stress by cioWYmd

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									Mastering
 Stress
                                 Training Agenda


                   • Learning Objectives
                   • Introduction
                   • Understanding the causes of stress
                   • Effects of stress
                   • The power of choice
                   • Relaxation and stress reduction techniques
                   • Your action plan



Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
                                 Learning Objectives

            After completing this workshop presentation,
                         you will be able to:
    1.         Develop an understanding of the demands of under- and
               over-stimulation

    2.         Acquire knowledge of the damaging effects of stress

    3.         Learn how the mind and body interact and how to recognize
               the signs of tension

    4.         Use several techniques to manage and/or lower stress

    5.         Practice reframing strategies for shifting your frame of
               reference



Click to advance to next slide                                     Mastering Stress
                                 Introduction

• Stress is an everyday fact of life.
• Stress affects all people, regardless of role, rank, status, or position
  in the workplace.
• Not all stress is bad!
• Stress can reduce the quality of life, undermine health, and impact
  work productivity.
• How you interpret and manage your experiences serve to either
  energize, relax, or stress you out.

In this presentation, you will learn a variety of strategies to improve
your stress mastery, and break the cycle of destructive habits of stress
management.


Click to advance to next slide                                Mastering Stress
                        Unit One – Understanding the
                              causes of stress




Click to advance to next slide                 Mastering Stress
Unit One                                       Understanding the causes of stress
                        Stress Mastery is about finding balance

     Who said this:
     “You can’t teach a person anything, you can only help them find it
     within themselves.”
                         Galileo

      “Most folks are about as happy as the choose to be.”
                         Lincoln

      “Most folks are about as stressed out as they choose to be.”
                         Dr. Phil


    Click to advance to next slide                             Mastering Stress
Unit One                                            Understanding the causes of stress
                               What is this thing called “stress?”

   Official definition:
         Anything that requires an adaptive response on the part of the
         organism.

   What does that mean to you?
         Anything that requires you to respond, to make a change, or an
         adjustment.
         Stress happens whenever your mind and/or your body react to some
         real or imagined situation.

   FACT: Stress is an inescapable part of modern life!


    Click to advance to next slide                                   Mastering Stress
Unit One                                  Understanding the causes of stress
 Dr. Hans Selye, the “father” of stress research:
 Make the distinction between harmful and beneficial stress

   Harmful stress                    Beneficial stress

   •    Helplessness                 •   Achievement
   •    Frustration                  •   Satisfaction
   •    Disappointment               •   Fulfillment
   •    Panic                        •   Meaning
   •    Physical & psychological     •   Balance
        damage                       •   Emotional & psychological
                                         health
    FACT: You actually need moderate stress to stay alert
    and perform.

    Click to advance to next slide                        Mastering Stress
Unit One                                               Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Four basic sources of stress

   1. Environment
      weather, noise, traffic, pollution

   2. Social
      deadlines, financial, job, demands for time, relationships

   3. Physiological
      aging, illness, injuries, exercise, nutrition, sleep, physical reactions
      to stressors

   4. Your thinking
      your interpretations of events and experience


    Click to advance to next slide                                     Mastering Stress
Unit One                                           Understanding the causes of stress
              Identifying sources of stress in the workplace


   Activity
   Take a moment to reflect on sources of stress in the
   workplace for yourself and your co-workers. List three
   causes – stressors – that affect people and their
   performance at work.

   FACT: One fourth of employees view their job as the number one
   stress in their lives
                    (Northwestern National Life)


    Click to advance to next slide                                   Mastering Stress
Unit One                                                 Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Reactions to stress

   Psychological and physical
                                                               Little or no
           Brain                        No Threat              physiological
           interprets the               determined             response
           environment
                                        Threat
                                        determined




                                       Fight or Flight
                                       response


    Click to advance to next slide                                         Mastering Stress
Unit One                                  Understanding the causes of stress
                Signs of Fight-or-Flight: Physical Symptoms


   • Light head                          • “Cotton” mouth

   • Dilated pupils                      • Tight throat

   • Tense neck and shoulders            • Pounding heart

   • Fast and shallow breathing          • Clammy, cold hands

   • Queasy stomach                      • Weak knees

   • Sweating

    What other symptoms do you experience?



