (jumps, corrals etc) of anywhere in the country.
The nearby Emigrant kill site with two separate cliff components was the first buffalo kill site investigated
by archeologists from the Museum of Natural History in 1922. These sites are primarily in the valley
floor well below the fire perimeter. The mountain flanks in the transition between the foothills and the
open grasslands of the valley floor contain many prehistoric sites. Also many sites are located at the
confluence of drainages and in open meadows on the high altitude divides.

There are only a few areas along the fire perimeter where sites are known to occur in these settings.
These sites would be barely recognizable only by surface evidence or may be encountered by hand-lines
or dozer-lines. If flint or obsidian artifacts are found, they should be left “in-place” and their general
vicinity reported to Division Supervisors and to Planning. The areas where lines are now planned do not
offer much potential for this problem to occur. Little mining is known in the area, but small historic
logging, grazing and trapping activities were common and log cabin ruins are scattered within the fire
perimeter. These sites will probably be indefensible in terms of prevention activities, but if encountered
they should be avoided where possible with hand lines or dozer-lines. Again if these sites types are
encountered, their vicinity should be reported.

Division “L” presents the most potential for occurrence of archeological sites. The attached “Division L;
Archeological Sensitive Areas” map highlights areas where dozer operations would be of concern. If a
need arises to use dozers within these areas, it is recommended that an archeologist accompany the dozer
boss in locating line through these areas. An archeologist is available through Bozeman Dispatch (406
587-6719) for immediate assignment.

Rehabilitation:

Historic and prehistoric sites found in areas requiring rehabilitation should be flagged and avoided until a
site-specific rehabilitation planned is approved at each site.




                                                     110
                                        Sample Briefing Paper

Traces of past human presence are a valuable resource. As technology evolves, our ability to interpret
fragments from the past improves, so it is important that heritage resources be protected. There are no
known prehistoric sites within the perimeter of the Fridley fire, but there has been very little survey
work completed. There are almost certainly prehistoric sites within the burned area that have not been
discovered.

Black obsidian, which looks like black glass, saw extensive use for stone implements in this area due to
its availability at sites located nearby in what is now Yellowstone Park. This material is easy to spot and
most crews have at least one person with an eye for stone artifacts. If you find what you believe may be
an archeological site during fireline rehab, leave that segment of the line as it is, hang some ribbon,
and get a good map location. If available a GPS location would be extremely helpful, as would
photographs of artifacts and the site. I'll see that the information is immediately passed on to the
Forest Archeologist.

Remember, it is illegal to remove
artifacts from National Forest
land. This includes historic era
as well as prehistoric items. At
50 years the law transforms
abandoned material into items
protected by law. So, any "junk"
pre-1952 vintage now has
"artifact" status. (I guess there
are a number of us "artifacts"
assigned to the fire?!) Anyway,
when in doubt, leave things
where you find them.




When an artifact is removed from its original location, most of its scientific value is lost because it is
out of context with the remaining evidence. It's important to allow items to remain in place and protect
the site from further disturbance. Most of the archeological value of the fire area is undetermined.
Your assistance in preserving heritage resources you discover could possibly make a very important
contribution to this interesting aspect of National Forest management.


Fred Fouse
Resource Advisor




                                                   111
                             Magruder Ranger Station Protection Plan

             WEST FORK RANGER DISTRICT, BITTEROOT NATIONAL FOREST

Objectives

Develop a comprehensive plan of action complete with personnel and equipment needs to protect
Magruder Ranger Station in the event of a threatening forest fire.

Considerations
What is the accepted level of protection for Magruder Ranger Station?

What tactics should be used for protection of Magruder Ranger Station?

What short and long term impacts will protection of the Magruder Ranger Station have on the wilderness
setting.

Assumptions

Helicopters will be allowed to deliver people and equipment. Recommended Heliport is the pasture on the
north side of the compound.

Motorized equipment such as chain saws, pumps, and generators will be allowed in the protection effort.

Locations for camp(s) and staging area(s) will be discussed with the Resource Advisor assigned to the
fire. The Resource Advisor will be the Line Officer Representative.
All fire protection will be carried out with minimal long range impact to the wilderness resource and the
Station. A light-hand-on-the-land approach will be adhered to.

Safety Considerations
Safety will be emphasized during implementation. LCES, 10 STANDARD ORDERS AND 18
SITUATIONS THAT SHOUT "WATCH OUT" will be discussed with all personnel dedicated to
suppression and protection efforts. SAFETY ZONES AND ESCAPE ROUTES WILL BE IDENTIFIED
AND UNDERSTOOD BY ALL PERSONNEL. THE SITE HAS VERY GOOD SAFETY ZONE~AND
ARE SAFE.
Shake roofs are very slick when wet. Roofs at this site are very steep.

Use proper PPE when using foam products (eyewear, gloves, along with II normal PPE used while
engaging in wildfire activities.

Drive with lights on. STEEP, CURVEY, MOUNTAIN ROADS WITH VERY LIMITED VISIBILITY.
YOU MUST BE ABLE TO STOP IN LESS THAN ONE/HALF THE SIGHT DISTANCE.

A communication plan should be written with all personnel understanding the plan.
Windows in patrolling vehicles should be kept closed when at the site. Vehicles should be parked to
enhance an orderly departure (pointed at the egress).

                                                    112
An evacuation plan should be part of the Incident Action Plan. Evac plan should be understood and dry
run completed.


Property Description and Site Management

Maruder Ranger Station is an administrative site managed by the West Ranger District and the Bitterroot
National Forest. The entire administrative site is eligible for the National Register as a historic site. This
administrative site is nearly surrounded by the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness (FCRONR).
This section of FCRONR is managed by Red River Ranger District, and the Nez Perce Forest. Legal
description is T27N, RI4E, SWSW section 3 (Area map in appendix A). This property is approximately
20 acres and is on the bank of the Selway River .5 miles south of the confluence of Deep Creek and the
Selway- River. Approximately 10.acres lie on the east side of the Selway River and the balance of the
land on the west side. The land is mostly riparian (meadow and stream bank). Most of the buildings are
located on a bench on the east side of the compound (site plan in appendix A).

Developments on the property include: (Please refer to appendix A, Site Plan).

      House -2 cord of firewood in basement, furniture. Shake roof with log walls

      Office -Furniture. Shake roof with log walls

      Barn -20 hay bales and corral, shake roof w/ log walls

      Woodshed -Shake roof w/log walls

      Gas-house -(1 ea. 500 gal. concrete tank inside). Shake roof w/log walls

      Fire cache -Shake roof w/log walls

      Warehouse -lumber, shakes, building materials. Shake roof w/ log walls

      Wooden bridge -treated timber construction

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS: 1-500 GALLON GASOLINE CONCRETE TANK HOUSED IN THE
GAS HOUSE. PROPANE TANKS ARE IN TWO LOCATIONS: 1-250 GALLON TANK AND 1-500
GALLON TANK LOCATED NEAR THE OFFICE, AND ONE 250 GALLON TANK LOCATED JUST
EAST OF THE HOUSE. PLEASE REFER TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SITE LOCATION MAP I
IN APPENDIX A.

Need for Protection

Currently, forest fires are managed as a Prescribed Natural Fire (PNF) or a wildfire. The Frank Church
Wilderness and the Selway Bitterroot Wilderness Fire Management Plans allow fire to be managed as
PNF's following identified criteria described in site specific burn plans. Both Fire Management Plans
allow tactics identified in the burn plan to be implemented to lessen the threat of fire to life and property.
These tactics are identified in individual burn plans developed for a specific fire.

In the case of a declared wildfire appropriate suppression response provides latitude for wildfires to burn
under identified guidelines within confine, contain and control provisions of fire management direction.


                                                     113
Decision for managing fires under this policy are based on fire fighter safety, public safety, loss of life
and property and cost versus loss analysis. Please reference the Escaped Fire Situation Analysis .if
appropriate.


Topography/Fuel Types/Expected Fire Behavior Topography/fuel types

The-east slope adjacent to Magruder Ranger Station is a dry site with Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine
(west exposure @ 50 -60% slope,). A micro burst occurred in December 1996 caused areas of fuel model
11 and 12. These areas are scattered and not general. These areas will have to be assessed previous to
building final fire prediction models.

Magruder Station lies in a north/south main drainage and the elevation is 4200'. The elevation of Haystack
Mountain (1 mi. west) is 6875'. The elevation of Pasture Ridge (1 mile east) is 6620'. This is
approximately 2700 vertical feet and similar to Salmon/Snake River canyons.

Fire Behavior

Fuel model 2 at 60% slope and west exposure. Flame heights can range from 5" to 15'. This fuel type is
dependant on relative humidity to create severe fire effects. (Relative humidity of 28% or higher will
usually slow fire spread considerably). Sparse amounts downed woody material occupy the site in the
form of large logs, root wads and stumps. Very little standing dead exists. Surface fuel is grass and is the
carrier of the fire. Live fuel and fine dead fuel moisture is a critical component of this fuel model.
Normally this fuel bed does not have ladder fuels and does not spread by spotting. Grass normally will not
become available fuel (cured out) until mid July or after the first hard frost of fall that normally occurs
early September.

Fuel model 9 at 60% slope will normally display flame lengths of 6" to 6'. An occasional torching tree
will come from a concentration of fuel (jackpot). Only under severe weather conditions does this fuel
model cause suppression problems. Severe conditions may be dead 1000 hr. fuels @ 10% or less, end cut
Douglas fir branches dried are <90%. Low fuel moisture usually contributes to increased fire spread due
to torching and spotting. NOTE: THIS IS A LIVE FUEL MODEL AND CALCULATING FIRE
SPREAD SHOULD BE BASED ON NON CURED AND CURED FUELS. The first frost normally
occurs early September. Please reference Appendix B in PMS 410-1 Fireline Handbook for additional
information on fuel models and characteristics

NOTE: BOTH FUEL MODELS ARE LIVE FUEL MODEL AND FIRE SPREAD PREDICTIONS
SHOULD BE BASED ON NON-CURED AND CURED FUELS. Please reference Appendix B in PMS
410-1 Fireline Handbook for additional information on fuel models
and characteristics.

Transportation of Personnel and Equipment

A helicopter can be used for transport from the West Fork Ranger ..:, Station or Nez Perce Pass. Surface
transportation is an option. Mixed gravel and paved surfaces.

Vehicle travel time to Magruder is 4 hrs. from MSO, 2 hrs. from Hamilton, and 1 hr. from the West Fork.
Nearest large warehouse cache is the Northern Region Warehouse in Missoula.

                                                     114
Air cargo is an option. This will originate from Missoula.


Tactics and Equipment Placement
The first step will be to become familiar with maps in appendix A titled "PUMP STATIONS/HOSE
LAYS and HAZ MAT". A map recommending location of sprinklers is not in this plan.
The map "Pump Stations" recommends lines, nozzles and pump locations. NOTE: all pumps used for
nozzles should have a foam eductor system on the discharge side of the pumphead. If the grass in the
pasture is cured to the point of becoming available fuel, sprinkler system(s) each with a dedicated pump
may be necessary along the outer edge of the main compound.
Assess pruning, thinning and brush cutting needs. This step will need to be coordinated with the Station
Manager and Line Officer or Resource Advisor assigned to the Fire Management Team assigned to the
fire.
Cutting trees, clearing brush, limbing branches, thinning trees and brush pile locations are critical to the
wilderness setting of for this Station.
If the grasses in and adjacent to the compound are cured, sprinklers should be considered. Assess mowing
grasses within compound.

A dedicated pump should be used for each sprinkler system.

The location of the sprinklers should provide coverage to the perimeter of the compound with special
emphasis placed on the corral (Dry horse/mule scat is a great ember receptor).

The sprinklers should be placed to create an overlapping wet line.

If it is highly probable that the fire is going to burn up to the wet line, consider igniting a backing fire
(burnout) along the fire side of the wet line that will back into the advancing front.

Organization (recommended)

Incident Commander (ICT III)
Structure Protection Specialist.
Strike Team Leader
Fire Behavior Analyst or PFBA.
Resource Advisor representing Magruder Ranger Station/West Fork Ranger One Category I crew and one
category II crew

Equipment
Tools
6 chain saws
three weed trimmers (heavy duty) 50/50 mix shovels and pulaskis 10 drip torches
20 gal drip torch fuel
20 gal mixed chain saw fuel

Water Handling Equipment
2000' 1.5" HOSE 2000 1.0" HOSE
5 EA. MARK III W/KITS (SHOULD HAVE FOAM EDUCTOR CAPABILITY) 15 GATED WYE'S
1.5"
                                                      115
20 REDUCERS 1.5" TO 1.0"
15 NOZZLES ADAPTABLE TO 1.5" AND 1.0" FITTINGS 50 GALLONS OF FOAM

sprinkler lay
2 ea. sprinkler kits (kit contents below)
3 ea. mini pump kits (shindawai type pumps) 5 ea. lengths of 1" hose

SPRINKLER KIT CONTENTS
RAIN BIRD SPRINKLERS 25 EA. INLINE "T" I S 1. 5" 2 5 EA. 18" X 3/4" PVC PIPE 25 EA. TENT
STAKES 8" LONG MIN 75 EA. CHUTE CORD 1 ROLL LARGE FRAMING HAMMER 1 EA.
CRESCENT WRENCH 8" 1 EA. PIPE WRENCH 8" 1 EA.
SPRINKLER SPIKES 25 EA. "U" BOLTS 1.5" 25 EA GATED WYE 1.5" 3 EA. , END CAPS 3 EA

INSERT SITE MAP INCLUDING PUMP LOCATIONS, WYE‟S, ETC.




                                                  116
                                   FISHERIES AND T&E
        Boise Instructions for Reporting/Managing Fires in Anadromous Drainages

Any wildfire or escaped prescribed fire that has the potential to affect fisheries/habitat needs to be
reported to National Marine Fisheries (NMFS) if the fire occurs in or affects anadromous drainages.

The Forest Service has agreed to send NMFS the following information as soon as possible when such
fires occur:
     Escaped Fire Situation Analysis (EFSA)
     Spill Prevention Control & Countermeasure Plan (SPCC)
     Incident Base Operation Plans if available
     A map or sketch showing the location of the fire with drainages identified Fire rehab plans as soon
        as they are available

If NMFS desires emergency consultation, they will contact the local Fish Biologist. Any consultation will
most likely happen after the fire has been controlled.

The enclosed SPCC plan has been modeled after Environmental Protection Agency's regulations as per
agreement with NMFS and USFS. The main purpose of this plan is to prevent any discharge or spill of
oil/gasoline into anadromous waters.

For the purpose of the SPCC, you will need to fill in all "blanks" in the following document. The
information you will need is:

      Name of facility or firecamp (if there are several facilities, you may need to attach additional
       sheets to provide adequate information.

      Location -include T/R/S, physical location in respect to landmarks, access to the site, and travel
       times from district office.

      Purpose of site (firecamp, helibase, etc.). This only needs to be done at locations where fuel is
       either being stored, or equipment is being refueled.

      For fixed/permanent storage (ex.: Price Valley Helibase, Guard Stations, etc.) list hazardous
       materials present, and the type of storage.

      State any aerial fuel limitations that will be in affect. This may include limited flight patterns,
       refueling locations, etc.

      Appendix B: State ground vehicle delivery route restrictions and fuel truck load/size restrictions.
       Include a map or sketch if possible.

      On the first page of the SPCC, the Line Officer needs to sign that the SPCC will be implemented
       as described.




                                                     117
THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW:
     Fuel delivery vehicles need to have emergency communication capabilities.
     Fuel trucks over 500 gallons must be escorted by an approved pilot car.
     Emergency spill kits need to be ordered and in place at incidents ASAP.
     Copies of the most current Emergency Response Guidebook need to be located at each incident.




                                                 118
              Guidelines for Aerial Delivery of Retardant or Foam Near Waterways


Definition:

WATERWAY: Any body of water including lakes, rivers, streams and ponds whether or not they contain
aquatic life.

General Guidelines:

Avoid aerial application of retardant or foam within 300 feet of waterways.

These guidelines do not require the helicopter or air tanker pilot-in-command to fly in such a way as to
endanger his or her aircraft, other aircraft, or structures or compromise ground personnel safety.

Guidance for pilots: To meet the 300-foot buffer zone guideline, implement the following:

      Medium/Heavy Air tankers: When approaching a waterway visible to the pilot, the pilot shall
       terminate the application of retardant approximately 300 feet before reaching the waterway. When
       flying over a waterway, pilots shall wait one second after crossing the far bank or shore of a
       waterway before applying retardant. Pilots shall make adjustments for airspeed and ambient
       conditions such as wind to avoid the application of retardant within the 300-foot buffer zone.

      Single Engine Airtankers: When approaching a waterway visible to the pilot, the pilot shall
       terminate application of retardant or foam approximately 300 feet before reaching the waterway.
       When flying over a waterway, the pilot shall not begin application of foam or retardant until 300
       feet after crossing the far bank or shore. The pilot shall make adjustments for airspeed and ambient
       conditions such as wind to avoid the application of retardant within the 300-foot buffer zone.

      Helicopters: When approaching a waterway visible to the pilot, the pilot shall terminate the
       application of retardant or foams 300 feet before reaching the waterway. When flying over a
       waterway, pilots shall wait five seconds after crossing the far bank or shore before applying the
       retardant or foam. Pilots shall make adjustments for airspeed and ambient conditions such as wind
       to avoid the application of retardant or foam within the 300-foot buffer zone.

Exceptions:

      When alternative line construction tactics are not available due to terrain constraints, congested
       area, life and property concerns or lack of ground personnel, it is acceptable to anchor the foam or
       retardant application to the waterway. When anchoring a retardant or foam line to a waterway, use
       the most accurate method of delivery in order to minimize placement of retardant or foam in the
       waterway (e.g., a helicopter rather than a heavy airtanker).

      Deviations from these guidelines are acceptable when life or property is threatened and the use of
       retardant or foam can be reasonably expected to alleviate the threat.

      When potential damage to natural resources outweighs possible loss of aquatic life, the unit
       administrator may approve a deviation from these guidelines.


                                                   119
Threatened and Endangered (T&E) Species:

The following provisions are guidance for complying with the emergency section 7 consultation
procedures of the ESA with respect to aquatic species. These provisions do not alter or diminish an action
agency's responsibilities under the ESA.

Where aquatic T &E species or their habitats are potentially affected by aerial application of retardant or
foam, the following additional procedures apply:

   1. As soon as practicable after the aerial application of retardant or foam near waterways, determine
      whether the aerial application has caused any adverse effects to a T &E species or their habitat.
      This can be accomplished by the following:

           a. Aerial application of retardant or foam outside 300 ft of a waterway is presumed to avoid
              adverse effects to aquatic species and no further consultation for aquatic species is
              necessary.

           b. Aerial application of retardant or foam within 300 ft of a waterway requires that the unit
              administrator determine whether there have been any adverse effects to T &E species
              within the waterway.

       These procedures shall be documented in the initial or subsequent fire reports.

   2. If there were no adverse effects to aquatic T &E species or their habitats, there is no additional
      requirement to consult on aquatic species with Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National
      Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

   3. If the action agency determines that there were adverse effects on T &E species or their habitats
      then the action agency must consult witl1 FWS and NMFS, as required by 50 CFR 402.05
      (Emergencies). Procedures for emergency consultation are described in the Interagency
      Consultation Handbook, Chapter 8 (March, 1998). In the case of a long duration incident,
      emergency consultation should be initiated as soon as practical during the event. Otherwise, post-
      event consultation is appropriate. The initiation of the consultation is the responsibility of the unit
      administrator.

   Each agency will be responsible for insuring that the appropriate guides and training manuals reflect
   these guidelines.




                                                    120
   Wildland Fire Chemical Products Toxicity and Environmental Issues and Concerns –
                                    November 1999


Concern is often expressed about the safety and environmental impacts of actions taken during fire
suppression. Several interagency studies, on the impacts of wildland fire suppression products on
firefighters, the general public, and the environment, have recently been completed. The Forest Service
contracted to have a risk assessment conducted to incorporate all of this new information. This article
summarizes the general findings of this work.


Composition .

Long-term retardants, mixed for delivery to the fire, contain about 85 percent water, 10 percent fertilizer,
and 5 percent minor ingredients: colorant (iron oxide -rust, or fugitive color that fades with exposure to
sunlight), thickener (natural gum and clay), corrosion inhibitors, stabilizers, and bactericides.

