ch13 - PowerPoint by HI2nQ3zz

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									Chapter 13: Early Adulthood:

   Physical and Cognitive
           Development


Development Across the Lifespan
Physical Development and Stress
            In Early Adulthood
 In most respects physical development and
   maturation are complete by early
   adulthood.
   Full height, proportional limbs, tend to
     be healthy, vigorous, energetic
 Most people are at the peak of their
   physical capabilities.
 The brain continues to grow in both size
   and weight, reaching its maximum in early
   adulthood.
    Brain wave patterns show changes (more
     mature patterns)
The senses are as sharp as they will ever be.
  No significant deterioration in vision (until
   the 40’s)
  Hearing is at its peak
  Taste, smell, sensitivity to touch good
Most professional athletes are at their peak
 during early adulthood
  Psychomotor abilities (eye-hand
   coordination, etc.)
Physical Fitness in Early Adulthood
 The superior physical capabilities common
   to early adulthood don’t come naturally;
   exercise and diet are required to reach full
   physical potential
 Although exercise is talked about a lot in
   the U.S., no more than 10 % of Americans
   exercise enough to keep themselves in
   good physical shape.
 Less than ¼ participate in moderate
   exercise on a regular basis
  Unfortunately….

 Exercise is largely an upper- and middle-class
 phenomenon
  People of low socioeconomic status (SES) often lack
   the time or money to participate
People in general do not exercise enough!
  The conspicuousness of exercise in the U.S. is
   misleading!
     Less than 10% of Americans exercise sufficiently
      to keep them in shape
     Less than a quarter engage in even moderate
      regular exercise
Physical Fitness in Early Adulthood, continued

 According the CDC (center for disease control),
  people should get 30 minutes of moderate
  physical activity at least 5 days per week
  Can be continuous, or in 10 minute chunks
    (as long as it totals 30 min. per day)
  Examples of moderate activity: walking
    briskly, biking/10 mph, golfing (no cart!),
    fishing, ping pong, household chores
    (weeding, vacuuming, etc.)
    The Result of Fitness: Longevity




The greater the fitness level, the lower the death rate.
      Other advantages to regular exercise
 increases cardiovascular
  fitness                        optimizes the
 lung capacity increases         immune response
 muscles become stronger        decreases stress,
 body becomes more
                                  anxiety, and
  flexible and                    depression
  maneuverable                   increases sense of
 reduces osteoporosis, the       control and feelings
  thinning of bones, in later     of accomplishment
  life                           increases longevity
Health & exercise in early adulthood, continued