    Click to advance to next slide                        Mastering Stress
Unit One                                    Understanding the causes of stress
          Signs of Fight-or-Flight: Psychological Symptoms

   • Apathy                          • High-pitched nervous laughter
   • Repression                      • Feeling of dissatisfaction
   • Withdrawal                      • Irritability
   • Forgetfulness                   • Poor Concentration
   • Anxiety                         • Accident-prone

   • Emotional tension –             • Overpowering urge to cry, run,
     keyed up or hyper                 or hide
   • Nightmares                      • Tendency to be easily startled



    Click to advance to next slide                          Mastering Stress
Unit One                                              Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Time Dependent Stress Stages
    Fight or Flight: Alarm = Sympathetic Arousal
            Short term: Reaction for immediate crises, emergency responses
            (duration is in minutes)

    SAM: SympathoAdrenoMedulla (Hypothalamic responses)
            Intermediate: angry, upset, frustrated, argumentative
            (duration is for hours)

    PAC: PituitaryAdrenoCortical
           Long-lasting with greater damage potential
           (duration is for days/weeks).

    Chronic stress
           Long term worry, guilt, worry and apprehension leads to insomnia,
           fatigue and illness.

    Click to advance to next slide                                    Mastering Stress
Unit One                                         Understanding the causes of stress

                                     Fight-or-Flight




  FACT: Problems at work are more strongly associated with health
  complaints than are any other stressors – more so than even financial
  problems or family problems. (St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Co.)

    Click to advance to next slide                               Mastering Stress
Unit One                                            Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Downside of Fight-or-Flight




            Activity
            List three real and three perceived dangers you
            faced in the last month.
            Once you have created your list, share it with
            the person sitting next to you.




    Click to advance to next slide                                    Mastering Stress
Unit One                                           Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Review of Fight-or-Flight

   Adaptive response to presence of physical danger
   Triggered by actual and perceive danger
   Alarm reaction: fight or flight
   Resistance: bodies habituate to specific stressors
   Exhaustion: despite attempts to cope stressors are prolonged, body
   wears out, stress-related symptoms win out




    Click to advance to next slide                                   Mastering Stress
Unit One                                          Understanding the causes of stress
                                     Assess your stress

   Activity
   Access the links below to take an online assessment
   that will help you determine your own level of stress.
   http://www.franklincovey.com/promotion/stressedout/#
   Stressed Out

   http://health.discovery.com/centers/stress/balancing/stress/assessment.html
   Balancing stress

   http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=WL00064
   Work stress quiz from Mayo Clinic



    Click to advance to next slide                                 Mastering Stress
                      Unit Two – Effects of Stress




Click to advance to next slide               Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                                                     Effects of Stress
                                      Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
 Resistance to Stress




                             Phase 1: Alarm              Phase 2: Resistance   Phase 3: Collapse

       Shock

                        Click to advance to next slide                                      Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                              Effects of Stress
                               Negative Physical Effects of Stress


   • Not a straight forward relationship
   • Prolonged stress weakens immune system
          White blood cells migrate to bone marrow
   • Heart disease
   • Ulcers
   • Diabetes




    Click to advance to next slide                                   Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                              Effects of Stress
                               Negative Physical Effects of Stress

   Fact: Eighty percent of all visits to doctors’ offices are for stress-related
         disorders.
   Fact: Dentists report stress causes patients to grind their teeth during
         sleep
   Fact: Studies reveal that during exam weeks, students possess lower
         levels of salivary immunoglobulin - a defense against infections -
         studies also report that acne worsens when they are under stress
   Fact: Cholesterol levels in the bloodstream rise during periods of stress
   Fact: At least 50% of all deaths in US are caused by cardiovascular
         disease in which stress played a significant contributing role
   Fact: Most heart attacks occur around 9:00 am Monday mornings


    Click to advance to next slide                                   Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                  Effects of Stress
              Negative Psychological Consequences of Stress