Fire suppressant foams, diluted for use in fire fighting, are more than 99 percent water. The remaining 1
percent contains surfactants (wetting agents), foaming agents, corrosion inhibitors, and dispersants.


Mammalian Toxicity

Qualified and approved wildland fire chemicals have all been tested and meet specific requirements with
regard to mammalian toxicity as determined by acute oral and dermal toxicity testing as well as skin and
eye irritation tests.

As with any chemical substance, a small percentage of the population may have an allergy or unusual
sensitivity (to a specific chemical) that will not be detected during the evaluation process.


Environmental Impacts
Long-Term Retardants -Fertilizer is a major component of retardants. Therefore caution and good
judgment must be exercised when a drop is made onto commercially or aesthetically valuable vegetation.
Excessive fertilizer may cause a temporary "bum" on exposed vegetation and in some cases even kill the
plants.

The fertilizer contained in the retardant may, under very specific conditions, cause nitrate poisoning in
animals that have consumed hay or other forage crops contaminated by the retardant during firefighting
operations.

The fertilizer contained in long-term retardants consists of ammonia and phosphate or sulfate ions.
Studies show that a single retardant drop directly into a stream may cause a sufficient ammonia
concentration in the water to be lethal to fish and other aquatic organisms. The effects will change
depending on the volume of the retardant that actually enters the water, the size of the body of water, and
the volume of flow in the stream or river. For example, if an 800-gallon drop is made into a fast flowing
river, it is likely that the lethal effects will be short-lived as dilution below the toxic level is quickly
achieved. In contrast, if a 3,000-gallon drop is made into a stagnant pond, toxic levels will be likely to
persist for some time.
                                                    121
Foam Fire Suppressants -Foam concentrates are strong detergents. They can be extremely drying and
exposure to the skin may cause mild to severe chapping that can be alleviated with the application of a
topical cream or lotion to the exposed areas.

All of the currently approved foam concentrates are mildly to severely irritating to eyes. Anyone involved
with or working in the vicinity of opened containers of foam concentrates should use protective goggles.
Rubbing the eyes or face may result in injury to the eyes if hands have become contaminated with the
concentrate during handling.

The primary toxic effect to fish occurs as a result of the surfactant action of foam. The surfactant in the
water interferes with the ability of the gills to absorb oxygen from the water causing the fish to suffocate.

Because a very small amount of foam concentrate retains very good wetting capabilities, extra precautions
should be taken to avoid getting any concentrate into the water.


Environmental Guidelines

The following guidelines should be followed to minimize the likelihood of retardant chemicals entering a
stream or other body of water.

      During training or briefings, inform field personnel of the potential danger of fire chemicals,
       especially foam concentrates, in streams or lakes.

      Locate mixing and loading points where contamination of natural water, especially with the foam
       concentrate, is minimal.

      Maintain all equipment and use check valves where appropriate to prevent release of foam
       concentrate into any body of water.

      Exercise particular caution when using any fire chemical in watersheds where fish hatcheries are
       located. .

      Locate dip operations to avoid run-off of contaminated water back into the stream.

      Dip from a tank rather than directly from a body of water, to avoid releasing any foam into these
       especially sensitive areas.

      Use a pump system equipped with check valves to prevent flow of any contaminated water back
       into the main body of water.

      Avoid direct drops of retardant or foam into rivers, streams, lakes, or along shores. Use alternative
       methods of fire line building in sensitive areas.

      Notify proper authorities promptly if any fire chemical is used in an area where there is likelihood
       of negative impacts.

      While it is preferable that drops into or along any body of water not occur, it is possible that the
       fire location and surrounding terrain make it probable that some retardant may enter the water. The
       person requesting the retardant (such as the incident commander) must balance the impacts on the
       environment, i.e., potential fish kill, with the resources and values to be protected from the fire.
                                                     122
                        Fire Chemical Toxicity


FOR CHINOOK SALMON MOST SENSITIVE LIFE STAGE (LC50-96 HR)
                     SUMMARY
             BASED UPON PRODUCT AND HARDNESS OF WATER



FOAM CONCENTRATES:
   RANGES FROM 1 GALLON PER 62,500 GALLONS OF WATER TO 1 GALLON
   PER 142,900 GALLONS OF WATER.

FOAM MIXTURE AT 1%:
   RANGES FROM 1 GALLON PER 625 GALLONS OF WATER TO 1 GALLON
   PER 1429 GALLONS OF WATER.

RETARDANT CONCENTRATE:
   RANGES FROM 1 GALLON PER 1185 GAL OF WATER TO 1 GALLON PER
   4500 GALLONS OF WATER.

RETARDANT MIXED:
   RANGES FROM 1 GALLON PER 237 GALLONS OF WATER TO 913 GALLONS
   OF WATER.
   NOTE: Retardant is less toxic by 4 to 94 fold.


                  COMMON FIELD VOLUMES:

FOAM INJECTION SYSTEMS CARRY 5 GALLONS OF CONCENTRATE IN THE
150 GALLON BUCKET. (FOAM CONCENTRATE)

AIR TANKERS RANGE FROM 2000 TO 3000 GALLONS OF RETARDANT.
(RETARDANT-MIXED)

PORTABLE BATCH PLANTS MAY CARRY CONCENTRATES OF UP TO OR
EXCEEDING 5000 GALLONS (EQUIVALENT RETARDANT CONCENTRATE)


                                 123
           Wildfire Suppression, BAER and Emergency Endangered Species Act
                            Consultation Process and Questionnaire
                                                (7/18/02)


Fire Name:                                                  Location:
Recorders Name:                                             Date:


I. Information Compilation:

The Forest Supervisor will assure that suppression, BAER, or Unit personnel, prior to closing out the fire
or prior to departure of BAER teams, provide an information package containing the answers to the
enclosed questions, compiled information, and maps to Unit biologists in order to facilitate completion of
required ESA consultation.

II. Agency Responsibilities:

Endangered Species Act (ESA) regulations require identification and evaluation of effects to threatened,
endangered and proposed species of all Federal agency programs and activities. This includes wildland
fire management activities and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) activities. This process
may include the need for emergency consultation with US Fish and Wildlife Service and/or National
Marine Fisheries Service. Effects evaluation and the consultation process are NOT directed at fire or the
results of the fire, but rather at management actions and activities associated with fire suppression and
BAER.

   1. Emergency consultation processes should occur in such a manner and time that allow
      recommendations to be effectively included into suppression and BAER strategies and plans. The
      consultation steps include: Contact the USFWS when the nature of the emergency is known and it
      is expected that threatened, endangered, or proposed (TEP) species may be adversely affected.
   2. Explain the nature of the emergency including actions that may affect TEP species.
   3. The USFWS will provide recommendations, or a resource advisors package that includes resource
      protection measures provided by the Forest or District Biologists. Implement resource protection
      recommendations to the degree possible. Resource recommendations DO NOT stand in the way
      of required emergency response efforts.
   4. After the emergency has past, continue and conclude consultation as appropriate, including
      required documentation.

References and authorities regarding the topic of emergency consultation under the Endangered Species
Act (ESA) include the ESA regulations (50 CFR§402.05); the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
National Marine Fisheries Service Section 7 Consultation Handbook, Chapter 8; a WO memo concerning
emergency consultations for suppression and BAER activities; and FSM Interim Directives for 2671.45f
and 5130.3 - 5130.44. The identified documents are attached.




                                                   124
III. Consultation Processes:

The consultation process is begun when the USFWS is contacted, with the initial contact usually done by
telephone or facsimile. Review the attachments for a detailed outline of the emergency consultation
process.

Possible Consultation Scenarios:

   1. Wildfire occurs in a location where threatened, endangered, or proposed species are not expected
      to occur. Biologist determines and documents that fire suppression activities resulted in a “no
      effect” determination. Consultation process is complete.
   2. Wildfire occurs in a location where threatened, endangered or proposed species may be present,
      and the fire is of low complexity, having a low level of ground disturbance activities (low
      complexity and/or a low level of ground disturbance will be displayed by answering NO to the
      questions found in Section IV), and involving a small acreage: or is in compliance with
      programmatic BAs and/or opinions written to cover wildfire suppression activities for the area and
      species. Identify the threatened, endangered, or proposed species that may occur within the area
      and briefly describe the fire. Biologist determines and documents that fire suppression activities
      resulted in a “no effect” determination. Consultation process is complete.
   3. Wildfire occurs in a location where threatened, endangered or proposed species may be present,
      and exceeds complexity, size or ground disturbance criteria found in item 2; or is not in
      compliance with programmatic BAs and/or opinions written to cover wildfire suppression
      activities for the area and species. Additional consultation and documentation is required, proceed
      through the next section.




                                                  125
IV. Minimum answers and data requirements needed to develop BA species analysis:

Species for which analysis requirements were considered in development of the following information
needs included Bull Trout, Spring, Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, Steelhead,
Woodland Caribou, Grizzly Bear, Gray Wolf, Canada Lynx, Bald Eagle, Water Howellia, Spalding‟s
Catchfly, Ute Ladies-Tresses, and MacFarlane‟s Four-o‟clock.

The following table displays species (which are identified in the previous paragraph) in the left hand
column and information items or questions (from the list of items following the table) that are required
information need items. An “X” in a block indicates that this data element is required for the identified
species.

                           A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 C1 D1 E1 E2 E3 E4
Bull Trout                 X X X X X X X X            X X X
Spring Chinook             X X X X X X X X            X X X
Summer Chinook             X X X X X X X X            X X X
Fall Chinook               X X X X X X X X            X X X
Sockeye Salmon             X X X X X X X X            X X X
Steelhead                  X X X X X X X X            X X X
Woodland Caribou           X        X
Grizzly Bear               X X      X X            X        X
Gray Wolf                  X X
Canada Lynx                X        X
Bale Eagle                 X X
Water Howellia             X X X X X               X     X
Spalding’s Catchfly           X     X              X
Ute Ladies-Tresses            X     X              X
MacFarlane’s 4-o’clock        X     X              X

   Questions and information needs: The following questions and information are to be answered
   and/or collected only for areas that are relevant, within areas of habitat or that influence areas of
   habitat, for a species that may occur within the fire activity area.

   A. Fire Suppression Effort Support:

   1. Roads and road maintenance:
      a) Were new roads constructed and/or existing closed roads reopened (closed gates opened,
         barriers such as trees and rocks removed, or roads bladed to provide fire access)?
      b) What were the road numbers and/or road locations?
      c) How many miles of new roads were constructed and/or existing closed roads were reopened?
      d) What was the time period of road use?
      e) Was dust abatement used?
      f) Did activities occur within 300 feet of waterways?
      g) Which roads were re-closed or restricted after fire suppression use?
      h) Which were open to administrative or public use?
      i) Provide maps.


                                                    126
2. Base and spike camps:
   a) Where were camps located?
   b) Approximately how many personnel were present in each camp; interested in a relative camp
      size rather than a precise personnel count, “magnitude” differences (5 vs. 20 vs100 vs. 500,
      etc)?
   c) During what time period(s) was a camp used?
   d) Was a camp located within 300 feet of waterways?
   e) Were food and other attractants stored in a bear resistant manner, what storage method was
      used?
   f) Provide maps

3. Retardant, Foam, and/or Surfactant Applications:
   a) Where did applications occur?
   b) Were chemicals applied within 300 feet of waterways?
   c) Provide map.

B. Fireline Construction and Holding Actions:

1. Firelines:
   a) Were firelines machine built, wet lined, foam lined, black lined, hand built, and/or explosive
       built?
   b) Where were firelines built?
   c) How many miles of firelines were built?
   d) Were firelines closed to motorized vehicles with rocks and woody debris after use?
   e) Were firelines built within 300 feet of waterways?
   f) Provide map.

2. Water Sources:
   a) Was water pumped or drafted from a water source?
   b) What were water source locations?
   c) What equipment was used?
   d) Did intake screens have a 3/32nd inch maximum pore size?
   e) Was a spill cloth used at pump sites?
   f) Did helicopter dipping occur, where?
   g) Provide map

3. Hazard Trees:
   a) Were hazard trees felled?
   b) Were trees skidded and/or removed from the site?
   c) Provide map

C. Helicopter Landing Sites and Other Operational Facilities:

1. Support, refueling, and alumigel mix sites:
   a) Where were sites located?
   b) Were sites located within 300 feet of waterways?
   c) Provide map.

                                               127
   C. Mop-up:

   1. Engines, hand tools, and hose lays:
      a) Did activities occur within 300 feet of waterways, where?
      b) Provide maps.

   D. Rehabilitation:

   1. Seeding:
      a) Where did seeding occur?
      b) What seed mixture was used?
      c) Provide map.

   2. Sediment retaining structures:
      a) Were filter cloths and/or logs used as sediment traps?
      b) Where were structures located?
      c) Were structures placed within 300 feet of waterways?
      d) Provide Map locations.

   3. Snags:
      a) Were snags felled into streams to facilitate channel protection?
      b) Provide Map.

   4. Hazard Trees:

   5. Were hazard trees felled?
       a) Was felled material skidded and removed from the site?
       b) Were sites located within 300 feet of waterways, where?
Provide maps.




                                                  128
 Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation Implementing Regulations, 50 CFR
                                     402.05
Ҥ 402.05 Emergencies.

(a) Where emergency circumstances mandate the need to consult in an expedited manner, consultation
may be conducted informally through alternative procedures that the Director determines to be consistent
with the requirements of sections 7(a)–(d) of the Act. This provision applies to situations involving acts of
God, disasters, casualties, national defense or security emergencies, etc.

(b) Formal consultation shall be initiated as soon as practicable after the emergency is under control. The
Federal agency shall submit information on the nature of the emergency action(s), the justification for the
expedited consultation, and the impacts to endangered or threatened species and their habitats. The
Service will evaluate such information and issue a bio-logical opinion including the information and
recommendations given during the emergency consultation.”


    * * * * * * Final ESA Section 7 Consultation Handbook, March 1998 * * * * * *
______________________________________________________________________________________

                            CHAPTER 8 - EMERGENCY CONSULTATION


8.1 THE NEED FOR EMERGENCY CONSULTATION
Section 7 regulations recognize that an emergency (natural disaster or other calamity) may require
expedited consultation (50 CFR §402.05).

Where emergency actions are required that may affect listed species and/or critical habitats, a Federal
agency may not have the time for the administrative work required by the consultation regulations under
non-emergency conditions. Emergency consultations should be handled with as much understanding of
the action agency's critical mission as possible while ensuring that anticipated actions will not violate
sections 7(a)(2) or 7(d). Emergency consultation procedures allow action agencies to incorporate
endangered species concerns into their actions during the response to an emergency.

An emergency is a situation involving an act of God, disasters, casualties, national defense or security
emergencies, etc., and includes response activities that must be taken to prevent imminent loss of human
life or property. Predictable events, like those covered in Emergency Use Permits issued by the
Environmental Protection Agency for pesticide applications, usually do not qualify as emergencies under
the section 7 regulations unless there is a significant unexpected human health risk. Under no
circumstances should a Services representative obstruct an emergency response decision made by the
action agency where human life is at stake.




                                                    129
8.2 PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING EMERGENCY CONSULTATIONS

(A) Initial Contact by the Action Agency

The initial stages of emergency consultations usually are done by telephone or facsimile, followed as soon
as possible (within 48 hours if possible) by written correspondence from the Services. This provides the
Services with an accurate record of the telephone contact. This record also provides the requesting agency
with a formal document reminding them of the commitments made during the initial step in emergency
consultation (Figure 8-1). During this initial contact, or soon thereafter, the Services' role is to offer
recommendations to minimize the effects of the emergency response action on listed species or their
critical habitat (the informal consultation phase). DO NOT stand in the way of the response efforts.

If this initial review indicates the action may result in jeopardy or adverse modification, and no means
of reducing or avoiding this effect are apparent, the agency should be so advised, and the Services‟
conclusions documented.

Project leaders should establish procedures (e.g., a calling tree) within their offices outlining who can be
called to handle the emergency consultation. Once these procedures have been established, they should be
provided to all Federal agencies in that operating area responsible for handling emergency situations (e.g.,
Coast Guard, Environmental Protection Agency, and Federal Emergency Management Agency) and any
other Federal agencies with responsibilities in the operating area.

The FWS Field Office conducting the consultation should notify the FWS Assistant Regional Director
responsible for endangered species and/or the ecosystem at risk, following timeframes established by
FWS Regional guidance. The notification should be in memo form, following the format outlined in
Exhibit 8-1. Early telephone notification may be required. For NMFS, the Regional Director should notify
the Director, Office of Protected.

(B) Initiating Formal Consultation

As soon as practicable after the emergency is under control, the action agency initiates formal
consultation with the Services if listed species or critical habitat have been adversely affected. Although
formal consultation occurs after the response to the emergency, procedurally it is treated like any other
formal consultation. However, the action agency has to provide additional information to initiate a formal
consultation following an emergency:
    a description of the emergency;
    a justification for the expedited consultation; and
    an evaluation of the response to and the impacts of the emergency on affected species and their
       habitats, including documentation of how the Services‟ recommendations were implemented, and
       the results of implementation in minimizing take.

(C) Emergency Biological Opinion

After concluding formal consultation on an emergency, the Services issue an emergency biological
opinion. The "effects of the action" section, documents the recommendations provided by the Services to
the action agency and the results of agency implementation of the recommendations on listed species. The
timeframe, format and contents are the same as for formal consultation (Chapter 4). A sample of
                                                    130
standardized language for an emergency consultation document can be found in Appendix B. The
standardized statements for formal consultation have been modified to reflect that this is, in most cases, an
after-the-fact consultation.

Documenting jeopardy and adverse modification biological opinions is particularly important to
tracking the effect on species and habitat conditions. For FWS, emergency biological opinions with the
conclusion of "not likely to jeopardize" the species or "not likely to result in destruction or adverse
modification of critical habitat" are completed at the Field Office level. However, if the conclusion is
likely jeopardy or adverse modification, the consultation is elevated to the Regional Office. Such a
finding may not have a reasonable and prudent alternative available, unless some further action can
restore or enhance the species to a level below the jeopardy threshold. For NMFS, emergency opinions
are signed in Washington by the Director, Office of Protected Resources, except where a specific Region
has been delegated signature authority (i.e., Northwest and Southwest Regions have been delegated
signature authority for anadromous fish).

(D) Incidental Take Statement

If incidental take is anticipated during the emergency response, the Services can advise the action agency
during the informal consultation phase of ways to minimize take. In some circumstances, the actual or
estimated take occurring from the agency‟s emergency response actions can be determined, and should be
documented in the biological opinion for future inclusion in the species‟ environmental baseline. The
incidental take statement in an emergency consultation does not include reasonable and prudent measures
or terms and conditions to minimize take, unless the agency has an ongoing action related to the
emergency. Rather, an emergency consultation incidental take statement documents the
recommendations given to minimize take during informal consultation, the success of the
agency in carrying out these recommendations, and the ultimate effects on the species of
concern through take.

(E) Conservation Recommendations

Emergency consultations may contain conservation recommendations to help protect listed species and
their habitats in future emergency situations or initiate beneficial actions to conserve the species.

Note: While the timing of "emergencies" is unpredictable, the types of emergencies that may affect listed
species or critical habitat can be determined in advance. Emergency response actions are routinely
practiced by responsible Federal agencies. Advance coordination with responsible Federal agencies is
encouraged so that endangered species components can be incorporated into the emergency response
where appropriate.




                                                    131
Exhibit 8-1. FWS Emergency consultation notification memorandum to the Regional
Office (optional).
                                                   (date)
Memorandum

To:          Assistant Regional Director, Region __(number)___
From:        Field Supervisor, ____(name of Field Office)____
Subject: Emergency Consultation on ____(name of Federal action)___.

This office has completed an informal emergency consultation. The following information summarizes
the location of the emergency, nature of the emergency, listed species and critical habitat(s) involved, and
how those species and habitats are likely to be affected by the emergency.

