Apartheid in South Africa Apartheid in South Africa The Historical

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					Apartheid in South Africa

   The Historical Backdrop of
       The Power of One
South Africa
      • Languages:
        –   IsiZulu 23.8%
        –   IsiXhosa 17.6%
        –   Afrikaans 13.3%
        –   Sepedi 9.4%
        –   English 8.2%
        –   Setswana 8.2%
        –   Sesotho 7.9%
        –   Xitsonga 4.4%
        –   other 7.2% (2001)
                 South Africa
• Ethnicity/race: black
  African 79%, white 9.6%,
  colored 8.9%,
  Indian/Asian 2.5% (2001)

• Religions: Zion Christian
  11%, Pentecostal/
  Charismatic 8%, Catholic
  7%, Methodist 7%, Dutch
  Reformed 7%, Anglican
  4%, other Christian 36%,
  Islam 2%, none 15%
  (2001)
Early South Africa

         • San and Hottentot/
           Bushmen were
           inhabitants
           thousands of years
           before European
           settlers arrived
        European Settlement

• European
  settlement in South
  Africa started in
  Cape Town, which
  is why it is still called
  the Mother City to
  this day.
European Settlement
          • The British decided
            against establishment
            of a colony at the Cape
            of Good Hope
          • The Dutch, who
            realized the strategic
            and economic
            importance of the Cape,
            sent Jan van Riebeeck,
            on a commission for the
            Dutch-East India
            Trading Company
        European Settlement
• Jan van Riebeeck
  anchored in the
  picturesque bay at the
  foot of the Table
  Mountain on April 6,
  1652.
• He was accompanied
  by 82 men and 8
  women, his own wife
  amongst them.
      European Settlement
• After some setbacks, the settlement
  flourished
• More Dutch settlers, seeking religious
  freedom, arrived and more land was
  needed
• African inhabitants were pushed back
  as the Boers, the Dutch farmers, took
  their land
    The First Boer War

             • In 1795, British
               ships landed in
               Cape Hope
             • The British wanted
               control over the gold
               and diamonds in
•              South Africa
          The First Boer War
• The British declared
  freedom for the African
  slaves the Boers held
  on their farms

• The Boers, who
  believed strongly in
  racial separation and
  white predominance
  revolted – they were
  victorious and
  maintained their
  freedom
      The Second Boer War
• War broke out again eight years later in 1899
• The Boers, now also know as Afrikaners,
  fought against British Imperialism for three
  years
• The British placed captured Boers in
  concentration camps – where it is estimated
  that almost 28,000 Boers, most of them
  children under the age of sixteen, and nearly
  15,000 blacks died from starvation and
  disease in the camps.
        Concentration Camps

Lizzie van Zyl is
     one of the
   thousands of
     Afrikaner
      children
    who died in
       British
   concentration
       camps.
     The Second Boer War




         • The British are victorious
• There is long-term hostility between the two
     “white races” and the native Africans
                 Apartheid
Throughout The Power of One, readers are
  witness to a degree of racism against non-
  whites that is shocking in its casual brutality.
It is obvious that for the majority of Boers and
  British alike, blacks and coloreds, as the non-
  white populations of South Africa were
  classified, are viewed as little more than
  animals, to be discriminated against, beaten,
  or even killed with impunity.
                  Apartheid
• Ideas of white
  superiority and race
  separation were key
  components of
  Afrikaner religious
  beliefs.
• The British, though
  responsible for
  abolishing slavery in
  1833, did not consider
  African blacks to be
  their equals.
Apartheid
     • Apartheid was a
       system of legalized
       racial segregation
       enforced by the
       National Party (NP)
       South African
       government
       between 1948 and
       1994.
Apartheid

     National Party
      politicians like F.W.
      de Klerk were able
      to keep apartheid in
      place by playing to
      the fear of white
      South Africans of a
      loss of power and
      control
                Apartheid


Apartheid was
  successfully
  defeated in 1994,
  but the legacy of
  apartheid continues.
   The Legacy of Apartheid
The country has one of the most unequal
 income distribution patterns in the
 world: approximately 60% of the
 population earns less than R42,000 per
 annum (about US$7,000), whereas
 2.2% of the population has an income
 exceeding R360,000 per annum (about
 US$50,000).
    The Legacy of Apartheid
• Poverty in South Africa is still largely
  defined by skin color, with black people
  constituting the poorest layer.
• Despite the government having
  implemented a policy of Black
  Economic Empowerment (BEE), blacks
  make up over 90% of the country's poor
  but only 79.5% of the population.
       Modern South Africa

Nelson Mandela was
 inaugurated on the
 10th of May 1994 as
 the first black
 African President of
 the New South
 Africa.
Modern South Africa

          As President from May
            1994 until June
            1999, Mandela
            presided over the
            transition from
            minority rule and
            apartheid.
        Modern South Africa


