Binder by Upcu2P

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									                                                   Contents by Genre

Short Fiction

Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Conscience Alley .............................................................................................................22
Mandala ............................................................................................................................24
Inner and Outer Circles ..................................................................................................26
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Two Column Notes .........................................................................................................50

Novels

Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Fluency .............................................................................................................................56
Flexibility ..........................................................................................................................58
Originality ........................................................................................................................60
Elaboration .......................................................................................................................62
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Postcards ..........................................................................................................................76
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Personal Profile ...............................................................................................................80
Group Essay .....................................................................................................................82
Acrostics ...........................................................................................................................84




Secondary English Resource Binder                                  1                                             Copyright SD #43
Drama

Visual Essay .....................................................................................................................86
Emotional Distance .........................................................................................................88
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Colourful Description ...................................................................................................104
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
Numbered Heads Together .........................................................................................108

Non-Fiction

U-Debate .........................................................................................................................110
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
Effective Language Analysis .......................................................................................124
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Family Possessions........................................................................................................128
The Personal Metaphor ................................................................................................130

Poetry

Poetry By Candlelight ..................................................................................................132
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Sonnet Walks .................................................................................................................146
Imagery Echoes .............................................................................................................148
Theme in Poetry ............................................................................................................150
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Poetic Inductive Thinking ............................................................................................154
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157

Secondary English Resource Binder                                2                                            Copyright SD #43
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Research

Fantasy Trips and Symbolism .....................................................................................163
Bio-Poem ........................................................................................................................166
Allusions.........................................................................................................................168
Internet Research Project .............................................................................................170

Media

Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176

Please refer to Kevin McKendy‟s “Media Education in Your Classroom”, enclosed in
this resource, for many more ideas on media education.

For another perspective on media education, consult
http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/FA/MLArticlefolder/Media_Education_pape
r.pdf




Secondary English Resource Binder                                3                                            Copyright SD #43
                                                  Contents by Strand
Reading

Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Two Column Notes .........................................................................................................50
Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Fluency .............................................................................................................................56
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Theme in Poetry ............................................................................................................150
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Poetic Inductive Thinking ............................................................................................154
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Allusions.........................................................................................................................168
Internet Research Project .............................................................................................170

Writing

Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Personal Profile ...............................................................................................................80
Group Essay .....................................................................................................................82
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Colourful Description ...................................................................................................104
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Effective Language Analysis .......................................................................................124
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Family Possessions........................................................................................................128
The Personal Metaphor ................................................................................................130
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
Fantasy Trips and Symbolism .....................................................................................163

Secondary English Resource Binder                                 4                                             Copyright SD #43
Bio-Poem ........................................................................................................................166

Speaking

Conscience Alley .............................................................................................................22
Inner and Outer Circles ..................................................................................................26
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Numbered Heads Together .........................................................................................108
U-Debate .........................................................................................................................110
Poetry By Candlelight ..................................................................................................132
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140

Listening

Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Sonnet Walks .................................................................................................................146
Imagery Echoes .............................................................................................................148

Representing

Mandala ............................................................................................................................24
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Flexibility ..........................................................................................................................58
Originality ........................................................................................................................60
Elaboration .......................................................................................................................62
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Postcards ..........................................................................................................................76
Acrostics ...........................................................................................................................84
Visual Essay .....................................................................................................................86
Emotional Distance .........................................................................................................88
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106

Secondary English Resource Binder                                  5                                             Copyright SD #43
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144

Viewing
Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176




Secondary English Resource Binder                              6                                           Copyright SD #43
                                             Planning Model




                                                                      Pl ann in g
                                                                   For In structi on
                            Le arn in g O utcom e s                and Asse ssm e nt

                         • from the curriculum guides               t tegies, products and
                                                             • selec stra
                                                                processes which will help
                                                                 students achieve learning
                                                                     outcomes; identify
                                                                      assessment tasks
                                                                          and criteria


                                                                                             Asse ss Pri or
              Re port                                                                        Knowle dge
               nd     s
 • comments a grade should                                                           • use teacher -developed
    reflect progress in relation                                                       methods to find out
        to learning outcomes                                                           what students know
                                                                                         and are able to do




                          Te ach,Asse ss Evalu ate                   Re vi se Pl an
                                                             • the original topics/tasks may
                      • most assessment and evaluation
                                                               need to be adjusted to meet
                         should be for the purpose of
                                                             student needs; the assessment
                           planning for instruction
                                                                  criteria may need to be
                           and providing ongoing
                                                                          changed
                             feedback to students




Secondary English Resource Binder                        7                              Copyright SD #43
                              Sample Planning Template

For an expanded explanation of this model, refer to the 1998 Language Arts Middle
School Resource Binder. One copy was given to each Secondary English department.

Assess Prior Knowledge
   Where do I begin?
   What do my students know?
   Where do they need help?




Main Products and Processes                          Instructional Strategies
   What will the students do?                        How will I help students achieve the
                                                        learning outcomes?




Key Assessment/Evaluation Tasks
   How will I gather information about
    student progress?
   What aspects of each product or process do
    I teach, assess, evaluate?




Resources




Secondary English Resource Binder                8                                Copyright SD #43
Secondary English Resource Binder   9   Copyright SD #43
Grade 9: Comprehend and Respond (Reading, Viewing, Listening)
                                                                       ENGAGEMENT AND
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                 COMPREHENSION                      PERSONAL RESPONSE                 CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Develop strat‟s, skills for        Understand written, oral,         Make connections with literary     Draw, defend reasoned
anticipating, predicting and       visual communications             works and mass media               conclusions from info in
confirming meaning                                                                                      various works
 describe & assess strat‟s used    interp main ideas, events,       willing to explore various        identify and investigate how
  before, during, after              or themes                         genres and media                   diff cultures and groups are
 describe prior knowledge &        organize details and             connect what they hear, read,      portrayed
  experience with topic              information using various         view to own ideas & beliefs       describe and give examples of
 use wide range of resources        written, graphic forms           relate ideas and info in works     power of satire
  to aid comprehension              interpret and report on           to universal themes               locate and assess persuasive
 use efficient note-making          information                      compare themes, purpose, &         techniques in terms of
  and note-taking strategies        cite specific information         appeal of diff works               purpose, audience, medium
 evaluate the effectiveness of      from works to support            use info heard, read, viewed      evaluate information in terms
  literary techniques including      inferences and respond to         to dev research questions,         of audience
  figurative language                tasks                             create works, or in response      explain how mass media can
 recognize stock or                interpret details and draw        tasks                              influence attitudes, self-
  stereotypical characters           conclusions about                                                    perception, lifestyles
                                     information in illustrations,
                                     maps, charts, graphs, etc.
                                    paraphrase & summarize
                                     info from variety of sources


Grade 9: Communicate Ideas and Information (Writing, Speaking, Representing)
KNOWLEDGE OF                       COMPOSING AND                     IMPROVING                          PRESENTING AND
LANGUAGE                           CREATING                          COMMUNICATIONS                     VALUING
Apply knowledge of                 Variety of processes & strat‟s    Enhance precision, clarity,        Variety of forms and styles for
conventions of language            to generate, gather, &            artistry using processes that      specific purposes and audiences
                                   organize information & ideas      professionals use to appraise
                                                                     and improve work
 use grammatically correct         develop focused inquiry          appraise own & others‟ work       demonstrate pride and
  lang in writing, speaking          questions for specific            for appropriateness of              satisfaction in using language
 experiment with                    audiences & purposes              resource choices, language        create variety of works to
  sophisticated figures of          locate, access & select           use, organizational and             persuade., inform, entertain
  speech & genres incl. satire,      appropriate info from             communication forms                 class, other audiences
  parody, irony                      variety of sources               use language appropriate to       create comm‟s include:
 use specialized terminology       analyze audience &                purpose and audience             - poems, stories,
  and subject-specific language      purpose to make decisions        adjust form, style, lang for     - personal essays
  with accuracy & precision          about content and format          audiences and purposes           - oral & vis. presentations
                                    use variety of planning          monitor own work for correct     - written explanations,
                                     tools & strategies                spelling and punctuation         - summaries,
                                    apply var strategies to                                            - arguments
                                     generate and shape ideas                                           - letters
                                                                                                        - bibliographies


Grade 9: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                                BUILDING COMMUNITY                             PERSONAL AWARENESS
Interact and collaborate to explore ideas       Establish and maintain relationships;          Use language to explore thoughts, ideas,
and accomplish goals                            collaborate, value and support others          feelings, experiences
 prompt and support others                      interact purposefully, confidently,           confident using language in formal,
 express opinions effectively                    appropriately in variety of situations         informal situations in and out of school
 use var strategies to resolve conflicts,       analyze influence of language and             compose and monitor personal
                                                  cultural diversity on selves and               communication goals


Secondary English Resource Binder                     10                                    Copyright SD #43
 solve problems, build consensus             community                                      analyze own understanding, beliefs;
 evaluate and modify own group roles in    use language to participate appropriately       identify gaps or contradictions
 variety of contexts                         in celebrations




Secondary English Resource Binder                11                                      Copyright SD #43
Grade 10: Comprehend and Respond (Reading, Viewing, Listening)
                                                                         ENGAGEMENT AND
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                COMPREHENSION                         PERSONAL RESPONSE                   CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Develop strat‟s, skills for       Understand written, oral,            Make connections with literary       Draw, defend reasoned
anticipating, predicting and      visual communications                works & mass media                   conclusions from info in
confirming meaning                                                                                          various works
 describe & assess strategies     interpret main ideas, events,       connect what they hear, read,       aware of how artful use of
  used before, during,, after       or themes                            view to own ideas                    language can affect and
 consciously use strategies to    generalize re: key characters,      consider more than one               influence others
  sustain concentration             concepts, themes giving              interpretation of a work            evaluate how both genders,
 compose questions to guide        specific details /examples          compare features & merits of         various cultures & socio-
  reading viewing, listening       use variety written, graphic         different works incl those by        economic groups are
 use efficient strategies to       forms to organize ideas from         same author, director etc            portrayed in mass media
  locate, record, organize,         reading, viewing, listening         open to divergent language          explain how mass media can
  research information             interpret & report on                ideas, and opinions in lit-ture      influence emotional
 locate and interpret              information fr mult sources          and media from a variety of          responses
  examples of literary              to develop & support                 cultural communities                analyze and assess impact of
  techniques including              positions                           develop imaginative or               specific media techniques &
  symbolism                        interpret details & draw             creative response to share           designs
 describe how tone, mood           conclusions about info in            their ideas
  affect drama of a work            illust, maps, graphs, etc.


Grade 10: Communicate Ideas and Information (Writing, Speaking, Representing)
KNOWLEDGE OF                      COMPOSING AND                      IMPROVING                             PRESENTING AND
LANGUAGE                          CREATING                           COMMUNICATIONS                        VALUING
Apply knowledge of                Variety of processes &             Enhance precision, clarity,           Variety of forms and styles for
conventions of language           strat‟s to generate, gather, &     artistry using processes that         specific purposes and audiences
                                  organize information &             professionals use to appraise
                                  ideas                              and improve work
 monitor own & others‟            dev focused inquiry ques          use criteria to appraise own         demonstrate pride and
  communication for                 for incr complex topics            and others work; offer                satisfaction in using language
  correctness                      dem awareness of                   constructive suggestions             create communications for
 identify lang errors that can     characteristics, needs,           defend choices of organization        increased range of audiences
  influence audience (double-       pref‟s of specific aud‟s           and form; offer ways to               and purposes including
  negatives; pronoun misuse;       locate, access & select            improve own and others work           pleasure and entertainment
  overuse of jargon, tech lang)     approp info; consider             revise and edit to improve           create communications
 appraise communications           quality, currency, accuracy        content, organization, and            including
  critically, using accurate        of ea source                       effect considering specific              - debates
  terminology, rules &             org ideas, adjust style,           audiences and purposes                  - research & technical reports
  conventions                       form, lang for specific           monitor own work for correct            - oral, multimedia
 use variety of technological      audiences and purposes             spelling and punctuation                  presentations
  functions & software to          apply var strat‟s to                                                       - poetry
  publish original work             generate and shape ideas                                                   - personal essays


Grade 10: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                               BUILDING COMMUNITY                             PERSONAL AWARENESS
Interact and collaborate to explore ideas      Establish and maintain relationships;          Use language to explore thoughts, ideas,
and accomplish goals                           collaborate; value and support others          feelings, experiences
 commit to group goals                         interact purposefully, confidently,           confident using language in and out of
 consider and elaborate on others‟ ideas or     appropriately                                  school
  views                                         respect cultural differences                  assess skills, set & monitor personal and
 resolve conflicts, solve problems, build      aware of relationship of language to           career goals
  consensus                                      group/community membership                    describe language requirements of


Secondary English Resource Binder                    12                                       Copyright SD #43
 establish and use criteria to evaluate own    acknowledge, restate views diff from            specific careers, post-secondary
  and group processes and products               own; reassess own                              commit to increased proficiency
                                                use language appropriate to audience           explain influence of others‟ contributions
                                                 and purpose in celebrations



Grade 11: Comprehend and Respond (Reading, Viewing, Listening)
                                                                          ENGAGEMENT AND
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                COMPREHENSION                          PERSONAL RESPONSE                 CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Develop strategies, skills for    Understand written, oral,            Make connections with literary      Draw, defend reasoned
anticipating, predicting and      visual communications                works and mass media                conclusions from information
confirming meaning                                                                                         in various works
 consciously use and evaluate     main ideas, events, themes          make connections between           use given criteria to analyze
  wide variety of strategies        of variety of complex literary       ideas and information in            merits of print and electronic
  before, during, after             & other materials                    literary and mass media, and        communications
 describe and apply strategies    organize details in variety of       own experience                     identify weak arguments in
  for locating and using            written or graphic                  willing to take tentative           communications
  information from variety of       organizers                           stance, tolerate ambiguity,        describe ethical issues re:
  sources                          synthesize and report on             explore multiple perspectives,      mass media, electronic
 use efficient note-making         information from multiple            interpretations                     communications, including
  and note-taking strategies        sources to address topic or         support opinions, respond to        privacy
 explain effects of variety of     issue                                questions, tasks about works       analyze relationship
  literary devices & techniques    coherent and plausible              make connections among              between media and the
  including figurative              interpretations: abstract,           themes, ideas in various            message
  language, symbolism,              complex, specialized                 works                              appreciate how their own
  parody, irony                     material                            respect diverse languages and       backgrounds influence their
                                   interpret to clarify, fill in        cultures in classroom,              interpretations
                                    gaps, ambiguities                    literature, mass media             compare different
                                   interpret variety of graphic                                             presentations of the same
                                    formats                                                                  idea or issue


