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									 CULTURAL
 SNAPSHOT
Hispanics/ Latinos in
South Omaha
“ROUGHLY ONE-FOURTH OF THE
NATION'S KINDERGARTNERS ARE
HISPANIC, EVIDENCE OF AN
ACCELERATING TREND THAT NOW
WILL SEE MINORITY CHILDREN
BECOME THE MAJORITY BY 2023.”-
(YEN, 2009)
 SOURCES OF CULTURAL
 HERITAGE
• The Hispanic/ Latino Community of Eastern
  Nebraska is comprised of individuals whose
  ancestry can be traced to Mexico, Central
  America, South America and the Caribbean.
Definition of Hispanic
The term “Hispanic” as it refers to an ethnic group was created on May 4, 1978, when the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget published the following regulation in the Federal Register:

"Directive 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting"
that defined a Hispanic to be "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South
American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race" (p. 19269).
This definition (refined, with minor adjustments, in 1997) largely focuses on the countries of
origin (which may be generations in the past) and assumes that peoples in these countries
share a common "Spanish culture" that is also shared by some people living in the United
States.

Hispanic- American-Families. Marriage and Family Encyclopedia. Net Industries. 2009. 8 April,
2009. <a href="http://family.jrank.org/pages/773/Hispanic-American-Families-Hispanics-
Latinos-Group-Definition.html">Hispanic-American Families - The Hispanics/latinos
And Group Definition</a>.

**The terms Hispanic and Latino are NOT interchangeable for many individuals living in this
country. Many choose their own terminology based upon their personal feelings to their
mestizaje or mixed blood that is not solely European (Spanish or Portuguese) but also their
Indigenous background that dates prior to the European conquest.
Academics: Reading in
Nebraska
   Reading: Hispanics/ Latinos
    http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprove
    mentPercentage.aspx?Level=st&Category=6&Subject=1
    &AYPGroup=8

   Reading: Migrants
    http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprove
    mentPercentage.aspx?Category=8&AypGroup=9&Level=
    st&Subject=1
   Reading: ELLs
    http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/PerfImprovementP
    ercentage.aspx?Category=3&AypGroup=12&Level=st&S
    ubject=1
READING: HISPANICS/
LATINOS (2007-08) SOURCE:NEBRASKA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
READING: MIGRANTS
SOURCE:NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
READING: ELLS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Academics: Mathematics in
Nebraska
o Math: Hispanics/ Latinos
  http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprovementPerce
  ntage.aspx?Level=st&Category=6&Subject=2&AYPGroup=8
o Math: Migrants
  http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprovementPerce
  ntage.aspx?Category=8&AypGroup=9&Level=st&Subject=2
o Math: ELLs
  http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/PerfImprovementPercentage.
  aspx?Category=3&AypGroup=12&Level=st&Subject=2a
MATH: HISPANICS/ LATINOS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MATH: MIGRANTS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MATH: ELLS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Academics: Science
Achievement in Nebraska
 o Science: Hispanics/ Latinos
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprovementPercenta
   ge.aspx?Level=st&Category=6&Subject=25&AYPGroup=8
 o Science: Migrants
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprovementPercenta
   ge.aspx?Category=8&AypGroup=9&Level=st&Subject=25
 o Science: ELLs
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/TempPerfImprovementPercenta
   ge.aspx?Category=3&AypGroup=12&Level=st&Subject=25
SCIENCE: HISPANICS/ LATINOS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SCIENCE: MIGRANTS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SCIENCE: ELLS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Academics: Writing in
Nebraska
 o Writing: ELLs
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/PerfImprovementPercentage
   .aspx?Category=3&AYPGroup=12&Level=st&Subject=3
 o Writing: Hispanics
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/PerfImprovementPercentage
   .aspx?Level=st&Category=6&Subject=3&AYPGroup=8
 o Writing: Migrant
   http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Page/PerfImprovementPercentage
   .aspx?Category=8&AYPGroup=9&Level=st&Subject=3
WRITING: HISPANICS/ LATINOS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WRITING: MIGRANTS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WRITING: ELLS
SOURCE: NEBRASKA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
        General Trends & Issues
 •Demographics
–The Hispanic population is the nation's largest minority group
–http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=96
–The largest Hispanic subgroup in the United States is of Mexican origin, comprising
about two-thirds (66 percent) of the Hispanic population.
–By 2020, the Hispanic population is expected to account for about half the growth of
the U.S. labor force.
•117 million people will be added to the population during this period due to the effect
of new immigration, 67 million will be the immigrants themselves and 50 million will be
their U.S.-born children or grandchildren.
•Latino population growth in the new century has
been more a product of the natural increase
(births minus deaths) of the existing population
 than it has been of new international migration.
•http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table%201.pdf
•Illegal Immigration
–There were 11.9 million unauthorized immigrants
 living in the United States in March 2008,
indicates that unauthorized immigrants make
up 4% of the U.S. population.
     General Trends & Issues