  A lack of exercise may lead to poor
   health in general, but health risks in
   general are low during early adulthood
  Young adults are less susceptible to
   colds and illnesses
   Good immune systems
   Tendency to exercise
  More likely to die in accidents (usually
   car related) than most other causes
  Health & exercise in early adulthood, continued
 The leading causes of death among
  young adults (ages 25-34) are:
   accidents
   AIDS
   cancer
   heart disease
   Suicide
  ~ At age 35, this reverses and illness and disease
      become more likely causes (for the 1st time since
      infancy)
Not all people fare equally well in early adulthood…
   Men are more apt to die from accidents than
      women
   African-Americans have twice the death rate
      of Caucasians.
  ~~~The murder rate in the U.S. is significantly
      higher than in any other developed country.
      —U.S rate = 21.9 per 100,000 me; Japanese
      rate = 0.5 murders per 100,000 men <4000%
      difference!>
Tracking Murder
Racial Factors effect murder rates
Murder is the fifth most frequent cause of death for
 young White Americans (1 in 131 chance in lifetime)
Murder is the most frequent cause of death for African-
 Americans (1 in 21 chance in lifetime)
 ---In some areas of the country, a young black male has
 a higher probability of being murdered than a soldier in
 the Vietnam War had of being killed!
 African American male: 1 in 21 chance of being
 murdered in his lifetime
 European American male: 1 in 131 chance
Eating, Nutrition, and Obesity

Most young adults know which foods
 are healthy, but ignore good nutrition
Since physical growth is beginning to
 decline in this developmental period,
 young adults must reduce the
 calories they were used to during
 adolescence
Eating, Nutrition, and Obesity, continued

  Young adults will put on weight if they do
   not eat sensibly.
  31 % of the adult population is classified
   as overweight.
  7 % of men and 10 % of women between
   the ages of 20 and 25 are obese.
  The rate of obesity in the U.S. is
   increasing
Obesity on the Rise…
Genetic factors may lead people to become
 obese.
Environmental and social factors also produce
 obesity.
Obese people may have a higher WEIGHT SET
 POINT, the particular level the body strives to
 maintain.
Most people who diet eventually gain back the
 weight
  Physical Disabilities in Young Adulthood: Coping With
                     Physical Challenge
 Some 50+ million Americans are physically
  challenged - or disabled - a condition that
  substantially limits a major life activity such as
  walking or vision.
 Fewer than 10 % of people with major
  handicaps have finished high school.
 Fewer than 25 % of disabled men and 15 % of
  disabled women work full time.
 Adults with handicaps are often unemployed,
  or stuck in routine, low-paying jobs.
          ~~WHY? BARRIERS!
 Discrimination and prejudice are barriers and affect the
 way that people with disabilities view themselves (their
                 cognitive development!)

 Despite the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990),
  many older buildings are inaccessible to wheelchairs.
 Prejudice and discrimination affect the way disabled
  people think of themselves.
  Pity, avoidance
  Treating adults as children
  Seeing disabled person as a category rather than
     an individual
 Stress & Coping in Early Adulthood: Another Factor
          Effecting Cognitive Development


 STRESS is the response to events that
  threaten or challenge an individual.
 Our lives are filled with events and
  circumstances known as stressors, that
  cause threats to our well-being.
(Stress & Coping in Early Adulthood, continued)

 Stressors can be both pleasant events and
  unpleasant events (weddings, winning awards,
  exams, arguments)
 Long-term, continuous exposure to stressors may
  result in a reduction of the body's ability to deal
  with stress.
   People become more susceptible to diseases
     as their ability to fight off germs declines
    According to Lazarus and Folkman, not every
                situation produces stress
   Lazarus and Folkman believe that people move
    through a series of stages that determine whether
    or not they will experience stress (the way a
    situation is appraised will determine the
    perception of stress)
     PRIMARY APPRAISAL is the assessment of an event to
       determine whether its implications are positive, negative,
       or neutral
     SECONDARY APPRAISAL is the assessment of whether
       one's coping abilities and resources are adequate to
       overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by the
       potential stressor
~The way an individual evaluates a potential stressor
determines whether the individual will experience stress.

                         Steps in the
                         Perception of
                         Stress
 Overall Principals Predicting When an Event will be
            Stressful (Shelly Taylor, 1991)
 Events and circumstances that produce negative
  emotions are more likely to produce stress.
 Situations that are uncontrollable or
  unpredictable are more likely to produce stress.
 Events and circumstances that are ambiguous
  and confusing produce more stress.
 People who must accomplish simultaneously
  many tasks are more likely to experience stress.
    Stress Quiz in text
  The Consequences of Stress During Early
               Adulthood

 Stress may lead to PSYCHOSOMATIC
  DISORDERS, medical problems
  caused by the interaction of
  psychological, emotional, and physical
  difficulties.
 Some young adults are better than
  others at COPING, the effort to reduce,
  or tolerate the threats that lead to
  stress.
Styles of Coping…
 Problem-focused coping is the attempt to
  manage a stressful problem or situation by
  directly changing the situation to make it less
  stressful.
 Emotion-focused coping involves the
  conscious regulation of emotion.
 Coping is also aided by the presence of social
  support, assistance and comfort supplied by
  others.
 Defense coping involves unconscious
  strategies that distort or deny the true nature of
  the situation.
 Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

Physical development slows down during
 early adulthood, but does cognitive?
  Piaget and others argued that by the
   time the teen years were finished,
   thinking stabilized
  BUT increasing evidence suggests that