Thabo Mbeki took
  office after Nelson
  Mandela retired in
  1999 and remains
  the president of
  South Africa
The Power of One


        • This novel takes
          place in the 1930s
          and 1940
        • The book was
          published in 1989
          The Power of One

Bryce Courtenay was
  born and raised in
  South Africa and
  although The Power
  of One is fictional, it
  is loosely based on
  Courtenay’s life
The Power of One
        It is apparent that the
            prejudices in South
            Africa had a
            astonishing affect on
            Courtenay,
            especially with the
            hatred between the
            Boers, Blacks, and
            the British.
           Totalitarian State
• Totalitarianism is the total control of a country in the
  government’s hands
• It subjugates individual rights.
• It demonstrates a policy of aggression.
             Totalitarian State
• In a totalitarian state, paranoia and fear dominate.
• The government maintains total control over the
  culture.
• The government is capable of indiscriminate
  killing.
• During this time in Germany, the Nazis passed
  laws which restricted the rights of Jews: including
  the Nuremberg Laws.
Totalitarian State
           The Nuremberg Laws
           stripped Jews of their
           German citizenship.
           They were prohibited
           from marrying or
           having sexual relations
           with persons of
           “German or related
           blood.”
       Totalitarian State
Jews, like all other
German citizens,
were required to
carry identity
cards, but their
cards were
stamped with a red
“J.” This allowed
police to easily
identify them.
            Totalitarian State
• The Nazis used
  propaganda to
  promote their anti-
  Semitic ideas.
• One such book was
  the children’s book,
  The Poisonous
  Mushroom.
            Persecution
The Nazi plan for dealing with the “Jewish
Question” evolved in three steps:

1. Expulsion: Get them out of Germany
2. Containment: Put them all together in one
    place – namely ghettos
3. “Final Solution”: annihilation
             Persecution
                     • Gypsies (Sinti and
                       Roma)
Nazis targeted
                     • Homosexual men
 other individuals
                     • Jehovah’s Witness
 and groups in
                     • Handicapped Germans
 addition to the     • Poles
 Jews:               • Political dissidents
         Final Solution




Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads
made up of Nazi (SS) units and police. They
killed Jews in mass shooting actions
throughout eastern Poland and the western
Soviet Union.
            Final Solution
• On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi
  officials met at the Wannsee Conference to
  learn about how the Jewish Question would
  be solved.
• The Final Solution was outlined by
  Reinhard Heydrich who detailed the plan to
  establish death camps with gas chambers.
              Final Solution
• Death camps were the means the Nazis used to
  achieve the “final solution.”
• There were six death camps: Auschwitz-
  Birkenau, Treblinka, Chelmno, Sobibor,
  Majdanek, and Belzec.
• Each used gas chambers to murder the Jews. At
  Auschwitz prisoners were told the gas chambers
  were “showers.”
               Final Solution
• Most of the gas chambers used carbon monoxide
  from diesel engines.
• In Auschwitz and Majdanek “Zyklon B” pellets,
  which were a highly poisonous insecticide,
  supplied the gas.
• After the gassings, prisoners removed hair, gold
  teeth and fillings from the Jews before the bodies
  were burned in the crematoria or buried in mass
  graves.
         Final Solution
There were many concentration and labor camps
where many people died from exposure, lack of
food, extreme working conditions, torture, and
executions.
Life in the Concentration Camps
             Resistance
• Despite the high risk, some individuals
  attempted to resist Nazism.
• The “White Rose” movement protested
  Nazism, though not Jewish policy, in
  Germany.
                  Rescue
• Less than one percent of the non-Jewish
  European population helped any Jew in
  some form of rescue.
• Denmark and Bulgaria were the most
  successful national resistance movements
  against the Nazi’s attempt to deport their
  Jews.
                Aftermath
• Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate
  camp prisoners on July 23, 1944, at
  Maidanek in Poland.
• British, Canadian, American, and French
  troops also liberated camp prisoners.
• Troops were shocked at what they saw.
                  Aftermath
• Most prisoners were
  emaciated to the point
  of being skeletal.
• Many camps had dead
  bodies lying in piles
  “like cordwood.”
• Many prisoners died
  even after liberation.
    AftermathThe Nuremberg Trials
           •
                brought some of those
                responsible for the
•               atrocities of the war to
                justice.
              • There were 22 Nazi
                criminals tried by the
                Allies in the International
                Military Tribunal.
              • Twelve subsequent trials
                followed as well as
                national trials throughout
                formerly occupied Europe.
               Aftermath
• The International Military Tribunal took
  place in Nuremberg, Germany in 1945 and
  1946.
• 12 prominent Nazis were sentenced to
  death.
• Most claimed that they were only following
  orders, which was judged to be an invalid
  defense.

				
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posted:11/11/2011
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