•Crime
–In 2007, Latinos accounted for 40% of all sentenced federal offenders-more than triple their
share (13%) of the total U.S. adult population. Among sentenced immigration offenders, most
were convicted of unlawfully entering or remaining in the U.S. Fully 75% of Latino offenders
sentenced for immigration crimes in 2007 were convicted of entering the U.S. unlawfully or
residing in the country without authorization.
•English Speaking Ability
–http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/hispanics2007/Table%2019.pdf
•Birth Rate
–Latino immigrants have birth rates twice as high as those of the rest of the U.S. population,
foretelling a sharp increase ahead in the percentage of Latinos who will be in schools and the
work place.
–Hispanic women have a higher fertility rate than non-Hispanic women: 84 births per 1,000
women in the year preceding the date of the survey, compared with 63 births per 1,000 Non-
Hispanic women.
   General Trends & Issues

•Poverty & Unemployment
–Hispanic Families are twice as likely as non-Hispanic Families to live in poverty; 20
of Hispanic individuals are poor compared with 11% of non-Hispanic .
–Hispanic individuals comprise about 21 percent of those living in poverty in the Unit
States. As for Hispanic children specifically, 28 percent were living in poverty.
–http://pewhispanic.org/files/other/middecade/Table-30.pdf
   General Trends & Issues

•Hispanic Population in Omaha
–People of Hispanic origin make up 7.4% of    Greater Omaha’s 2007
population. Approximately 61,223 Hispanic individuals are currently living in
the Metro area.
–It is projected that by 2012 the Hispanic population in Omaha will increase to
75,615, comprising 8.7% of the population.
–Http://pewhispanic.org/states/?stateid=NE
ISSUES AND TRENDS IN
EDUCATION: AN OVERVIEW
Hispanic children represent a large proportion of school-aged
immigrant children. Specifically, Hispanic immigrant children account for
more than half (58%) of all immigrant youth in the U.S. (Kohler and
Lazarín 2007).
There has been significant growth in the number of Spanish-
speaking Head Start participants. While in 1993 17.5% of Head Start
children were Spanish-speakers, by 2004 the proportion had grown to
more than 23% (Kohler and Lazarín 2007).
Special Education: Hispanics are about as likely as Whites to receive
special education services, but more likely than Asians/Pacific Islanders
and less likely than Blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives to do so
(NCES 2003).
Latino and Black students are more likely to attend schools that
serve a large concentration of low-income students. “Among 4th
graders, 49% of Hispanic and 48% of Black students are enrolled in
schools with the highest measure of poverty, compared to 5% of White
and 16% of Asian/Pacific Islander 4th-grade students” (Kohler and
Lazarín 2007).
MINORITY ENROLLMENT:
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACE/ETHNICITY OF PUBLIC
SCHOOL STUDENTS ENROLLED IN GRADES K-12, BY REGION:
FALL 1972 AND 2004