Date of Contact:       Time:

Contact(s) Name:

Agency:

Contact(s) Title:

Nature of the Emergency:

Species/Critical Habitats in the Area:

Anticipated Effects:

Recommendations Given the Contact:

WO Memo




                                                    132
                       ESA Section 7 Consultation Process and BAER
Brief Description: Endangered Species Act (ESA) regulations require identification and evaluation of
effects to threatened, endangered and proposed species of all Federal agency programs and activities.
This includes wildland fire management activities and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER)
activities. BAER activities are emergency measures needed to prevent loss of life or property or to
minimize unacceptable degradation of resources (see FSM 2523). The BAER program and most of its
activities are usually considered emergency response actions, and ESA consultation is implemented under
direction given under Emergency Procedures of Section 7 of the ESA (50 CFR 402.05). Emergencies
under the ESA include “situations involving an act of God, disasters, causalities, national defense, or
security emergencies, etc.”

Current Direction: There are several documents that provide direction for emergency consultation
under the ESA with the regulatory agencies, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine
Fisheries Service (NMFS). The main source is the emergency consultation procedures given in the ESA
implementing regulations at 50 CFR 402.05. Further direction is provided in Chapter 8 of the March 1998
FWS/NMFS Endangered Species Consultation Handbook, and in Forest Service Manual 2671.45f. In
addition, refer to the FWS Director‟s memo of September 21, 1995, and to Secretary Norton‟s directive of
August 20, 2001, on the topic of emergency consultation (see http://news.fws.gov/issues/fire.html).

Emergency response procedures under Section 7 provide for expedited informal consultation for fire
suppression and related activities at the time the action is taken. The procedures provide for immediate
agency response to wildland fire situations while incorporating listed species concerns into the response
as time and the situation permit. In the initial stages, the FWS and/or NMFS will provide
recommendations to minimize effects of the emergency response on listed species or critical habitat. If
adverse effects to listed species or proposed species occur during the response, consultation with the FWS
and/or NMFS should be initiated as soon as practicable. Note: emergency consultation assesses the
effects of the emergency response activity only (usually including BAER actions), not the effects of the
emergency (e.g., wildland fire) itself. The Endangered Species Consultation Handbook, pages 8-3 and 8-
4, describe emergency consultation procedures.

With respect to Section 7 consultation, BAER activities usually are considered emergency actions (they
are when “approved, burned-area emergency rehabilitation measures are expeditiously installed prior to
the time when damaging or degrading events are likely to occur”). Normally, additional BAER activities
would not be considered emergency actions if proposed several weeks or months after the originally
approved BAER activities. Any subsequent proposed burned area “restoration” activities that are not
included in BAER plans are not considered emergency actions, and consultation under the ESA is to
follow normal procedures.

During the emergency, BAER teams and responsible officials should be in contact with FWS and/or
NMFS while developing any BAER plans that could affect listed or proposed species, or that could affect
their habitat, including designated or proposed critical habitat. The FWS and/or NMFS will provide
suggestions on how to minimize impacts. Upon completion, approved BAER plans should be sent to the
regulatory agencies as soon as possible. As soon after the emergency as is practicable, there is a need to
close the consultation loop with written documentation of the effects of BAER and suppression actions.
This can be by individual fire, or by the batching of multiple fires, and can include assessments of both
the suppression activities and the BAER treatments for each fire.
                                                     133
BAER activities should be documented, and subsequent effects determinations made for threatened,
endangered, or proposed species and proposed or designated critical habitat. Documentation is to include
a description of the emergency (fire), rationale for the expedited consultation, and an evaluation of the
impacts of the fire and of the BAER response, together with a discussion of how any FWS/NMFS
recommendations were implemented and their results. Since BAER activities are designed to mitigate
adverse effects of the fire to listed species, proposed species and/or designated or proposed critical
habitat, effects of the activities are usually minimal and require only informal consultation. However, if
there were a case where BAER activities result in adverse affects, formal consultation would be required.

Application Example: A wildfire burned parts of several watersheds that flow directly into a river
system that includes habitat for an endangered trout species. The forest biologist/TES program managers
made the initial determination that there may be post fire effects to the endangered species. The BAER
team was formed to complete the assessment of the burn area. The Team Leader contacted the local FWS
and NMFS representatives to begin informal consultation. A member of the FWS assisted with the
assessment of the burned area. The BAER Team submitted for approval a Burned-Area Report (FS form
2500-8) with proposed emergency treatments. Both the FWS and NMFS representatives were provided a
copy of the approved 2500-8 and were made aware of the emergency treatments. Following the
implementation of the emergency treatments, the Forest completed a final 2500-8 Burned-Area Report.
Included in the documentation of the final report is a section documenting the effects determinations for
the endangered trout. In the example above the Forest should assume responsibility for the consultation
following the initial BAER team assessment.

Frequently Asked Questions:
Q. Must I contact the FWS before each BAER project proposal is implemented?
A. No, not necessarily. The project biologist should identify the probability of fire and post fire effects to
threatened, endangered or proposed (TEP) species and proposed or designated critical habitat. If there are
no potential effects, consultation is not required, but the “no effect” determination should be documented
in a specialist report for the fire and BAER. If effects to TEP species or critical habitat are expected, and
no delay to the response action would occur, yes, the FWS and/or NMFS should be contacted before the
action is done (usually in the context of Level 1 Consultation Team coordination). Any advice or
recommendations they provide should be considered and used, if it would not delay response actions.

Q. As a Team Leader do I have to negotiate with FWS or NMFS if there may be a concern with
treatment?
A. Generally, the Forest Supervisor or their designee will consult with the regulatory agency. As a Team
Leader you must provide information to the Forest and to the FWS/NMFS on the expected effects to TEP
species of proposed BAER treatments (assuming this would cause no delay in implementing the
emergency response action).

Q. What if the treatment in a threatened trout watershed is part of the BAER recommendations,
but BAER does not fund it, such as road relocation. Can I do emergency informal consultation?
A. First a determination must be made if the treatment is an emergency under the ESA (Chapter 8.1,
FWS/NMFS Endangered Species Consultation Handbook). If it is, emergency consultation procedures
can used. If not, interagency coordination under normal Section 7 consultation procedures should be used
prior to treatment. Activities approved and funded under the BAER process generally would also be
considered to be emergencies under Section 7 consultation procedures.

                                                     134
FSM 2670 Interim Directive




                                     FOREST SERVICE MANUAL
                                   NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS (WO)
                                         WASHINGTON, DC



      FSM 2600 - WILDLIFE, FISH, AND SENSITIVE PLANT HABITAT MANAGEMENT

              CHAPTER 2670 - THREATENED, ENDANGERED, AND SENSITIVE
                               PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Interim Directive No.: 2670-2002-1

Effective Date: May 21, 2002

Duration: This interim directive expires on November 21, 2003.

Approved: RICK PRAUSA                                        Date Approved: 05/08/2002
          Acting Associate Deputy Chief

Posting Instructions: Interim directives are numbered consecutively by title and calendar year. Post
by document at the end of the chapter. Retain this transmittal as the first page(s) of this document. The
last interim directive was 2640-94-1 to FSM 2640.

New Document                     id_2670-2002-1                                      3 Pages

Superseded Document(s)           None
(Interim Directive Number
and Effective Date)

Digest:

2671.45f - Clarifies and expands policy and procedures regarding Endangered Species Act consultation
with the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in
emergency situations. This interim directive (ID) makes clear that human safety is the highest priority for
every emergency response action, and under no circumstances should an emergency response action be
delayed in order to contact FWS or NMFS for initiating emergency consultation or during an ongoing
consultation. This ID is consistent with the FWS and NMFS Endangered Species Consultation Handbook
direction on this topic. The ID also adds cross-references to FSM 5130 for related direction on
emergency responses involving




                                                   135
Digest--Continued:

wildland fire suppression. The direction in this ID and the related ID to FSM 5130 implement action item
A-31 from the “Thirtymile Accident Prevention Plan” (December 2001), prepared by the National
Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) in response to the investigation findings and recommendations for
the Thirtymile Fire.

Notice of the issuance of this ID was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2002
(67 FR 35789).


                                 2671.45f - Consultation in Emergencies


Regulations at 50 CFR 402.05 regarding interagency cooperation on Endangered Species Act consultation
recognize that an emergency (acts of God, disasters, casualties, national defense or security emergencies,
and so on) may require expedited consultation. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Consultation Handbook, Chapter 8, Emergency Consultation, outlines
procedures for expedited consultation on emergency response actions, including those where human life is
at stake. The Handbook may be electronically accessed at
http://endangered.fws.gov/consultations/s7hndbk/s7hndbk.htm.

        1. In preplanning for emergencies, identify listed, proposed, and sensitive species, designated and
proposed critical habitats, and other habitat protection needs and procedures, to facilitate emergency
response actions. Maintain updated information on listed, proposed, and sensitive species status,
distribution, and critical protection measures for potential use in emergencies. For listed and proposed
species, coordinate with the FWS and/or the NMFS to identify concerns and species recovery
opportunities, as well as pre-emergency and emergency actions that may be needed.

       2. Either before initiating an emergency response action, or as soon as possible after initiating an
emergency response action, contact the FWS or NMFS when listed or proposed species, or designated or
proposed critical habitats, are potentially affected. This contact initiates emergency consultation with
FWS or NMFS.

           a. Human safety is the highest priority for every emergency response action (see FSM 5130.3
           for related direction on the wildland fire suppression policy and the priority for the safety of
           firefighters, other personnel, and the public). Under no circumstances should an emergency
           response action be delayed in order to contact FWS or NMFS for initiating emergency
           consultation or during such an ongoing consultation.

           b. When preparing an emergency situation analysis for an ongoing emergency (including a
              Wildland Fire Situation Analysis), consider any recommendations offered by FWS or
              NMFS during emergency consultation to minimize the effects of emergency response
              actions on listed or proposed species or designated or proposed critical habitats. If any
              review by FWS or NMFS indicates a proposed emergency response action is likely to
              result in adverse modification of critical habitat or species jeopardy, and no means of
              reducing or avoiding such effects are apparent, consider overall resource and emergency
              management objectives, the need for response actions and their likely effects, and proceed
              accordingly with the emergency response action
                                                    136
                                       FOREST SERVICE MANUAL
                                     NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS (WO)
                                           WASHINGTON, DC



                                   FSM 5100 - FIRE MANAGEMENT

                        CHAPTER 5130 - WILDLAND FIRE SUPPRESSION

Interim Directive No.: 5130-2002-1

Effective Date: May 21, 2002

Duration: This interim directive expires on November 21, 2003.

Approved: ROBIN L. THOMPSON                                     Date Approved: 05/08/2002
          Associate Deputy Chief

Posting Instructions: Interim directives are numbered consecutively by title and calendar year. Post
by document at the end of the chapter. Retain this transmittal as the first page(s) of this document. The
last interim directive was 5120-2000-2 to FSM 5120.

New Document                      id_5130-2002-1                                         5 Pages

Superseded Document(s)            None
(Interim Directive Number
and Effective Date)

Digest:

5130.3 - Revises direction, reorganizes paragraphs, and clarifies the policy regarding wildland fire
suppression to emphasize that the safety of firefighters, other personnel, and the public is the first priority
while conducting wildland fire suppression activities. Also adds cross-references to FSM 2671.45f for
related direction on consultation during emergencies under the Endangered Species Act.

5130.43 - Adds the responsibility and authority of Forest Supervisors, District Rangers, and Incident
Commanders to supersede normal resource considerations and constraints when the safety of firefighters,
other personnel, or the public is at risk.



                                                      137
Digest--Continued:

5130.44 - Adds the responsibility of District Rangers to convene a post fire review, as necessary, which
would identify potential improvements to consider during preplanning for future incidents.

The direction in this ID and the related ID to FSM 2670 implement action item A-31 from the “Thirtymile
Accident Prevention Plan” (December 2001), prepared by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group
(NWCG) in response to the investigation findings and recommendations for the Thirtymile Fire.

Notice of the issuance of this ID was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2002
(67 FR 35789).

                                                5130.3 - Policy

       1. Line officers are expected to ensure that suppression planning, operations, and personnel
comply with Service-wide wildfire suppression principles and practices set out in the Fireline Handbook,
FSH 5109.32a; the Firefighters Guide (FSM 5108); and the Health and Safety Code Handbook, FSH
6709.11.

        2. In conducting wildland fire suppression, responsible officials shall give first priority to the
safety of firefighters, other personnel, and the public. Consistent with this priority, responsible officials
shall conduct fire suppression in a timely, effective, and efficient manner.

        3. A Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA) shall be used to document suppression strategy
decisions for an incident that is expected to exceed, or has exceeded, the action planned for in the fire
management plan (FSM 5131.1). In making decisions about how to organize and conduct suppression
operations (suppression strategies), line officers shall minimize both suppression cost and resource loss
consistent with the resource management objectives for the values to be protected. Consider fire
behavior, the availability of suppression resources, the values of natural resources and property at risk,
direction in the Forest land and resource management plan, and the potential cost of suppression.

           a. Exception to Consideration of Suppression Costs or Resource Loss. When a potentially
           life-threatening event exists, take action to provide for the safety of firefighters, other
           personnel, and the public, regardless of suppression costs or resource loss (for related direction
           concerning Endangered Species Act consultation, see FSM 2671.45f, Consultation in
           Emergencies).

           b. Management During Transition from Initial to Extended Attack. Transition from initial
           attack to extended attack can be especially dangerous. During this transition, the fire shall be
           managed as a potentially life-threatening event.

       4. Units are to conduct a cost-effective initial attack on any human-caused ignition.

       5. Units are to respond to each reported wildfire with planned forces and tactics as directed in the
fire management plan (FSM 5110, 5140).

       6. All employees are expected to promptly report wildfires to the nearest unit. Employees who
discover wildland fire are expected to take initial action consistent with their wildland fire qualifications.
Employees without wildland fire qualifications are not expected to take initial action.
                                                      138
           a. Every Forest Service employee has a responsibility to support and participate in wildfire
           suppression activities as the situation demands. Wildfire suppression is not limited to those
           employees with skills in wildland fire operations; rather, it also requires the skills of
           employees in fiscal, human resources, telecommunications, communications, and other areas.

           b. Employees who are not sent to provide direct support of a suppression action are expected
           to fill in as directed to ensure that critical work at the home unit is performed in the absence of
           other employees who are deployed to provide direct support in wildfire emergencies.

        7. Line officers shall notify the National Interagency Fire Center within 24 hours of any fire
entrapment. Entrapments are situations where personnel are unexpectedly caught in a fire-behavior-
related, life-threatening position where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate, or
compromised. An entrapment may or may not include deployment of a fire shelter for its intended
purpose. These situations may or may not result in injury; they include near misses (NWCG, NFES 1832,
PMS 205, November, 1996; FSM 5108). The responsible line officer shall investigate all fire
entrapments promptly and thoroughly. Forward a copy of the investigative report and the corrective
action plan to the Director of Fire and Aviation Management, Washington Office, within 10 days of
receipt of the investigative report.

                                          5130.4 - Responsibility

     5130.41 - Director, Fire and Aviation Management Staff, Washington Office

The Director of Fire and Aviation Management, Washington Office, , through the National Interagency
Coordination Center (NICC), has the responsibility to coordinate all requests for national shared resources
and overhead personnel from resources outside the requesting Region. Procedures for mobilization and
demobilization of resources are contained in the National Interagency Mobilization Guide (FSM 5108).

 5130.42 - Deputy Chiefs, Regional Foresters, Area Director, Forest Supervisors, and
                                  District Rangers

The Deputy Chiefs, Regional Foresters, Area Director, Forest Supervisors, and District Rangers have the
responsibility:

       1. To ensure that employees under their supervision are appropriately trained and made available
as needed to support fire suppression.

       2. To ensure that those employees with supervisory or managerial responsibilities in wildland fire
management stay abreast of current fire suppression information, such as factors affecting wildland fire
behavior, wildfire suppression management and organization, contents of agency and interagency
wildland fire management directives, fire management plans, and economic and risk analysis.

       3. To ensure that the assigned line officer declares each wildfire out.

      4. To ensure that all fire entrapments are promptly and aggressively investigated
(FSM 5130.3).
                                                   139
       5130.43 - Forest Supervisors, District Rangers, and Incident Commanders

In addition to the responsibilities set out at FSM 5130.42, Forest Supervisors, District Rangers, and
Incident Commanders have the responsibility to make safety of firefighters, other personnel, and the
public the highest priority in fire suppression activities. When a potentially life threatening situation may
exist, the Forest Supervisors, District Rangers, and Incident Commanders have the authority to supersede
resource considerations and constraints to provide for the safety of firefighters, other personnel, and the
public.

                                      5130.44 - District Rangers

In addition to the responsibilities set out at FSM 5130.42 and 5130.43, District Rangers have the
responsibility to convene a post fire review of wildland fire suppression response, as necessary, which
would identify potential improvements to consider during preplanning for future incidents.




                                                     140
                 Programmatic Biological Assessment For TE&S Fish Species
                                      Nez Perce National Forest
              SUMMARY OF PROJECT DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FIRE SUPPRESSION



                                           Camps & Helicopters
2. Camps and helicopter landing sites will be located outside of RHCAs if possible.
3. Where possible, helicopter landing sites and refueling areas will be located outside of RHCAs.
Hazardous fuel containment systems will be used where repeated use of refueling sites occurs in RHCAs.

                                              Water Drafting
4. Water drafting, including helicopter dipping, in (identified) streams will be avoided if possible.

                                     Toxins/Chemical Contamination
6. Fuel handling will be conducted in a manner to minimize the risk of accidental spillage or introduction
into live water. Portable pump operations will include use of a portable containment system.
7. Toxic materials, including spheres and torch fuel, will be transported, stored, and used to minimize the
risk of accidental spillage and/or introduction into live water~
8. Regarding retardant, foams, and surfactants avoid delivery of these materials to surface waters.
9. Helicopter bucket dipping will occur only after chemical injection systems have been removed,
disconnected, or rinsed clean. Pumping directly from streams will not occur if chemical products are
injected into the system, unless they are injected on the discharge side of the pump. Backflushing of
pumps and charged hoses into streams and lakes will not occur.

                                           Fireline Construction
10. Firelines will be constructed, when possible, to minimize the concentration of water or movement of
sediments into live water. The Regional fireline construction guidelines for minimizing disturbance are
implemented when locating firelines.
11. Prior to construction of machine fireline, an aquatic specialist, reporting to the resource advisor, will
review the flagged location for the fireline and identify concerns and recommendations.
12. Constructed fireline will be reviewed by the resource advisor, or aquatic specialist reporting to them,
or the fire rehabilitation team to determine fireline rehabilitation needed to avoid adverse effects,
particularly the concentration of run-off or extension of the drainage network.



            See the Programmatic BA or the Resource Advisor for more complete information.




                                                     141
USDA-FOREST SERVICE                                                                             FS-2500-8
(7/00)

                                                                                       Date of Report:


                                      BURNED-AREA REPORT
                                        (Reference FSH 2509.13)

                                     PART I - TYPE OF REQUEST

A. Type of Report

     [ ] 1. Funding request for estimated WFSU-SULT funds
     [ ] 2. Accomplishment Report
     [ ] 3. No Treatment Recommendation

B. Type of Action

     [ ] 1. Initial Request (Best estimate of funds needed to complete eligible rehabilitation measures)

     [ ] 2. Interim Report
            [ ] Updating the initial funding request based on more accurate site data or design analysis
            [ ] Status of accomplishments to date

      [ ] 3. Final Report (Following completion of work)


                              PART II - BURNED-AREA DESCRIPTION

A. Fire Name:                                      B. Fire Number:_

C. State:                                          D. County:_

E. Region:                                         F. Forest:__

G. District:_

H. Date Fire Started:                              I. Date Fire Controlled:__

J. Suppression Cost:_

K. Fire Suppression Damages Repaired with Suppression Funds
            1. Fireline waterbarred (miles):_
            2. Fireline seeded (miles):_
            3. Other (identify):_

L. Watershed Number:_

M. Total Acres Burned:
   NFS Acres ( )    Other Federal ( )      State ( )       Private ( )


                                                   142
N. Vegetation Types:_

O. Dominant Soils:_

P. Geologic Types:_


Q. Miles of Stream Channels by Order or Class:__


R. Transportation System

    Trails:   miles         Roads:   miles


                                 PART III - WATERSHED CONDITION

A. Burn Severity (acres):       (low)        (moderate)    (high)

B. Water-Repellent Soil (acres):_

C. Soil Erosion Hazard Rating (acres):
                             (low)           (moderate)     (high)

D. Erosion Potential:         tons/acre

E. Sediment Potential:         cubic yards / square mile


                              PART IV - HYDROLOGIC DESIGN FACTORS

A. Estimated Vegetative Recovery Period, (years):

B. Design Chance of Success, (percent):

C. Equivalent Design Recurrence Interval, (years):

D. Design Storm Duration, (hours):

E. Design Storm Magnitude, (inches):

F. Design Flow, (cubic feet / second/ square mile):

G. Estimated Reduction in Infiltration, (percent):

H. Adjusted Design Flow, (cfs per square mile):




                                                     143
                                 PART V - SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS

A. Describe Watershed Emergency:




B. Emergency Treatment Objectives:




C. Probability of Completing Treatment Prior to First Major Damage-Producing Storm:

             Land      %   Channel     %    Roads          %    Other    %


D. Probability of Treatment Success

                    Years after Treatment
                  1           3           5
   Land


 Channel


  Roads

   Other



E. Cost of No-Action (Including Loss):_

F. Cost of Selected Alternative (Including Loss):_

G. Skills Represented on Burned-Area Survey Team:

     [ ] Hydrology     [ ] Soils      [ ] Geology              [ ] Range         []
     [ ] Forestry      [ ] Wildlife   [ ] Fire Mgmt.           [ ] Engineering   []
     [ ] Contracting   [ ] Ecology    [ ] Botany               [ ] Archaeology   []
     [ ] Fisheries     [ ] Research   [ ] Landscape Arch       [ ] GIS


Team Leader:_
Email:                                               Phone: _                FAX:_
                                                     144
H. Treatment Narrative:
     (Describe the emergency treatments, where and how they will be applied, and what they are
     intended to do. This information helps to determine qualifying treatments for the appropriate
     funding authorities. For seeding treatments, include species, application rates and species
     selection rationale.)

