LCA_summary_ver2b by HC111111145256

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									  Life Cycle Assessment:
  A simple overview of a complex
  process
Marty Matlock
Jennie Popp
Nathan Kemper
Zara Niederman
Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability

Mike Faupel
Michele Halsell
Jon Johnson
Applied Sustainability Center

Greg Thoma
Darin Nutter
Tom Costello
Institute for Sustainable Engineering Analysis
Everything is Connected




                          Source: R. E. Ricklefs’ Economy of Nature
Everything is changing
Every process has inputs and outputs


                     Energy      Water
 Raw Materials




 Raw Materials         Manufacturing                  End Product
                         Process




 Raw Materials                            Gas Waste

                 Solid Waste
                                Liquid Waste
    The more processes, the more complexity
                                                      Energy           Water

                                                                                                        Energy           Water



                      Energy          Water            Manufacturing
Raw Materials                                            Process
                                                                                                         Manufacturing
                                                                                                           Process


                                                                                  Gas Waste
Raw Materials         Manufacturing                                                                                                Gas Waste
                        Process                 Solid Waste
                                                                  Liquid Waste
                                                                                                  Solid Waste
                                                                                                                    Liquid Waste

                                                Gas Waste
Raw Materials                                                                  Energy           Water

                Solid Waste
                                 Liquid Waste




                                                                                Manufacturing
                                                                                  Process

                     End Product

                                                                                                           Gas Waste


                                                                        Solid Waste
                                                                                           Liquid Waste
Life Cycle Assessment quantifies processes

Goal: Quantify inputs and outputs for a system in terms of a
  standardized unit of measure.

The scope and structure of the LCA are directly dependent
   upon the unit of measure (functional unit):
1. Energy embodied in a single product;
2. Green house gasses produced per unit product;
3. Tons of carbon produced per volume of product;
4. Volume of water consumed per mass of product…

Goal and Scope of LCA must be formulated at the outset of the
  project, and the functional unit must be defined.

LCA Process is described in ISO 14040 and 14044 Standards.
Four Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment




                                                                  Interpretation and Context
     Phase 1: Goal Definition and Scope




             Phase 2: Life Cycle Inventory




                 Phase 3: Life Cycle Impact Assessment




                          Phase 4: Assessment/Scenario Analysis
     Life Cycle Assessment:
   Reconciling Functional Units




CO2
                                   Green
       1 g CH4 = 25 g CO2-equiv.
CH4                                House Gas
                                   Potentials
N 2O
     Cotton LCA Case Study
  Phase 1: Goal Definition and Scope

• Develop a model

• Estimate the energy embodied in a unit
  (metric ton or 480 lb bale) of cotton
  produced (lint plus seed)

• Compare the total energy (MJ) required
  over varying cotton production strategies
            Cotton LCA Case Study
               Phase 2: LCA Inventory

                           Production
Region                     Strategy         Irrigation   Fertilizer
North America East         Mechanized       Med          High
North America West         Mechanized       High         High
South America Mech         Mechanized       Medium       Medium
South America Non-Mech     Non-Mechanized   Med          Med
Australia                  Mechanized       High         High
Mediterranean - Mech       Mechanized       Medium       High
Mediterranean - Non-Mech   Non-Mechanized   Medium       Low
Asia - Mech                Mechanized       High         High
Asia - Non-Mech            Non-Mechanized   Medium       Medium
Africa - Non Mech          Non-Mechanized   Low          Low
            Africa Cotton Production: Organic
                Fertilizer and Non-Irrigated

Field Preparation                Planting                                                    Pest Control
                                                                         Irrigation
     Manual                       Manual
                                                                                                Manual

                                                                                                                                     Legend
        1066                         98                                    0                      380
 [5] India,[6], [19]          [5] (India),[6]                           Rain-Fed          [5] (India),[6],[19]                         Biofuels


                                                                                                                                       Fossil Fuels


                                                                                                                                 All values MJ/ha
                                                                                                                                 unless otherw ise
                                                                                                                                 stated