Grade 11: Communicate Ideas and Information (Writing, Speaking, Representing)
KNOWLEDGE OF                      COMPOSING AND                      IMPROVING                            PRESENTING AND
LANGUAGE                          CREATING                           COMMUNICATIONS                       VALUING
Apply knowledge of                Variety of processes &             Enhance precision, clarity,          Variety of forms and styles for
conventions of language           strat‟s to generate, gather, &     artistry using processes that        specific purposes and audiences
                                  organize information &             professionals use to appraise
                                  ideas                              and improve work
 use communication                develop focused inquiry           assess own and others work;         demonstrate pride and
  technologies including            questions with specific            for sentence clarity, precision,     satisfaction in using language
  telecommunications                audience, purpose in mind          variety, artistry                   create communications using
 use approp formats and           use va planning strategies        use appropriate criteria to          different tones and voices to
  documentation to present          to generate, access ideas          critique and appraise own and        evoke emotions, influence,
  information from various         clarify and focus topic to         others‟ ideas, language,             persuade, entertain
  sources                           suit purpose, audience             presentation forms                  create communications
 adjust form, style, tone,        locate, access and select         manipulate conventions of            including
  language for audience,            approp info fr var sources         language for stylistic effect          - multi-genre presentations
  purpose                          synthesize information &          adapt oral presentations,              - articles
 use computer functions,           ideas appropriate to               discussions for audience style         - formal reports
  software to create and edit       purpose, media, audience          accept, provide constructive           - advertising, persuasive
 incorporate electronic           apply var strategies to            feedback to improve clarity,             materials
  research sources into             generate and shape ideas           meaning, style                         - résumés
  desktop-published work                                                                                      - research papers




Secondary English Resource Binder                    13                                       Copyright SD #43
Grade 11: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                              BUILDING COMMUNITY                             PERSONAL AWARENESS
Interact and collaborate to explore ideas     Establish and maintain relationships;          Use language to explore thoughts, ideas,
and accomplish goals                          collaborate; value and support others          feelings, experiences
 eval, adjust own role to align with          interact purposefully, confidently,           confident communicating in formal, and
  group‟s purpose                               ethically                                      informal situations
 apply strategies including diplomacy,        communicate to clarify own ideas,             assess skills, interests, attitudes; relate to
  compromise                                    understanding, opinions                        own goals
 use variety resources, techniques            value, respect diversity of language,         set goals, develop and monitor action
 assess value, issues re: collaboration        cultures in Canada                             plans
 develop and use criteria to evaluate own,    open to divergent ideas                       appraise language requirements of
  group processes                              appreciate role of lang in special events      specific careers, post-secondary


Grade 12: Comprehend and Respond (Reading, Viewing, Listening)
                                                                        ENGAGEMENT AND
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                COMPREHENSION                        PERSONAL RESPONSE                   CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Develop strategies, skills for    Understand written, oral,          Make connections with literary        Draw, defend reasoned
anticipating, predicting and      visual communications              works and mass media                  conclusions from information
confirming meaning                                                                                         in various works
 use and evaluate variety of      paraphrase main ideas,            reread for various purposes          develop criteria for
  strategies for different          events, themes of variety of      connect values, beliefs,              evaluating accuracy &
  purposes                          sophisticated literary,            cultures in literature, mass          objectivity of information in
 describe and evaluate             technical, information             media, to their own                   print, electronic sources
  strategies for locating           materials                         explore diverse points of            compare, critique different
  information in print and         coherent and plausible             views to develop or modify            presentations of same idea,
  electronic resources              interpretations of sophis-         viewpoints                            information or issue
  including mass media            ticated, abstract, materials        cite specific details, features,     explain and evaluate
 describe own prior               interpret & synthesize             information to support                effectiveness of persuasive
  knowledge and experience          information from multiple          positions, interpretations,           strategies and techniques
  re: specific topics               sources to develop & explain       responses                            describe potential sources of
 use efficient strategies for      positions                         analyze and respond to                bias
  recording, organizing,           interpret ambiguities in           themes of personal identity
  storing information               works, giving evidence             and community in literature
 describe and apply various       interpret details, draw            and mass media
  literary devices, techniques      conclusion from information       appreciate power & beauty of
  include. figurative language,     in complex print, graphic,         language
  symbols, parody, irony            electronic materials


Grade 12: Communicate Ideas and Information (Writing, Speaking, Representing)
KNOWLEDGE OF                      COMPOSING AND                    IMPROVING                              PRESENTING AND
LANGUAGE                          CREATING                         COMMUNICATIONS                         VALUING
Apply knowledge of                Variety of processes &           Enhance precision, clarity,            Variety of forms and styles for
conventions of language           strat‟s to generate, gather,     artistry using processes that          specific purposes and audiences
                                  and organize information &       professionals use to appraise
                                  ideas                            and improve work
 use communication                dev quest re: challenging       assess own and others work;           demonstrate pride and
  technologies including            or abstract issues               for sentence clarity, precision,       satisfaction in using language
  telecommunications               use var planning tools to        variety, artistry                     create presentations in forms
 evaluate conventions of           commun plans to others          critique, defend, appraise own         appropriate to variety of
  language used in a variety of    describe, eval alt ways of       and others‟ work                       subjects, audiences, purposes
  literary and other forms          presenting to spec aud‟s        accept, provide constructive          create comm‟s include:
 adapt register and grammar       locate, access, evaluate &       criticism, feedback to revise,           - personal & formal essays
  to suit specific audience and     select info in var sources       edit for clarity, meaning, style         - research reports
  purpose                          select, synthesize, org,        monitor own spelling,                    - multimedia



Secondary English Resource Binder                   14                                       Copyright SD #43
                                     document info approp to         grammar, mechanics, syntax               presentations
                                     purpose, form, audience                                                - panels, debates
                                    apply var strategies to                                                - summaries, explanations
                                     generate and shape ideas                                               - instructions; letters
                                                                                                            - real, invented narratives


Grade 12: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                               BUILDING COMMUNITY                            PERSONAL AWARENESS
Interact and collaborate to explore ideas      Establish and maintain relationships;         Use language to explore thoughts, ideas,
and accomplish goals                           collaborate; value and support others         feelings, experience
 evaluate, adjust own role to align with       interact purposefully, confidently,          confident communicating in school,
  group‟s purpose                                ethically                                     community, work
 apply strategies incl formal decision-mkg     respect ways people use, respond to          assess skills, interests, attitudes; relate to
 use variety resources, techniques              language                                      own plans
 assess issues of collaboration                present, seek out, consider divergent        set goals, develop & monitor action plans
 dev & use criteria to eval own, grp            views                                        self-directed, curious, open-minded
  process                                       contribute to celebratory lang activities     learners


Communications 11: Comprehend and Respond
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                 COMPREHENSION                  ENGAGEMENT AND                         CRITICAL ANALYSIS
                                                                    PERSONAL RESPONSE
 use a variety of strategies       demonstrate the ability to      relate a range of texts, genres,    identify various techniques of
  before, during, and after          read from a variety of           and mass media to personal           persuasion in a variety of
  reading, viewing, or listening     purposes                         interests, ideas, and attitudes      works, including workplace
  to increase comprehension         demonstrate familiarity         identify indicators of cultural      communications
  and recall                         with literary works from a       diversity in print and non-         explain how perspectives and
 construct and confirm              variety of genres and            print media, including               biases are reflected in print
  meaning using word-                cultures                         electronic media                     and non-print resources,
  structure analysis, context       identify the topics, main       demonstrate willingness to           including electronic
  clues, and prominent               ideas, events or themes,         reassess their understanding         communications
  organizational patterns            supporting ideas, and            of a topic on the basis of          compare different sources of
 apply appropriate strategies       sequence of a variety of         responses from others and            information on the same topic
  for locating and using             works from different             new ideas and experiences           identify ways in which mass
  information from a variety of      genres, including               develop and defend a point of        media influence individual
  print and non-print                workplace communications         view using evidence from             perceptions and social
  resources, including              organize oral, written, or       work they have read, heard,          behaviours
  electronic resources               visual information into a        or viewed
 demonstrate efficient note-        variety of written and
  taking strategies                  graphic forms
                                    demonstrate the ability to
                                     interpret details in and
                                     draw conclusions from a
                                     variety of print and graphic
                                     formats


Communications 11: Communicate Ideas and Information
KNOWLEDGE OF                       COMPOSING AND                    IMPROVING                            PRESENTING AND
  LANGUAGE                           CREATING                          COMMUNICATIONS                       VALUING
 apply capitalization,             locate, access, and select      use appropriate criteria to         create clear and appealing
  spelling, and punctuation          appropriate information          critique their own and others'       oral, written, and visual
  conventions and standard           from both print and non-         ideas, use of language, and          presentations using a variety
  grammatical structures             print resources                  presentation forms relative to       of tools and techniques
 demonstrate the ability to        identify purpose and             purpose and audience                demonstrate pride,
  write for a variety of             audience for their              use a variety of organizational      satisfaction, and confidence in



Secondary English Resource Binder                     15                                     Copyright SD #43
  audiences and purposes              presentations                      structures and appropriate            their ability to communicate
 use a variety of computer          describe how different             transitions to enhance oral,          in a variety of formal and
  programs to create and edit         arrangements of words,             written, and visual                   informal contexts, including
  their presentations                 sounds, and visuals alter          communications                        workplace contexts
 demonstrate awareness of            intended impact
  language conventions used          create original
  in the workplace                    presentations in a variety of
                                      formats
                                     use a range of common
                                      communication forms,
                                      including business and
                                      personal letters, memos,
                                      and reports


Communications 11: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                                BUILDING COMMUNITY                                PERSONAL AWARENESS
 demonstrate understanding of the               communicate purposefully, confidently,           relate language skills, interests, and
  differences between working                     and ethically in a variety of situations          attitudes to personal and career plans
  collaboratively and working                    demonstrate respect for the diversity of         establish goals and plans for language
  independently on presentations                  ideas, language, and culture in an                learning based on achievement, needs,
 use appropriate criteria to evaluate group      inclusive community                               and interests
  processes and individual contributions         demonstrate the ability to use language
 demonstrate respect for others'                 and texts to celebrate personal and
  viewpoints when working collaboratively         community occasions and
                                                  accomplishments


Communications 12: Comprehend and Respond
                                                                         ENGAGEMENT AND
STRATEGIES, SKILLS                  COMPREHENSION                        PERSONAL RESPONSE                    CRITICAL ANALYSIS
 choose appropriate strategies      distinguish the different           demonstrate the ability to          assess the effectiveness of
  before, during, and after           features of a variety of             connect their experiences and        persuasive techniques
  reading, viewing, listening         literary, technical, and             values to those reflected in        assess information for
  for different purposes              business texts                       Canadian and international           completeness, accuracy,
 demonstrate the ability to         paraphrase the main ideas,           literacy and mass media              currency, relevance, balance
  use a variety of strategies for     events, or themes in a variety       works                                of perspectives, and bias
  locating information in print       of literary, technical,             demonstrate a willingness to        analyze different
  and non-print resources             business, and informational          explore diverse perspectives         presentations of the same
 assess prior knowledge and          communications                       to develop or modify their           information to reconsider
  experience with specific           demonstrate the ability to           points of view                       positions
  topics                              adjust reading and viewing          assess their knowledge and          assess ways in which
 demonstrate ability to              according to purpose,                use of language in light of the      language reflects and
  record, organize, store             content, and context                 requirements of workplace            influences values and
  information they read, hear,       interpret details in and draw        communications                       behaviours
  or view                             conclusions from                    demonstrate the ability to          assess how mass media
 demonstrate the ability to          information presented in a           support a position by citing         influence individual
  listen and view critically          variety of print and graphic         specific details from what           perceptions and social
 interpret a variety of              formats, including electronic        they have read, heard, or            behaviours
  technical, literary, and            formats                              viewed
  workplace communications


Communications 12: Communicate Ideas and Information
KNOWLEDGE OF                        COMPOSING AND                      IMPROVING                             PRESENTING AND
  LANGUAGE                            CREATING                            COMMUNICATIONS                        VALUING
 monitor spelling, grammar,         access and document               evaluate their own and others'       demonstrate ability to produce


Secondary English Resource Binder                      16                                       Copyright SD #43
  mechanics, and syntax using        information from a variety     work to ensure appropriate         various communications,
  appropriate techniques and         of resources to accomplish     content and language and to        including documented
  resources as required,             a particular purpose           enhance quality                    research and business reports,
  including electronic              formulate and refine          organize information and           multimedia presentations,
  technology                         research questions             ideas to clarify thinking and      debates, summaries,
 demonstrate awareness of          demonstrate alternative        achieve desired effect             descriptions, explanations,
  how different word choices         approaches to                 demonstrate effective oral and     instructions, letters, and
  produce different effects          presentations for specific     representational skills to         narratives
 use a variety of computer          audiences and purposes         create or enhance                 use a variety of tools and
  programs to create and edit       demonstrate the ability to     communications                     techniques to enhance the
  their presentations                use language, visuals, and                                        impact of presentations
 demonstrate awareness of           sounds to influence                                              demonstrate a commitment to
  language conventions used          thought, emotions, and                                            high-quality work when
  in the workplace                   behaviour                                                         presenting ideas and
                                    use a variety of                                                  information in a variety of
                                     techniques, including                                             school, community, and work
                                     outlines, webs, flow                                              contexts
                                     charts, diagrams to                                              adjust presentations according
                                     organize /communic ideas                                          to purpose, topic, and
                                                                                                       audience


Communications 12: Self and Society
WORKING TOGETHER                               BUILDING COMMUNITY                          PERSONAL AWARENESS
 demonstrate flexibility, responsibility,      communicate purposefully,                  assess their communication skills,
  and commitment when working together           confidently, ethically in var               interests, and attitudes in light of
 apply various strategies, including            interpersonal and electronic contexts,      personal and career plans
  consensus-building and formal decision-        include workplace                          demonstrate awareness of the range of
  making techniques, to achieve                 demonstrate willingness to consider         communication technologies and the
  communication goals                            diverse, contrary, and innovative           impact these have on the workplace, their
 monitor own and others' contributions,         views                                       careers, and their lives
  suggest new ideas, and build on others'       describe ways in which language
  strengths to achieve group goals               choice and tone may affect others
                                                 emotionally
                                                demonstrate the ability to use language
                                                 and texts to celebrate important
                                                 occasions and accomplishments




Secondary English Resource Binder                    17                                    Copyright SD #43
                    Synectics and the Extended Metaphor
The word synectics means the bringing together of diverse elements. As an instructional
strategy, it depends upon thinking by analogy or metaphor. To a great extent, it uses
brainstorming as an individual and group activity. While the activity is teacher-led, it is
always student-focused. Most commonly used to stimulate divergent thinking in
preparation for creative writing, synectics can also serve to increase understanding of a
specific concept, to explore social issues, to create a design or product, or to solve
problems.