     Land Treatments:


     Channel Treatments:


     Roads and Trail Treatments:

     Structures:




H. Monitoring Narrative:
    (Describe the monitoring needs, what treatments will be monitored, how they will be monitored, and
    when monitoring will occur. A detailed monitoring plan must be submitted as a separate document
    to the Regional BAER coordinator.)




                                                 145
           Part VI – Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments and Source of Funds by Land Ownership

                                          NFS Lands                          Other Lands              All
                                   Unit    # of    WFSU      Other    # of    Fed     # of Non Fed   Total
       Line Items          Units   Cost    Units  SULT $       $     units      $    Units    $        $

A. Land Treatments
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Land Treatments                               $0                        $0            $0            $0
B. Channel Treatments
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Channel Treat.                                $0                        $0            $0            $0
C. Road and Trails
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Road & Trails                                 $0                        $0            $0            $0
D. Structures
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Structures                                    $0                        $0            $0            $0
E. BAER Evaluation
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                       $0                        $0            $0            $0

G. Monitoring Cost                                     $0                        $0            $0            $0

H. Totals                                              $0                        $0            $0            $0




                                              PART VII - APPROVALS



1.          ______________________                                           _______
            Forest Supervisor (signature)                                    Date


2.         ________________________                                          _______
           Regional Forester (signature)                                     Date

                                                           146
USDA-FOREST SERVICE                                                                             FS-2500-8
(7/00)

                                                                            Date of Report: Aug 15, 2001


                         BURNED-AREA REPORT – Completed Sample
                                        (Reference FSH 2509.13)

                                     PART I - TYPE OF REQUEST

A. Type of Report

     [X ] 1. Funding request for estimated WFSU-SULT funds
     [ ] 2. Accomplishment Report
     [ ] 3. No Treatment Recommendation

B. Type of Action

     [X ] 1. Initial Request (Best estimate of funds needed to complete eligible rehabilitation measures)

     [ ] 2. Interim Report
            [ ] Updating the initial funding request based on more accurate site data or design analysis
            [ ] Status of accomplishments to date

      [ ] 3. Final Report (Following completion of work)


                              PART II - BURNED-AREA DESCRIPTION

A. Fire Name: Taco                                 B. Fire Number: ID-NPF-30_

C. State: Idaho                                    D. County:_Idaho

E. Region: Northern (01)                           F. Forest:_Nez Perce_

G. District:_Salmon River

H. Date Fire Started: August 4, 2001               I. Date Fire Controlled:_estimated_15 Aug, 2001

J. Suppression Cost:_$1,600,000 estimated current

K. Fire Suppression Damages Repaired with Suppression Funds
            1. Fireline waterbarred (miles):_2.8 dozer; 8.4 hand line (adjusted for slope)
            2. Fireline seeded (miles):_11.2 to be seeded and obliterated
            3. Other (identify):_4.5 acres camp areas and drop points to be rehabilitated

L. Watershed Number:_17060209-03-04, 11, 99

M. Total Acres Burned: 3300 estimated
   NFS Acres (3160)    Other Federal ( )      State ( )     Private (140)


                                                   147
N. Vegetation Types: Annual grasses and weeds, native grasses, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir_

O. Dominant Soils:_Ultic haploxerolls, with mixed volcanic as surface layers

P. Geologic Types:_schist


Q. Miles of Stream Channels by Order or Class: 10.6 1st order, 3.9 2nd order adjusted for slope


R. Transportation System

       Trails: 5.1 miles       Roads: 1.0 miles spotted across, 5.9 miles used as fireline or contingency
line


                                   PART III - WATERSHED CONDITION

A. Burn Severity (acres):     2640 (80%) (low or unburned)     495 (15%) (moderate)          165 (5%) (high)

B. Water-Repellent Soil (acres):_1000 acres with moderate or high water repellency. Unburned areas
showed much more consistently high water repellency than burned areas.

C. Soil Erosion Hazard Rating (acres):
                          0 (low) 2475 (moderate) 825 (high)

D. Erosion Potential:      .08 tons/acre

E. Sediment Potential:      .03 tons / acre


                               PART IV - HYDROLOGIC DESIGN FACTORS

A. Estimated Vegetative Recovery Period, (years):                  40

B. Design Chance of Success, (percent):                            90

C. Equivalent Design Recurrence Interval, (years):                 10

D. Design Storm Duration, (hours):                                  24

E. Design Storm Magnitude, (inches):                               10

F. Design Flow, (cubic feet / second/ square mile):                 8.3 1st yr, 2.3 2nd yr

G. Estimated Reduction in Infiltration, (percent):                 0-10

H. Adjusted Design Flow, (cfs per square mile):                    9.1 1st yr, 2.5 2nd yr




                                                     148
                                PART V - SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS

   A. Describe Watershed Emergency:

1.Threats to long-term soil productivity and ecosystem integrity:
          The burned area includes extensive infestations of Idaho noxious weeds including Scotch
          thistle, rush skeleton weed, spotted knapweed, diffuse knapweed, sulfur cinquefoi, and
          Japanese knotweed. These species result in decreased soil stability, higher erosion risk,
          degraded wildlife habitat, and loss of native species and community integrity. An estimated 50
          percent of the burned area is habitat highly susceptible to invasion by one or more of these
          species. The burned areas provide seedbeds, and the trails, roads, firelines and fire camps
          provide vectors for spread. This request may be revised upward based on better information.

2. Threats to water quality,TES aquatic species, and heritage resources:
           The burned area is in very steep canyons with high potential for debris torrents under both
           natural and burned conditions. The resources at risk include listed fish species in the Salmon
           River, and developed campsites and archeological sites at the mouths of Spring Creek and
           Van Creek. Two draws were identified where high fire severity may increase the risk for
           debris torrents beyond natural. One of these draws will receive drainage runoff from the
           adjacent road 221G. We may submit an amended request for rehabilitation funds to add
           contour felled logs to slopes to dissipate overland flow energy in the headwall area, when we
           can more safely assess this situation.

B. Emergency Treatment Objectives:
   1. Control spread of noxious weeds within the fire perimeter, and along roads, trails, and campsites
      that border the fire perimeter.

C. Probability of Completing Treatment Prior to First Major Damage-Producing Storm:

             Land     %    Channel      %   Roads       %   Other 70    %


D. Probability of Treatment Success

                   Years after Treatment
                 1           3           5
   Land


 Channel


  Roads

  Other
 (weeds)         70           80            80


E. Cost of No-Action (Including Loss): $60,000 to control expanded weed populations_



                                                  149
F. Cost of Selected Alternative (Including Loss):$33,000 includes cost of treatment and cost to treat
weeds in areas not proposed for treatment.

G. Skills Represented on Burned-Area Survey Team:

     [x ] Hydrology      [x ] Soils       [ ] Geology        [ ] Range          []
     [ ] Forestry      [ ] Wildlife   [ ] Fire Mgmt.     [ ] Engineering     []
     [ ] Contracting   [x ] Ecology     [ x] Botany          [ ] Archaeology    []
     [ ] Fisheries     [ ] Research   [ ] Landscape Arch [ ] GIS


Team Leader:_Pat Green

Email: pgreen@fs.fed.us                           Phone: 208 983-1950_                 FAX:_208 983-
4099




H. Treatment Narrative:
     (Describe the emergency treatments, where and how they will be applied, and what they are
     intended to do. This information helps to determine qualifying treatments for the appropriate
     funding authorities. For seeding treatments, include species, application rates and species
     selection rationale.)

     Land Treatments: Spot herbicide treatments of 33 acres along leading edge of current infestations,
     new infestations, Salmon River Road, camp sites, and lower 221 road in fall of 2001 and spring of
     2002, a total of 61 acres would be treated over the two years. Weed management strategy for the
     Salmon River Weed Management Area is currently in place. Concurrence with a BA for noxious
     weed control has been received from Fish and Wildlife Service and is pending fron National Marine
     Fisheries Service. An approved EA for weed control is in place.



     Channel Treatments: None at this time


     Roads and Trail Treatments: None at this time

     Structures: None at this time




H. Monitoring Narrative:
    (Describe the monitoring needs, what treatments will be monitored, how they will be monitored, and
    when monitoring will occur. A detailed monitoring plan must be submitted as a separate document
    to the Regional BAER coordinator.)


                                                  150
10-15 monitoring transects with replicated microplots will be established immediately after the fire
and in the two years following the fire, in burned areas as well as controls. This follows the
protocols established for the Three Bears and Pinchot fires, so that replication occurs across fires
and across burn severities and pre-fire conditions. Monitoring will determine densities of weeds
by species present before and following the fire, and relate this to pre burn weed populations, site
characteristics, and burn severity. This information can be used to predict risk and rates of spread
in similar settings.




                                             151
            Part VI – Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments and Source of Funds by Land Ownership

                                             NFS Lands                         Other Lands              All
                                    Unit      # of    WFSU     Other    # of    Fed     # of Non Fed   Total
       Line Items           Units   Cost      Units SULT $       $     units      $    Units    $        $

A. Land Treatments
weeds              acres            $261        61   $15,921                       $0            $0    $15,921
                                                          $0                       $0
                                                          $0                       $0            $0         $0
                                                          $0                       $0            $0         $0
Subtotal Land Treatments                             $15,921                       $0            $0    $15,921
B. Channel Treatments
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Channel Treat.                                  $0                        $0            $0            $0
C. Road and Trails
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Road & Trails                                   $0                        $0            $0            $0
D. Structures
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
                                                         $0                        $0            $0            $0
Subtotal Structures                                      $0                        $0            $0            $0
E. BAER Evaluation
Salary             days              $230        5    $1,150                       $0            $0     $1,150
                                                          $0                       $0            $0         $0

G. Monitoring Cost         years    $1,500       3    $4,500                       $0            $0     $4,500
weeds
H. Totals                                            $21,571                       $0            $0    $21,571




                                                               152
                          SPILL PREVENTION CONTROL
                          AND COUNTERMEASURE PLAN
1. GENERAL INFORMATION:

A. Name of Facility:

B. Location: (include township/range/section)

        STATE LOCATION, ACCESS, AND TRAVEL TIMES FROM RANGER DISTRICTS

C. Start date of operation:

D. Name & Address of Owner:

        Payette National Forest
        P.O. Box 1026
        McCall, ill 83638
        (208)634-0700

E. Spill History: NONE

F. Management Approval:
      This SPCC Plan will be implemented as herein described.

Signature:                      Name:                Title:

2. DESCRIPTION OF FACILITY:

Purpose of site (firecamp, spikecamp, helibase):

Fixed/Permanent Storage: On-site hazardous materials present?
Yes- No-

If yes, list materials and type of storage:

DESCRIBE ANY FIXED STORAGE & MATERIALS STORED THERE THAT WILL BE USED

Temporary Storage: During fire situations, containers of saw gas, oil, Class A foam (Silvex), Class B
foam (AFFF), jet fuel, diesel fuel, pump gas, vehicle fuel, hydraulic fluid, antifreeze, propane, and fusees
may be present on site.

Storage sites are chosen with consideration given to their proximity to stream drainages. In the event of a
spill, the proper actions outlined in this plan will be implemented.


                                                    153
Security: During fire situations, the hazardous materials are under the jurisdiction of the Facilities Unit
Leader or Camp Manager. In the event of a large fire, Level II and Level IV law enforcement officers
may be stationed on site.

3. PAST SPILL EXPERIENCE:
      None at this location.


4. SPILL PREVENTION

A. On-Site: Management is committed to spill prevention and is developing procedures for efficient and
safe operations. Spills result primarily from equipment failures and operational error. Management is
training personnel in safety awareness and proper procedures to follow in the event of a spill. Educating
personnel about the regulations in effect is also addressed. The procedures listed below will be followed
to implement the SPCC plan.

1. An approved site plan will be available during an incident for all storage locations and hazardous
materials used for emergency fire suppression actions relating to the incident. The plan will show the
locations of storage areas and fueling sites. The site plan will be on file during the incident and readily
available to personnel.

2. This plan will have approved emergency procedures and telephone numbers available. A spill kit will
be provided and/or ordered for each site at the time of the incident.

3. Absorbents will be available during all refueling operations to clean up any spillage that occurs.

4. Storage containers and refueling trucks will be inspected for any signs of leakage. Leakages will be
immediately reported.

5. The Salmon Habitat Protection Standards and Guides (see Attachment A) will be utilized for all
anadromous streams and adjoining habitat.

B. Off-Site: Equipment failures off site can best be minimized by frequent structural integrity and
function inspections. Proper training of equipment operators is also essential to minimize the risk of spills
and possible contaminations. All fuels delivered to the site will be in accordance with the following
procedures:

1. Designated delivery routes will be utilized (see Attachment B). ~;

2. The delivery vehicle will have emergency communication capabilities, e.g. CB radio, forest net radio,
etc.
3. Fuel trucks will be restricted by the posted speed limit. Delivery will be by single truck. Trailer
combinations will not be allowed.

4. Fuel trucks will be limited by size according to restrictions as stated in Attachment B.

5. Fuel trucks over 500 gallons must be escorted by a pilot car.


                                                     154
6. Aerial fuel delivery may take place in support of an incident. For the purposes of this incident, the
following fuel limitations will be in affect:

                             STATE ANY AERIAL FUEL LIMITATIONS

7. Whenever possible, flight paths will be a minimum of one-quarter mile from any live anadromous
stream. When necessary to cross a live stream, it will be done perpendicular to the stream. The helibase
manager will review flight plan for adherence to the Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan
(SPCC).


5. PERSONNEL

In compliance with 40 CFR 112, the Payette National Forest has instructed targeted personnel in the
following Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan (SPCC):

A. Personnel will be familiar with regulations and reporting procedures, including reportable amounts. A
copy of the SPCC plan will be available and kept on file at all times.

B. Procedures, telephone numbers, and reporting forms are made available to all personnel and kept on
file.

C. Personnel have been instructed to use utmost caution during transport, storage, and use of hazardous
materials. Stream drainages are to be considered in the placement of temporary storage facilities. Fueling
sites will be located to minimize potential stream contamination. Proper transportation, storage and
handling of hazardous materials will significantly reduce the potential for a spill.

D. Carefully planning the use of hazardous materials and reading the directions for use and precautions on
the Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) will help prevent spills.


6. SPILL COUNTERMEASURE PROCEDURES

A. Reportable quantities: A spill is defined as "any discharge of hazardous material or special waste oil
into or upon waters of the State of Idaho." This includes accidental spills (i.e. transportation, storage,
fueling) involving discharge into the environment.

Level 1 -.Minor Spill Event:

Involves a spill event resulting in the discharge of a hazardous material of "special waste" or oil into a
surface water or ground water at a concentration(s) exceeding the recognized State and/or Federal
Standards, but where no imminent hazard to human health and safety or the environment is apparent. A
Level I minor oil spill is defined as any discharge to waters of the State of Idaho exceeding 30 gallons, but
less than 55 gallons.

Level 2 -Minor Spill Event: (Mandatory Cleanup Required) .

A spill event resulting in the discharge of a hazardous material of a "special waste" or oil into a surface
water or ground water at a concentration(s) exceeding those defined for a Level l spill. A Level 2 spill is
                                                     155
defined as any discharge to waters of the state of Idaho exceeding 55 gallons. A major spill event requires
notification to Idaho Poison Control & EMS (1-800- 632-8000).

B. In the event fuel spillage is on land, first attempts will be to isolate and contain the spilled material
using a spill containment kit if available. Free product will be removed using a spill containment kit. Both
the product and the soil, after testing, will be removed to an approved disposal site. In the event of a Level
2 spill, response from state and federal authorities will determine further action.

C. In the event fuel spillage is on water, first attempts will be to isolate and contain the spilled material. A
suction pump, skimmer, or fuel containment kit may be used to remove material mechanically. If it is a
Level 2 spill, response from state and federal authorities will determine further action.

For fuel spills that enter water, the major concerns are for water users and aquatic life, particularly the
threatened Chinook salmon. Rapid containment and absorption are the most important factors in handling
such spills.

7. ALTERNATE SITE SPILL PREVENTION PLANS:

A. Earth or straw berms lined with visqueen or plastic will be established for containing hazardous
materials. Spills within the bermed areas will be cleaned using absorbent materials.
B. Emergency Spill Response Kits will be supplied at the time of the incident and will be t maintained on
site and personnel will be trained in the proper use of these kits. Kits will " contain the following:
       6 ea 3 x 10 absorbent socks
       8 ea pillows
       60 ea 18" x 18" PIG mat sheets, dbl. wt.
       8 ea temporary disposal bags & ties

C. Tools and equipment will be available for use in the event of a spill. It is not recommended that straw
bales be used around helicopters.

D. Personnel involved in the incident will be instructed in the use of the Emergency Response
Guidebook. This guidebook details appropriate actions to be taken according to the type of materials
involved in a spill event. Each site will be provided with copies.

   E. Sites with permanent storage capabilities will adhere to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
      requirements. All Payette National Forest remote permanent fuel storage tanks have been
      approved by EP A. Permanent fuel sites and/or other permanent storage sites involved in this
      incident are as listed in Item 10. FIXED STORAGE.

8. MANAGEMENT REVIEW POLICY:

Management will review this SPCC plan every three years. As necessary, the plan will be reviewed.
Adjustments will be made for changes in facility storage capacities and site changes.


9. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS

A hazardous material is any material that can, under certain conditions, create an unreasonable risk to
health, safety, or property.
                                                      156
IN THE EVENT OF A HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILL:

   1.    Protect the lives of others.

   2.    Render emergency first aid.

   3.    Stop the flow of spill.

   4.    Contain and neutralize the spill.

   5.    Notify proper authorities.

   6.    Conduct site cleanup and remove contaminated materials from site.

   7.    Document and report the incident.

   8.    Reassess spill prevention and response procedures.

RADIO PAYETTE NATIONAL FOREST DISPATCH IMMEDIATELY

Dispatch will contact: Idaho Poison Control & EMS 1-:800-632-8000 (They will notify DEQ in Boise)
VARIOUS PHONE NUMBERS
Forest Dispatchers will be available on cellular phones when off duty. The following information will be
relayed to either dispatch, the district, or the overhead team organization at the time of a spill. All spill
incidents will also be reported to Payette Dispatch immediately upon discovery.

