Stress by xCVbF9L

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									Stress, Coping, and Health
         The Relationship
    Between Stress and Disease
• Contagious diseases
  vs. chronic diseases
  – Biopsychosocial model
  – Health psychology
     • Health promotion and
       maintenance
        – Discovery of
          causation, prevention,
          and treatment
    Stress: An Everyday Event

• Major stressors vs. routine hassles
  – Cumulative nature of stress
  – Cognitive appraisals
           Major Types of Stress
• Frustration: blocked goal
• Conflict: incompatible
  motivations
   – Approach-approach
   – Approach-avoidance
   – Avoidance-avoidance
• Change: having to adapt
   – Social Readjustment
     Rating Scale
   – Life Change Units
• Pressure
   – Perform/conform
Overview of the Stress Process
 Responding to Stress Emotionally
• Emotional
  Responses
  – Annoyance, anger,
    rage
  – Apprehension, anxiety,
    fear
  – Dejection, sadness,
    grief
  – Positive emotions
• Emotional response
  and performance
  – The inverted-U-
        Responding to Stress
          Physiologically
• Physiological Responses
  – Fight-or-flight response
  – Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
    • Alarm
    • Resistance
    • Exhaustion
Responding to Stress Behaviorally
• Behavioral Responses
  – Frustration-aggression
    hypothesis
  – catharsis
  – defense mechanisms
• Coping
  –   Reappraisal
  –   Confronting problems
  –   Using humor
  –   Expressing emotions
  –   Managing hostility
         Effects of Stress:
    Behavioral and Psychological
• Impaired task
  performance
• Burnout
• Psychological
  problems and
  disorders
• Positive effects
       Effects of Stress: Physical

• Psychosomatic diseases
• Heart disease
  – Type A behavior - 3
    elements
     • strong competitiveness
     • impatience and time
       urgency
     • anger and hostility
  – Emotional reactions and
    depression
• Stress and immune
  functioning
  – Reduced immune activity
Factors Moderating the Impact of
            Stress

• Social support
  – Increased immune functioning
• Optimism
  – More adaptive coping
  – Pessimistic explanatory style
• Conscientiousness
  – Fostering better health habits
• Autonomic reactivity
  – Cardiovascular reactivity to stress
    Firefighter Specific Stressors
•   Reliance on teamwork
•   Low job control
•   Sleep disturbances/Shift work
•   Boredom
•   Coworker conflict
•   Management-Labor conflict
•   Second jobs
•   Marital/Family spillover
     Firefighter Stress Reactions
•   Apprehension/Dread
•   Intrusive thoughts
•   No hope
•   Sleep difficulties
•   Gastrointestinal symptoms
•   Throat and mouth symptoms
              At-Risk Firefighters
• Research reveals 2 distinct profiles for at-risk
  firefighters
   – Profile 1 (somaticizers) Reported greater frequency
     and intensity of physical symptoms
      • Head/neck/facial tension
      • Gastrointestinal distress
      • Cardiopulmonary complaints
   – Profile 2 (psychological stress) Reported higher levels
     of
      •   Apprehension/dread
      •   Anger
      •   Generalized anxiety
      •   Agitated depression
     Implications for treatment
• Identify high-risk firefighters
  – No penalty or stigmatization
• Potential interventions
  – Psychoeducation
     •   Work redesign
     •   Coping skills training
     •   Relaxation training
     •   Conflict-resolution training
     •   Leadership training
     •   Sleep hygiene education
                   Coping Skills
• Problem-focused coping       • Emotion-focused coping
  – Taking direct action         – Focusing on and venting
  – Planning                       emotions
  – Suppression of competing     – Behavioral disengagement
    activities                   – Mental disengagement
  – Restraint coping             – Positive reappraisal
  – Seeking social support       – Denial
                                 – Acceptance
                                 – Turning to religion

								
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