A synectics lesson will serve to meet two lesson objectives:
1. to stimulate diverse, creative thinking
2. to encourage deeper understanding of a concept or to explore a new concept

A synectics lesson may take a variety of forms, but will usually consist of a series of
processes involving the following components, not necessarily in this order:
brainstorming, "what ifs", direct analogies, personal analogies, symbolic analogies or
compressed conflicts. See “In the Classroom” for more information.

IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw and defend reasoned conclusions from information in
   various works

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences

Assessment Criteria
Use the following criteria for a model synectics lesson
 generate ideas through brainstorming
 identify feelings and emotions
 give examples of tension/conflict
 make and explain connections between diverse elements
 assume a role or present an alternative viewpoint




Secondary English Resource Binder       18                            Copyright SD #43
Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this is a good activity for ESL students
 pre-teach terminology including figurative language
 allow ESL to work in first language for some parts of the assignment
 emphasize the universality of the theme through student contributions from similar
   first culture literature

Gifted/Enrichment
 as the specific lesson discusses power and independence, students could extend to
   what is power/control/liberty/freedom - have them consider the connotations and
   implications of each
 have students look at historical perceptions of power in kingdoms and families -
   where are we in the new millennium?


In the Classroom

The following two exercises assist students to explore ideas to a deeper level of
understanding. The creation of analogy and metaphor can strengthen student writing
and students who are encouraged to engage in synectics are more likely to be creative
problem solvers and divergent thinkers. Teachers who use synectics in their classrooms
see a new side to their students and, together, they have fun.

Model Synectics Lessons: Shakespeare's Macbeth

Concept:
When told by the witches that he would be king, Macbeth is both excited and
intimidated by the prospect. Make a connection for the students between their lives and
that of the character, a semi-fictional character created four hundred years ago. Because
students might not have much understanding of the kind of power with which Macbeth
was tempted, have them read instead for what contributes to their own feelings of
power and powerlessness: living in their parents' homes.

Begin the discussion with some questions that should involve everyone:

Warm-up:
1. How many of you live on your own? (Sometimes as many as 2 or 3 will indicate so.)
2. How many would like to be living on your own? (Many, often most.)
3. How many feel ready to be on your own? (Usually not as many as for #2.)




Secondary English Resource Binder       19                          Copyright SD #43
Brainstorm: What things will you need to think about/plan for/prepare in order to
move out and live on your own? Students suggest things like:
 find a place to live                       buy furniture & other necessities
 pay rent                                   manage money, pay bills
 get a job to be able to pay rent           hosting parties
 shop for groceries, make meals

How will it feel to do this?
 independent, happy, responsible, scared, lonely, excited, worried, free

Notice that some of these feelings are contradictory. Pair words that seem to have
opposing meanings (compressed conflicts):
 lonely/free
 happy/scared
 responsible/independent
 worried/excited

Direct analogy:
How is Macbeth's situation like that of a young person moving out on his/her own?
Students recognize that Macbeth is facing a new situation, which offers him power and
responsibility such as he has never had, as does a young person facing life alone. They
see that he will have some planning to do, and that he will have to solve his problems
on his own. (etc....)

Personal analogy:
How would it feel to be Macbeth at this point?
Students recognize that he is probably scared of both the power and the responsibility,
but is nevertheless tempted by it. He would also be feeling worried and excited, happy
and scared, etc.

Assignment:
You (the students) are Macbeth. Write a letter to your mother (in whom you can confide
anything), telling of the incident on the heath and expressing the feelings you have
about the witches' prophecy of your becoming king.

As a result of the synectics exercise in identifying compressed conflicts, the students are
able to assume the character of Macbeth and write about his conflicting feeling of
ambition and fear, loyalty and temptation.

Model Synectics Lessons: Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird
This lesson is intended to steer students toward an understanding of an analogy created
by Harper Lee.


Secondary English Resource Binder        20                           Copyright SD #43
Concept:
Prejudice is infectious, insidious - like a disease.

Brainstorm:
Have you ever been sick? What kinds of diseases have you experienced? What are some
other diseases you have heard of? (Hope that someone will suggest “rabies”. If the
students don‟t, suggest it yourself. Then continue.)
Ask “What are the symptoms of rabies? Brainstorm them.”
Possible responses include foaming at the mouth, erratic and aggressive behaviour,
insatiable thirst, convulsions, etc.

Personal Analogy
 If rabies were a person, she/he must feel like ________.
 If I were rabies, I would feel ________.
 Take care that students are not thinking, “If I had rabies, I would feel _______ as the
   purpose is to assist them in assigning human attributes to the disease.

Analogy:
Rabies is like ______ because _________.
Prejudice is like rabies because _________.

Assignment:
Identify passages from the “mad dog episode” where Harper Lee could be talking
about prejudice as well as the mad dog.

Model Synectics Lessons: Grade 11 Theme - Friendship
The analogies suggested in this example are intended to stimulate divergent thinking.

Concept:
Friendship is a multi-faceted relationship.

Brainstorm:
“How is a hedgehog like a broom?” and “How is a cat like a refrigerator?”

Analogy:
“How is friendship like a river?” This should lead students to some interesting insights
into their own friendships. “What other thing or idea is like friendship? Create your
own analogy.

Assignment:
Write a creative piece about friendship, or a particular friendship, using this or another
analogy to develop it.


Secondary English Resource Binder          21                         Copyright SD #43
                                    Conscience Alley
Characters in literature often face dilemmas. The conscience alley is a way for students
to understand the issues and the emotional stress people face when making a difficult
choice.

A character‟s dilemma is defined. The class is then divided in two groups. Individually,
the students in one group think of reasons why a character should choose a particular
course of action. The other students think of counter arguments or dissenting reasons.

The two groups then line up facing one another about five feet apart. A student is then
selected to be the character facing the dilemma. That student walks between the two
lines. As that student progresses, the students take turns trying to persuade the
student/character to take a particular course of action by providing reasons and
arguments for a particular choice.


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Critical Analysis: Draw and defend reasoned conclusions from information in
   various works

Self And Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 present logical reasons to support a particular viewpoint
 generate several relevant persuasive arguments


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this could be difficult for beginner ESL students
 pre-teaching would require video clips (something like the Disney film Pinocchio
   with Jiminy Cricket as the conscience or modelling with a script)



Gifted/Enrichment

Secondary English Resource Binder        22                          Copyright SD #43
   the students could project what would have happened had the
    protagonist/antagonist chosen a different path


In the Classroom:

Students should be encouraged to think of as many reasons as they can prior to forming
the lines. Too much repetition kills the strategy. Emphatic language and persuasive and
dramatic readings greatly enhance the strategy.

   This activity is excellent for the following pieces of literature
    Macbeth
   1984
   Romeo and Juliet
   Brave New World
   Stone Angel
   Hamlet

Follow up activities could include a formal character sketch or a journal entry in which
the character describes the internal conflict.




Secondary English Resource Binder         23                            Copyright SD #43
                                       Mandala
The mandala is a way of assessing a number of works that are thematically related.
Students choose pieces of literature they have read during the semester or year and link
those pieces thematically, visually, and in written form. Each circle requires students to
answer questions, or to expand their ideas on the piece of literature or to represent its
theme visually.


IRP Connections
Comprehend & Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas & Information
 Composing & Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather &
  organize information & ideas

Self & Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 Develop criteria to match the particular tasks required for each ring of the mandala
 Work with your students to develop all of the criteria or a few of them


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this would require extensive support
 provide finished examples of the product
 use the graphic organizer provided in “In the Classroom”

Gifted/Enrichment
 create other visual organizers that might work for this assignment
 allow students to create their own graphic organizers for this assignment
 this is a good assignment for these students




Secondary English Resource Binder       24                           Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

Students choose a theme that can link a number of works. See “Thematic Connections”
section for theme ideas. Students choose 3 or 4 works ranging from poetry, drama,
fiction, non-fiction, media that they have read and/or viewed.
 The middle: State the theme and visual representation of that theme. Divide all
    remaining rings into four parts and fill in as listed below:
 First circle: Titles of works and authors
 Second circle: Explanation of the pieces fit the theme
 Third circle: Visual representation of each of the works
 Fourth circle: Personal statements about the works, observations and insights
 Fifth circle: symbolic representation of theme




Secondary English Resource Binder    25                         Copyright SD #43
                                    Inner and Outer Circles
This activity can be adapted for review of vocabulary, terminology, text, ideas. Because
students move around, it helps active students to be focused and offers an opportunity
for second language students to speak in a less threatening environment.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas & Information
 Knowledge of language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Presenting & Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
   audiences

Self & Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences.


Assessment Criteria
 accurately define each term



Modifications and Adaptations
Learning Centre/ESL
 a good activity for ESL students

Gifted/Enrichment
 students make up questions for giving to class
 ask students to choose different types and speeds of background music to suit
   questions - create a different rhythm or dance
 write mnemonic “jingles” for class to recite for answers




Secondary English Resource Binder           26                      Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

Divide the class into two groups. Have students form an inner circle and an outer circle
so that each student in the inside and outside circles faces one another. The teacher
then gives the instruction:
 Students in the inner circle, tell your partner in the outer circle the definition of
    protagonist (or any other literary or short story term).

After students respond, have students in the inner circle move once to the left. Then
give another instruction:
 Students in the inner circle tell your partner in the outer circle the definition of
   limited omniscient point of view.

Repeat with other definitions. The teacher can vary the activity as much as necessary.
This is a good method of providing opinions/response on a selection. In this case,
students can also demonstrate reflective listening whereby the outer circle students
paraphrase what the inner circle students told them.




Secondary English Resource Binder       27                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Response Journal
A response journal is one effective way for students to keep a record of reading assignments. It
moves beyond being a summation of the story to being a place to ponder what the student is
reading. Each person responds to a text in a different way. The purpose of the response journal
is not to test knowledge, but to help students deal with the literature in a personal way, to ask
questions, and to provide an opportunity to practise writing skills. This is an opportunity for
students to explore their insights into a text, and their personal identification with events or
conflicts.
An interesting alternative to the response journal is to have students keep a dual-entry journal
in which they record responses before and after class discussion on the reading selection. This
is particularly effective with poetry.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 make connections to self and/or other texts
 support opinions with reasons and examples
 make insightful interpretations and pose relevant questions
 analyze character motives
 suggest alternative outcomes
 elaborate on ideas

Adaptations and Modifications

Secondary English Resource Binder        28                          Copyright SD #43
Learning Centre/ESL
 ensure that students have the writing prompts in front of them as they do this
   activity
 model doing a response entry on the board or overhead, using a piece of literature
   everyone in the room is familiar with

Gifted/Enrichment
 an excellent activity for gifted students or those in need of enrichment


In the Classroom

Response Journal Guide for Students
A response journal is one effective way to keep a log of your reading responses. It offers a
chance to ask questions, to wonder aloud, so to speak, about the literature. As you read, record
your observations. This is not a time to “tell what happens in the story”, but a time to ponder
how the events strike you.

The main idea is to record all of your impressions. Although your responses may vary in
length, the development of your responses will count toward your mark.

The following prompts offer possibilities for responding. Don‟t try to answer all of them in
each response. Use the ones that most apply to what you‟ve uncovered in your latest reading.

Suggestions for Reading Response to Literature
1. In this section, I was impressed or struck by...
2. I noticed...
3. I wonder about...
4. I predict...
5. Some questions I have...
6. I don‟t understand...
7. Something that I now understand...
8. Now I sense why...
9. An interesting word, sentence, thought from the text is...
10. Something I appreciate/don‟t appreciate about a character or event...

If there are other striking things about your reading, include them. Do not limit yourself to
the suggestions listed above. Each person responds to a text in different ways. The purpose of
this journal is not to test your knowledge, but to help you deal with the literature in a personal
way, to ask your own questions.




Secondary English Resource Binder        29                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Picture the Characters
Have a student draw or find suitable magazine pictures of characters from whatever they are
reading, either fiction or non-fiction. Depending on the grade level of the students and/or
their abilities, have students write
a) a graduation personal write-up for each OR
b) a personal biography or profile as in a play program OR
c) a wanted poster (best for antagonists, perhaps) outlining crimes, “last seen” (place, clothing
etc.)