  • Alters serotonin pathways – imbalances linked to depression and
     aggression
  • Inhibits ability to relax
  • Major factor in development of anxiety, phobias, panic attacks
  • Obsessions
  • Compulsions
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder




    Click to advance to next slide                      Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                       Effects of Stress
              Negative Psychological Consequences of Stress


  Fact: Worldwide, depression, as the result of stress conditions, is the
        number one cause of disability (World Health Organization)

  Fact: More than 30 million Americans suffer from stress related insomnia

  Fact: Alcoholism is third major cause of death in U.S. Relief of stress
        and anxiety is one of the primary motives for the use and abuse of
        alcohol.

  Fact: Approximately 50 percent of marriages in the U.S. end in divorce.
        Experts report that stress is a major contributing factor to
        relationship conflicts.


    Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                    Effects of Stress
               Negative Occupational Consequences of Stress

  •Lack of concentration
  •Lower productivity
  •Increased frequency of mistakes on the job
  •Higher rate of on the job injuries
  •Higher rate of absenteeism
  •Irritability, conflict with co-workers and supervisors




    Click to advance to next slide                          Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                     Effects of Stress
               Negative Occupational Consequences of Stress


  Fact: U.S. businesses claim most industrial accidents are stress-related,
        over two million disabling injuries per year

  Fact: 80-90% of all business dismissals are linked to tension due to
        mental/physical problems

  Fact: 25% of people in the U.S. suffer from stress overload at work; 37%
        report daily job stress; 75% report significant stress at least once
        weekly (National Center for Health Statistics)




    Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                                              Effects of Stress
                                     Distress Related Conditions
  Activity
  Place a check by the following illnesses/disease that you have had
  in the last 12 months.
  ____ ulcers                                 ____ insomnia/sleep disturbance
  ____   heart attack                         ____ frequent urination
  ____   stroke                               ____ loss of appetite
  ____   cancer                               ____ excessive appetite
  ____   high blood pressure                  ____ rashes
  ____   headaches                            ____ diabetes
  ____   colitis                              ____ chronic fatigue
  ____   spastic colon                        ____ infections
  ____   gastritis                            ____ allergies
  ____   chronic diarrhea                     ____ asthma
  ____   chronic constipation                 ____ fainting spells
  ____   queasiness                           ____ stuttering/speech difficulties
  ____   excessive perspiration               ____ persistent or severe backaches
  ____   arthritis                            ____ colds, flu, viral and bacterial infections

  Is there a link between your lifestyle and/or stressors and any of these illnesses?


    Click to advance to next slide                                                     Mastering Stress
Unit Two                                                        Effects of Stress
                                     Positive Stress
  •Alleviates boredom
  •Provides variety
  •Opportunity for change
  •Opportunity for personal growth
  •Sense of achievement, fulfillment, satisfaction, accomplishment,
  •Balance

   Fact: In one study, adult volunteers were placed in a completely stress-free
   environment (sightless, soundless, weightless, motionless liquid heated to
   body temperature). They soon manifested disturbances of mood, thought,
   and action. Most asked to be quickly released. Most people need an optimal
   level of change and stress in life to keep things interesting and worthwhile.


    Click to advance to next slide                              Mastering Stress
                                     Unit Three –
                                 The Power of Choice




Click to advance to next slide                     Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                  The Power of Choice

                                     Mind Body Connection

   • You have the ability to create dramatic positive outcomes
       .
   • Mind and body are interconnected and interdependent
   • How you think and what you believe have a profound
     impact on your health and ability to master your stress


   Take a moment to reflect on the statement below:
   Your world is:
      10 percent what happens to you, and
      90 percent how you think about and then how you react
      to what happens to you


    Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                                    The Power of Choice
                                         The Power of Your Mind

   Activity
       .
   Rate yourself on how much you agree with each of the following statements:
                                                                               Always        Never