   1. Person reporting the incident

   2. Location of spill

   3. Date and time of spill

   4. Type of material and extent of spill

   5. Relationship of spill to roads and watercourses

   6. Weather conditions and wind direction

   7. Number and degree of injured or exposed persons.


NOTE: When the Forest Service is in charge of the vessel or facility releasing a hazardous material, a
report is to be made to the National Response Center. (1-800-424-8802)




                                                     157
158
                                  REHABILITATION
                       ABC’s of the Suppression Rehabilitation Plan


a. Goals and objectives are clearly stated and site specific (natural appearing landscape, waterbars).


b.   Plan is consistent with district philosophy (seeding).


c. Plan is combined effort of Resource Advisor(s) and specialists. Other specialist input is included
   (engineers road repair report). Includes names of who participated, date of completion.


d. Plan is ICS signed and in shift plan.


e. Plan is divided by Divisions, Wilderness Areas, Districts, and by camp, road, wilderness and
   fireline rehab.


f.    Plan is clearly written and complete. Contains diagrams, maps, attachments and equipment needs
     (seed mixtures, density of application, where, and where not).


g. Plan has separate lists of equipment, materials and supplies needed.


h. Specifications are easy to understand and implement (lbs/acre vs. seeds per square foot. and.
   waterbars state % slope vs. drop in feet). Identifies special closures needed (recreation trails from
   horse use, grazing allotments from cattle use).


i. All Rehab is practical (snags along road, sawdust chips in camp).




                                                 159
                         Clearwater/Nez Post-Fire Evaluation Report
                                            For
                                       (Name of Fire)

EXISTING DIRECTION PERTINENT FOR FIRE

  A. Forest Land Use Plan Allocation: Management Area:

  (THIS SPACE CAN BE USED TO INSERT THE GENERAL AND SPECIFIC FOREST PLAN
  DIRECTION FOR THE MANAGEMENT AREA)

  B. Other Management Concerns/Guides: T & E Plants and Animals:

FINDIN G S

  A. Resource Advisor Input and/or Actions:

  (SHOULD INCLUDE A SYNOPSIS OF THE ACTIONS OF THE RESOURCE ADVISOR AND
  INPUT INTO SUPPRESSION STRATEGIES/TACTICS)

  B. Wildland Fire Situation Analysis (WFSA)

  (HOW DID THE WFSA RESPOND TO THE SENSITIVITIES OF THIS FIRE AREA)

  C. Line Direction to Incident Commander

  (SYNOPSIS OF WHAT THE LINE OFFICER TOLD THE INCIDENT COMMANDER TO DO)

  D. Incident Action Plan

  (SYNOPSIS OF HOW INCIDENT ACTION PLAN RESPONDED TO FIRE AREA)

ON-SITE VERIFICATION
  (STATE HERE WHO MADE THE FIELD VISIT, THE DATE, AND WHAT OBSERVATIONS
  WERE MADE IN TERMS OF MEETING THE GUIDELINES FOR MIST)

OVERALL REVIEW EVALUATION
  (INCLUDE OVERALL FINDINGS OF HOW WELL OBJECTIVES WERE ACCOMPLISHED IN
  TERMS OF MINIMUM IMP ACT ACTIVITIES)

  FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE FROM A FIRE IN THE HELL'S CANYON NATIONAL
  RECREATION AREA:

  “Although not specifically documented as stated in the Forest Plan, Manuals or other directives, nor
  clearly visible in all the documents reviewed, the majority of pertinent management direction/resource
  objectives for this fire appeared to have been known, and were implemented."

                                                 160
  "Although it was recognized that the fire's location may not result in adverse impact to salmon habitat,
  it wasn't clear that the Operations or Logistics sections were aware that some of the 'Wildfire
  Suppression Guidelines for Salmon Habitat' relate to potential stream contamination during activities
  not directly
  performed on the fire site. (It is realized that these "Regional Guidelines" were issued 8/11/92 via
  D.G. and have not yet had wide distribution; therefore it is the intent of this review to help increase
  the awareness of the recent guidelines."

REVIEW RECOMMENDATIONS
  (WHAT AREAS CAN WE IMPROVE ON, WHERE DID WE DO GOOD, ETC.)
  ~




                                                  161
Fridley Fire Resource Guidelines For Fire Suppression Rehabilitation




                       Gallatin National Forest

        Livingston Ranger District
                       August 30, 2001




                                 162
Fridley Fire Suppression Rehabilitation Guidelines
The following guidelines were developed to assist in completion of rehabilitation efforts of areas
disturbed during fire suppression in the Greater Yellowstone Area. These guidelines are for Fire
Suppression financed (charged to the fire incident) rehabilitation, which is usually done by fire
suppression crews. These guidelines are not for BAER (burned area emergency rehabilitation), which
requires a BAER analysis and incident specific funding authorization (FSH 2509.13 and FS 2500-8).
These guidelines were largely modified from the Kootenai NF (8/94), Gallatin NF (9/94), and Payette NF
(3/94) guidelines, and adjusted from observations made during a fire suppression rehabilitation BMP
review on the Gallatin NF (9/95).

Suppression rehabilitation is the responsibility of the overhead team assigned to the fire and should start
as soon as the areas are "released" by the overhead team. An inventory of ground disturbance from fire
suppression activities should be tracked by the plans staff. This information should include roads,
constructed lines, water source areas, spike camps, helispots, etc.

The Fridley Fire perimeter currently lies on the Gallatin National Forest and also private lands. Within
the Fridley fire perimeter is the Hyalite-Porcupine Wilderness Study Area. On November 1, 1977,
Congress passed the Montana Wilderness Study Act. This Act required the Secretary of Agriculture to
study and make recommendations to the President on the wilderness suitability of the Hyalite-Porcupine-
Buffalo Horn area. This area contains 155,000 acres of the Gallatin Range. The study area is
approximately 35 miles in length and 8 miles wide. A large portion of the area is privately owned in a
checkerboard ownership pattern. The Gallatin National Forest is currently managing this area as a
potential wilderness resource.


Rehabilitation Objectives:

1) Reduce or eliminate erosion and sedimentation that could result from fire suppression activities such as
firelines, reopened roads, and localized disturbed areas such as fire camps and helispots.

2) Eliminate unwanted vehicle travel routes that may have been created by reopening roads and/or the
construction of dozer lines.

3) Where consistent with watershed projection measures, reduce the effects of fire suppression on the
recreational setting and aesthetics by eliminating or moderating the visual impact of the fire lines.

4) Suppression efforts in the Hyalite-Porcupine Buffalo Horn Wilderness Study area should be consistent
with Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics. Please keep these points in mind as they will aid this
wilderness study area in recovering more quickly from fire suppression impacts. MIST guidelines have
been given to the planning team.




                                                    163
1) Handlines in the Wilderness Study Area should be consistent with Minimum Impact Suppression
   Tactics (“MIST”). MIST Suppression Tactics should be implemented in the WSA if at all possible.
   The goal is to minimize fire suppression impacts on the land while ensuring the actions taken are safe,
   timely and effective. Firefighter safety comes first! Implementing MIST does not mean
   firefighter safety is sacrificed in favor of resource protection.

           If possible, allow fire to burn to natural barriers.
           Tie into any natural barriers such as rocks or light vegetation. Avoid straight line. Crooked
            line around obstacles is fine. If possible, allow fire to burn to natural barriers.
           Use cold trail, wet line or combination when appropriate. Wet line and cold trail will be
            easier to rehab.
           If the decision is made to construct line, use only the width and depth necessary for halting
            fire spread.
           Route around large downed materials or burning logs and allow fire to consume these fuels.
            Evaluate all snags, it may not be necessary to fall all of them. Firefighter safety is of utmost
            concern. Stay away from burning snags or burned thru snags. Try and stay away from them.
           Ask sawyers to keep in mind that each cut they make will be around for years to come and
            should only be made as necessary for suppression and safety.
           Minimize bucking by moving or rolling downed material out of the fireline. Consider sending
            a couple of crew members ahead of sawyers.
           Minimize cutting trees and snags. Limb vegetation only to the extent necessary to stop fire
            spread.
           On unburned side of line flag hazard trees. On burn-out side, cut only those that will reach
            the fireline when they fall.
           Disperse brush and bucked materials rather than building burnpiles.
           Flushcut as you go, especially smaller trees and brush. Angle cuts to face ground where
            practical.
           Low impact tactics often just let things burn out or just use water. Avoid activities that leave
            lasting scars. As an alternative to felling, consider allowing ignited trees and snags to burn
            themselves out. If trees and snags pose a threat of spreading fire brands, extinguish fire with
            water and/or dirt wherever possible. Ensure adequate safety measures are communicated to
            those affected by this decision.
           Try to avoid using stream bottoms as improved or constructed control points.
           Backfiring riparian areas is preferred to digging handline in riparian areas across streams.

 2) Rehabilitation should be done on all handlines, inside and outside the WSA boundary. When
    rehabing all handlines, berms, topsoil, and organic material should be pulled back onto the handline.
         Return dug-out soil /duff to fireline where practical and obliterate any berms created during
           suppression.
         Pull brush and logs (burned and unburned) over the line to visually blend the edge of the fire
           with the surrounding landscape.
         Disguise visible ends of logs cut along fireline, trails and helispots with dirt, charcoal, rocks,
           and brush.
         Limit ground disturbance to the degree possible and limit tool scarring.
         Refrain from making boneyard; return burned and partially burned fuels to their natural
           arrangement. (WSA)

                                                    164
           Consider using explosives on some stumps and cut faces of the bolewood for a more natural
            appearance. This is appropriate only when line is cold and wet. ( applicable only in the WSA)
        If near a trail or meadow that is often camped in, remove newly cut tree boles that are visible.
            Drag other highly visible woody debris created during the suppression effort into timbered
            areas and disburse. Tree boles that are too large to move should be slant cut. Chop the surface
            with an ax or pulaski to make it jagged and rough. (WSA)
        Make an effort to minimize visual impacts from heavily traveled corridors (system trails and
            campsites in WSA).
        Leave tops of felled trees attached. This will appear more natural than scattering (WSA).
3) Provide adequate drainage by constructing water bars. Waterbar spacing is indicated below
   depending on the fire line slope. Logs can be used but should be buried deep enough to be stable
   (minimum of 12" deep). The outlet must be open-ended for water to drain, and have at least 1/3 of
   their diameter above ground. Spread the extra soil to the downhill side of the water bar to help to
   hold it in place. Extend the uphill portion of the water bar well beyond the edge of the fire line so
   that runoff does not sneak around the top of the water bar. Do not place water bars perpendicular to
   the fireline. Excavate the soil at the bottom end of the bar to allow water to drain away from the
   fireline.
                                Fire Line Slope                        Water Bar Spacing
                       0-10%                                           Every 200 feet
                       10-30%                                         Every 100-150 ft.
                       30-40%                                         Every 75-100 ft.
                        >50%                                            Every 50 ft.



     Actual location of waterbars should take advantage of natural slope breaks, and to minimize
      drainage on downslope burned areas.

     Utilize natural rolls and dips wherever possible.

     Waterbars should be skewed horizontally approximately 30-45 degrees from horizontal and
      drained away from the fire if possible. Water should drain onto stable sites.

     Scatter branches, wood, rock or other material to naturalize the fireline and further retard soil
      movement. Scattered material should be randomly placed at least every 5 ft. along the handline.
      Strive to achieve at least a 65% ground cover on areas treated with scattered material to prevent
      soil movement. In grassy areas or where no material is available, replace soil, waterbar, and scatter
      a few rocks on the line to naturalize.

     Seeding on handlines is not usually necessary but may be specified for erodible or other critical
      areas.




                                                   165
                                                Dozerlines

Please make a concerted effort to not use dozers or feller bunchers in roadless or Wilderness Study Areas.
Do not use dozers or feller/bunchers on slopes > 35% or in riparian areas. If possible during dozerline
construction, keep the dozer blades from cutting through topsoil into subsoil. Retention of topsoil will
greatly enhance resprouting. Limit the depth and width of dozer line construction to that necessary to stop
fire spread. If possible, tip the blade on dozers. Try to avoid using dozers within 300 feet from live
streams.

   1. Return soil from berms and piles using a small track mounted excavator or dozer. Handcrews can
      be useful to spread fine slash, spread topsoil and sod, and seed. The excavator or dozer can be
      used to redistribute large berms over the line while re-contouring to original configuration. In open
      timber stands and grasslands dozers can be used. However in more dense canopies a tracked
      mounted excavator is recommended. Handcrews with rakes can spread topsoil and sod evenly.
      The re-contouring and redistribution of topsoil in the key treatment in revegetation (more
      important than seeding).
   2. Waterbars spacing should be approximately:

                                         WATERBAR SPACING

        Slope                                        Spacing
         0-5%                                         400 ft
         6-10%                                        300 ft
         11-20%                                       200 ft
         21-40%                                       100 ft
         41-60%                                       50 ft


      Actual location of waterbars should take advantage of natural slope breaks, and to minimize
       drainage on downslope burned areas.

      Utilize natural rolls and dips wherever possible.

      Waterbars should be skewed approximately 30-45 degrees from horizontal and away from the fire
       if possible. Waterbars should be opened on the downhill side to allow water to flow freely off the
       dozerline.

      Use an excavator to pull large logs over the fireline. In areas with light tree density dozers can be
       used. Strive to achieve at least 65% ground cover on areas treated with scattered material to
       prevent soil movement.

      Use handcrews to scatter branches, wood, rock or other material to naturalize the fireline and
       further retard soil movement. Scattered material should be randomly placed at least every 5 ft.
       along the handline. In grassy areas or where no material is available, return soil, waterbar, and
       scatter a few rocks on the line to naturalize.



                                                    166
      If waterbars cannot be constructed without causing undue damage, use handrakes to continuously
       roughen the line. Waterbars constructed into subsoil expose less a less responsive growing
       medium. If ample slash is available for soil surface protection on slopes less than 15% waterbars
       may not be necessary.

      Seed the dozer lines with the specified seed mix

 3) Stream crossings: All efforts should be made to avoid disturbance of natural stream banks in dozerline
construction. If stream banks are disturbed they should be reconstructed:

      Return stream channels to a natural gradient and re-establish bankfull discharge capacity.

      Provide debris barriers and waterbars to ensure that water cannot flow down the fireline into the
       stream during periods of runoff.

      Root masses and slash should be brought from elsewhere on the line to scatter for 25-50 feet on
       either side of stream crossings to further retard soil movement into the creek and enhance
       vegetative regrowth.

                                      Road Stabilization & Closure

 1) Re-construct road closure berms opened for fires.

 2) Waterbar all roads behind closure berms that are opened for fire suppression actions. Waterbar
spacing should be approximately 200' but localized depending on natural slope breaks and drainage
opportunities.

 3) Berms on the downslope side of the roads that developed during the grading should be pulled back
onto the road surface.

 4) Re-establish stream channel configuration across road beds where temporary culverts, log crossings,
and rock crossings have been constructed for fire suppression actions. Supplemental rock may be needed
to maintain stable stream channel configuration.

          Fire Camps, Spike Camps, Heliports, Drop Points, Fueling Sites etc.
                                        Camp Related Activities
       Campsites will be discussed with the resource advisor to ensure locations that will cause minimal
       impact.

       Look for areas that have durable surfaces such as mineral soil, forest duff, hardened clay or gravel
       surfaces. Select an area on rock for kitchens, gathering areas and tent sites. Do not clear vegetation
       or trench to create bedding sites.

      Do not build rock campfire rings. If possible dig a pit or a mound fire. If a ring already exists in
       the camping area, please clean out all trash and scatter rocks upon departure. Cover the impacted
       fire scar with organics to blend with surrounding cover.

                                                    167
   Use the main trail or line for travel when possible. Do not create lots of trails by travel between
    camps and cook area or traveling outside the line.

   Cigarette butts and candy wrappers need to be packed out with garbage.

   Toilet Paper needs to be thoroughly burned in a designated spot (in the black), buried in a cathole
    or packed out.

   Pack out all trash and used batteries. This includes used fusees. All trash should be removed and
    disposed of in an approved landfill location. There are bears and cougars in the area. A clean
    camp is important. Check all tent sites and travel routes for litter. Scout about 20 feet around
    areas for windblown litter. Pack out all items that were brought in. Rehab all campfire areas.
    Pack out all flagging, litter, orange peels, peanut shells, etc.

   Practice good sanitation - dig catholes when possible when out on the line and away from camp.
    Catholes should be 6-8 inches deep. If in a camp for longer than five days, and does not have air
    support, a slit trench( community latrine) may be an option. This should be dug 200 feet away
    from riparian areas, system trails and other water sources. These slit trenches will be covered
    when left. If in a camp longer than five days and the camp is serviced by a helicopter, fly in
    portable backcountry latrines and fly out human wastes as necessary.

   Watch where you go for water. Do not break down fragile stream banks or make numerous trails
    thru riparian areas. Use a filter or treat water with iodine. If water is hauled in by cubies, make
    sure you use this water and ensure the containers are hauled out.

   In spike or coyote camps, carry water and bathe away from lakes and streams. Do not introduce
    soap, shampoo, or other grooming chemicals into waterways.

   Obscure unwanted trails or campsites with native materials. Cover with organic material, break up
    straight lines and create natural looking patterns. Camouflage campsites with brush, duff, rocks
    and other native materials. At tent sites, if any clearing was done, return loose rocks or downed
    logs to site. Leave no trace of suppression activities. Pick up all micro-trash.

   Light scarification or ripping to reduce soil compaction may be needed based on RA
    recommendations.

   Seeding and/or fertilization may be needed based on RA recommendations.

                                                Helispots
   Do not locate helibases within 200 feet of water in the WSA.
   If possible, do not cut trees to create new helispots.
   Consider use of explosives to naturalize stump and ends of snag cut during improvement if a
    platform is built or an area is cleared for landing.
   Special care should be taken to flush cut stumps and roll short cut logs off hillside. Naturalize
    helispot disturbance by pulling back cut trees and branches, replacing down logs, woody debris,
    and displaced rocks. Pull all flagging, trash, signs, oil etc.
   Rehabilitation of helispots will be done on a case by case basis by the RA.
                                                 168
                                                  Fuel Spills
      Keep fuels at least 200 feet from streams, lakes and riparian areas.
      Provide for spill prevention and containment measures for all pump operations in or near riparian
       areas.
      Spilled fuels or other toxic substances should be removed. Contaminated soils may need to be
       removed. Remove hazardous material containment pads and dispose of properly.
      Develop a HAZMAT Plan for all refueling/fuel storage areas. Have HAZMAT materials and
       trained personnel at these locations at all times Remove any oil contaminated soil and dispose of
       properly.

                                                Water Drafting
If possible, helicopter bucket dip sites should be approved by the resource advisor before using.
     Avoid dipping from streams.
     Helicopter bucket dipping should be done only after chemical injections systems have been
        removed disconnected or rinsed clean.
     All water pump intakes will have screens less than or equal to 3/32nd inch pore size.
     Water pumps will have fuel containment storage areas.
     Tear out sumps or dams and return site as closely as possible to surrounding terrain condition.
        Make sure all hose is collected and removed.
     Restore all water sources used during the course of the fire.
     Remove any dams or dikes that were constructed during the suppression of this fire.
     Restore stream bed to previous condition. Remove fill dirt while minimizing washing dirt into
        streams.
     Remove any devices to pool water.

                                      Staging Areas and Drop Points
Keep staging areas and drop points clean. Pick up all garbage, cardboard, food, and litter each day. Store
extra food in vehicles during the day. When crews are hauled back each day police the area for items and
haul garbage back to main camp Recycle items if possible.

                                                 Weeds
We would like to take a proactive approach to noxious weed management while on the Fridley Fire. There
are numerous weeds located in the base camp area. Weeds were also noted in Section L, M, and N on the
Fridley perimeter. Recommendations are as follows: This may include but is not limited to the following:

      Attempts should be made to provide a wash station. All off road equipment should be pressure
       washed before being utilized on the fire. Equipment should be cleaned prior to the inspection
       process. Vehicles should also be washed before heading back to duty stations.

      Soil Disturbances will be planned to minimize the establishment and spread of noxious weeds
       whenever possible. Strategies to consider:

      Mineral soil exposure during fire line construction should be to the minimum necessary for
       containment or control.


                                                   169
   Expand fuel breaks to minimize the amount of mineral soil exposure necessary for containment or
    control lines.

   Where feasible avoid heavy infestations of noxious weeds during line construction.

   If possible, locate ICP, Camps, Drop Points, and Staging in weed free areas. When weed free sites
    are not available, utilize containment practices such as removing seed bearing parts from the site
    through mowing, or hand pulling and bagging; and/or by flagging patches and routing traffic to
    avoid high-density weed areas. Inspect, remove and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts
    on equipment before it‟s re-issued.