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 select relevant pictures
 create a succinct, accurate description
 demonstrate knowledge of character as depicted in original reading selection


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre /ESL
 fine activity for ESL
 excellent “Option” suggestions
 explain criteria ahead of time to LC students; have student samples of this
   assignment for them to view before beginning their own


Secondary English Resource Binder          30                         Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 because this activity is already very open-ended, it is good for these students


In the Classroom

1.   Brainstorm together how a character is revealed in a literary work.
2.   Talk about appearance and personality traits.
3.   Have students list personality characteristics for the character in question.
4.   Get them going on the assignment described above.

Option: Look at magazine pictures or posters and repeat the assignment with the visual aid
instead of the print information.

Brainstorming Guidelines
Because the goal of brainstorming is to come up with lots of ideas, no ideas should be
censored. All group members must feel free to contribute anything relevant that pops into
their heads.
 Have one person record ideas while all other group members call out their thoughts
 The recorder must stop the group and ask for clarification whenever necessary
 Brainstorm for at least ten minutes as the best ideas often come last
 As a conclusion to the brainstorming session, group members should discuss all the ideas
   that were generated and choose five to ten good ones for further use/expansion.


How Character is Revealed
 Character is Revealed by...        Quotation from Reading           What this Reveals
what the character says
what the character does
what the character thinks
what others say about the
character
comments to the reader by
the author
physical appearance




Secondary English Resource Binder         31                            Copyright SD #43
                                    Pictorial Story Diagram
Have students read a short story that emphasizes plot. Discuss the plot and review the main
parts of a plot diagram - introduction, rising action, climax, denouement/conclusion. Students
must then create a visual representation of the parts of the plot diagram. Conflict, flashback
and foreshadowing could also be illustrated. Picture captions are acceptable but not long,
written explanations for the episodes.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
  mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
Marking Rubric for Plot Diagram: Required elements
 Introduction: label, visual description
 Rising Action: label
 Climax: label, visual, description
 Denouement/Resolution: label, visual, description
 Backbone
 Visual Appeal: neat, colourful, organized
 Quality: originality, creativity, detail
 Flashback: label, visual, description
 Foreshadowing: label, quote
 3 Episodes: labels, visuals, descriptions

OR
 inclusion of all components: introduction, rising action, climax,
   denouement/resolution
 accurate, clear labels
 effective visuals


Secondary English Resource Binder           32                        Copyright SD #43
   accurate, concise descriptions
   effective, original presentation
   well-chosen quotations
   diagram reveals main elements of the plot


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 graphic representations of the plot are very helpful for these students
 offer a pre-made graphic organizer for this task so students are not responsible for
   the creation of the diagram from the ground up

Gifted/Enrichment
 ask students to think of unique ways of representing plot (3D diagrams instead of
   flat paper, for example)

In the Classroom




Secondary English Resource Binder      33                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Conflict Poster
Review the definitions and types of conflict in a literary work. Have the students read a short
story that focuses on conflict. After an in-class discussion of the story, have the students select
ten significant quotes that show this conflict. In a poster format, using the ten quotes, plus
pictures of drawings for the main characters, show the conflict in the short story. Have
students present their posters to the class when finished.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
  works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 select relevant quotes; i.e., those that reveal conflict
 arrange quotes and visuals effectively
 defend and explain decisions made in developing the poster


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 review with examples of conflict is essential
 model how to identify conflict and conflict types by reading a short story and
   thinking aloud about conflict

Gifted/Enrichment
 artistically inclined students (or collaborative pairs of students) could create a
   “classic comic” or single comic strip based on the quotes/conflict events
 students could create “conflict handbooks” for defining different types of conflict




Secondary English Resource Binder        34                            Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom:

This strategy works very well with “The Boss, the River and Sheila Mant” from the Coming of
Age text. Students draw or find pictures for the young boy, Sheila Mant, and the fish plus ten
quotes that show the conflict the boy has with Sheila and the fish. The poster must show the
dilemma the boy faces when he must decide between Sheila and the Boss.


Four Definitions of Conflict
 happy - all loose ends are tied up and the positive outcome is fully explained to the reader
   (this is also known as an expository ending)
 sad - all loose ends are tied up and the negative outcome is fully explained to the reader
   (this is also known as an expository ending)
 surprise or twist - something happens that catches the reader by surprise or is otherwise
   unexpected; the ending is plausible, however, upon reflection
 unresolved, indeterminate or cliffhanger - the reader is left with questions and has to, in
   part, supply the ending for him/herself; not all plot events or actions are explained for the
   reader‟s understanding


Poster Planner
Title:
         Quotations                   Conflict Type               Illustration Plans or
                                                                  Thumbnail Sketches




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                                Verbal Word Association
The objective is to create a cohesive series of verbal sentences, initiated by a key word, which
results in a verbal character sketch. Warm-up activity: create a simple verbal sentence whereby
each student contributes one word that corresponds to the previous word given. Ask students
to brainstorm a list of key words associated with the novel, play, or short story currently
under study - write these on the board. Randomly select a key word from the list. Tell students
they will be creating a verbal character sketch (class should be familiar with the term). Work
your way around the class a couple of times to create a character sketch.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others


Assessment Criteria
Observe which students are able to
 make verbal connections
 create a verbal character sketch


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 pre-teach or model this activity
 show them a finished, written example so they can make the shift from the concrete
   example to the abstract activity




Secondary English Resource Binder       36                          Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 ask these students to use sophisticated vocabulary and complex sentence structure
 the students could describe a character from the character‟s viewpoint rather than
   their own


In the Classroom

Example: Jack from Lord of the Flies
list: choir, rebellious, killer, leader, savage, thief, chant

Sentence: (character sketch) Jack was a natural leader whose rebellious behaviour resulted in
tragedy. He became a savage opponent to ordered society.
etc.....


An excellent follow-up activity is to create a written character sketch.




Secondary English Resource Binder           37                        Copyright SD #43
                                    Psychiatrist’s Report
Have students imagine a character in their reading selection, who is faced with a problem, sees
a doctor or counsellor about the difficulty. Have students imagine the “patient” telling the
doctor about the problem, dilemma or conflict. Then, the students create a doctor‟s report
containing notes on personality, how the “patient” deals with the difficulty, and perhaps with
other people, and making suggestions for a solution to the problem. This could be done as an
anticipatory exercise before resolution of plot is reached, or after reading the book as a
concluding activity. An additional task could be to have the students write a transcript of the
doctor/patient interview.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 identify the problems
 suggest several possible solutions
 predict outcomes of “patient” decisions
 maintain character voice throughout the piece


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 students may need an explanation of the roles of psychiatrist/counsellor in Western
   culture


Secondary English Resource Binder          38                       Copyright SD #43
   have students practice this approach with video clips before moving to print-based
    characters

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow students to self-select both the product of the assignment and the reflection
   process that contributes to it; for example, students could compose a monologue,
   poem or song - either in first or third person - which summarizes the character‟s
   conflict and offers solutions to his or her problem


In the Classroom


                              Dr. ________________’s Notepad
Name of patient                               Appointment date and time


Previous information supplied by this patient:




Information supplied this appointment:




Diagnosis and recommendation for healing:




Secondary English Resource Binder          39                       Copyright SD #43
                                    Character Résumés
A Protagonist and Antagonist are applying for same job, and have to give a résumé and justify
why each should be hired. Students could role play each character, and a third, or the class, act
as the interviewer. Or an alternative scenario has both characters arriving together at the
Pearly Gates. Saint Peter has them justify why they should get into Heaven. Again, role
playing is essential, especially if the students have to “become” the character, and be
interviewed by someone, without their knowing what questions the interviewer will ask. The
students would have to answer in character.

IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
  mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
  works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 stay in character
 accurately portray character
 interpret character
 develop a compelling argument


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 connect this with the CAPP curriculum or Business Education
 good activity although will need to explain some specific vocabulary (résumé,
   Pearly Gates)
 teach or review characteristics of the résumé and terminology like protagonist,
   antagonist
 ESL students may require more rehearsal time for oral presentation


Secondary English Resource Binder        40                          Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good community building activity that would appeal to students who
   appreciate humour, drama, and opportunities to interact


In the Classroom

Résumé Template
                             Name
                             Address
                             Contact Information
Education



Work Experience



Other Skills and Interests



References




Sample Interview Questions
 What do you feel you have to offer this company?
 Why are you applying for this position?
 Do you prefer working with other people or alone? Why?
 What are your future plans?
 How would you describe your strengths and weaknesses?
 What is your background experience?
 How would you deal with a difficult co-worker?
 What might you do to resolve the situation if you were perceived to be a difficult co-
   worker?




Secondary English Resource Binder          41                      Copyright SD #43
                                      Story Graph
This can be used as a culminating or review activity for a novel, play or short story. Divide the
students into groups of 4 or 5 and distribute felt pens and chart paper. Assign a different
character to each group. Ask each group to select ten significant events, in the life of their
assigned character, which had an impact upon the character‟s development. These events can
be either positive or negative. Students are to set up their graph paper with a horizontal line in
the middle of the page (the x-axis). This horizontal line represents “0” (or neutral) on the scale;
the students are then to neatly label the area above the “0” as positive 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; the area
below the line is to be labeled -1, -2, -3, -4, and -5. The students plot their ten significant events
on the graph; 5 representing an event of phenomenal positive growth and -5 representing an
event of catastrophic defeat. Encourage the students to think carefully about the placement of
each event; they should be prepared to defend each placement. Each event must be
accompanied by a visual symbol. The events are placed horizontally in chronological order.
Have the students connect all the points in a fluid line. Present and justify story graph to class.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 choose relevant, meaningful events
 defend positioning of events
 add visuals to enhance the interpretation of the graph
 connect events to create a powerful interpretation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL

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    ensure that ESL students are evenly dispersed to all groups
    model this activity for the students on the overhead projector or chalkboard before
     asking them to do it themselves; use a story or narrative poem with which they are
     familiar for the modelling

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow students to choose their own groupings
 praise or eulogize the character - a “roast” ceremony if appropriate
 musical students could write a ballad about the ups and downs in the character‟s
   life; collaboration on music/lyrics could occur
 students could create a board game to represent the character‟s life


In the Classroom:

5                                                                    J       Key :
4                                                            I               A= ______
3          B                                                                 B= ______
2                                          F                                 C= ______
1                                   E                                        D= ______
0     A                                                                      E= ______
-1                                               G                           F= ______
-2                        C                                                  G= ______
-3                                                                           H= ______
-4                              D                                            I = ______
-5                                                   H                       J = ______

note: each point can be a quote, description, event or a picture with an
explanation to the side




Secondary English Resource Binder        43                          Copyright SD #43
                                    Story as Sporting Event
Retell the story highlights as if it were told by a sports or news announcer. Have the audience
respond to the “sportscast” on two levels:
1. Were the selected highlights accurately chosen?
2. Did the speaker sound like a sports announcer?


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 maintain chosen role
 choose important events or details
 create an engaging, original presentation
 organize information logically


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 for extension, have students select announcing styles from different cultures and
   compare them
 allow sports from different cultures

Gifted/Enrichment
 have a debate about the worthiness of the character (most valuable player, for
   example) between two sports announcers


Secondary English Resource Binder           44                      Copyright SD #43
   link novel or story terminology to the lesson by asking which players are the
    protagonist, the antagonist, etc. and conducting a discussion on the linkages


In the Classroom

Before doing this activity with your students, establish what is required of them.
Listen to/watch a sportscast. What are the criteria for a successful sports report? Read the
sports section in the paper/magazine. How does it differ from the regular news?

NOTE: an excellent extension activity is to have groups of students convert one of the sports
announcements viewed by the class to a written piece such as would be found in the sports
section of a newspaper or a sports magazine. This also works well for the school
announcements.




Secondary English Resource Binder       45                           Copyright SD #43
                                Strongest Memory Sense
Ask the students to close their eyes (switching off the lights helps) and remember a special or
happy event from the past. The topic of the story, poem or play will determine how far back
the memories should go. For example if the story is about a small child then ask them to
remember an event when they were about six; if it is about an adolescent, perhaps a memory
that goes back a couple of years. If necessary, provide prompts to guide the memory
recollection process: Go back X years to when you were X years old. What do you see? What do you
smell? What do you hear? What do you taste? What do you touch? etc.

After approximately five minutes ask students to open their eyes and list in point form
everything they experienced during the memory process. Spelling, punctuation and mechanics
are not important here. Once the list is complete, ask the students to determine which is their
strongest sense recall (visual? aural? olfactory? etc.) Follow-up activity would be to read a
story and determine the strongest sense that the author displays.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work


Assessment Criteria
 recall sensory details
 identify patterns
 sort information
 analyze and interpret information


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 emphasize the selection of a positive memory since some students may have
   traumatic pasts
 model this assignment for the class or do it with them and share your writing

Secondary English Resource Binder       46                            Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a nice open-ended activity for these students
 have the students extend this activity by converting it to a written anecdote, paying
   extra attention to sensory detail in the writing


In the Classroom

For the follow-up activity, work through a passage of a story together as a class. Using a
checklist indicate which sense is used most frequently. Then create a chart so as to record
words associated with a particular sense, as in the example below.

visual              auditory       taste            touch             smell
red scarf           crashing waves bitter coffee    soft fur          sweet bouquet
                                                                      of roses



This activity works well as a lead in to sensory writing. Select a passage of literature. If passage
is visual re-write focusing on auditory or touch or smell. Discuss how the passage changes.




Secondary English Resource Binder         47                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Another Name
Look at the names of the main characters of a story or play. Many names are symbolic (such as
„Quoyle‟ in The Shipping News or „Bottom‟ in A Midsummer Night’s Dream). Develop a character
analysis of one of the characters by determining the significance of his/her name. Choose a
different name and show how this would or could change the character. This activity can be
done individually, in partners, or groups.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
  works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 accurate analysis of name
 insightful interpretation of meaning
 original, plausible predictions


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 excellent activity for ESL students
 students could or may write their names in their first language and explain their
   significance as a prelude to the literature-based activity
 this allows for exploration of class‟s cultural diversity
 LC students might benefit from a teacher modelling the thought process behind this
   activity



Gifted/Enrichment

Secondary English Resource Binder        48                       Copyright SD #43
   before doing this activity, ask students what name they wish they‟d been given and why,
    then give nametags out with their new name on it and have students circulate the room
    while interviewing each other about why the new name was selected. Culminate this
    introduction by asking individual students to respond to the following questions:
1. How did you feel when called by the new name?
2. Did you notice a difference in how others responded to you in this new persona? Explain.
3. How does the old adage “clothes make the man” parallel what you experienced?
 have students check their own names for meaning or connotation - ask parents for reasons
    for choosing that name and decide if their name “fits” their emerging personality or not


In the Classroom

Another Name Thinking Guide
Fill out the boxes in their order of appearance.