            Weed Control
                                                                                        Harvesting                                Tonne of Cotton
                                                     Fertilization                                                   Yield
                Manual                                                                                                             Bale of Cotton
                                                                                           Manual
                                  Manual                             Embodied
                                 Application                         Chemical
                                                                                                                 0.75 Tonne/ha
                  990                                                                       618                   [14](Africa)
            [5] (India),[6]           271                              0              [4] (Turkey),[6]
                              [5] (India),[6],[19]                   Manure

                                                                                            103
                                                                                      [5] (India),[6]
North America: Eastern United States
  Field Preparation                      Planting                                     Irrigation                            Pest Control

      Mechanical                        Mechanical                                    Mechanical                                Mechanical


        1895                               105                                           4223                                        141
     [2] Arizona                       [2] Arizona                                     [4] Turkey                                [2] Arizona


        4023
 [8] New Mexico, [2]
                                          338                                            5000                                      36                                Legend
                                   [8] New Mexico, [2]                                 [9] Turkey                             (Embodied)
                                                                                                                         [2] Arizona, [21], [26]
                                                                                                                                                                       Biofuels
        1106                               213
  [21] Arkansas, [2]                [21] Arkansas, [2]                                  2328
                                                                              Water Amount [4] Turkey,                                                                 Fossil Fuels
                                                                              Energy Estimation [20], [2]
         144                               24                                                                                                                    All values MJ/ha
    (Embodied)                        (Embodied)                                                                                                                 unless otherw ise
 [21] Arkansas, [26]               [21] Arkansas, [26]                                                                                                           stated
                                                                                        7449
                                                                              Water Amount [1] Greece,
                                                                              Energy Estimation [20], [2]




             Weed Control                                 Fertilization                                           Harvesting                         Yield             Tonne of Cotton 1000kg

                                         Mechanical                            Embodied
                   Mechanical                                                                                      Mechanical
                                         Application                            Chemical
                                                                                                                                                       2.85
                   282                       105                                  5293                              1895                            tonne/ha
               [2] Arizona               [2] Arizona                       [21] Arkansas [13]                    [2] Arizona                       [2] Georgia


                 1440                       354                                                                    4023                                2.2
          [8] New Mexico, [2]        [21] Arkansas, [2]                   AVG: 7564 STDEV: 822              [8] New Mexico, [2]                    tonne/ha
                                                                                [16] ICAC,
                                                                                                                                                      [21]
                                                                             [2],[4],[9],[10]
                                                                                                                                                   Arkansas
                   72                        45                                                                    1106
              (Embodied)                 (Embodied)                                                          [21] Arkansas, [2]
         [2] Arizona, [21], [26]    [2] Turkey, [21], [26]                                                                                              2.5
                                                                                                                                                    tonne/ha
                                                                                                                     782                               [21]
                                                                                                                 (Embodied)                        Mississippi
                                                                                                            [2] Turkey, [21], [26]
                                                                                                                   Cotton LCA Case Study
                       Phase 3: Impact Assessment
                  North America: Eastern United States
             Field Preparation                                                                                                                                                                                             Planting                                                                                                                                             Irrigation                                                                                                                                                       Pest Control

                                 Mechanical                                                                                                                                                                               Mechanical                                                                                                                                            Mechanical                                                                                                                                                         Mechanical


                                                                Field Preparation                                                                                                                                                Planting                                                                                                                                                Irrigation                                                                                                                                                                  Pest Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      X <= 116.5                                                         X <= 237.5
                                    X <= 1423                                                          X <= 4386                                                                                      X <= 146.7                                                X <= 390.6                                                                                          X <= 2239                                            X <= 12073                                                                                                      5.0%                                                              95.0%
                                      5.0%                                                               95.0%                                                                                           5.0%                                                     95.0%                                                                                                5.0%                                                95.0%                                                                                   1.2
                  5                                                                                                                                                   6                                                                                                                                                                             1.6

                 4.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.4
                                                                                                                                                                      5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1
                  4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.2
                 3.5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Values x 10^-4
Values x 10^-4