   Where feasible locate Helibase in weed free areas. If the Helibase is not weed free, utilizing
    containment practices such as removing seed bearing parts from the site through mowing or hand
    pulling and bagging; or by flagging patches to avoid. Remove weed seed and plant parts from
    cargo nets and other equipment.

   When the Incident area contains new invaders or heavy densities of noxious weeds; all off road
    equipment will be thoroughly cleaned before leaving the incident. If weed infestations are
    concentrated along access routes, all vehicles will be thoroughly cleaned before leaving the
    incident.

   Coordinate with the local Resource Advisor to provide noxious weed identification, awareness and
    prevention briefings to Incident Personnel.

   Coordinate with the BAER Rehab Team to ensure that follow up weed monitoring occurs within
    the Incident and the Suppression Rehab Team to ensure that monitoring occurs at equipment wash
    sites, ICP, Camps, Staging Areas, Drop Points, Helibase and Helispots.

   When the Suppression Rehab Team recommends seeding disturbed areas; ensure that the
    purchased seed is certified as noxious weed free. If straw is utilized for rehab, it should also be
    certified as weed-free or weed-seed free.

   When the ICP, Staging areas, Spike camps or crew work sites are located in areas with heavy
    densities of noxious weeds, the following recommendations might be applied at demob:

          Shake out line gear; to remove all plant parts and dirt that may contain weed seeds. On
           clothing; check cuffs, pockets, seams, etc.; on boots check treads, seams, tongues and laces
           and remove all plant parts and dirt that may contain seeds.

          Shake out tents to remove all dirt and plant parts, and roll them up on sleeping pads or
           tarps to avoid re-contamination.

          Inspect, remove and properly dispose of weed seed and plant parts on equipment before
           it‟s returned to the cache.




                                                 170
                                        Streams and Riparian Areas

 1) Tree Felling in riparian areas: Avoid felling trees along riparian areas when possible. Use the
following guidelines when trees need to be felled for line construction or safety purposes.


      Trees that would naturally fall into stream channels (e.g., leaning towards the stream) should be
       felled into the stream.
      Trees that would naturally fall away from the stream channel should be felled in the direction they
       are leaning.
      Do not remove woody debris from stream channels
      If streams are disturbed, they should be restored to as natural condition as possible including
       gradient, flow bed and bank features. Etc.

 4) No or limited use of fire retardants in riparian areas, especially along West Pine, Fridley, Eightmile
    and Trail Creeks. Use only water as a suppressant in riparian areas or areas in close proximity to
    perennial or intermittent stream courses.

      Do not pump directly from streams if chemical products are to be injected into the system. If
       chemicals are used, pump from a fold a tank located at least 200 feet from water.
      Do not backflush pumps and charged hose into streams or lakes.



                                                   Wildlife
Motorized route density is a key element relating to long-term effects on grizzly bear, elk, and some other
species of concern. It is important to avoid any increase in motorized routes, including roads as well as
four-wheeler or motorcycle trails. 'Dozer lines and old roads reopened for fire suppression operations
need to be effectively closed. Closed fire lines and roads should not invite use. They should have the
appearance of being impassable at junctions with remaining open roads.

We need to look at any hand lines that could be pioneered as an ATV route and effectively close them if
necessary. Also, consider other old roads that may have opened up as a result of encroaching vegetation
being burned away. Whatever work these might require, if any, would likely be minor and could be done
most efficiently along with rehab of the effects of suppression operations.

Where gates have burned up, temporary closures may be needed until permanent replacements are
installed.

                                    Archaeological Cultural Resources

Suppression
In this vicinity is the highest density of buffalo kill sites (jumps, corrals etc) of anywhere in the country.
The nearby Emigrant kill site with two separate cliff components was the first buffalo kill site investigated
by archeologists from the Museum of Natural History in 1922. These sites are primarily in the valley
floor well below the fire perimeter. The mountain flanks in the transition between the foothills and the

                                                     171
open grasslands of the valley floor contain many prehistoric sites. Also many sites are located at the
confluence of drainages and in open meadows on the high altitude divides.

There are only a few areas along the fire perimeter where sites are known to occur in these settings.
These sites would be barely recognizable only by surface evidence or may be encountered by hand-lines
or dozer-lines.

      If flint or obsidian artifacts are found, they should be left “in-place” and their general vicinity
       reported to Division Supervisors and to Planning. The areas where lines are now planned do not
       offer much potential for this problem to occur.

      Little mining is known in the area, but small historic logging, grazing and trapping activities were
       common and log cabin ruins are scattered within the fire perimeter. These sites will probably be
       indefensible in terms of prevention activities, but if encountered they should be avoided where
       possible with hand lines or dozer-lines. Again if these sites types are encountered, their vicinity
       should be reported.

      Division “L” presents the most potential for occurrence of archeological sites. The attached
       “Division L; Archeological Sensitive Areas” map highlights areas where dozer operations would
       be of concern. If a need arises to use dozers within these areas, it is recommended that an
       archeologist accompany the dozer boss in locating line through these areas. An archeologist is
       available through Bozeman Dispatch (406 587-6719) for immediate assignment.



Rehabilitation:
Historic and prehistoric sites found in areas requiring rehabilitation should be flagged and avoided until a
site-specific rehabilitation planned is approved at each site.

                         Hyalite-Porcupine Buffalo Horn Wilderness Study Area

Gallatin Divide (G1548) Roadless Area
The Fridley Fire perimeter currently lies on the Gallatin National Forest and also private lands. Within
the Fridley fire perimeter, is the Hyalite-Porcupine Wilderness Study Area. A large portion of the area is
privately owned in a checkerboard ownership pattern. The Gallatin National Forest is currently managing
this area as a potential wilderness resource.

Natural processes, including fire, are essential in shaping, defining, and sustaining wilderness and
wildlands. The Wilderness Act defines Wilderness as an area “without permanent improvements or
human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which…
generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man’s work
substantially unnoticeable… Guidelines have been framed with the intent of managing the area with the
intent that it may at some point become designated wilderness, while providing for firefighter and public
safety.

      Strategies, tactical and logistical operations are being planned that have the least long-term impact
       to the WSA resource. Efforts should be made to implement actions that leave the “imprint of
                                                      172
       man’s work substantially unnoticeable.” Work with the Resource Advisors to determine the best
       ways of mitigating fire suppression actions on the landscape. Enlist their assistance in applying
       Minimum Impact Suppression Tactics (MIST) to camp areas and other work sites. Resource
       Advisors will strive to provide the best on-the-ground knowledge of the area and can offer timely,
       accurate advice that will reduce short and long term impacts. Make sure your over head and crews
       understand our expectations on how to minimize impacts as the go about their daily assignments
       and tasks.

      According to OGC Council in the Northern Regional Office, the Forest Service shall manage
       WSA’s as Wilderness. Authorization to use tractors in Wilderness areas is reserved to the
       Regional Forester by FSM 2320.04c. Tractor refers to any motorized vehicle used to construct
       fire line including bulldozers, backhoes, graders, farm tractors with plows, brush hogs, or trucks
       with blades, etc. Their use will be rare, but may be requested in extremely urgent situations.

      Firefighter safety comes first. Implementing MIST does not mean firefighter safety is sacrificed
       in favor of resource protection. Use MIST to guide your tactical operations. Use time as your
       ally.

      Be sensitive to those areas that will receive recreation use after the fire is out. For Wilderness and
       Wilderness Study Areas, hiking through a new burn, experiencing first-hand the rebirth of a forest,
       could truly add to their experience. Carefully rehab areas that are near trails, outfitter camps and
       favorite campsites.

      Be prudent near water resources and riparian areas.

      Respect wildlife and mitigate potential encounters by camping appropriately.

      Minimizing impacts of our suppression actions takes education, thought, and care. We learn as we
       go. Strive to protect the Wilderness and Wilderness Study Area resources for the public who have
       entrusted us with the stewardship of these lands for future generations.


Reviewed by:

__________________________________________________________________
TERRI MARCERON                                                   Date
                                       Livingston District Ranger




Approved:

__________________________________________________________________
STEVE FRYE
Incident Commander                            Date

                                                    173
                               Taco Fire Suppression Rehabilitation Plan

                                            Updated September 2, 2001



    Team members:
    Pat Green, forest ecologist                                    983- 1950 (office)
    Leonard Lake, forest botanist                                  983-1950 (office)
    Jim Paradiso, district hydrologist/resource advisor            839-2211 (office), or Fire Camp
    Marci Gerhardt, soil scientist/hydrologist                     926-4258 (office)


Objectives within the National Forest Lands are to minimize erosion and sedimentation, restore site potential of
damaged soils, reduce potential for invasive weeds and annual grasses on fire suppression activity areas, facilitate
recovery of native species, and to restore roads and trails to conditions appropriate for their designated level of use.
These instructions are organized generally by groups of treatments, then by area.

            Some treatments will be deferred until control because they are on current primary fire lines.

 Weed treatments will be done with Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) funds and are not mentioned
                                                  here.


                                             Guidelines for Waterbars


           For hand line, install waterbars a minimum of every 10 feet of vertical drop on slopes in excess of 30%,
            at longer intervals on gentler slopes to 15%. On dozer line, install waterbars on slopes in excess of
            15% for every 10 feet of vertical drop. This translates to 50 feet on a 20 percent slope, 30 feet on a 30
            percent slope, 20 feet on a 50 percent slope. On slopes less than 15%, waterbars may not be needed,
            if adequate amounts of slash are available, or increase spacing to 65-75 feet
           In loose and powdery soils, use available wood or rock for waterbarring of hand line. Wood should be
            6-8 inches in diameter and keyed into the soil with stakes.
           Water bars on dozer lines should be 1-15. feet deep.
           Install at an angle of 60 degrees or more from perpendicular to the line to readily allow runoff.
           Waterbars should discharge onto stable vegetated slopes wherever possible.


Approved




_______________________________ Line Officer




_______________________________ Incident Commander

attachments: 2
                                                          174
                                   Interim Materials and Equipment list:


Excavators and recommended excavator operators: Cat 215 or smaller (<48,000 lb). A small dozer with 6-
way blade can be used for pulling berm on established roadbeds
                                               Martin Haar, Troy 835-8794
                                               Mark Kelly, Prairie Land and Timber, 983-1300
                                               Marc Bledsoe, Cottonwood, 962-3402

Straw chopper and 6 wheeler:
                                              Prairie Land and Timber: Grangeville, Idaho 983-1300

Weed free straw: for mulching obliterated dozer line.
                      2 acres at 1 ton/acre = 2 tons
                                               Dave Kuther, Nez Perce, 937-2359

Fertilizer for helibase: 1500 lb of 16-16-16 or similar
                                                 Union Warehouse, 983-0210

Seed: All seed ordered Aug 14.
                                              Granite Seed Company, Lehi, Utah.
                                              Phone 801-768-4422

           There are four seed mixes required:
           Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue for heavy traffic areas: portions of fire camps, helibase, and
           drop points 10 and 30
                       13.5 acres at 4.5 lb per acre:
                                                 47 lb sheep fescue
                                                 14 lb Canada bluegrass (Reubens)

           Bluebunch wheatgrass, sand dropseed and needle and thread for low elevation dry sites: portions
           of fire camps and low elevation hand line
                       2.25 acres at 27 lb per acre:
                                                38 lb needle and thread
                                                1 lb sand dropseed
                                                23 lb Goldar bluebunch wheatgrass

           Bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue for mid elevation hand lines
                     2 acres at 25 lb per acre:
                                              12 lb Idaho fescue
                                              38 lb Goldar bluebunch wheatgrass

       Idaho fescue and Canby bluegrass for Road 221 G and dozer line obliteration
                     4.5 acres at 7.5 lb per acre:
                                               27 lb Idaho fescue
                                               7 lb Canby bluegrass (Canbar)

Biovam mycorrhizal additive: Ordered 14 Aug
                     for hydro seeding areas of fire camp, drop points.
                     4 acre at 2 gal/acre = 9.5 gal
                                               T& J Enterprises
                                               2328 W. Providence Ave,
                                               Spokane, WA.
                                               509-327-7670, FAX 775 207-1613



                                                     175
Hand scales to weigh out seed or seed bagged into small lots of uniform weight
                      Available at District, SO, or Union Warehouse.

Cyclone seeders*
          * Cyclone seeders often malfunction, and may spread seed too widely on hand lines. We recommend
          that seed be hand spread, where it is not being hydro seeded, if the implementation leader can identify
          people able and willing to calibrate their spread rates to get appropriate coverage. Seed will be
          packaged in small lots suitable for either case.
                                                 Salmon River Ranger District, or
                                                 Union Warehouse, Grangeville. 983-0210
Hydroseeder and water tender: At SO, will also need water tender to provide water.
                      Contact John Crotinger

Mulch for hydroseeder: 4.5 acres at 30 sacks per acre = 135 sacks
                     (free at SO: contact John Crotinger)

Hogwire fencing: for temporary fencing of camps being rehabilitated
                       estimated 2700 feet = 270 metal fence posts
                                               Union Warehouse, Grangeville. 983-0210


                                                    Treatments

 Treatments are generally grouped by area and type: decompaction and hydro seeding, by seed mix, hand
         line seeding, dozer line treatments, road treatments, drop point treatments, and others.


    Canada bluegrass/sheep fescue seed mix:                   Low elevation, high traffic areas.
                                                              Drop Points 10 and 30.
    Bluebunch/needle and thread/sand dropseed mix:            Other low elevation areas.
    Canby bluegrass/bluebunch mix                             Dozer lines.
    Idaho fescue/bluebunch                                    Mid elevation hand lines.

Because archeological sites may often be found at the low river bottom sites, archeological oversight of
the rehabilitation, especially decompaction, is recommended. Certain areas may be identified for
avoidance, in which case, simply hydro seed over the area without decompaction. This applies to any
areas scheduled for decompaction except Drop Point 10 and 30.



       I. Salmon River Road: includes the fire camps and other areas impacted by fire traffic

    A. Sheep feed lot: rented from landowner for engine parking. Restoration will be based on initial
       agreement (attached) with landowner. To be returned in pre-use condition. Harrowing to improve
       infiltration might be appropriate.

    B. Fire Camp at Allison Creek and associated sites to be hardened for heavy traffic, using Canada
        bluegrass and sheep fescue mix:
            1. Catering area south of road: Most of this area is devegetated and highly compacted. It should be
                revegetated with grass that can tolerate both high traffic and drought. In the SE corner of this area
                is a weakly vegetated area about 50 ft by 50 feet--don’t decompact, but do hydro seed/mulch.
                 a) Decompact everything that has less than 30% plant cover, using a small excavator, ripping
                     with bucket teeth to about 4 inches. Stay 10 feet from the riverbank edge. Archeological
                     oversight is required.


                                                        176
            b) Use the forest hydro seeder to apply seed mix, mulch and mycorrhizal additive to the
                decompacted area. (2 acres)
                                 9 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (4.5 lb/acre)
                                 4 gal of Biovam mycorrhizal additive
                                60 bags of mulch.
            c) Install temporary (one year) fence that will keep out sheep and traffic:
                              1200 feet of hogwire fence
                               120 posts.
            d) Sign to explain the closure (4 signs).


       2. Fire overhead tent area (dispersed camp site) immediately west of Allison Creek: Treat
           similar to B1 (above).
            a) Decompact as above. Archeological oversight is required.
            b) Use the forest hydro seeder to apply seed mix, mulch and mycorrhizal additive. (0.5 acre)
                                 2.5 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (4.5 lb/acre)
                                 1 gal Biovam mycorrhizal additive
                                15 bags of mulch
            c) Install temporary (one year) fence that will keep out sheep and traffic.
            d) Sign to explain the closure (2 signs).

       3. Drop Pt 1 (parking area just east of Allison Creek):
            a) Decompact as above. Archeological oversight is required.
            b) Use the forest hydro seeder to apply seed mix, mulch and mycorrhizal additive. (0.25 acre)
                                 2.5 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (4.5 lb/acre)
                                 0.5 gal Biovam mycorrhizal additive
                                 6 bags of mulch
            c) Install temporary (one year) fence that will keep out sheep and traffic.
                               400 feet of hogwire fence
                                 40 posts.
            d) Sign to explain the closure (3 signs).
            e) Repair broken “directions” sign.
       4. Unauthorized camp on Carlson property at Allison Rd milepost 0.1. Fencing is not desired by
           the landowner.
            a) Rake in disturbed soil below the bank.
            b) Decompact parking area as above.
            c) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (.1 acre).
                               1.0 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (4.5 lb/acre)
                               0.2 gal Biovam mycorrhizal additive
                               2 bags of mulch

C. Fire camp areas and other sites to recover native vegetation, to be seeded with bluebunch, sand
    dropseed, and needle and thread:
       1. Supply tent area above the road and west of the more developed camping area where the
           overhead camp was: This area has potential for native reveg with some traffic control and
           revegetation.
            a) To restrict motorized traffic, key in boulders of 400 lb or more along the road and on the east
                side where vehicles have been moving from the dispersed campsite westward onto this

                                                   177
                terrace. If motorized access is required, key in boulders to direct traffic along one drive,
                rather than broadcast trampling.
            b) Decompact the area down slope from the old ditch line, using an excavator. Archeological
                oversight is required.
            c) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive. Apply this to both the decompacted area and the
                weakly vegetated area into the netleaf hackberry grove along the ditch. (1 acre)
                               27 lb bluebunch, sand dropseed, and needle and thread mix
                                2 gal. Biovam additive
                               30 bags of mulch.
            c) Install temporary (one year) fence that will keep out sheep and traffic.
                               800 feet of hogwire fence
                                 80 posts.
            d) Sign to explain the closure. (2 signs).

       2. Base of hand line near Kelly Creek: This has been compacted and devegetated by fire traffic. Do
           not use excavator here.
            a) Roughen area to be seeded with rake or McCloud.
            b) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (.25 acre).
                                7 lb bluebunch, sand dropseed, and needle and thread mix
                                0.5 gal. Biovam additive
                                6 bags of mulch.
            c) Install temporary (one year) fence that will keep out sheep and traffic.
                                300 feet of hogwire fence
                                  30 posts.
            d) Sign to explain the closure. (2 signs)

D. Other sites along the Salmon River Road:
       1. Spring Bar boat ramp:
            a) Spot hand seed with bluebunch, dropseed and needle and thread mix, hand spread some
                straw mulch (.1 acre)
            b) Place gravel, spread and compact to grade. Contact John Crotinger.
                                 20 yards of gravel
       2. Spring Bar campground: Minimal treatment proposed. Good design of traffic control prevented
           damage.
            a) Clean and pump outhouses.
            b) pull in and smooth handline up west side of draw along fence. Other handlines should not be
                obliterated.
            c) Fertilize approximately 3 acres of spring bar campground where crew traffic has worn the
                vegetation the most. Objective is to assist recovery of vegetation.
       3. Van Creek campground: no treatment proposed. Fire activity probably did not degrade its
           condition. No treatment is proposed for the dispersed campsite east of Van Creek for the same
           reason.

                                             II. Road 221:

A. Road surface work
       1. Roadway between Salmon River and Little Slate Crossing:

                                                   178
            a) Blade graveled surface to reduce ruts and potholes. Pull in or remove berm on road from
               Allison crossing to Keating Ridge (Drop Point 10) so that water is not channeled down the
               road prism.

B. Hand work along road 221
       1. Van Creek Crossing: Division D and C
            a) Pull slashed material from creek and at culvert inlets/outlets and place in stable positions on
                the slope, so the culvert won’t be plugged.
       2. Draft site about 1 mile SE of Van Creek on 221 Road: Division C
            a) Reshape channel to conform to the channel above the pumping site. Armor the banks with
               rock or it will fail.
       3. Draft site at Allison Creek:
            a) Rake excavated pump berm smooth. Mulch with nearby organics.
            b) Shape shallow (6-8" deep) by 2-3' wide, roadside ditch for drainage. The objective is to not
                have water from the ditchline upslope of this water tender fill site, to flow directly through
                where the tender was parking and directly into Allison Creek. Guide it past (downslope) of
                this site.
       3. Draft site at Little Slate Creek: No treatment.