1 Includes Asian/Pacific Islanders # Rounds to zero
Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Public School Students: Indicator 5,” The
Condition of Education 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2006, p. 32.
ISSUES AND TRENDS BY
SUBJECT
Student performance in reading
 • Hispanic students had higher NAEP reading scores in 1999 than in 1975. However, Hispanic
    students’ NAEP performance remains lower than White students. (NCES 2003).
Student performance in mathematics
 • Hispanic students had higher NAEP mathematics scores in 1999 than in the 1970s and early
    1980s, and the gaps between Hispanic and White students’ NAEP scores have decreased at two
    age levels. (NCES 2003).
Student performance in science
 • Hispanic students had higher NAEP science scores in 1999 than in 1977. Nonetheless, gaps
    between Hispanic and White students’ NAEP scores remain. (NCES 2003).
Advanced course-taking in high school
 • Hispanic students are less likely than White students to complete advanced mathematics, some
    advanced science, and advanced English coursework, but are more likely than White and Black
    students to complete advanced foreign language classes. (NCES 2003).
Advanced Placement examinations
 • Between 1984 and 2000, the number of Hispanic students taking Advanced Placement (AP)
    examinations increased. (NCES 2003).

Source:
National Center for Education Statistics. “Status and Trends in Hispanic Education.” U.S. Department
of Education: Institute of Education Sciences (NCES 2003–008). April, 2003.
AREAS OF CONCERN FOR
SCHOOLS
Absenteeism: Hispanic 8th- and 12th-graders have higher absenteeism rates than
Whites. “School absenteeism can be a concern because it decreases the amount of
learning opportunities children have at school. In 2000, 26 percent of Hispanic students in
the 8th grade and 34 percent of Hispanic students in the 12th grade reported that they had
been absent 3 or more days in the preceding month” (NCES 2003).

Grade retention, suspension, and expulsion: Hispanic students have retention and
suspension/expulsion rates that are higher than those of Whites, but lower than those of
Blacks (NCES 2003).
“ In 2004, for example, 11% of Hispanic youth who had dropped out of high school had
been retained in a grade at some point in their school career, compared to 4.3% of
Hispanic youth who completed high school.” (Kohler and Lazarín 2007).

Dropout rates: Hispanic students have higher high school dropout rates than White or
Black students. “The average status dropout rate for Hispanics is partly attributable to the
markedly higher dropout rates among Hispanic immigrants; more than one-half of Hispanic
immigrants never enrolled in a U.S. school, but are included as high school dropouts if
they did not complete high school in their country of origin” (NCES 2003).
“High school dropout rates are particularly high for 16- to 24-year-old foreign-born Latinos.
Foreign-born Hispanic dropouts account for 25.3% of all dropouts in the United States”
(Kohler and Lazarín 2007).
ELL Instructional Strategies

• Identify a content objective (what you want students
  to know about the content taught that day)
   o Example: Students will be able to identify
     the ways in which WWI caused WWII.
• Identify a language objective (what you want students
  to be able to do with the English language at the end
  of the lesson)
   o Example: Students will be able to write, in a list,
     the ways in which WWI caused WWII.
• Post both the content objective and language
  objective each day.
• Go over the objectives with students each day at the
  beginning, during, and after the lesson.
ELL Instructional Strategies
• Use key concept words.
• Identify the concept for each lesson.
   o Example: Condensation
• Give ELL students the word at the beginning of class,
  or even the day before, so they have time to do a little
  background work before the lesson.
• Allowing students extra time to prep themselves will
  result in students coming to class with more ability to
  participate.
ELL Instructional Strategies

• Use visual aides whenever possible.
• Depict directions using visuals.
• Depict vocabulary using visuals.
• Have students create the visuals. The more
  relevant it is to them, the more meaningful the
  learning.
• For more strategies and handouts see the folder
  that accompanies this presentation.
Community Resources for
Curriculum
• Midwest Equity Assistance Center- provides a variety of free
  services including professional development workshops, seminars,
  training, and information for teachers, administrators, and parents
      www.meac.org

     Check with your local school district for bilingual translators or other
     cultural resources.
     **Omaha Public Schools provides each of its schools with a bilingual
     liaison that either works in your building or travels between buildings
     in your school’s neighborhood.