                                                                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                                                     Values x 10^-3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1                                                                                                                                                             0.8
                  3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Values x 10^-2
                 2.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.8
                                                                                                                                                                      3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0.6
                  2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0.6
                 1.5                                                                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.4                                                                                                                                                            0.4
                  1
                                                                                                                                                                      1                                                                                                                                                                             0.2
                 0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0.2
                  0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                       0.5   1                     1.5      2          2.5         3    3.5        4        4.5      5   5.5                                          0                                                                                                                                                                                   0           2          4      6               8           10      12        14   16
                                                                                                                                                                          50   100                         150           200       250        300         350         400     450    500                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0
                                                                  Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Energy Required (MJ/Ha)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         80     100         120        140           160         180         200   220         240          260         280
                                                                   Values in Thousands                                                                                                                                     Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                                                      Values in Thousands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Energy Required (MJ/Ha)




                                                                         Weed Control                                                                                                                                                                                               Fertilization                                                                                                                                                                                         Harvesting                                                                                                                                                                      Yield                                       MJ/Tonne of Cotton

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mechanical                                                                                                         Embodied
                                                                                       Mechanical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mechanical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Application                                                                                                         Chemical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Simulated Cotton Energy Production, North America East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            X <=5973.99                             X <=10526.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5%                                     95%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.12
                                                                                              Weed Control                                                                                                                               Fertilizer Application                                                                                               Fertilizer (Embodied)                                                                                                                                  Harvesting                                                                                                                                   Yield
                                                            X <= 282                                                               X <= 2163
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  M ean = 7973.63
                                                              5.0%                                                                   95.0%                                                                   X <= 99.3                                                                X <= 535.8                                      X <= 5652                                                   X <= 7205                                                                        X <= 1946                                                             X <= 3178                                                                            X <= 2.2987                            X <= 2.7433
                                                   5
                                                                                                                                                                                                2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                               5.0%                                                                     95.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5.0%                                                       95.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5.0%                                                                  95.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5.0%                                   95.0%                   0.1
                                                  4.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8
                                                   4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1                                                                                                                                               3
                                                                                                                                                                                                 2                                                                                                                        7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.08
                                                  3.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Values x 10^-4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Values x 10^-3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6                                                                                                                                      0.8
                                 Values x 10^-4




                                                                                                                                                                               Values x 10^-3




                                                   3
                                                                                                                                                                                                1.5                                                                                                                       5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.06
                                                  2.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4
                                                   2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1                                                                                                                        3                                                                                                                                      0.4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.04
                                                  1.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1
                                                   1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                0.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0.02
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1
                                                  0.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0                                                                                                                                       0
                                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                 0                                                                                                                            5   5.5                           6               6.5           7               7.5            8                                         1.6   1.8         2      2.2                       2.4   2.6        2.8     3         3.2           3.4         3.6                        0
                                                        0                    0.5               1                   1.5         2               2.5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                      50         100       150     200       250    300         350     400   450   500     550    600                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.1         2.2            2.3        2.4       2.5     2.6   2.7            2.8   2.9
                                                                                              Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                                        Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                                                                                            4            6.5                      9                     11.5   14
                                                                                               Values in Thousands                                                                                                                           Energy Required (MJ/Ha)                                                                                                 Values in Thousands                                                                                                                            Values in Thousands                                                                                                                           Tonnes/Ha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Energy Required, MJ/Tonne Cotton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Values in Thousands
                                                                             Cotton LCA Case Study
                                                          Phase 4: Assessment/Scenario Analysis

                                                180,000



                                                160,000
Embodied Energy of Cotton Production MJ/Tonne




                                                140,000



                                                120,000



                                                100,000



                                                 80,000



                                                 60,000



                                                 40,000



                                                 20,000



                                                     0
                                                          North America   North America   South America   South America   Australia   Mediterranean   Mediterranean   Asia Mech   Asia Non-Mech Africa Non-Mech
                                                               East           West         Mechanized       Non-Mech                      Mech         Non-Mech
Life Cycle Assessment Case Study:
Carbon Equivalent GHG of Fluid Milk




   Production               Processing




  Consumption               Distribution
Life Cycle Assessment Case Study:
Carbon Equivalent GHG of Fluid Milk

								
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