1. character
2. meaning of name is                      3. linked to this behaviour:




4. new name
5. meaning of name is                      6. linked to this behaviour:




Secondary English Resource Binder        49                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Two Column Notes
Writing in a journal helps students to focus on the ideas in the piece they are reading. A
two column journal asks students to stretch their thinking by analyzing what it is they
are reading. This type of journal can be adapted for specific purposes, i.e. students
could focus on a stylistic device the author uses or particular characterization strategies.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies, Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
  confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language


Assessment Criteria
 accuracy of notes
 inclusion of significant details
 insightfulness of reactions, responses and explanations


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 may be best for proficient (advanced level) ESL students
 model the process for students before requiring them to do it independently

Gifted/Enrichment
 have these students invent the headings for the two columns that best suits what
   they are reading
 ask these students to create a note-taking method of any number of columns if they
   feel that suits their reading style or the reading material better than two-column
   notes




Secondary English Resource Binder        50                           Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom:

Divide the paper in half. On the left side, students write essential vocabulary,
observations, questions to themselves, notes, language use, etc. On the right side,
students put their reactions, responses and explanations. The example given is from
"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell


    Notes, Summary, Quotations,               Observation, Reactions, Responses,
   Diction, Questions, Vocabulary                 Connections, Speculations
very "heavy" darkness p. 15                  impenetrable

Rainsford: "straight flight was futile"      Smart--he realized he could not just
p. 25                                        run...he would be caught or trapped.




Another option is four column notes:

     Summary               Reader Response         Questions           Answers




Secondary English Resource Binder         51                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Philosophy Journal
This is an excellent strategy for working with your teacher librarian. In this strategy,
students are introduced to the basic tenets of philosophy. The teacher - or the teacher
librarian - chooses whichever schools of thought best connect to the literary work being
studied. Teachers prepare small packages of information on these schools of thought
for the students to study and understand before reading and applying the ideas to the
piece of literature. An alternate idea could be for the students to go to the library and
find this information on their own. Since this is a challenging activity, assigning
student partners could be beneficial. This activity is especially recommended for older
grades.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
 identify the main tenets of one or more philosophies
 show connections between philosophy and literary work
 use quotations to support ideas and explanations
 analyze and interpret themes


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 not suitable for beginner or intermediate students
 expanding/proficient students could benefit (level 4/5)

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a very high-end activity as it stands
 draw strands of similarities then differences from the philosophers (Is there a
   common thread in all philosophies?)


Secondary English Resource Binder         52                         Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

This is an example of a Philosophy Journal that was used with William Golding‟s Lord of
the Flies. Six prepared packages of material contain:

1.      William Golding - “Thinking as a Hobby” - describe 1st, 2nd, 3rd level
        thinking.
2.      John Keats - “On Running Away” - his philosophy
3.      Sigmund Freud - Id, Ego, Super-Ego Personality Theory
4.      Existentialism
5.      Judeo-Christian Philosophy (or other religion)
6.      Hedonism

Once the reading of the novel is finished, student groups interpret the novel using each
of these six philosophies or schools of thought. Essentially, each school of thought
becomes a lens through which the student views the literature in question.


Other possibilities include:

1984
 Political Theory
 Religious Perspectives
 Existentialism
 Feminist Literary Theory

Obasan
 Political Theory
 Religious Perspectives
 Deconstructionism
 Feminist Literary Theory
 Racism Analysis




Secondary English Resource Binder       53                          Copyright SD #43
                                    Oral Journals
This strategy helps students empathize with the emotions experienced by characters
and understand the key elements of difficult decisions.

Choose a dilemma, a predicament or emotional crisis for a character. Have students
write a journal entry from the character‟s point of view (first person subjective).

Students read over their entries, and in red pen underline the one sentence that best
sums up the character‟s feelings or situation. They memorize the line. Then students are
instructed to find a space to stand in the classroom and close their eyes. The teacher
walks around the class, tapping students on the shoulder. When s/he does so, the
student must recite the sentence he/she has memorized. All other students listen, still
with eyes closed.


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, visual and oral communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Self And Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 analyze and interpret character
 use voice to convey meaning


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 try tapping students on the arm instead of the shoulder as the shoulder is a
   culturally sensitive area for some
 pre-teach point of view with examples
 teach selecting main ideas from writing



Gifted/Enrichment

Secondary English Resource Binder       54                           Copyright SD #43
   have these students choose very complicated characters
   suggest they try a character from the gender opposite to their own
   ask that students do the underlining and reciting from journal entries that aren‟t
    their own


In the Classroom:

Keep the tone serious. Encourage dramatic readings of lines. And have students repeat
lines that you think will help others best understand the situation and the character.

Students will find the following planning sheet helpful for this activity:

Character Name:

Sentence: (what I‟m saying)


Feelings/Situation: (why I‟m saying it)




Speaker‟s Interpretation Plans for Reading Aloud (how I‟m saying it and why)




Secondary English Resource Binder         55                          Copyright SD #43
                                       Fluency
This strategy is effective in having students build their vocabulary and note the richness
of language. Fluency, like brainstorming, is the ability to produce many ideas. During
the activity, students need to be reminded to suspend judgment if they are to be
successful in generating many ideas. This activity can be used with short stories and
drama as well.

Fluency is often used in connection with other thinking strategies. See “Flexibility”,
“Elaboration” and “Originality” in the following pages.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information:
 Improving communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
   professionals use to appraise and improve work

Self & Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 generate an extensive list
 generate relevant, effective words


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre / ESL
 limit the number of words students are required to list

Gifted/Enrichment
 extend the word list and/or ask for etymologies of words




Secondary English Resource Binder       56                            Copyright SD #43
In the classroom


Instructions to Students:
List as many words as you can to describe one of the characters in the novel or short
story. Use a thesaurus to find words that have similar meanings to the words chosen.

Discuss connotation and denotation of words
1. Connotation - The implications or suggestions which are evoked by a word.
   Connotations may be a) highly individual, based on associations because of pleasant
   or unpleasant experiences in a person‟s life; b) general, or culturally conditioned, as
   in the word Christmas, which commonly evokes an image of a decorated tree or fat,
   red-clad bearded man.
2. Denotations - The thing or situation to which a word refers, exclusive of attitudes or
   feelings which the writer or speaker may have; a word‟s most literal and limited
   meaning. Thus, the denotation of elephant is a large five-toed mammal with an
   extraordinary proboscis and long tusks of ivory. If the word suggest to a reader,
   however, clumsiness or remarkable memory, it has acquired connotations.

Definitions of connotation and denotation from A Reader’s Guide to Literary Terms by
Karl Beckson and Arthur Ganz. The Noonday Press, 1960.

List as many words as you can that would describe what it is like to live in the world of
the novel or short story.

Choose an object from the story. List as many words as you can that would describe the
object. Use a thesaurus to find words that have similar meanings to the words chosen.




Secondary English Resource Binder       57                           Copyright SD #43
                                        Flexibility
Flexibility is the ability to seek a variety of answers or solutions. It is the ability to see
relationships between seemingly unrelated ideas. In this strategy, students can stretch
their ideas from the words chosen in the Fluency lesson, or they can work from new
activities.
Either way, they begin with their selected word and make it evolve into a finished
assignment that demonstrates their flexibility and creativity. A web or mind map is a
possible middle step between the initial word and the final, complex, product.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement & Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and mass
   media


Assessment Criteria
 use appropriate language
 make connections between video and novel
 analyze character development


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 limit the length of assignment
 provide or model the use of graphic organizers such as webs

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good activity for gifted or enriched students




Secondary English Resource Binder          58                            Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

Write diary entries that show the development of one character in the story or novel.
For example, use Julia's development from a child to an adult in Orwell's novel Nineteen
Eighty-Four. Students could also use their words from the Fluency lesson for this
assignment.

How would Parsons' daughter in Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty Four expose her father
to the thought police? Create a poster that shows the citizens of Airstrip One the ways
in which they can report thought crime to the Thought Police.

As an extension, show an episode of James Burke‟s “Connections” (ask a Social Studies
teacher or teacher librarian about this). Have students create their own set of
connections, whether real or researched or imaginary. They must follow their own train
of thought, however. Divergent thinkers really enjoy this process.




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                                      Originality
Originality is the ability to produce a new response to a task. The response should be
unique, not necessarily to the world, but at least to the student and/or class. In this
strategy, students transform a short story or novel into another form or genre of
expression.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications


Assessment Criteria
 correct form
 describe setting and/or character
 use appropriate language
 use appropriate visuals


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 while this is a good activity for ESL or LC students, you might want to limit the
   complexity of the literature they work with and/or limit the complexity of the genre
   they are converting to (such as a comic strip rather than a screen play)

Gifted/Enrichment
 if this activity is done in groups, allow these students to work together
 encourage these students to choose challenging pieces of literature and challenging
   genres for their conversion




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In the classroom

Retell a portion of the novel or short story in another form: comic strip, diorama, mural

Create an original vocabulary game from the fluency list (crossword puzzle, word
search, anagram)

Using the words from the fluency list, write a haiku, cinquain or other short form of
poetry to describe either the setting or characters.

Using Comrade Ogilvie as the main character, write a children's story appropriate for
the Parsons' children in Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.




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                                    Elaboration
Elaboration is the ability to take a key concept and expand it by adding significant
detail. In this exercise, students take a key concept from the novel and expand it. They
demonstrate this expansion through representing the information (both from the novel
and from their imagination) in a unique way, such as a news broadcast or a poster or
advertising handbill.


IRP Connections

Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Presenting & Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 broadcast demonstrates understanding of the literature being studied
 appropriate language
 appropriate illustrations


Adaptations and Modification
Learning Centre/ESL
 could be a video message less than 30 second in length (reduce length and breadth
   of expectation for elaboration)

Gifted/Enrichment
 have these students brainstorm their own list of options for elaboration, then choose
   one and execute it




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In the classroom

This example uses Nineteen Eighty-Four to demonstrate the expansion activity. In this
case, students make
 a poster advertising the Junior Anti-Sex league
 a handbill advertising the Junior Anti-Sex league
 a two minute news broadcast which extends the concept of the child hero (They
   could use Parsons' daughter as an example of a child hero. What qualities would
   this child have to demonstrate in order to become a child hero?)




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                                    Board Game
Using the plot, have students design a pathway of events or travel done by characters.
Tell students to ensure the pathway/journey should have many pitfalls to maintain
interest during the game. Use a die or dice for moving ahead, create squares for
jumping ahead for positive choices made by the protagonist or back up or miss a turn if
the character is thwarted by the antagonist. Bonus cards or risk cards can be designed
depending on plot movement or hypothetical situations suffered or gained by
protagonist, as long as they are consistent with the plot or character development. The
board could be made to look like the setting. Because this assignment is best done in
groups, the due date provides a great opportunity for different groups to play and
evaluate each other‟s games according to pre-set criteria.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, and visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others


Assessment Criteria
Work with students to develop the criteria for this assignment. Some possible criteria
are:
 setting accurately reflects text description
 game reveals character, plot and theme of the story
 game is engaging
 rules of play are clear and concise
 object of game is appropriate for literature upon which it is based
 object of game involves skill




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Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 very suitable for ESL students because of the visual and physical aspects
 have weaker students create a game based on an already established game board or
   adapt the rules and board of a known game to their piece of literature (such as a
   version of Snakes and Ladders or Monopoly)

Gifted/Enrichment
 have students organize a round robin tournament including prizes and appropriate
   room decoration
 have students become an “on-the-spot” reporter for the tournament or single game -
   complete with microphone, trench coat and cameraman - and comment on the
   action. The student should heighten enthusiasm and add pertinent comments about
   the original text as players make moves or decisions


In the Classroom

This assignment is particularly successful with works of literature that are rich in action
and character such as Of Mice and Men, Lord of the Flies and Macbeth.

Game Key
 board = journey
 risk cards = pitfalls when player must answer question related to the plot or other
  aspect of the literature
 bonus cards = extra move(s) or rescue from pitfalls (depends on game designer)




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                                    Found Poetry
Found Poetry can be used for focusing on descriptions of characters or setting, or for
identifying atmosphere or mood of a particular passage in a short story or novel. Explain to
students that found poetry uses the author‟s own words and phrases from prose, written
down in poetry form and emphasize the strengths of free verse. To write the poem itself, have
students choose a page, or series of pages, or a specific passage in a novel or short story. Have
them write down words and phrases from the selected pages or passage to gather information
on the character, or setting, or mood/atmosphere. Students will then arrange words and/or
phrases vertically, eliminating words if necessary. Students could create the found poem as a
small group activity instead of doing it as an individual.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies, organize information
  and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Collaborate, value and support others


Assessment Criteria
 choice of words appropriate to assigned topic
 clarity of description
 emphasized phrases (separate lines for emphasis)


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 ESL medium level should be able to do this, at least for physical description of character
 suitable for developing, expanding, proficient ESL also (levels 3+, 4 and 5)

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   model this and/or have student examples from previous years for LC students

Gifted/Enrichment
 combine physical description with an action or emotion
 one line/verse of author‟s words, alternated with students‟ own line/verse of reaction or
   interpretation, or a line/verse of found poem from end of novel


In the Classroom

Do a literature-specific example very early in the piece of literature. For example, the character
Ralph in Lord of the Flies works well for this activity. Share this with the class or write on a
poster and display it. Another option is to simply read your creation aloud without identifying
the character and have the class guess who is being written about.