• University of Nebraska at Omaha College of Education- is now
  offering both the ESL and Bilingual Education endorsements.
     Contact: Dr. Gigi Brignoni for more information.
Web Resources for
Curriculum
 •    Colorín Colorado http://www.colorincolorado.org/index.php?langswitch=en
 •    Smithsonian Institute Latino Center http://latino.si.edu/index.htm
http://www.sites.si.edu/education/teachers_res2.htm
 •    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee: Center for Latin American and Caribbean
      Studies http://www4.uwm.edu/clacs/outreach/curriculum/index.cfm
 •    University of Texas- Latin American Network Information Center
http://www1.lanic.utexas.edu/la/region/k-12/
 •    University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign: Center for Latin American and
      Caribbean Studies http://www.clacs.uiuc.edu/outreach/k12/resources/sp00/
 •    University of Arizona http://clas.arizona.edu/outreach/educational_resources/

 •    Latino Educator’s Network           http://www.latinoeducatorsnetwork.com


**This is only a small sample of central web sites to culturally responsive web sites that also provide a
plethora of links to other similar sites.
Classroom Management
Strategies
• Create a welcoming classroom.
• Display items from students' home country.
• Incorporate activities where the student can teach the
  other students about their home country and culture.
• Celebrate similarities!
• Research the country/culture of students.
• Respect and accommodate for differences.
   o Example: It is a sign of respect for Hispanic
     students to refer to a teacher as "Miss"
AGENCIES & CURRENT
PROGRAMS
 Youth Services/ Education Resources
 South Omaha Boys & Girls Club
 The Club offers programming in the areas of Character and Leadership, Education and Career Development, Health and Life Skills,
 The Arts, and Sports, Fitness, and Recreation. Membership is $20 annually; arrangements can be made if there is a financial
 difficulty.
 5051 South 22nd Street
 Omaha, NE 68107
 Phone: (402) 733-8333 Fax: (402) 733-7397
 http://www.bgcomaha.org/index.asp
 Migrant/ Immigrant Resources
 NAF Multicultural Human Development Corp.
 English language classes, ABE (Adult Basic Education), job training, migrant education outreach/ recruitment, housing assistance.
 4826 South 24th Street
 Omaha, Nebraska 68107
 Phone: (402)734-4100
 Fax: (402)734-4103
 www.nafmhdc.org
 Nebraska Appleseed
 These are Nebraska Appleseed’s guiding principles, and have been since our non-profit, non-partisan law project started “sowing the seeds of
 justice” in 1996. Nebraska Appleseed focuses on advancing policies and practices that promote self-sufficiency for Nebraska’s working poor
 families, promote the integration and participation of immigrant populations in communities across Nebraska, provide safe and adequate child
 welfare services to children who need protection, increase low-income people’s access to the legal system and support democracy by removing
 barriers to low-income people’s participation in the electoral and public policy decision-making processes.
 941 'O' Street, Suite 920 Lincoln, NE 68508
 Phone: (402)438-8853 Fax: (402)438-0263 http://neappleseed.org
AGENCIES & CURRENT
PROGRAMS
Health Care
One World Community Health Centers
One World offers medical and dental care services. Charges for services are based on the patient’s ability to pay.
4920 South 30th Street, Suite 103 Omaha, NE 68107
Phone: (402) 734-4110 Fax: (402) 991-5642 http://www.oneworldomaha.org/
Misc.
Juan Diego Center
The Juan Diego Center offers a food pantry, SHARE food buying program, individual or family counseling, family
enrichment programs, micro-business training and development, as well as immigration legal assistance.
5211 S 31st St
Omaha, NE 68107
Phone: (402) 731-5413 http://www.ccomaha.org/
Latina Resource Center
The Latina Resource Center is a collaborative project of Catholic Charities, the Chicano Awareness Center, Family
Service and the YWCA. It serves the Hispanic community, providing resources for Latina women including crisis
counseling, parenting classes, domestic violence services, ESL and driver’s education. In September 2005 alone,
seventy-one women participated in the programs offered at the LRC.
5211 S 31st St
Omaha, NE 68107 Phone: (402) 898-6760 http://www.ccomaha.org/
Office of Latino and Latin American Studies (OLLAS at UNO)
(From OLLAS Website) “Our principal mission has been to open an academic space for the study,
understanding, and incorporation of the nation's historically and increasingly important Latino population. The
mission and purpose of OLLAS is at the core of UNO's official mission. As such, OLLAS enhances the range
of academic programs that the University strives to offer; it expands the educational aspirations and quality
of life of all Nebraska and Omaha citizens, including the next generation of Latinos; and it builds
understanding and respect through cultural diversity.”
Arts and Sciences Hall, Room 106
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Omaha, NE 68182
(402) 554-3835 http://www.unomaha.edu/ollas/contactus.php
ACTIVISTS