   1.  I see life as challenging but exciting.                                 5     4   3   2   1
   2.  Change is positive for me; it leads me to greater personal growth.      5     4   3   2   1
   3.  I concentrate on what I can change and then do it.                      5     4   3   2   1
   4.  I know I can influence the events taking place around me.               5     4   3   2   1
   5.  I think about how I can turn situations to my advantage.                5     4   3   2   1
   6.  Even though situations are tough, I know I can usually find some
       way of feeling in control.                                              5     4   3   2   1
   7. I believe I am in control of my life.                                    5     4   3   2   1
   8. I accept that I am responsible for how I feel and what happens to me.    5     4   3   2   1
   9. I am hopeful about what lies in my future.                               5     4   3   2   1
   10. I am aware of how much my mindtalk can make or break me.                5     4   3   2   1




        Click to advance to next slide                                             Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                 The Power of Choice
                        Barriers to Personal Power and Change

   • You can sabotage yourself with your thinking.
   • What you believe of yourself can help or hinder you in effectively
     coping with stress.
   • Your thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and self-talk can empower you or be
   .
     excuses for not taking appropriate action


   Activity
   Click on the link below to assess your “Self-Talk”

                                       Self-Talk




    Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                  The Power of Choice

                                      Think Real
   • Stop kidding yourself!!
   • Your thoughts may have a tendency to be negative
   • Practice monitoring your thinking to get out of the negativity
   • Spend a few minutes each day writing in a journal
        - List events you want to forget, but cannot
        - Record your thoughts about each event, yourself, and others
        - Challenge your thoughts through the mirror of reality: are
          those thoughts the truth? Or don’t knows?
   • Remember that you cannot predict the future – nor can you control
     others
   • Remember that you are not a mind reader


     Click to advance to next slide                             Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                    The Power of Choice

                                      Accept responsibility
   The mind is its own place, and in itself can make heaven out
   of Hell, or a hell of Heaven.
                                 - John Milton


   Avoid the easy trap of viewing everything “bad” that happens
     to you as someone else’s fault
   Accept responsibility for your own feelings
   Accept responsibility for your outlook on events that happen
     in your life
   Accept responsibility for your reactions


     Click to advance to next slide                              Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                          The Power of Choice
                              Ever Have One of Those Days



    Activity
    Click the link below to access the handout.

                                      Ever Have One of Those Days

    With your group, brainstorm how PT thinking might have
    changed the outcome of the day.




     Click to advance to next slide                                    Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                           The Power of Choice

                                        See Possibilities
   •     How you feel is up to you
   •     Do you see possibilities, even in events that look like
         failures
   •     Be aware of the strengths you possess
   •     Be aware of the accomplishments you have achieved
   •     Use your journal to do some soul-searching
               - Honestly list everything you have going for yourself
               - Remember every day the life events that you wish you could forget
         but
                 do not. Look at them objectively. What is the real truth about them?
   •     Help yourself see possibilities by dreaming realistically about what you
         would like to accomplish each day….each month….each year
               - Write your dreams down in the journal and review them frequently
       Click to advance to next slide                                    Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                                     The Power of Choice
                                      Mind Strategies
  Take control of your mind and what you think
  Make a choice to view your life in a way that is positive and in balance


    Activity
    1.       Access the handout Beliefs Inventory
    2.       Complete the inventory
    3.       Self-score the inventory, paying particular attention to the
             feedback on irrational ideas.
    4.       Complete the Irrational Ideas Homework.
    5.       What did you learn? What strategies will help you in the future?



     Click to advance to next slide                               Mastering Stress
Unit Three                                            The Power of Choice
                                      Stress Coping


    Activity: Handling Anger

    Access and read the Stress Coping Handout.




     Click to advance to next slide                      Mastering Stress
                                 Unit Four –
              Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques




Click to advance to next slide    Effective Communication in the Workplace
Unit Four                             Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                     Tools for Relaxation and Stress Reduction



    Breathing Techniques

    Visualization

    Meditation

    Quick exercises to relieve tension

    Nutrition, Exercise, and Time Management




     Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
Unit Four                               Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Breathing
  Abdominal or diaphragmatic breathing can
  reduce muscle tension and anxiety

  1. Close your eyes. Put your right hand on your
     abdomen, at the waistline.
  2. Put your left hand on your chest at the center.
  3. Notice how your are breathing.
  4. Which hand rises the most as you inhale?
  5. If your abdomen expands, you are breathing
     from your abdomen. If your belly doesn’t move
     or moves less than your chest, you are
     breathing from your chest.