Found Poetry Data Collection Organizer

Find words, phrases or complete sentences that are particularly evocative of the novel‟s theme
and place them in the appropriate column below. Don‟t forget your page references!

           Character                      Setting                 Mood/Atmosphere




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                                    Novel = Play
Novel or story could be “rewritten” or imagined as a play or movie. Students cast appropriate
current actors as characters. Create a poster advertising the play/movie with symbolic
graphics, colours, pictures and “catchy” text and a program for the play/movie with cast
pictures and write-ups, a synopsis of the play, director‟s notes, notes about the author, and
historical background. Students should use the library/internet for background research,
which makes this an excellent joint project with the teacher librarian. This activity could be
done in groups - if so, have individual students work on different sections so evaluation can be
fair.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others


Assessment Criteria
Develop criteria for the specific aspects of this project that are assigned. For example:
Poster
 effective use of symbols
 graphics convey theme and/or mood of story
 inviting, appealing, engaging . . .


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Director‟s Notes
 give clear staging directions
 give directions re: character interpretation

Historical Background
 provide relevant details
 include details about time and place
 effectively organize the information


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 model/teach plot graph and script writing
 allow use of first language novel or story
 do this via group work
 developing level ESL (level 3) could do Reader‟s Theatre

Gifted/Enrichment
 write a review of the “play”. Construct/videotaped segment of a “Siskel and Ebert” type of
   review


In the Classroom

Before engaging in this activity, students should be aware of the following:
 how to create a plot graph (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement)
 how to write a basic script, including explanation of a cast of characters, stage directions,
   setting information, and writing dramatic dialogue (the following information is taken
   from Easy Lessons in Creative Writing by Yolan Varga; Weston Walch, 1986.)

   Stage Directions: Stage directions tell actors where and how they should stand and move
    on stage, how they should read their lines, how they should behave in general. Stage
    directions are enclosed in parentheses before the actual speech is written.
   Setting Information: This is first concern of the playwright. The setting describes how the
    stage should look, including information about the time, place and the people. Because
    each dramatic production happens in the present tense for the audience, the setting should
    therefore be written in the present tense.
   Writing Dramatic Dialogue: The form for writing dialogue is simple. No quotation marks
    are used. The name of the character is speaking is written at the left margin, followed by a
    period or colon. Stage directions are enclosed in parentheses. Each time a different
    character speaks, his or her name is written at the beginning of the new line.




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                                    Time Capsule
This project can be done individually, in pairs or in groups (4 maximum). Have students
choose a character from a piece of literature they are currently studying. Then, students choose
ten to twelve items which they feel would best represent the character they have been
assigned. Each item is to be depicted visually on a card. In addition, they must write a
paragraph explaining their choices.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 choose relevant items
 explain and justify choices


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 group organization and use of concrete objects beneficial
 representing cultural diversity adds to this assignment

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow these students to work together if the group work option is the one chosen
 students could make the real time capsule with 3D objects and, dressed in character, re-
   enact the burial of the capsule, complete with monologue or dialogue




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In the Classroom

As an example, consider “Amy” from The War Between the Classes. Her time capsule would
include a picture of Adam (boyfriend), family portrait, rules to the “color game”, arm bands
(blue, dark green, light green, orange), red ribbon, etc. The paragraph would describe the
changes Amy experienced and explain the relevance of each item to Amy‟s growth.


Time Capsule Planner

              Item                  Page Reference               Reason for Choice




Summary Paragraph Outline




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                                    Setting Map
Draw a map of the setting of the story, using a “bird‟s eye view” approach. Label with event
and page references for both the setting details and the events that occurred at the various
locations. Create a key for the maps and present them orally to the class.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 include accurate details
 write clear, concise event descriptions
 develop an effective key explaining symbols
 clearly explain setting map in oral presentation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 allow students to work with literature from their culture
 could use computer graphics
 utilize the drawing talents of students in some way with this activity

Gifted/Enrichment
 extend this activity in some way (refer to the page of products called “things you
   might make” from the “Possibilities for Learning Survey” - Kanevsky 1999 - in
   Additional Adaptations and Modifications)




Secondary English Resource Binder       72                            Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

A. Map Choices for The Chrysalids
Choose one of these options. To gather the information necessary, pay special attention to
Uncle Axel‟s talks of his journeys, David‟s description of Waknuk, the Sealand woman‟s
description of her flight from New Zealand, the chase to and through the Fringes, etc.
1. a map of the Waknuk community and outlying Fringes country
2. a map showing North America, post Tribulation

B. Map Choices for Z for Zachariah
Choose one of these options. To gather the information necessary, pay special attention to
Ann‟s description of Burden Farm, her description of the valley, her information about
Ogdentown, and Mr. Loomis‟s information about the rest of the United States
1. a map of Burden Farm
2. a map of Burden Valley and the surrounding regions of the Amish community and
Ogdentown

C. Map Choices for The Cage
Choose one of these options. To gather the information necessary, pay special attention to
Riva‟s descriptions of the apartment, the store, the ghetto, the concentration camps, etc.
1. a map of her ghetto homes (first apartment and store)
2. a map encompassing the entire ghetto
3. a map showing both of her concentration camps

D. Map Choices for In the Heat of the Night
Choose one of these options. To gather the information necessary, pay special attention to the
author‟s descriptions of Wells, the police station, the diner, the train station, the music bowl
etc.
1. a map of Wells
2. room plans of the police station and the diner where Ralph works

E. Map Choices for The Pigman
Choose one of these options. To gather the information necessary, pay special attention to
Lorraine‟s and John‟s descriptions of their houses, Mr. Pignati‟s house, their school, their
community, the locations of the places where they spend time, etc.
1. floor plan for Mr. Pignati‟s house
2. floor plans for John‟s house and Lorraine‟s house
3. a map of the community as a whole




Secondary English Resource Binder       73                           Copyright SD #43
                                    Character Diary
Have students write a diary entry from one character‟s perspective, giving opinions on what is
happening (also known as the plot) and the characters in the story or novel, as well as an
account or summary of the events.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 maintain character perspective/role/personality
 express opinion (of character)
 support opinions with evidence from text
 use diary format
 organize information logically
 use correct sentence structure, spelling, punctuation and grammar


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 challenging activity even for advanced ESL students
 teach/review specific terms such as perspective
 teach/review language and style for diary (use a model)
 model the planning guide from “In the Classroom”
 delay assigning this until well into the novel
 allow choice of diary formats from various cultures

Gifted/Enrichment
 students may wish to extend the diary beyond a single entry


Secondary English Resource Binder       74                            Copyright SD #43
   use a character from another context to write a comparable entry, then demonstrate
    parallels between the two characters, settings, and responses to events (this is good
    for students who can see patterns or draw more sophisticated analogies
   find real life current or historical figures who have had similar experiences to the
    character in the novel and write personal letters back and forth between the two


In the Classroom

Character Diary Planning Guide
Instructions: In order to better understand the character you have chosen to write about, or to
better get into the character‟s mind set, fill out the following in point form before writing your
diary entry.

Character                                        Literature Source
 type of person character is        list of events in literature  likely response to events




Secondary English Resource Binder           75                          Copyright SD #43
                                      Postcards
Ask the students to list all aspects of their favourite setting of a story (or chapter), poem or
play (or scene). Be as descriptive as possible. Using this information create a collage about the
setting or draw it on postcard sized paper. On the reverse side of the “postcard”, as one of the
characters in the story, have students briefly describe the highlights of his/her journey or
experience to another character in the story/poem/play.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 accurate illustrations of setting
 details and symbolic items included in illustration
 clear, concise postcard message


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this is a good activity for these students
 limitations of postcard format will help these students feel secure

Gifted/Enrichment
 create postcards from a “journey” through the novel if change of physical place occurs (for
   example: Through the Looking Glass) or use pictures as representational image of
   mental/emotional state, with appropriate message on back
 product extensions might include travel posters and travelogues, advertisements,
   brochures and commercials
 good activity for these students because it is so open-ended

In the Classroom

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   Students should be able to concisely describe key points/highlights of a story.
   Students should hand in their work on the following template:

Front of postcard = collage or drawing




Back of postcard


Dear _____________________                                          stamp




                                                         To:

                                                         ________________

                                                         ________________

                                                         ________________

                                                         ________________




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                                    Character Profile
Ask the students to collect as much data as possible about a particular character in the novel,
short story or play. This data should include appearance, traits, habits and so on. Create a
profile of the character in a file folder. The profile or dossier could include a wanted poster,
passport, birth certificate, diplomas, awards, and portrait, as well as an essay describing the
character‟s background.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 accurate, detailed description
 variety of dossier items
 authenticity of each item (e.g. Does it look like a real passport?)
 insightful character revelations
 organization and presentation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 review key terms such as “dossier”, “profile” and “thesis”
 a graphic organizer for essay writing (central idea graph? web diagram?) will be
   helpful for these students

Gifted/Enrichment
 students could use this character as a protagonist or antagonist in an original short
   story or narrative poem

Secondary English Resource Binder        78                             Copyright SD #43
   it can be fun for students to write the essay based on the contents of someone else‟s dossier.


In the Classroom

If necessary, the teacher should explain what a dossier (and profile) is to the students.

Essay Writing Guide
Pre-Writing
1. Based on the information in the dossier, brainstorm a list of character attributes or
   adjectives that represent the character. What kind of person is he or she?
2. Using the graphic organizer below, categorize the list of attributes and come up with a title
   for each category.
3. Decide whether each category is most closely linked to recent experience, personal
   background or education.

category            category         category        category        category


    attributes          attributes      attributes     attributes       attributes




  circle one:         circle one:      circle one:     circle one:     circle one:
experience          experience       experience      experience      experience
background          background       background      background      background
education           education        education       education       education


First Draft Writing
4. Write a five paragraph “canned” essay. Your thesis statement is:        (name)         is
    a                                                         type of person. This is because of
    his/her recent experiences, personal background and education (or whichever of these
    three things apply). Each body paragraph should discuss the three sub-topics, using the
    categories and their attributes as supporting evidence and content.




Secondary English Resource Binder          79                         Copyright SD #43
                                    Personal Profile
Ask the students to list all the items in their bedroom. They must describe the room as if they
were a camera or as an investigator. They should make careful note as to how the room is
arranged, decorated and so on. They should also note what is not readily seen (stuff that may
be hidden away from public view) and should describe themselves as revealed by these
objects. They shouldn‟t include any emotional attachment or explanation as to why you own
these possessions.

A follow-up activity would be to swap lists and have students create a description of the kind
of person who would inhabit that room. Then, they compare their personal description to the
one written by the other person. This can also be done using the setting information in a story
or novel as well as the student‟s imagination.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
   and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 detailed description
 logical sequence
 interpretation of character


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this is a good activity for these students

Gifted/Enrichment
 build a model; present to class for analysis by individuals or teams
 work backwards - given word analysis, create the visual image (based on a novel
   description of character, create the room)




Secondary English Resource Binder       80                           Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom

Warm Up Activity
To students: Look around the classroom and describe what you see. Share in class discussion.
Note that everyone sees things differently.

            First Person’s Description           Second Person’s Description




Personal Profile Planner
The Room                                            Name (student 1)
Arrangement        Decor            Hidden          Personality as Revealed by




Student 2: Describe the kind of person who would inhabit the above room.




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                                    Group Essay
Working together on a writing project helps students form ideas. Through discussion,
they can clarify their thoughts and defend their reasoning for including their ideas.

Students work in small groups of five and each group decides on a topic for the essay.
They also decide what type of essay they want to write (narrative, personal, descriptive,
explanatory, or persuasive).

Each student is assigned a paragraph. The student who writes the opening paragraph
must include a thesis statement. The three students writing the body paragraphs must
include details that support the thesis statement. The student who writes the
conclusion must synthesize the ideas of the group.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather
   and organize information & ideas
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes
   that professionals use to appraise and improve work.


Assessment Criteria
Students need to list who is responsible for each paragraph. They need to state their
topic, intended audience, and type of essay. Because of the concern about group marks,
students may prefer to be marked individually. Each paragraph should contain
 details and supporting evidence
 logical sequence
 transitions from preceding paragraph
 varied and correct sentence structure
 precise and accurate word choice
 correct spelling, punctuation and grammar


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this is a good activity for these students
 ensure student groups are of mixed ability
 a graphic organizer might help the group in planning the essay



Secondary English Resource Binder       82                          Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 allow students to either choose their own group members or work alone
 these students might be frustrated by this activity if they are assigned a group with
   heterogeneous abilities


In the Classroom:

This activity works best after students have read and studied a number of different
types of essays.

                   Group Essay Planning Guide
INTRODUCTION by ________________________ (student name here)
thesis:
3 main points
1. _____
2. _____
3. _____

BODY PARAGRAPH 1 by ___________________________
 connect to thesis how?
 main point is?
 supporting details are:

BODY PARAGRAPH 2 by ___________________________
 connect to thesis how?
 main point is?
 supporting details are:

BODY PARAGRAPH 3 by ___________________________
 connect to thesis how?
 main point is?
 supporting details are:

CONCLUSION by ______________________________
 re-state thesis how?
 re-state three points how?
 general wrap-up how?




Secondary English Resource Binder      83                           Copyright SD #43
                                        Acrostics
Acrostics are a series of lines or verses in which the first, last or other particular letters
form a word, phrase or the alphabet. Traditionally, the first letter is the key one. They
are a fun and good way to synthesize and organize ideas. This strategy could be used
for any longer piece of literature. Students write the letters of the alphabet down a page
and choose a significant detail or event that begins with that letter of the alphabet.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications


Assessment Criteria
 effective word choice
 significant events or details
 overall impact is original and insightful


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 teachers may want to have students work in pairs
 use a shorter acrostic such as the title of the piece of literature or the main character‟s
   name instead of the whole alphabet

Gifted/Enrichment
 change the audience: children, people of limited language ability, adults, etc.
 add complexity to the requirements of the activity such as the inclusion of pertinent
   quotations, character descriptions, a symbol that represents the mood, etc.


