Apartheid in South Africa The Historical Backdrop of The Power of One South Africa • Languages: – IsiZulu 23.8% – IsiXhosa 17.6% – Afrikaans 13.3% – Sepedi 9.4% – English 8.2% – Setswana 8.2% – Sesotho 7.9% – Xitsonga 4.4% – other 7.2% (2001) South Africa • Ethnicity/race: black African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5% (2001) • Religions: Zion Christian 11%, Pentecostal/ Charismatic 8%, Catholic 7%, Methodist 7%, Dutch Reformed 7%, Anglican 4%, other Christian 36%, Islam 2%, none 15% (2001) Early South Africa • San and Hottentot/ Bushmen were inhabitants thousands of years before European settlers arrived European Settlement • European settlement in South Africa started in Cape Town, which is why it is still called the Mother City to this day. European Settlement • The British decided against establishment of a colony at the Cape of Good Hope • The Dutch, who realized the strategic and economic importance of the Cape, sent Jan van Riebeeck, on a commission for the Dutch-East India Trading Company European Settlement • Jan van Riebeeck anchored in the picturesque bay at the foot of the Table Mountain on April 6, 1652. • He was accompanied by 82 men and 8 women, his own wife amongst them. European Settlement • After some setbacks, the settlement flourished • More Dutch settlers, seeking religious freedom, arrived and more land was needed • African inhabitants were pushed back as the Boers, the Dutch farmers, took their land The First Boer War • In 1795, British ships landed in Cape Hope • The British wanted control over the gold and diamonds in • South Africa The First Boer War • The British declared freedom for the African slaves the Boers held on their farms • The Boers, who believed strongly in racial separation and white predominance revolted – they were victorious and maintained their freedom The Second Boer War • War broke out again eight years later in 1899 • The Boers, now also know as Afrikaners, fought against British Imperialism for three years • The British placed captured Boers in concentration camps – where it is estimated that almost 28,000 Boers, most of them children under the age of sixteen, and nearly 15,000 blacks died from starvation and disease in the camps. Concentration Camps Lizzie van Zyl is one of the thousands of Afrikaner children who died in British concentration camps. The Second Boer War • The British are victorious • There is long-term hostility between the two “white races” and the native Africans Apartheid Throughout The Power of One, readers are witness to a degree of racism against non- whites that is shocking in its casual brutality. It is obvious that for the majority of Boers and British alike, blacks and coloreds, as the non- white populations of South Africa were classiﬁed, are viewed as little more than animals, to be discriminated against, beaten, or even killed with impunity. Apartheid • Ideas of white superiority and race separation were key components of Afrikaner religious beliefs. • The British, though responsible for abolishing slavery in 1833, did not consider African blacks to be their equals. Apartheid • Apartheid was a system of legalized racial segregation enforced by the National Party (NP) South African government between 1948 and 1994. Apartheid National Party politicians like F.W. de Klerk were able to keep apartheid in place by playing to the fear of white South Africans of a loss of power and control Apartheid Apartheid was successfully defeated in 1994, but the legacy of apartheid continues. The Legacy of Apartheid The country has one of the most unequal income distribution patterns in the world: approximately 60% of the population earns less than R42,000 per annum (about US$7,000), whereas 2.2% of the population has an income exceeding R360,000 per annum (about US$50,000). The Legacy of Apartheid • Poverty in South Africa is still largely defined by skin color, with black people constituting the poorest layer. • Despite the government having implemented a policy of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE), blacks make up over 90% of the country's poor but only 79.5% of the population. Modern South Africa Nelson Mandela was inaugurated on the 10th of May 1994 as the first black African President of the New South Africa. Modern South Africa As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid. Modern South Africa Thabo Mbeki took office after Nelson Mandela retired in 1999 and remains the president of South Africa The Power of One • This novel takes place in the 1930s and 1940 • The book was published in 1989 The Power of One Bryce Courtenay was born and raised in South Africa and although The Power of One is fictional, it is loosely based on Courtenay’s life The Power of One It is apparent that the prejudices in South Africa had a astonishing affect on Courtenay, especially with the hatred between the Boers, Blacks, and the British. Totalitarian State • Totalitarianism is the total control of a country in the government’s hands • It subjugates individual rights. • It demonstrates a policy of aggression. Totalitarian State • In a totalitarian state, paranoia and fear dominate. • The government maintains total control over the culture. • The government is capable of indiscriminate killing. • During this time in Germany, the Nazis passed laws which restricted the rights of Jews: including the Nuremberg Laws. Totalitarian State The Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their German citizenship. They were prohibited from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of “German or related blood.” Totalitarian State Jews, like all other German citizens, were required to carry identity cards, but their cards were stamped with a red “J.” This allowed police to easily identify them. Totalitarian State • The Nazis used propaganda to promote their anti- Semitic ideas. • One such book was the children’s book, The Poisonous Mushroom. Persecution The Nazi plan for dealing with the “Jewish Question” evolved in three steps: 1. Expulsion: Get them out of Germany 2. Containment: Put them all together in one place – namely ghettos 3. “Final Solution”: annihilation Persecution • Gypsies (Sinti and Roma) Nazis targeted • Homosexual men other individuals • Jehovah’s Witness and groups in • Handicapped Germans addition to the • Poles Jews: • Political dissidents Final Solution Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads made up of Nazi (SS) units and police. They killed Jews in mass shooting actions throughout eastern Poland and the western Soviet Union. Final Solution • On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference to learn about how the Jewish Question would be solved. • The Final Solution was outlined by Reinhard Heydrich who detailed the plan to establish death camps with gas chambers. Final Solution • Death camps were the means the Nazis used to achieve the “final solution.” • There were six death camps: Auschwitz- Birkenau, Treblinka, Chelmno, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Belzec. • Each used gas chambers to murder the Jews. At Auschwitz prisoners were told the gas chambers were “showers.” Final Solution • Most of the gas chambers used carbon monoxide from diesel engines. • In Auschwitz and Majdanek “Zyklon B” pellets, which were a highly poisonous insecticide, supplied the gas. • After the gassings, prisoners removed hair, gold teeth and fillings from the Jews before the bodies were burned in the crematoria or buried in mass graves. Final Solution There were many concentration and labor camps where many people died from exposure, lack of food, extreme working conditions, torture, and executions. Life in the Concentration Camps Resistance • Despite the high risk, some individuals attempted to resist Nazism. • The “White Rose” movement protested Nazism, though not Jewish policy, in Germany. Rescue • Less than one percent of the non-Jewish European population helped any Jew in some form of rescue. • Denmark and Bulgaria were the most successful national resistance movements against the Nazi’s attempt to deport their Jews. Aftermath • Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate camp prisoners on July 23, 1944, at Maidanek in Poland. • British, Canadian, American, and French troops also liberated camp prisoners. • Troops were shocked at what they saw. Aftermath • Most prisoners were emaciated to the point of being skeletal. • Many camps had dead bodies lying in piles “like cordwood.” • Many prisoners died even after liberation. AftermathThe Nuremberg Trials • brought some of those responsible for the • atrocities of the war to justice. • There were 22 Nazi criminals tried by the Allies in the International Military Tribunal. • Twelve subsequent trials followed as well as national trials throughout formerly occupied Europe. Aftermath • The International Military Tribunal took place in Nuremberg, Germany in 1945 and 1946. • 12 prominent Nazis were sentenced to death. • Most claimed that they were only following orders, which was judged to be an invalid defense.
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