C. Excavator work on Keating Ridge, Van, and Road 221. These are grouped because they all require
    excavator decompaction, hand seeding and straw mulching using the straw chopper. They can be done as
    soon as possible.
       1. Dozer line (Keating Ridge) on old roadway down to salt lick area: (mp0.0-2.5)
            a) Install drivable dips or waterbars to improve drainage. Archeological oversight is required.
            b) Hand seed with bluebunch (1.5 acres).
                              11 lb bluebunch/ Canby bluegrass mix (@ 7.5 lb/acre).
            c) Mulch using the straw chopper.
                                1.5 tons straw
            d) Gate this road to restrict access except for Carlson family and Forest Service.
       2. Dozer line (Keating Ridge) on FS lands: (mp0.8-1.4). This is to be obliterated.
            a) Use excavator to roughen surface with bucket teeth. Waterbars on slopes in excess of 25 %
            may be needed if slash and berm material are scarce. . Archeological oversight is required.
            b) hand seed (3 acres).
                                22.5 lb bluebunch/ Canby bluegrass mix (@ 7.5 lb/acre).
            c) Pull in berm by hand and scatter thinly over seed.
            d) Put logs and slash on top to increase surface roughness.
            e) Barrier at both ends with logs to restrict access.
       3. Drop Point 10; Keating ridge @ rd221, lower parking area: Highly compacted and requiring
           drainage to minimize erosion. No treatment proposed for upper parking area.
            a) Put in waterbar at south end where the road 221G begins and another about 30 feet north of
                that. The fill slope is loose and erodible. You will need to armor the outfall of the waterbars
                with rock, and place slash filter windrow below that to filter and disperse runoff.
            b) Decompact the parking area with an excavator.
            c) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (.5 acre).
                                2.5 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (@ 4.5 lb/a)
                                                    179
                           1    gal. Biovam additive
                          15    bags of mulch.

4. Drop point 10; Keating ridge @ rd 221, upper level site.
     a) Fertilize, site has had increased use and traffic, including porta-potties and helicopter
         landing(s). Evaluate entry road to determine if driveable dip in needed.
5. Drop Point 20: Road 221 at road 536.
     a) Decompact the parking area with an excavator.
     b) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (Less than 0.2 acre).
                         1 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (@ 4.5 lb/a)
                         0.5 gal. Biovam additive
                         6 bags of mulch.
5. Between Drop point 26 and Drop point 30, on 9905 road. Just upslope of where FSR 9905
    crosses over the terrain saddle, from the Van Creek drainage to the Little Slate Creek
    drainage, there is a spot along the eastern road margin that was dozer bladed and leveled
    for equipment parking.
     a) Decompact the parking area with an excavator.
     b) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (Less than 0.2 acre).
                         1 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (@ 4.5 lb/a)
                         0.5 gal. Biovam additive
                          6 bags of mulch.
6. Drop Point 30 at Van Ridge and 221 Road: Division B and A
     a) Decompact with excavator, and reshape the slope, eliminating the berm that is impounding
         water, drain the water with a dip or waterbar.
     b) Hydro seed/mulch with mycorrhizal additive (Less than 0.2 acre).
                         1 lb Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (@ 4.5 lb/a)
                         0.5 gal. Biovam additive
                         6 bags of mulch.

7. Fire slop over dozer lines in Little Slate drainage near end of 9905 road. 3 lines total, 2 above and 1
below road.
      a) Using an excavator, install waterbars as per standard dozer waterbar specifications, and pull
           all available soil, and organics (bear grass, logs, brush) back over waterbarred lines.


                               III. Hand rehab of firelines

1. Keating ridge Dozer line below salt lick area in Carlson’s pasture:
     a) Hand seed, rake in litter and soil over seed. Shake and stir seed to keep it well mixed as it is
         being applied. (.25 acre)
                           7 lb bluebunch, needle and thread, sand dropseed mix (@ 27 lb/acre)
2. Hand lines along Keating Ridge and Van Ridge: Where trail 123 was used as hand line, treat
    similarly. Include hand lines on original IA line.
     a) Waterbar if there is more than 10 vertical feet of drop without rock cover. Reinforce waterbars
         with rock. Angle waterbars fairly steeply (60% from perpendicular) so water does not get
         impounded. Waterbars should empty into unburned areas where possible, and armor or
         stagger their outfalls so they don’t concentrate outflow into a single path and so that energy is
         dissipated.



                                            180
                 b) Hand seed, rake in litter and soil over seed. Scatter rock to disperse water so it doesn’t form a
                     single path of flow. Shake and stir seed to keep it well mixed as it is being applied.
                             below 2500 feet elevation (1 acre)
                                       27 lb bluebunch, needle and thread, sand dropseed mix (@ 27 lb/acre)
                            above 2500 feet elevation (2 acres)
                                       50 lb. Idaho fescue and bluebunch mix (@ 25 lb/acre)
           3. Hand line around spot fires between the 221 road and road 9905: these lines are in Douglas-fir-
               grand fir with heavy canopy.
                 a) Install waterbars on slopes in excess of 30%. Rake in soil, slash and organic litter.
           4. 9905A road:
                 a) Where road diverges from the 9905 road and has been slashed out. Pull slash material
                 back onto template from cutslope.
                 b) Install waterbars in the cutslope between the 9905A and 9905 road. A suppression
                 crew walking trail has developed. Pull slash, logs, and organic material over path.




                                               IV. Helicopter sites

   A. John Day Seed Orchard Helibase
           1. Landing area:
                 a) Irrigate now to help grass recover.
                 b) Seed 10 acres with 45 lb of Canada bluegrass and sheep fescue mix (35 lb fescue and 10 lb of
                     bluegrass) this fall (late November), and fertilize with 16-16-16 at 150 lb/ac. The orchard
                     manager will do this.
           2. Fuel Transfer area:
                 a) Dig up soil contaminated with spilled Jet-A fuel. Smell residual soil to confirm it is not
                     contaminated. Spread contaminated soil out in a thin layer to release volatiles.
           2. Roadway:
                a) Blade graveled surface to reduce ruts and potholes. Contact John Crotinger.
   B. Helicopter dipping site at Little Slate Creek: No treatment.

   C. H1, H2, Partridge Bridge: No Treatment.


                                           V. Carlson Sheep Pasture

     Seed and fertilize approximately 140 acres as agreed to. To be purchased and completed by Mick Carlson
     family. The cost of seed and fertilizer will be reimbursed by the USFS. Pubescent wheatgrass (1680 lb) or
     intermediate wheat grass (1260 lb) are recommended. Use 30-0-6 fertilizer (7000 pounds). It is
     recommended that grazing be deferred for one year. See attachment.

VI. Landscape
      Keep sheep of the winter allotment between Kelly and Spring Creeks. Approximately 50% of the landscape
      (grasses/forbs) burned and grazing would concentrate livestock onto the only available unburned forage in
      the mosiac. The resulting intense grazing on the remain vegetation could weaken the native plant
      communities and encourage the spread of rush skeleton weed, which is already present in the Spring Creek
      drainage.


                                                          181
                                                Seeding Mix for Taco Fire
                                                Suppression Rehabilitation

Parking Lots: (50%/50% mix of sheep fescue and Canada bluegrass to achieve 80 PLS/sq ft.)
Sites that will continue to receive heavy use by campers: Catering and parking area main camp, Fire
overhead area; rd221 parking; DP 10; DP 30

                                    PLS Per Acre Rates        Totals for 13.25
                                  (90% pure, 80% germ)       acres (rounding to
                                                                   next lb)
Sheep fescue                     3.5 lbs/ac                 47 lbs
Canada bluegrass                 1.0 lbs/ac                 14 lbs




River Bottom Mix (Native Areas at toe slopes, terraces and slopes below 2500 ft):
(A 40%/30%/30% mix of native species to achieve 80 PLS/sq ft on hot sandy sites)
Sites that should be restored to native composition: Supply & Security Area and Kelly Cr. Dispersed
Camp site.

                                    PLS Per Acre Rates          Totals for 2. 25
                                  (90% pure, 80% germ)         acres (rounding to
                                                                     next lb)
Needle & Thread (40%)            17 lbs/ac                   38 lbs
Sand dropseed (30%)              0.3 lbs/ac                  1 lb
Bluebunch wheatgrass (30%)       10 lbs/ac                   23 lbs.
May increase needle & thread or sand dropseed if the other is not available . Red
three-awn may substituted at ½ of the bluebunch rate.



Ponderosa Pine Zone Mix: (50%/50% mix of Idaho fescue and Nevada bluegrass to achieve 80 PLS/sq ft.)
Dozerline obliteration on Keating Ridge and Rd221G

                                 PLS Per Acre Rates         Totals for 4.5 acres
                                 (90% pure, 70% germ)       (rounding to next lb)

Idaho fescue                     6.0 lbs/ac                27 lbs
Nevada bluegrass /Canby          1.5 lbs/ac                 7 lbs
bluegrass
 May substitute Canby bluegrass or Sherman bluegrass for Nevada bluegrass at
same rate.



Hand line Mix: (50%/50% mix of Idaho fescue and bluebunch wheatgrass to achieve 100 PLS/sq ft.)
Van Ridge hand line.
                                 PLS Per Acre Rates         Totals for 2 acres
                                 (90% pure, 70% germ)       (rounding to next lb)

Idaho fescue                     6 lbs/ac                   12 lbs
Bluebunch wheatgrass             19 lbs/ac                  38 lbs



4.5 acres of Hydro-mulching: 135 bags.
                                                                     182
4 acres of Mycorrhizal additive: 8 gallons

2.2 acres of straw mulch at 1 ton/ac = 2.2 tons


Total lbs by species for Fire Suppression Rehabilitation:

 Recommended           Total lbs of Seed
 Grass Species
Sheep fescue                   12 lbs
Canada bluegrass                4 lbs
Needle & Thread                38 lbs
Sand dropseed                    1 lb
Bluebunch wheatgrass          60 lbs.
Idaho fescue                   39 lbs
Nevada/Canby                    7 lbs
bluegrass




                                                    183
                      Skalkaho Complex Rehabilitation Plan (Division M)

                             Fire Suppression Damage Repair Plan
Incident Name: Skalkaho Complex Branch:

Division: M

Resource Advisor: Rob Brassfield

Resources Required:

      Grader

      Water Tender

      Excavator with transportation

      4-person crew (working behind excavator)

General Operations:

      Road Systems - Reshape the surface of approximately 9.9 miles of roads in the division with a
       water tender and grader. Add or repair rolling dips for drainage. Clear debris from ditches, catch
       basins and pipes. About Y2 of these are seasonally closed roads and will be re-closed, seeded and
       fertilized, and cross ditches may be built.

      Dozer Line, Safety Zones, and Drop Points - With an excavator replace dirt berms .and
       vegetative debris, including large woody debris, on approximately 7.2 miles of dozer line, 3 safety
       zones, and 5 drop points. We will install cross ditches, apply seed and fertilizer, and merchantable
       trees may be placed in an accessible landing. On slopes > 50%, hand crews may need to replace
       berms and construct cross ditches.

      Hand Fire Line - Replace dirt berms and vegetative debris with hand crew on approximately 1.2
       miles of hand line. Cross ditches will be installed and seed and fertilizer will be applied.




                                                   184
                     Fire Suppression Damage Repair Plan Site Specific Details

Incident Name: Skalkaho Complex

Division: M
Resource Advisor: Rob Brassfield


Equip. Needed   Quad        Description
                TRS
Excavator       Deer Mtn    4500' of dozer line. Extends from "Rocky Top" safety zone, at DP 50.
where not too   T5N,        One goes north to Leaning Tree Rd (2500 ft). Grade varies from 20-
steep           R20W,       55%. An additional 200 ft of excavator steep line exists along a ridge
                Sec 8&17    line slop-over. All line is 1 blade wide (12”). Woody debris available
Handcrew                    for rehab on steep line.
Grader and      Deer Mtn    Shallow dozer lines exist SW from Rocky Top Rd to Harlan Creek
Water Tender    & Darby     0.8 mi. Area was mostly in grass and small pine (seed and provide
(upper 2/3)     T5N,        drainage?) and 10-25% slope. Grader may be able to do upper 2/3s.
Excavator and   R20W
hand crew       Sec
(lower 1/3)     8,17,18
NA              Darby       DS Andy Mitchell said the private landowner made this 1 blade width
                T4N,        wide dozer line. It extends beyond what is shown on the map. Contact
                R21W        with the landowner needs to be made to clarify our response.
                Sec 13
                            ACTUAL PLAN CONTINUED FOR 3 PAGES

                              Division M Damage Repair Plan Map

                                               Legend
                                          Repair with Grader

                           Repair with Excavator followed by Hand Crew

                                      Repair with Hand Crew




                                                 185
                          Pack Trail Fire Wilderness Rehabilitation Plan
                                          August 24, 1998


               Prepared by ________________________________

                                             Resource Advisor

               Reviewed by ________________________________

                                             Planning Section Chief

               Recommended by _____________________________

                                             Incident Commander

               Approved by ________________________________

                                             District Ranger

SUMMARY OF RESOURCE IMPACTS:
   Vegetation - The Pack Trail Fire burned approximately 95 acres in the Anaconda - Pintler
    Wilderness. In terms of natural process and historic variability in vegetation, the fire is a benefit to
    the wilderness resource and it's components. The most damaging and lasting effect of suppression
    activities is the possible introduction of noxious weeds into areas now naturally vegetated. The
    base camp at Meadow Creek (which served as the transport point for equipment and fire fighters)
    is relatively free of weeds, making infestation of the fire area unlikely.
   Watershed and Fisheries - The fire perimeter is located primarily from midslope to ridgetop in the
    upper Dense Creek drainage. Effects on both the watershed and fisheries should be very minor to
    immeasurable. There's a slight chance of increased turbidity in Dense Creek if heavy rainfall
    occurs.
   Wildlife, Endangered Species and Cultural - Fire is a natural part of wildlife ecology. Native
    species respond and adapt to environmental changes in areas they occupy. A number of species,
    including elk and both blackback and three - toed woodpeckers, will benefit from the early seral
    vegetation created by the fire. No known endangered species or cultural resources were affected
    by fire or suppression activities.
   Social - The west edge of the fire approaches Meadow Ridge Trail # 462. A section of the trail
    served as indirect control line and was brushed out and limbed on the uphill side about 20 feet.
    This should appear to the casual visitor as general trail work. The south edge of the fire wasn't
    lined and will resemble a natural fire pattern. The north and east edges of the fire were logged out
    and cut ends are visible . Future natural blowdown and weathering should reduce this visibility.
    Recreation use was temporarily restricted in the Dense and Swift Creek drainages, along portions
    of the Continental Divide and on the following trails: Johnson Peak Trail # 435, Swift Creek Trail
    # 170, Meadow Ridge Trail # 462, Meadow Bugle Trail # 171 on the Bitterroot NF and
    Mussigbrod Trail # 372, Hell Roaring Trail # 379, Bender Creek Trail # 17, and Forest Service
    Trails # 17 and # 110 on the Beaverhead - Deerlodge NF.

                                                    186
REHABILITATION OBJECTIVES:
   To restore areas affected during suppression efforts so they blend into the surrounding natural
    landscape visually.
   To reduce and contain erosion along firelines.
   To monitor for the introduction of non-native plant species.

REHABILITATION GUIDELINES:
   CAMP IMPACTS
        o General - Check all tent sites and travel routes for litter. Scout about 20 feet around areas
          for windblown litter. Pack out all items that were brought in. At tent sites, where clearing
          was done, return loose rocks or downed logs to site. Leave no trace of suppression
          activities.
        o Meadow Camp - Remove all camp or road signing and flagging. Seed any denuded areas
          with certified weed seed free annual rye mix at a rate of 20 pounds/acre.
        o Spike Camps - Bury latrines with dirt and disguise site with pine needles or adjacent loose
          woody debris. Rehab all campfire areas. Pack out all flagging, litter, orange peels, peanut
          shells, etc.
   SUPPRESSION IMPACTS
        o Fireline - Flushcut and crosshatch stumps. Return dug-out soil / duff to fireline where
          practical and obliterate any berms created during suppression. Pull brush and logs (burned
          and unburned) over the line to visually blend the edge of the fire with surrounding
          landscape.
        o Snags - Flushcut and crosshatch stumps.
        o Helispot - Consider use of explosives to naturalize stump and ends of snag cut during
          improvement.
   OTHER IMPACTS
        o Non - Native Plant Introduction - The introduction of noxious or non-native plant species
           will need to be monitored next year. Possible seed carriers include equipment (helicopters
           and hoselays) and personnel (boots). Areas to be monitored will include the spike camps,
                          adjacent access routes and general grids through the fire area.




                                                  187
                                  BAER and Suppression Rehabilitation Defined

Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation is the prompt action following wildfire to stabilize soil, control
water, sediment and debris movement, and to minimize threats to on site and downstream life and
property, loss of soil and onsite productivity, and loss of water control and deterioration of water quality.
Funding authority is the Annual Appropriations Act for Interior and Related Agencies.
      These emergencies are a consequence of the fire itself, and funds can only be used on Forest
       Service administered lands or BLM)
      It is only for treatment of emergency situations, not long term restoration.

      A formal burned area report submitted to the regional forester is the only way to get these funds.

      On private lands the NRCS administers a different fund to treat watershed conditions that threaten
       life and property.

      Damage to trails, roads, buildings, fences and other infra structure are not covered by this funding
       except for road or trail treatments to reduce watershed damage.
Proposed treatments have to meet the following criteria:
      Necessary to protect soil and water resource or downstream damage.
      Treatments are proven effective and feasible before first damage-producing storm
      Treatments are environmentally and socially acceptable and compatible with long term
       management objectives.
      Benefits outweigh costs.

The Process: A survey by the burned area rehab team, collaboration district, forest and research
specialists, evaluation of risks, determination of need for treatment, submittal of the burned area report
with proposed treatments and funding request to the RO within 2-3 days of control.
Treatments need to be implemented before the first damaging storm if possible, although there is some
flexibility.
Authorization: Forest supervisors must approve a request for funds before it is sent to the RO, as well as
the decision not to request funding. Regional foresters approve requests <$100,000. WO approves
requests >$100,000. District rangers are responsible for implementation and for monitoring rehab
measures and maintaining their effectiveness.

Possible treatments include:
      Revegetation: seed, fertilize, mulch
      Surface stabilization: contour felling, mulching, terracing, sediment traps, ripping, discing,
       chemicals to re- duce water repellency
      In channel treatments: Grade control structures check dams, armoring, debris removal
      Road and trail treatments: sediment traps, culverts, drop inlets, rip rap culvert outlets, waterbars,
       reconstruction of burned out fills.


                                                     188
Rehabilitation in wilderness:

      Consistent with wilderness values, and maintain wilderness integrity

      Use native materials and appear natural and facilitate natural recovery .

      Use hand tools, or the minimum necessary after analysis

      Protect local plant genetic integrity



Fire Suppression Rehabilitation is the prompt action following wildfire to minimize adverse effects of
the fire suppression activity. These may address watershed concerns or they may address visual, historic,
recreational, wilderness values, or others. They are the natural extension of minimum impact suppression
techniques. See WO amendment 6509.11g, 52.14,15.

      Funding and timing: Costs are charged to the fire. Timing is 60 days from time of control though
       there may be some extension if special circumstances arise. You may need to obligate funds early,
       but seed late to get seed under snow cover so the seed is not eaten. Line obliteration can be done
       with crews as soon as an area is secured and low risk.

      Most likely suppression rehabilitation treatment areas include: firelines, roads, water sources,
       camps, heliports and equipment service areas. E.g. tress failed into a trail into the course of
       suppression can be bucked and moved. Trees fallen into the trails from burning cannot, except to
       provide safe access for fire fighters.

      On State, county or private lands, only use minimal actions that can be taken immediately to
       correct damage to prevent further loss or injury. Waterbars or temporary fences are appropriate.
       Other damages are paid for through claims procedures.