In the Classroom

This particular suggestions models the alphabet approach to the acrostic. Students list
the letters of the alphabet. For each letter, they choose a significant detail from the
work that begins with that letter. The details can be a single word or they can be
expressed as a phrase. Students could decorate these with a symbolic border.




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Alphabet Acrostic Planner

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z


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                                    Visual Essay
Instead of a test about a novel, or play, a visual essay is another way to assess whether
or not students have understood what they have read. Students use a standard letter
sized piece of paper and choose five quotes from the novel or play. They also make five
personal statements about the novel or play. Students then put the visuals and the
quotes together on one side of the paper. On the other side, they write an explanation
of their visual choices, their personal statements and their quotes. Students can, if they
or the teacher wishes, focus on a theme and choose the statements that illustrate the
theme.


IRP Connections:
Comprehend & Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement & Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and mass
   media


Assessment Criteria
The following criteria will assist in evaluation, however, a complex task such as this one
is better served by lists of criteria in different sections such as: posters, use of text,
purpose, form and oral presentation
 visuals, quotes and statements reveal understanding of the text
 visuals, quotes and statements combine to effectively reveal student meaning
 explanation is clear, concise and extends the reader‟s interpretation of the visual
    essay


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 ensure that the assignment requirements are very specific (for example - should the
   written part be in point form or paragraphs?)
 if possible, have samples of the finished project for students to view before
   completing their own work

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good assignment for these students
 if doing this assignment in pairs or groups, allow these students to work together




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In the classroom

Visual Essay Planning Chart

     Quotations                Personal         Visual Ideas   Explanation
                              Statements
1.




2.




3.




4.




5.




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                                    Emotional Distance
In this activity, a student takes the role of one of the characters from a play, short story
or novel. This student is called the Target student. Other students take the roles of
other characters. The Target student places the other students around the room,
according to the emotional distance he feels in between him and the character. The
target student explains his/her decision about placing the other “characters” and they,
in turn, explain how they feel about their placement. This strategy works well for all
types of fiction and non-fiction.


IRP Connections
Comprehend & Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Self & Society
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others.
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 explain and justify character arrangements
 identify character feelings and emotions
 use examples from the text to support opinions or arguments


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 teach and model emotional distance
 caution: Shakespearean English increases the difficulty, so a play in modern English
   might be preferable

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good activity for these students
 ask these students to predict what the class might do in terms of emotional distance
   on a birds-eye view map the classroom, then compare their predictions to what
   actually occurred in a class discussion after the activity



In the Classroom

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The following example is based on Hamlet.

Get Started
Clear the desks. Review the events of the play up to wherever you have stopped.
Choose a student to play Hamlet. Ask this student to place him/herself in front of the
room. As part of the review, ask Hamlet warm-up questions such as “Tell me about
your father, mother, Ophelia, and close friends? How are you feeling about Claudius,
your mother?”

Now call on another student ask him/her to become a character from the play. Hamlet
will place the character in a position that indicates his emotional closeness to or distance
from the character. Elevation (standing, sitting, reclining) could also indicate Hamlet's
attitude. The student playing the character speaks in first person, and must be aware of
information only to whatever point you have reached in the play. The character must
make no movement except as directed by Hamlet (or the teacher) and can only clarify
or respond to Hamlet or the teacher.

Hamlet then chooses another character and places that character, describing reasons for
placement. Hamlet continues until all characters are placed.

Individual characters then speak about he/she feels about his/her placement.
Characters speak in first person. The teacher can call on students to ask if they are
happy with their placements. Hamlet may move characters only if he agrees with the
comment.

Characters may talk to others about their positions. Hamlet may or may not decide to
move the character. Hamlet should survey all positions to make sure they are where he
wants them.

Debriefing
Characters stay in positions but discard personas. The audience now asks questions,
makes comments and noting areas of agreement/disagreement.

Some helpful questions: Why did Hamlet place a character as he did? What does the
distance tell you about a character? As character X, how did you feel when the target
placed you as Hamlet did?

Follow up
Draw out placements of characters. Identify characters and elevations and positions in
relation to other characters.




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                                    Jeopardy!
Have students make up questions in categories and write them on file cards. The basic
Jeopardy! board can be made on poster board or on an overhead acetate. If the
overhead acetate route is chosen, this can be, slipped under the overhead projector roll
so it doesn‟t get written on itself, but the plastic over top of it does. This allows the
acetate to be saved for repeat use. As each contestant chooses an amount and category,
cross it out and read the appropriate question from the cards. Provide a prize for the
winning team. See “In the Classroom” for an example of the Jeopardy! board and the
game rules.


IRP Connection
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
 relevant and accurate questions
 relevant and accurate answers


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 very suitable for these students
 could assign this for homework for ESL students (pre-view a show of Jeopardy since
   not all cultures are familiar with the concept)
 pre-teach Jeopardy and daily double terms
 don‟t play all three rounds; stop at round one
 play in teams




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Gifted/Enrichment
 computer experts could create a computer version of this
 questions can be as complicated as teachers/students think is appropriate; escalating
   difficulty of material is a natural process for this game

In the Classroom

Jeopardy! Board
 Category    Category               Category        Category   Category      Category
   $100        $100                   $100            $100       $100          $100
   $200        $200                   $200            $200       $200          $200
   $300        $300                   $300            $300       $300          $300
   $400        $400                   $400            $400       $400          $400
   $500        $500                   $500            $500       $500          $500

Jeopardy! Rules
1. The game is played by three teams in three rounds. In all rounds, money is earned
   by providing the questions to the answers. The wording is altered so that the
   "questions" are in answer format, and the contestants' "answers" must be in the form
   of a question. For simplicity, the terms "clues" and "responses" are usually used
   instead of "questions" and "answers".
2. In the first round, there are six categories of five clues each, worth $100 to $500. On
   each turn, the player in control first chooses a clue by announcing a category and
   dollar amount. (“I‟ll take Romantic Poets for $300.00” or “Characters for $500.00,
   please.”) A correct response earns the value of the clue; an incorrect response
   subtracts the value of the clue from the player's total and gives the remaining
   contestants a chance to ring in. On a correct response, that player gains control and
   gets to select the next clue.
3. Also in the first round, there is one Daily Double hidden on the board behind one of
   the 30 clues. When a player hits the Daily Double, he/she is the only one with a
   chance to respond.
4. The second round (called Double Jeopardy!) plays much the same. Six new
   categories of five clues each are presented, this time worth $200 to $1000, and two
   Daily Doubles are hidden on the board. Play continues until all clues are revealed, or
   time runs out.
5. The third round is called Final Jeopardy!. If a player has $0 or a negative score at the
   end of Double Jeopardy!, that person is eliminated from the game and only the
   remaining players get to play Final Jeopardy! A single category is presented, and
   each player makes a wager in secret. Then the clue is revealed, and each player has
   30 seconds to write down a response. Correct responses earn money, incorrect
   responses lose money. At the end of the game, the person with the most money wins
   the game.

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                                    Language Translation
Have students convert or “translate” older piece of writing into “modern” language. This
works particularly well with Shakespeare, of course, but any pre-20th century writing benefits
from this treatment in the students‟ eyes. The same could be done to illustrate diction levels,
by changing a formal piece of writing into slang, or street talk, or rap. Discuss the effect of the
difference, perhaps the difference in audience reaction, indicated by the format.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 make a realistic translation
 maintain original meaning
 maintain chosen style throughout the translation
 explain the effect of the changes


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 an opportunity to incorporate the use of first language would be helpful for these
   students
 graphic organizers are helpful

Gifted/Enrichment
 students could choose a modern piece of writing - poem, editorial, speech, scene
   from a play - and translate it into “older” language



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In the Classroom

Students will need to research and find examples of translations of language in order to have a
model for this activity. Shakespeare or Christopher Marlowe is a good source for this kind of
thing, as is Beowulf. Another possibility is for the teacher to write a short one using a famous
speech from Shakespeare.

Translation Guide
The Original                        The Translation   Effect of the Difference
                                                      (pros and cons)




Romeo and Juliet sample translation (II. ii. 2-25) - the balcony scene
But wait! What light just came up there in the window?
It glows like the Eastern sky does and Juliet is the sun!
Come out, beautiful Juliet and chase away the jealous moon,
who is already sick and pale with sadness
because you, Juliet, her maid, are more beautiful than she is.
Don‟t be the moon‟s servant because she is jealous.
Her clothing - the uniform of virgins - looks sickly and green
so only fools will wear it (and serve her). Take it off!
It IS my lady. It is my love!
Oh, I wish she knew she was my lady!
She seems to speak but says nothing. Who cares?
Her eyes speak the language of love so I will answer that.
I am too eager; she isn‟t speaking to me.
Two of the most lovely stars in heaven
had work to do and asked her eyes
to shine in their place until the stars returned.
Yet, what if the eyes in her head were replaced by stars?
The brightness of her cheek would make them pale by comparison
as daylight makes a lamp pale by comparison. If her eyes were in heaven
they would shine so brightly up there
that birds would sing because they would think it was day and not night.
See how she leans her cheek on her hand!
Oh, I wish I was a glove on her hand


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So I could touch her cheek!

                          Choices: Into, Through, Beyond
This strategy works well with any reading selection that depicts a person having to make a
choice about something. It involves 4 steps: 1. Have the students think about/write/tell about
a choice they made that changed their lives either for the worse or better. They should explain
the effects of their choice on themselves and others. 2. Students read the piece of writing
selected by the teacher, thinking about the person‟s choice and decision. (“Choices” from Inside
Stories II is a good piece for this.) 3. Read and discuss Robert Frost‟s poem “The Road Not
Taken”. Compare it to the students‟ original thoughts on choices and the reading. 4. Write a
paragraph or short essay on the theme of “Choices” that integrate ideas from the student, the
reading, and the poem.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
For the paragraph/essay
 make connections among the three sources
 provide details, examples and/or evidence to support statements
 stay on topic
 critique the decisions made (pros and cons)


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity for immigrant students
 the graphic organizer in “In the Classroom” will be helpful to both ESL and LC
   students
 for very weak students, model the use of the graphic organizer

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Gifted/Enrichment
 students could write an original poem, story or anecdote about choice-making,
   based on either fiction or non-fiction
 if students go this route, have them exchange their work with a chosen partner and
   compare the themes of the student writing with either the Frost poem or another
   piece of writing that focusses on choices
 the final product could be either oral or written (teen magazine article, editorial,
   letter, etc.)


In the Classroom

Choices Thinking Guide

                             step 1            step 2                  step 3
                             Myself           Reading          “The Road Not Taken”
The Choice




The Decision




Effect on
Self and
Others


Step 4: Summary of thoughts and ideas regarding “Choices”




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                                    Body Shadow Maps
This can be used as a culminating or review activity for a novel, short story, or play. In groups
(4 maximum), trace the outline of one member of the group. Students will use this outline to
represent a character. Students are to select ten to twelve quotations that are associated with
their chosen character. These quotations are placed on the corresponding body part. For
example if the quotation refers to the heart, it would be placed on the body where the heart is
located. In addition to the quotations, students are to visually represent events associated with
their chosen character. When presenting the completed body shadow map to the class, the
group must be prepared to explain and defend their quotations and visuals.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate with, value
   and support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 use appropriate and revealing quotations
 defend and explain choice of quotations
 appropriately connect quotation to related body part

Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL

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   very appropriate for these students

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow students latitude with their choice of quotations
 students could investigate the four medieval humours - blood, choler or yellow bile,
   phlegm and melancholy or black bile - and analyze characters accordingly, with
   quotations as the basics. Chinese medical philosophy could show connections from
   body part to emotional perspective


In the Classroom

Macbeth
                                           “you shall be king”

                                           “I saw him”
                                           “our poisoned chalice to our lips”

                                           “wash this blood from my hand”



“is this a dagger
I see before me?”




                                           “a moving grove”




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                                    Sort and Predict
Select thirty or more key words from a story or poem that the students will soon be
reading. Using felt tipped markers write the words on index cards. Randomly distribute
the cards to the students. Arrange four or five long strips of masking tape (sticky side
out) on the front chalkboard so that the index cards can be attached to the tape.
Students must now figure out how to categorize all the cards. Ask students, one at a
time and randomly, to place their cards on the tape. The first five students generally
find it very easy as they simply create a category for their card. However, once all strips
of tape have assigned categories the options become more limited. Options include:
 placing one's card on an empty strip of tape and establishing a new category
 contribute to an existing category
 redefine an existing category so that one's card and the cards on the tape all fit
 moving as many cards and changing as many categories as is necessary to get one's
    card on a piece of tape
 passing (only allowed once per game)

Once this exercise in convergent and divergent thinking is complete have the students
write down the categories and the words listed. For homework they are to compose a
story or poem that incorporates all the words. This will be compared to the story or
poem to be read.
An option to the tape: post-it notes (but you can‟t re-use the notes very many times; the
cards last much longer.)


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, visual and oral communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions

Communicate Ideas And Information:
 Knowledge of Language: apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Use a variety of processes and strategies to generate,
  gather and organize ideas and information

Self And Society:
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences

Assessment Criteria
 categories are explained and justified

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   a plausible prediction is made based on the given vocabulary


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 a very good activity for ESL students
 combine this with a dictionary lesson so students know all the words‟ meanings
   before attempting to categorize OR include the definition of more difficult words
   right on the card

Gifted/Enrichment
 students could create a jeopardy or trivial pursuit type game with the categories
   emerging from the activity
 students with an interest in psychology or semantics could explore the comparisons
   between the student-written texts and the originals
 these students could lead a class discussion


In the Classroom:

After the words have been categorized on the board, ask students to create a chart like
the one below - it will change depending on the number of categories the class finally
decides upon - and rough out their story or poem plan in the space provided. This
becomes their pre-writing for their homework assignment.

    Category           Category     Category         Category         Category


     Words               Words       Words            Words            Words




PLAN




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                                    Character Hot Seat
Students write down five questions they would like to ask a character or characters
from a novel, short story, poem or play. Questions need to go beyond mere
comprehension questions. They should examine a character's values and motives. Some
questions may even go beyond the story and examine the character in hypothetical
situations.
Once all students have their questions, students are selected to be the character(s) and
sit at the front of the class. Their understanding of the character is tested through rapid
fire questioning. During questioning it is expected that responses are quick and true to
character.