•   The American GI Forum- Omaha Chapter has spent more than 50 years working
    with the community with issues such as fighting against Latino veterans being
    denied benefits as well as ESL instruction in the 1970s in OPS.
•   The Latino Center of the Midlands, formerly the Chicano Awareness Center has
    also advocated in political arenas for the community.
•   Not to mention…
     o Ben Salazar, Nuestro Mundo Newspaper
     o Dr. Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado, Professor, UNO
     o Dr. Lourdes Gouveia, Professor, UNO
     o Ana Barrios, Director, Juan Diego Center
     o Marta Sonia Londoño Mejia, Midlands Latino Community Development
        Corporation
     o Rebecca Barrientos Patlan & Virgil Patlan, South Omaha Neighborhood
        Association.
     o Virgil & Angie Armendariz, South Omaha Business Association
     o Maria Vazquez, South Omaha Campus Dean, Metro Community College



       Source: A. K. Ramos, former President South Omaha Neighborhood
       Association (personal communication, March 13, 2009)
PLACES OF WORSHIP
•   Catholic
     o Our Lady of Guadalupe/ St. Agnes Church
     o St. Francis of Assisi
     o St. Joseph
     o St. Peter
     o St. Barnabas
•   Lutheran
     o Iglesia Cristo Rey
•   Methodist
     o Grace United Methodist Church
•   Baptist
     o Primera Iglesia Bautista
•   Christian- Other
     o Iglesia Fuente de Vida
     o Iglesia el Buen Pastor
     o Templo Canaan



       **There is now a multitude of growing Spanish Language congregations
       throughout the city.
MUSEUMS
•   El Museo Latino
    4701 S. 25th St.
    Omaha, NE 68107
    (402) 731-1137
•   Las Artes Cultural Center
    3702 S. 16th St
    Omaha,NE 68107
    (402) 651-9918
•   Durham Western Heritage Museum: Edward Babe Gomez’ Medal of Honor is
    displayed.
Student Interview




Source: Walter Willman & Antonio Aguirre
SOURCES
Kohler, Adriana D. & Melissa Lazarín. “Hispanic Education in the United States.” Statistical Brief
No. 8. National Council of La Raza, 2007.

National Center for Education Statistics, “Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Public School Students:
Indicator 5,” The Condition of Education 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education,
2006.

National Center for Education Statistics, “Status and Trends in Hispanic Education.” U.S.
Department of Education: Institute of Education Sciences (NCES 2003–008). April 2003.

Nebraska Department of Education, (2008).State of the Schools Report.
Retrieved March 7, 2009, from Nebraska Department of Education Web site:
http://reportcard.nde.state.ne.us/Main/Home.aspx

Yen, H. (2009). Hispanic enrollment in schools, colleges rising. Associated Press. Retrieved
March 25, 2009, from
http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5if7MqOx7roM3NayjcbRNSpqjtKbQD96N
M4U00
Pew Hispanic Center: A Pew Research Center Project. "Chronicling Latinos Unique
   Experiences in a Changing America". (2009). Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.
   http://pewhispanic.org/

								
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