   this part of Piaget’s theory was incorrect!
  Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood, continued…

 Developmentalist Giesela Labouvie-Vief suggests
  that the nature of thinking changes qualitatively
  during early adulthood.
 Adults exhibit POSTFORMAL THOUGHT, thinking
  that goes beyond Piaget's formal operations.
  Adult predicaments are sometimes solved by
     relativistic thinking rather than pure logic.
  Postformal thought acknowledges that the world
     sometimes lacks purely right and wrong
     solutions and adults must draw upon prior
     experiences to solve problems.
K. Warner Schaie suggests that adults' thinking
        follows a set pattern of stages

 The ACQUISITIVE STAGE, which
  encompasses all of childhood and
  adolescence, in which the main
  developmental task is to acquire
  information.
 The ACHIEVING STAGE is the point
  reached by young adults in which
  intelligence is applied to specific
  situations involving the attainment of
  long-term goals regarding careers, family,
  and societal contributions.
   Schaie stages of cognitive development,
                continued…

 The RESPONSIBLE STAGE is the stage where the
  major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their
  personal situations, including protecting and
  nourishing their spouses, families, and careers.
 The EXECUTIVE STAGE is the period in middle
  adulthood when people take a broader perspective
  than earlier, including concerns about the world.
 The REINTEGRATIVE STAGE is the period of late
  adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that
  have personal meaning
Schaie’s Stages of Adult Development
 “How do you meet your goals?”-- The way adults answer
 has a lot to do with their future success according to
 psychologist Robert Sternberg.

 Robert Sternberg, in his TRIARCHIC
  THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
  suggests that intelligence is made up
  of three major components:
   Componential aspects
   Experiential components
   Contextual factors
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

  Componential intelligence relates to the
   mental components involved in analyzing
   data, and in solving problems, especially
   problems involving rational behavior.
   (traditional IQ tests focus on this aspect)
  Experiential intelligence refers to the
   relationship between intelligence, people's
   prior experience, and their ability to cope
   with new situations
(Sternberg, continued)

 Contextual intelligence involves the degree
   of success people demonstrate in facing
   the demands of their everyday, real-world
   environments.
~~ Sternberg contends that success in a
   career necessitates this type of intelligence
   (contextual), also called PRACTICAL
   INTELLIGENCE, intelligence that is
   learned primarily by observing others and
   modeling their behavior.
Sample
items from a
test that
taps four
domains of
practical
intelligence
(see text)
Expanding on Sternberg’s theory…


Psychologist Seymour Epstein argues
   that constructive thinking, a form of
   practical intelligence, underlies
   success in such areas as social
   relationships and physical and
   emotional health
         Creativity: Novel Thought in Early Adulthood

The major works of many creative
 individuals were produced during early
 adulthood
Psychologist Sarnoff Mednick proposed that
 higher productivity exists during early
 adulthood
   One factor: “familiarity breeds rigidity”
    (the more people know about something,
    the more rigid they become)
  Clearly not universal
Creativity & Age…The period of maximum creativity differs
               depending on the particular field.
  (Creativity: Novel Thought in Early Adulthood,
                     continued)
 CREATIVITY, combining responses or ideas in creative
  ways, is at its peak for many individuals during early
  adulthood.
 People in early adulthood may be at the peak of their
  creativity because many of the problems they
  encounter on a professional level are novel.
  Creative people are willing to take risks.
  Creative people develop and endorse ideas that are
     unfashionable or regarded as "wrong".
  Not all people reach their creative peak in early
     adulthood
  Life events & cognitive development

 Some research suggests that major life events,
  such as marriage, birth of a child, starting a first
  job, having a child, buying a house, may lead to
  cognitive growth.
 The ups and downs of life events may lead young
  adults to think about the world in novel, more
  complex, sophisticated, and often less rigid ways.
 Applying postformal thought (Labouvie-Vief)
  allows them to deal more effectively with the
  complex social world
   College: Pursuing Higher Education

 Nationwide, a minority of high school graduates
   enter college.
 40 % of White Americans enter college.
 29 % of African-Americans enter college.
 31 % of Hispanic high school graduates enter
   college.
 Only about 40 % of those who start will graduate
   from college in 4 years.
 ½ will eventually finish.
 70 % of African-Americans drop out of college.
By the year 2000, the U.S. Dept. of Education projects
           increases in college attendance
 Minority students are an increasingly
  larger proportion of the college
  population.
 African-American students have
  increased by 13 %.
 Hispanic students have increased by 22
  %.
 White students have increased by 6 %
     College Enrollment by Racial Group




Ethnic diversity has increased over the last several decades.
Changes in College Attendance,
         continued…


 ~These changes reflect differences in
  the racial & ethnic composition of
  the U.S. & the growing realization
  that higher education improves
  economic well-being.
Education & Economic Security
Higher education, continued
 There are now more women than men
  enrolled in college, and by the year 2007,
  women's enrollment is expected to increase
  30 % from 1995 compared to an increase of
  only 13 % for men.
 College is a period of developmental growth
  that encompasses mastery not just of
  particular bodies of knowledge, but of ways
  of understanding the world.
The Changing College Student: Never too Late
              to go to College

 40 % of college students today are 25
  years of age or older.
 The average age of a community college
  student is 31.
 A college degree is becoming increasingly