The Process: The team may be the same as the BAER rehab team, share some members, or be
independent but coordinated. It is usually efficient on all but very large fires to have the same team do
both. This process consists of survey, detailed observations, recommendations, and negotiation with line
officers, fire team, and specialists to decide on what meets the management objectives for the area, the
most efficient use of fire and district resources, and who will be available to implement the measures, and
when.
Authorization: Requires line officer and incident commander signature, sometimes forest supervisor.
Possible treatments include:
Camp cleanup may include structure repair, re-vegetation, scarification, campground toilet cleaning
Handline obliteration, waterbarring, or seeding, or mulching Dozer line obliteration, waterbarring,
seeding, mulching
Road blading, watering, reshaping, if heavily impacted by fire traffic Flush cutting of stumps in visually
sensitive areas
Raking in and naturalizing of social trails or bed sites Bucking and scattering trees felled at helispots
Cleanup and disposal of any fuel spills
Restore trail drainage where altered to use as fireline Clear fire-suppression caused logs in from trails
Restore channel form in where impacted by pumping or traffic
                                                     189
Suppression rehabilitation in wilderness: Facilitate natural recovery processes
Emphasize obliteration of visual and ecological impacts visible intervention like seeding or waterbarring.
Implementation:
Timeliness is critical because other priorities will leach people and resources away as soon as the fire is
controlled.
Get the suppression plan signed well before control, by the incident commander with line officer approval
Get someone designated as the implementation leader (preferably you).




                                                   190
                                                BAER Flowchart

  Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER)--- Urgent actions necessary to minimize threats to
  human health/safety or prevent unacceptable resource degradation or impairment to ecosystem structure
  and function.




                                            Proposed Actions




                                                                            Plant Materials
                Structures


 Needed to                            Needed to                           Trees/shrubs                   Grass/forbs
                  Needed to            prevent
   protect
                   minimize          unacceptable
 treatments
                 unacceptable         erosion or
or recovering                                                          Costs < $25,000?
                degradation of       downstream
    areas?
                water quality?         damage?
                                                                                                           Needed to
                                                               Needed to prevent unacceptable               prevent
                                                                  impairment to ecosystem                 unacceptable
                              To known,             To             structure and function?                  erosion?
                               critical         property
                               cultural         or natural
  From uses                  resources?        resources?            Prevent permanent
                                                                       impairment to          Prevent certain
   that will
                                                                        critical T&E           invasion from
    cause
                                                                          habitat?              non-natives?
   erosion?



                      Can be built before
                                                                       Will be effective w/in 2 years?
                       damaging storm?


                                                                    Environmentally & socially acceptable?




                   OK
                                                                                       OK




                                                        191
Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER)--- Urgent actions necessary to minimize threats to
human health/safety or prevent unacceptable resource degradation or impairment to ecosystem structure
and function.


                                    Proposed Actions




                                          Safety Hazard
                                            Removal

          Burned Facility                                                       Monitoring
           Replacement

                                         Was hazard
                                          caused or                 For treatment           For “no treatment”
                                        aggravated by             implementation or             effects in
             Does loss of
                                          the fire?                 effectiveness?         controversial areas?
                facility
             significantly
            affect human
           health/safety?

                                              Does hazard
                                        significantly threaten
                                           life or property?

             Is facility
               minor?


                                                                        Monitoring plan submitted at time of
                                                                                      request?


            Are there no
       administrative options?
                                    Are there no administrative
                                             options?

                                                                                        OK


                   OK

                                                  OK




                                                   192
                                    Gallatin Restoration Project Worksheet
                                         USDA FOREST SERVICE

                                Restoration Project FACT Sheet
Region:          Northern Region – 01                           National Forest:                 Gallatin – 11

Date Prepared: _11/8/2001___________

General Information

Project Name: Fridley Fire Trail Restoration

Regional Project Priority: (High, moderate, low)

Watershed Number (5th Code HUC):

State and Congressional District: Montana - 30; Congressional District – 01

Description/Purpose of the Project:
(Provide a brief description of the project, project area, MA, total acres, and purpose and need for the activities being proposed
                                                      and requested funding.)

The 26, 373 acre Fridley Fire has increased the potential for Gallatin National Forest system trails to be at
risk of deterioration and also as an avenue for an increase in sediment from post fire conditions being
deposited into streams. There are also threats of upslope erosion being deposited on trails as well as
increased flow on the surface tread and fill slope. Restoration and rehabilitation treatments on the trail
system will reduce soil erosion, reduce threats to water quality and promote safety for the public and
outfitters. Visitors to the Gallatin Range rely heavily on the West Pine and North Dry Trailheads to access
the Northern part of the range. The trail system that burned in the Fridley Fire provides access for
countless recreational opportunities for the public prominently from Livingston and Bozeman and for
outfitters whose economic viability and livelihood are dependent on this trail system. A portion of the trail
system also provides access to and from private property.

Approximately 24.1 miles of trails are expected to be at risk of deterioration from additional runoff and
sediment from post-fire conditions. Seven system trails were located in the interior of the Fridley Fire
perimeter. Failure of drainage dips and water bars may cause stream capture onto trail surface area
causing soil erosion, including loss of the trail by rilling and gullying.



                                                              193
Safety concerns are relevant regarding hazard trees, rock fall, cribbing and/or tread failure. In many
sections of trail on high ridges and steep slopes the tread is indiscernible due to the intensity of the burn.
Due to the tread being lost in the burn and blazes being lost on trees, there is the potential for trails to
become braided. If the system trail is not apparent, visitors will veer off the main tread and potentially
cause more erosion by developing trail braids and reroutes.

Signs need to be installed at trail junctions and blazes re-established for erosion concerns and also
crew/traveler safety. Signs also need to be installed at trailheads or trail portals. Signs at portals will
provide information for recreational users about the hazards of a burned over landscape. A trailhead
bulletin board and trail signs were also burned. Signs are needed at access points for the N Fork of Trail
Creek, Mud Lake, Eightmile, West Pine, North Dry and Pole Gulch Trails. Bridges also need to be
modified and replaced in the West Pine and Eightmile drainages.

The 24.1 miles of Gallatin National Forest system trails that are currently at risk are:

Eightmile Trail No. 132
The Eightmile trail begins at the N. Dry Trailhead and ends at the divide where it meets Mud Lake, Tr.
No. 146. The Eightmile Trail burned from milepost 4.0 located in Section 36 to milepost 9.1 in Section 33
for a total of 5.1 miles. This trail runs parallel to the South Fork of Eightmile and the main Eightmile
drainage.

North Dry Divide Trail No. 135
The trail begins at the junction of Trail 132/N. Dry Rd 2613 and ends at the Livingston District boundary
on the Gallatin crest. The North Dry Divide Trail was burned for a total of 4.6 miles. The trail burned
from Section 25 on up the ridgeline to Helispot (81).

West Pine Trail No. 139
The West Pine Trail begins at the West Pine Trailhead and ends where it intersects the N. Dry Divide
Trail, No 135. The trail was completely burned for a total of 4.9 miles. We would like to establish an
upper trailhead that would use part of the old road system and then relocate 2 miles of trail up to the West
Pine ridgeline, where it would intersect with the existing system trail. This would involve about 2 miles
of new tread, drainage, blazing and signing. We would decommission 2.5 miles of existing trail, due to
Forest engineering assessments and expectations that the trail will fail in the long term. The trail currently
receives a high level of foot and stock use. The current trail was temporarily fixed for this fall hunting
season but will probably become impassable by next summer. The trail bridge and trailhead bulletin board
were also completely burned.

Mud Lake Trail No. 146
The Mud Lake Trail begins off of the Miller Creek Rd #1769 and ends in Section 32 where it meets the
Eightmile Trail, No. 132 on the divide. 1.0 mile burned on the Mud Lake Trail.

North Fork of Eightmile Trail No. 155
The North Fork of Eightmile begins in the bottom of the Eightmile drainage and heads North to intersect
the N. Dry Divide Trail No. 135 on the ridge. This trail is a 100% burned for a total of 5.0 miles.

Pole Gulch Trail No. 182
The Pole Gulch Trail begins in Hyalite rd in Big Creek and ends in Sec 5 in Eightmile. 1.0 miles of trail
were burned.
                                                      194
North Fork Trail Creek No. 443
The N. Fork of Trail Creek begins at the end of a road in Section 3 of private lands and ends where it
meets the N. Dry Divide Trail about 1 mile below the Gallatin Crest. The trail burned 100% for a total of
2.2 miles.

Restoration and rehabilitation treatments that are being recommended for each trail are:
1) Hazard tree, blow down and rock removal for public and outfitter safety
2) Drainage structures such as check dams, water bars and drain dips
3) Reblaze trees and re-build cairns on ridgeline trails to promote the use of one system trail verses an
increase in braids and reroutes. Braids lead to greater erosion concerns.
4) Tread and or cribbing reconstruction for surface drainage and erosion concerns.
5) One bulletin board and signs for trail junctions need to be purchased and installed.
6) Establish an upper trailhead at West Pine and perform trail relocation for 2 miles to the West Pine
ridge. The current trailhead is located along the side of the road, lacks parking and is difficult for horse
trailers to turn around. Cribbing burned out of the existing trail and will only last on a temporary basis due
to steep side slope and grade.
7) Replace/rehab and modify bridges in West Pine and Eightmile drainages.


NOTE: These treatments are being recommended at different levels for each trail.

The following factors are being taken into consideration such as: trail grade, side slope, alluviums,
topography, vegetation (or lack of), soils, and watersheds. The type of use a trail receives has also been
considered such as stock use verses foot traffic. These treatments will address concerns related to erosion
and additional runoff and sediment from the trail system washing out and transporting sediment to streams.

 NFP Info Worksheet                                            Date: November 2001

NEW PROJECTS:                            KP2 Burned Area Rehab for 2001 Fire Areas

   Project ID: (GNF# - Julie Shea will assign)


   Project Name :
                                          Fridley Fire Trail Restoration
   Project status: (proposed, planned, active, completed)
                                    Proposed and planned for next summer
   Estimated total project cost:
   $297,440
   Project type (2001 burned area rehab (BLACK) or restoration (GREEN)):
   2001 Burned Area Rehab of existing 24.1 miles of trails, relocation of West Pine Trailhead and 2
   mile of trail relocation on West Pine trail. (from new trailhead to ridge)
   Planned or proposed initiation date for project

                                                        195
                                                      June 2002
    Planned or proposed completion date for project:
                                                     October 2002
    State where project occurs:                                                MT


    Any Congressional or administrative earmarks:                              none


    Collaborative projects: (yes or no – e.g., Coop project with State, etc)
    Yes, working with private landowners, outfitters, and a potential grant from the state for two
    backcountry trail rangers in the Gallatin Range. We would also potentially work with trail
    contractors to do this work.


Comments: (Describe briefly the project plan and goal)
Seven system trails were located in the interior of the Fridley Fire perimeter. The goal is to restore and
rehab 24.1 miles of system trails for the local communities of Livingston and Bozeman and outfitters to
access the Gallatin Range. One major trailhead was completely burned. The project involves replacing
and repairing drainage dips and water bars for erosion concerns, hazard tree and blow down removal, rock
removal and slope stabilization for public safety and erosion concerns. In many sections of trail on high
ridges and steep slopes the tread is indiscernible after the fire. Signs need to be installed at trail junctions
and route markers re-established for public safety. Redefining system trails will alleviate the
development of braided trails and a potential increase in erosion. Signs need to be installed at trail portals
and trailheads for education and information. Signs at portals will provide information for recreational
users about the hazards of a burned over landscape. A new trailhead and parking area needs to be
established, a new bulletin board needs to be posted and new construction of about 1 mile of tread needs
to be built to tie in with the new trailhead and current West Pine trail on the ridgeline.


    Activities – specific tasks within the project

                             Work          Start       Completion         Activity
Activity                    Amount         Date          Date             Cost/unit       Total Cost
Hazard Tree/Blow down      24.1 miles    6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $500.00/mi      $ 12,050
Removal
Drainage Structures        24.1 miles    6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $2,500/mi       $ 60,250
Route Markers/Reblaze      24.1 miles    6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $1.19/marker    $ 10,000
Tread Reconstruction       16.85 miles   6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $6000/mi        $101,100
Bulletin Board and trail   1 BB          6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $2000/board     $     2,000
signs                      12 signs                                   $ 150/sign      $     1,800


Trail Relocation and       2.0 miles     6/30/2002    10/30/2002      $12,000/mi      $ 24,000

                                                          196
drainage
New Trailhead, road          2.5 miles      6/30/2002   10/30/2002       $15,000/trailhead   $ 15,000
gravel and parking area
Rehab/Replace Foot           1 bridge       6/30/2002   10/30/2002       $1200/bridge        $   1,200
bridge and cutout            23 foot logs   7/15/2002    7/17/2002       $ 750/day/7         $   1,500
firecrew foot logs to open                                               person crew
horse fords
Survey and Design            30 days        4/30/2002   10/30/2002       30% of project      $ 68,640
Administrative Costs                                                     cost
(NEPA)
       TOTAL                                                                                 $297,440


    Job Code:

                                                         Location
           Latitude: 110 52’30’’
           Longitude: 45 30’


    Compartment/boundary unit name (limited to 50 characters) - optional


    Restoration – WUI acres: (Optional, if affecting wildland urban interface)


    Predominant watershed (+ HUC): (Optional)l


    County: Park


    Predominant fire regime: (I II III IV V)


    Predominant condition class: (1           2    3)



    T&E species: (List T&E affected, i.e., if one of the goals is to enhance TES species habitat)
    Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout This project should enhance habitat by limiting erosion and
    sediment in streams for fish.
    Communities At Risk:
Livingston and Bozeman Recreational Opportunities and Outfitter/Guide Business
    Congressional District:                                  1


    Special Designation: Wilderness Study Area
                                                            197
                                                 Funding
      Funding category: (Title II or Title IV)

      Requested Amount: $297,440

      Funded Amount:                                       To be determined



                                                 Notes:




Information provided by: Diane Taliaferro and Jonathan Kempff




Approved by: Terri Marceron




                                                   198
                        The Five-D System for Effective Fireline Waterbars
Michael J. Furniss
USDA Forest Service
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Corvallis, Oregon

To make effective waterbars on firelines, just remember the 5-D System. The five D‟s are:
Distance, Diagonal, Divert, Discharge, and Dissipate.

Most forest values depend on healthy soils; clean water, streams full of fish, diverse wildlife habitats,
productive timberlands, beautiful places, and so on. Firefighters strive to protect our soils by suppressing
the wildfires that can damage them.

Methods used to fight fires, especially firelines, can cause erosion and soil degradation, and need to be
treated to properly maintain forest values. Fireline surfaces usually cause runoff during heavy rainfall and
snowmelt. Without waterbars, excessive runoff will concentrate and cause rills and gullies to form.
Effective waterbars can prevent this from happening.

Distance: To be effective, waterbars must break up drainage areas and runoff on the fireline so that
there‟s not enough erosive energy available in runoff to erode the soil. To ensure that excess runoff cannot
accumulate, waterbars must be placed the proper distance apart, based on the slope of the fireline. This
breaks up the area that accumulates runoff, keeping it small enough to prevent damage. Erosion potential
depends on slope and a table is provided on the next page that gives the maximum distance between
waterbars, or between a waterbar and the next upslope drainage break.

Diagonal: After deciding where you will put each waterbar, the next decision is how to build them. An
important principle in working with flowing water is: don't bully the flow, lead it. Waterbars built directly
across a fireline oppose the water's energy and tend to fail. Waterbars built diagonal to the fireline lead the
water off and work much better. A diagonal waterbar has a gentle slope along its base that leads the water
off. A simple rule is to add 5 to the slope of the road, in percent, and build the waterbar at that many
degrees from perpendicular. Or simpler yet, just build them at 30 degrees off perpendicular (see the
illustration on the next page).

Divert: A good waterbar will divert the water off the fireline. To do this the waterbar must be sufficiently
deep to handle all the flow for as long as it's needed. Excavation is much more effective than fill in
making a durable and effective waterbar (a ditch or a dip beats a dike).

Discharge: Another feature of a good waterbar is that it will discharge the flow. A good waterbar is not a
dam – it must have an open outlet.

Dissipate: Finally, a good waterbar should dissipate the flow just below the outlet to exhaust its eroding
power and cause it to filter into the soil. This may require placing slash, rock, or debris below the outlet,
or fudging a bit on distance to take advantage of natural features that will dissipate the water's erosive
energy.




                                                     199
So remember, when locating and building waterbars, place them the right distance apart, at a diagonal to
the fireline, so that they divert, then discharge, then dissipate the energy of the flowing water. Be sure to
make them deep enough so they'll be durable.

                 Fireline slope            Maximum Distance Apart
                       %                                     (feet)   Recommended spacing for
                       1-6 ................................... 300    waterbars on firelines.
                       7-9 ................................... 200    Waterbars should be no further
                       10-14 ............................... 150      apart than this, but they may be
                                                                      closer. When in doubt, put in
                       15-20 ................................. 90     more. From: UDSA-Forest
                       21-40 ................................. 50     Service, “Sale Administrator's
                       41-60 ................................. 25     Handbook”




                 Illustration by
              Kathryn Ronnenberg


Reference: Hauge, C.J., M.J. Furniss and F.D. Euphrat. 1979. Soil erosion in California's Coast Forest
District. California Geology. June, 1979




                                                      200
Illustration of Trail Structures

      Clearing Limits




              201
Removing Down Trees




        202
Removing Leaning Trees




         203
                Grade Dip Profile on 10% Trailtread




Grade dips are much more effective than waterbars and require less maintenance.
       Along with out-sloping, they are the drainage structure of choice.




                                     204
              Grade Dip Construction




Trail tread
   10%




                       205
              Log or Treated Waterbar Construction




Waterbars can be rock or log. Some limbs can be left attached to the top side.

                                     206
Alternate Drawing for Waterbar Construction




                    207
Rehab Graphics




     208
                                        FIRE INFORMATION
                                     Wildland Fire Use in the Flat Tops

      Lost Lakes & Big Fish Fires
      Routt National Forest, Yampa Ranger District and
      White River National Forest, Blanco Ranger District

        For Immediate Release

        Tuesday, September 3, 2002 - 10:00 a.m.
        Contact: Fire Information
        Meeker, Colorado
        970-948-9049 or -9546



Ever since lightning started the Big Fish and Lost Lakes wildland fires this summer in the Flat Tops Wilderness
Area, they have been distinctly different than most. Rather than bring in Incident Management Teams with
firefighters and equipment to put the blaze out, a team of fire experts was brought in to plan, monitor and direct
these wildland fires. Both fires are being managed for natural resource benefit because a plan was in place to
facilitate a fire use strategy in reaching fire goals and management objectives. This is a major departure from the
way the business of firefighting has been done traditionally for the last 100 years, and it‟s the wave of the future.

Fire is one of the most prolific and abundant natural forces in nature. The Flat Tops Wilderness ecosystem is a
“Fire Dependent” environment. That means fire is necessary for the survival of species of plant and animal life
calling this area home. In the past, millions of dollars and hundreds of firefighters have attempted to put out all
wildland fires. In spite of those massive efforts, in many cases nature put the fires out with the help of rainfalls or
snows that starved the fires of fuel to burn.

In 1995 a new Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy directed agencies to achieve a balance between
traditional suppression efforts to protect life, property and resources; and fire use to regulate fuels to maintain
healthy ecosystems. Referred to as Interagency Fire Use Management Teams, they are comprised of experts in
long-term risk management, large fire growth simulation, fuels management, public information, operational
considerations and logistical support. These teams are called upon to assist local agencies in carrying out requested
planning, implementation, and/or evaluation activities to support decision-making and accomplish fire use
objectives.

Since 1996 Interagency Fire Use Management Team expertise has significantly redefined how fire is perceived and
introduced new concepts to traditional suppression firefighting efforts, while in the long run benefiting various
ecosystem‟s health and reducing the potential for future catastrophic fires. The main strategy of these teams is to
confine the fire to a predetermined maximum manageable area to realize the ecological benefits of burning and to
minimize damage to private lands. They use vegetation maps, weather data, and fuel models to predict where and
when fires may leave areas of concern and prepare to control the fire when it reaches those points.



                                                          209
The Flat Tops Wilderness ecosystem fire history indicates landscape fire activity should occur every 100 or so
years. The last major fire burned about 88 thousand acres of this region in 1898. Fire is an integral part of this area
and it does not harm the habitat. As one of the largest high elevation wilderness ecosystems in the U.S., natural
balance needs to be restored to the Flat Tops with fire being allowed to function in its natural ecological role as
soon as reasonably possible.

The Flat Tops management area is utilizing cutting edge wildland fire management practices thanks to the efforts of
a unified private, corporate, federal, state and local consortium and the expertise provided by Interagency Fire Use
Management Teams.




                                                        -END




                                                         210

				
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