     Click to advance to next slide                              Mastering Stress
Unit Four                              Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Breathing




         Activity
         Access the audio for
         deep breathing exercises


         Access and practice the
         breathing exercises below.
         deep breathing exercises



     Click to advance to next slide                             Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Visualization

    Loosen your clothing and lie or sit in a quiet place.
    Close your eyes.
    Scan your body, seeking tension in specific muscles. Relax those
    muscles as much as you can.
    Imagine a calm, beautiful scene in detail, smell the scents, hear the
    sounds.
    Repeat affirmative phrases such as "I feel peaceful."
    Before any high-pressure event, picture the scene. Then review what
    will happen in your mind, watching yourself deal confidently with the
    situation.


     Click to advance to next slide                               Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                 Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Meditation
   Sitting comfortably upright, close your eyes and
   relax.
   Focus your mind on an object -- breathing out and
   in to the count of four, looking at an image such as
   a candle flame or flower, or repeating a word such
   as "peace" or "one" for 15 to 20 minutes. This
   induces deep physical relaxation and mental
   awareness.
   It is impossible to worry, fear, or hate when your
   mind is thinking about nothing other than the object
   you are focused on.



     Click to advance to next slide                                Mastering Stress
Unit Four                               Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Meditation




    Activity
    Access the audio for “special place”
    And ”relaxation place” Meditation

    Click here to access the script for “special
    place”




     Click to advance to next slide                              Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                      Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                         Quick Exercises

    Mindfulness or active meditation

    Give all your attention to whatever you are doing, whether it is putting
    out the trash or eating dinner.

    Observe shapes, colors, textures, the movement of your body.

    Focus on the moment you are experiencing without worrying about the
    past or the future.

    .




        Click to advance to next slide                                  Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                   Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Quick Exercises

    Breath Counting (Five to Ten Minutes)

    Breathe deeply into your abdomen.

    Pause before you exhale.

    As you exhale, count “one” to yourself, and continue to inhale and
    exhale, counting with each exhale.

    Do sets of five. Gradually slow your breathing allowing your body to
    relax and your mind to calm.




     Click to advance to next slide                                  Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                   Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                                      Quick Exercises

    Let Go of Tension

    Sit comfortably in chair with feet flat on the floor.

    Breathe deeply into your abdomen – saying “breathe in relaxation”

    Breathe out from the abdomen – saying “breathe out tension”

    As you inhale become aware of tension in your body

    As you exhale let go of the tension.



     Click to advance to next slide                                  Mastering Stress
Unit Four                                   Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques

                              Other Stress Reduction Factors



    Nutrition
    Mood and Food

    Exercise
    Reduce stress with exercise

    Time Management
    Capturing the elusive thing called time




     Click to advance to next slide                                  Mastering Stress
                                                             Your Action Plan

                                   Go for it!


• Make your dreams into goals
• Make your goals into realities
• Be assertive rather than passive or aggressive
• Enrich your life by taking small risks
• Be empathetic and compassionate to others
     - there is more power in love and cooperation than in hate and
       dominance




  Click to advance to next slide                            Mastering Stress
                                   Bibliograhy

Abascal, J. R., Brucato and D., Brucato, L. (2001). Stress mastery:
  The art of coping gracefully. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Charlesworth, E. A. and Nathan, R. G. (2004). Stress management.
  NY: Ballantine.

Boenisch, E. and Haney, C. M. (1996). The stress owner’s manual.
  CA: Impact Publishers.

Davidson, J. (2002). Managing your time. IN: Alpha.

Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., and McKay, M. (2000). The relaxation and
  stress reduction workbook (5th edition). CA: Publishers Group
  West.


  Click to advance to next slide                             Mastering Stress

								
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