  important in obtaining a job.
 Many employers require and encourage
  their workers to update their skills.
(The Changing College Student, continued)

 According to Sherry Willis, adults return to
  college for several reasons.
    To understand their own aging.
    To keep up with rapid technological and
     cultural advances.
    To combat obsolescence on the job.
    To acquire new vocational skills.
    As a means of broadening their intellectual
     skills
What do college students learn?.
 William Perry found that students grow
   intellectually and morally during college
 On entering, students tend to use dualistic
   thinking, either something was right or wrong,
   good or bad, for them or against them.
 Students increasingly realize during college that
   issues can have more than one plausible side,
   that it is possible to hold multiple perspectives
   on an issue, characterized by multiple thinking.
  William Perry’s view of intellectual and moral
  development in young adulthood, continued

 Students eventually enter a stage
  regarded as relativistic, where,
  rather than seeing the world as
  having absolute standards and
  values, they see that different
  societies, cultures, and individuals
  can have different standards and
  values, all equally valid.
  Gender & College Performance
 Prejudice and discrimination directed at women is still a
  fact of college life.
  Hostile sexism (overtly harmful treatment)
  Benevolent sexism (a form of sexism in which women
     are placed in stereotyped & restrictive roles that may
     appear positive.
     Complimenting a student on appearance
     Offering an easier research project so a student
         won’t have to work so hard
    ~ Message may be that the woman is not taken
         seriously, and competence is undermined.
~Classes in education and the social sciences
have larger proportions of women than men.

Differences exist in gender distribution in classes &
 attrition rates
  Classes in engineering, the physical sciences,
     and mathematics tend to have more men than
     women.
  Women earn just 22 % of the bachelor degrees
     in science and 13 % of the doctorates
  Women are more likely to drop out of math,
     engineering, and physical science classes.
  Why do differences exist in gender distribution in
              classes & attrition rates?

 The powerful influence of gender
 stereotypes!
  Women are less likely to consider choosing
    these majors their 1st year of college
    (societal messages)
     More likely to choose fields traditionally
       populated by women
     Different expectations regarding
       competence
During the
              The Great Gender Divide
1st year of
college,
men are
more likely
to view
themselves
as above
average in
several
academic
areas.

  What is at the root of this difference?
 Gender differences reflect the powerful effect of
                 gender stereotypes.
 Women expect to earn less than men and in
  fact earn 70 cents for every dollar that men
  earn.
 Women expect to do worse in some academic
  areas than men
  ~ Stereotype threat hypothesis (expectation
  based on stereotype leads to outcomes)
  Study by Spencer, Quinn & Steele (1997)-
     Tough math test given. When the test portrayed
     as gender-neutral, no gender difference in
     results! (chart, next slide)
Stereotype Threat



                Women are
                vulnerable to
                expectations
                regarding their
                success.
 (gender & college performance, continued)

 Males receive more extra help and more positive
  reinforcement for their comments than women do.
 Although not entirely consistent, some research
  shows that women who attend same-sex colleges
  show higher self-esteem than those attending
  coeducational colleges.
  They receive more attention.
  More professors are women.
  They receive more encouragement in science
     and math.
(gender & college performance, continued)
  Boys & girls perform almost identically
   on standardized math tests in
   elementary and middle school, but this
   changes from high school through
   college
  When African-Americans start school,
   their standardized test scores are only
   slightly lower than those of European-
   Americans, but a 2-year gap emerges
   by 6th grade
            – WHY??
Psychologist Claude Steele found that
  the reason both women and African
 Americans perform less well in college
  is academic disidentification - a lack
    of personal identification with an
            academic domain

 ~More understanding of this effect is needed!
 ~May be connected to high school drop out rates as
 well!
Dropping out of college
    Half of all students drop out of
     college.

                     Why?
      Marriage, children, or death of parent
       requires students to drop out
      Academic difficulties
      College is expensive
      Some students need time off to
       mature
  Dropping out of college, continued

 The FIRST-YEAR ADJUSTMENT REACTION is a
  group of psychological symptoms relating to the
  college experience.
  Most likely to occur among students who were
     especially successful academically or socially
     in high school (sudden change in status often
     causes distress)
 Surveys show that almost half of all college
  students have a least one significant
  psychological issue.
When should college students consider getting professional
help with their problems?
     ~There are no strict rules about who can benefit from
                      professional counseling
 Some common signals include the presence of the following
 Psychological distress that lingers and interferes with a
    persons sense of well-being and ability to function
 Feelings that one is unable to cope effectively with the
    stress
 Hopelessness or depressed feelings
 The inability to build close relationships with others
 Physical symptoms that have no apparent underlying
    cause
 Almost everyone can benefit from talking to
 someone if things are bothering them!

 Consider the college counseling center—
 can be very helpful to have support!

 Career Services on campus
 Both have lots of resources available
 including support groups, individual
 counseling, and help with career planning
 (AND most services are already paid for
 by your student fees!)
Remember to keep
up with your reading!

								
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