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defended reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas And Information
 Composing and Creating: Use a variety of processes and strategies to generate,
  gather and organize ideas and information

Self And Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
Check that both questions and answers:
 are accurate
 include higher level thinking; i.e. synthesis, analysis, judgement, interpretation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 the practice portion is essential for ESL students
 some students won‟t know what is meant by “higher level thinking questions” and
   will need to be taught; examples are helpful in this case
 do a slow-speed role-play as a dry run


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Gifted/Enrichment
 dressing up and acting as the character will add interest to this activity
 creating a court-room cross-examination or a TV/radio/newspaper reportage scene
   could work here as well
 take the show on the road and perform it for other classes in the school that are
   studying the same text; in this case, one class could make the questions and the other
   could be the characters


In the Classroom:

For a better whole class “performance”, have students role play the characters in pairs
as a practice before doing the character hot seat.

Sample value/motivation questions:
 What were you thinking when you __________________ ?
 Why did you ______________________?
 How did you come to decide that doing ________________ was OK? (or not OK?)
 What made you stop (start) __________________ ?
 What is most important to you?
 If you had to do _________ all over again, what would you do differently?

Sample hypothetical situation questions
 If you were alone on a desert island with _________ (name other character), what
   would happen?
 If you were in a class at school, how would you behave? How would you get along
   with the others?
 If you had to do something that you thought was incredibly difficult (easy), what
   would it be? How would it turn out?



NOTE: This is an excellent activity to do before getting into the more complex
“Antagonist on Trial” activity.




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                                    Antagonist on Trial
This activity works best after an intensive study of a novel, short story, play or ballad,
but it is important to choose a piece of literature that includes controversy or ambiguity.
Students are given - or choose - character roles and “become” the character. Other
students take on the roles of defence and prosecuting lawyers, the judge and members
of the jury. The antagonist is put on trial for whatever crime or wrong-doing was
committed in the literature.

IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies for anticipating, predicting and confirming
   meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw and defend reasoned conclusions from information in
   various works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather and
  organize information and ideas
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
   experiences


Assessment Criteria
 dramatization accurately reflects the text
 characters‟ words and actions elaborate on the ideas presented in the text
 characters are plausibly portrayed

Adaptations and Modifications

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Learning Centre/ESL
 teach and/or review judicial language
 the experience of a trial could be a sensitive issue for some refugee students
 provide a walk-through of procedures for visual or kinesthetic learners

Gifted/Enrichment
 have students videotape the performance, edit any repeated scenes, include music,
   advertisements and whatever else is necessary to convert the trial to a TV show
 research a real crime of the same type as occurred in the literature and compare the
   class‟s decision to the real decision of judge and jury - discuss similarities and
   differences


In the Classroom

This activity works well with
 Lord of the Flies (are Jack and/or Roger responsible for Piggy‟s and/or Simon‟s
   death?)
 Hamlet (Can Hamlet plead insanity for killing his relatives?)
 Macbeth (Can Lady Macbeth / Macbeth plead insanity for the death of Duncan?)
 Of Mice and Men (is George guilty of murder for the death of Lenny?) among other
   works of literature.

It is important to review vocabulary (jargon?) associated with trials before beginning
this activity (bailiff, affidavit, etc.)

Parts to Play: bailiff, jury, prosecution team (4 people), defense team (4 people),
witnesses, judge, court reporter, news reporters, editorial writers, members of the jury
etc.

Procedural Details:
 Prosecution and defense teams interview witnesses and take affidavits (students
   playing the role of witnesses can only have as much knowledge as the character in
   the literature has)
 Students will need training as to the type of witnesses they can pose and the proper
   way to ask them
 The jury deliberates based only on the evidence presented in the trial and needs to
   come to consensus




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                                    Colourful Description
Select a very ordinary object in the classroom. Describe this object in great detail. Add a single
colour background. On a separate sheet of paper (or on the reverse side) explain the reason for
the colour selection and how the presence of the background changed the perception of the
object. This could also be done orally, as a sophisticated version of the elementary school
“show & tell.” Bring in the art teacher to talk about colour symbolism with your students. This
activity becomes particularly meaningful when linked to either media studies or when
thinking about the setting of objects in a stage production for the set.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 detailed description
 explain and justify colour choice
 interpret meaning or purpose of object
 make connections to self, others or readings


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity to lead into discussion regarding significance of colour in other
   cultures (such as white being associated with death and yellow with enemies or
   hatred)

Gifted/Enrichment
 have student describe the object without identifying it - can the class visualize or
   draw it reasonably accurately from the description? Why or why not?
 as an extension, have students do a booklet that illustrates the same object behind a
   variety of different colours, one per page; on each page there should be a paragraph

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    that explains the impact of the colour as related to the object and a comparison of
    that colour‟s effect to the one on the succeeding page


In the Classroom

Before doing the suggested activity, discuss with the class how presentation of an object and
written work affects its reception or acceptance by an audience.


                 white background                      gray background




                                                               

Describe the effect of the background on the main object. This can be used to develop a
product label in a media studies unit also.




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                                    Fiction Documentary
This can be used as a culminating or review activity for a novel, short story, poem or play.
Divide the students into groups of 4 or 5. If the story is quite long, assign a different set of
chapters to different groups - for example if a novel has 20 chapters, then each group will be
responsible for 4 chapters (1-4, 5-8, so on). Each group presents its section as the novel
progresses. Have the groups develop a plot graph for the key events in the story (or chapters).
Give the script expectations and then have students rewrite the plot as a script for a
documentary. Once the script is written, videotape it or present it live to the class. Have the
audience, in their groups, write a critic‟s review of the presentation. Students should mention
what was done well and suggest how to improve what did not work well. Publish the reviews
by posting them on the classroom wall.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
Plot Graph
 choose significant events
 highlight main events
 include main characters

Documentary Script
 use script format
 include main events
 use appropriate and engaging dialogue
 vary pacing (vary sentence types and lengths)

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Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 ensure group composition is supportive of these students needs
 chosen material could represent the cultural diversity of one class or school or
   community
 some students might benefit from the teacher modelling what is necessary for the
   plot analysis and explaining different approaches to the video portion of the
   assignment OR by seeing an example of a finished assignment/video from previous
   years

Gifted/Enrichment
 have students present from either a “Monty Python” perspective (Eric Idle and his
   pseudo BBC reportage) or an A&E type program on the character


In the Classroom

Before engaging in activity, students should be aware of the following

1. how to create a plot graph

2. how to write a basic script (stage directions, script format, setting information)
      a) read a short play together, noting structural components of a script
      b) together as a class, develop a script from a plot graph for a familiar short story

3. how to write a review for a play or documentary
      a) read movie reviews in the newspaper and/or magazine
      b) create a review together as a class

4. Suggested review contents
 title of piece being reviewed
 rating (0 to five stars)
 genre (western, horror, mystery, romance, fantasy, drama, history, science fiction, true
    story, other etc.)
 ages recommended for (all ages, teenagers, children, adults)
 plot summary
 response / opinion
 suggestions for improvement




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                              Numbered Heads Together
This strategy is an excellent method to review content as it doesn't take much
preparation. Further, it keeps all students responsible for learning. It can be adapted to
just about any genre or content area. Spencer Kagan explains the strategy in his
Cooperative Learning: Resources for Teachers (1990):
Numbered Heads is a simple structure, consisting of four steps:
1. Students number off
2. Teacher announces a question and a time limit
3. Students put their heads together
4. Teacher calls a number, calls on a student with that number, and recognizes the
correct answer.


IRP Connections
Self and Society
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others


Assessment Criteria
 accuracy and thoroughness of answers


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 very suitable activity for ESL and LC students

Gifted/Enrichment
 these students could contribute to the questions being asked or invent some other
   permutation or variation on the process


In the Classroom:

Another version of the Spencer Kagan basic: Put students into groups and have them
number off 1-4. Pose a question such as: explain the parts of a plot diagram. Allow the
group to discuss the question. Each member of the group must make sure that all
members know the answer. Randomly call a number, say 3. All the number 3s come to
the front of the class and write out the answer. They may not get help from their group
at this point. The designated students then hold up their answers and the class checks
for accuracy.

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                       1                                     2


                       3                                     4




Barrie Bennet and Peter Smilanich, in their book Classroom Management: A Thinking and
Caring Approach, (1994) describe numbered heads in a different way:

Students are told that after they have worked on whatever activity they were given, any
person in the group can be asked to provide the group‟s response. They have to make
sure everyone in the group understands what they were working on. The teacher then
randomly calls a number and a letter and that person is to respond. (Group B, person 3,
please!)

A round robin or round table can also be built into this strategy. When an activity or
question involves sharing within the group, one student starts and then each student in
rotation shares his or her thinking. Oral sharing is called Round Robin; written sharing
is called Round Table. Often this is connected to numbered heads so that the rotation
starts with say, person two, and moves clockwise.




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                                     U-Debate

Prior to the beginning, refer to rules of the U-Debate in “In the classroom”. Arrange
your desks into a U-pattern. Introduce an issue for debate. Have the students get up
and place themselves on the continuum of opinion (i.e.: students at one end of the U are
completely for the issue whereas students at the opposite end are completely against it.
Students are encouraged to discuss and clarify the opinions of those around them in
order to place themselves within the continuum. Proceed with a class discussion on the
topic, where students discuss their opinions. The formation serves as a visual cue to the
students that understanding is dynamic and fluid. Encourage the students to get up
and move to another spot if they have heard a particularly convincing argument.
Debrief the effectiveness of the activity by having students write a journal entry
reflecting upon their experience.



IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
Using both the oral and written performances, assess the degree to which students:
 express personal opinion
 support opinions with personal examples and/or information provided
 evaluate information/ideas/viewpoints of others



Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 teach the language of debate before proceeding with the activity
 model and practice the debate process
 use a visual or graphic organizer


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   base the debate on broad issues such as smoking or euthanasia
   refer to Organizing Thinking Book II pp. 105-124 (available at Winslow Centre
    Student Services library)

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good activity for gifted students
 if possible, stage mini-u-debates instead of one large one and allow these students to
   work together for this discussion while the rest of the class comprise the other
   groups


In the Classroom

U-Debate Rules
Preface the strategy by discussing with the students the importance of active listening
and suspended judgement. Discuss the idea that most issues are multi-dimensional and
do not warrant a black and white perspective. (Once we decide that we have made up
our minds and know that we are right, we stop listening. Once we stop listening, we
stop learning and our growth is curbed.) Tell the students that it is okay to change their
minds about an issue once they have listened to all sides. Understanding is a synthesis
of their own beliefs and values with those of the people within their sphere of influence.


                                     For                       Against

                                    ++++                       ––––

                                     +++                       –––

                                       ++                     ––

                                            +             –

                                                Neutral




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                                    Reading Articles
This activity requires students to read a non-fiction article of the teacher‟s choice.
Students predict the article based on ten to twelve key words, then summarize it
paragraph by paragraph as they read. A second reading checks for bias.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather and
  organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
   experiences


Assessment Criteria
 responses to comprehension questions that show reflection and expression of
  thought/opinion
 responses include supporting evidence for thought/opinion


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 best for developing and proficiency level (3+/4/5) students
 use hi-liter pens
 short articles with concrete topics that are basic or specific are best (such as the latest
   research in medicine, cancer cure, immigration policy, etc.)
 teach definitions of bias, prejudice, fact vs. opinion, myth/reality, misleading,
   viewpoint, media distortion, inaccuracy, exaggeration
 model how to summarize and practice summarizing



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Gifted/Enrichment
 have students look for opposite viewpoints than their own (they have to analyze
   more critically to understand an opposing view and defend it)
 have students discuss the moral/ethical implications and consequences rather than
   right/wrong, black/white


In the Classroom

Prior to reading news articles aloud with class, select ten to twelve words - write them
on the board/overhead. Brainstorm possible meanings for these words. Tell the class
that these words were selected from an article that you will read in class, ask what the
article may be about - write two to three sentences. Set predictions aside for future
reference. Read the first paragraph aloud to the class, and ask what the key fact is.
Progress through the article, one paragraph at a time, stopping to clarify if needed. As
you read, have students jot down any signs of bias (explain bias if it has not been
discussed in an earlier lesson). Ask the class to re-read the entire article, this time
underlining (or writing down) pre-selected and any other unknown words, and
highlighting key facts. After the students have read the article for themselves, ask
where the main facts are located. Assign comprehension questions. Ask students to
select their own articles and repeat process.

Article Comprehension Questions:
1.     What issue is being discussed?
2.     Does the reporter (author) reveal his/her bias regarding the issue?
       Provide example(s)
3.     Does he/she report more than one viewpoint? Provide example(s).
4.     Do you agree/disagree with the importance of the issue?
5.     How would this article be reported on TV? Describe.
6.     How would you deal with the issue?




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                                      Newspaper
Putting a newspaper together allows students to work together cooperatively in groups
to improve their writing skills. Before students put the newspaper together, teachers
need to teach basic journalistic writing skills: who, what, where, when, how, and why.
Explain the objective point of view needed for newsreporting, the importance of
remaining unbiased and for using neutral words so that bias will not show. Discussing
the difference between fact and opinion is also helpful. Other details to consider are
things like the weather and real estate ads (could reflect part of the setting), co-
incidental news items reflecting the time period, society pages for incidental characters,
etc. This activity can be adapted to suit any genre - other novels, plays, etc. - as it works
well with prose fiction. When the novel permits, have the students create newspapers
from different editorial perspectives.


IRP Connections:
Communicate Ideas & Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Presenting & Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
   audiences

Self & Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish & maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others


Assessment Criteria
 articles follow appropriate newspaper format: headlines, lead sentences, form, main
  facts first, 5W‟s and H content, etc.
 written work is free of mechanical and technical errors
 articles show analysis and interpretation of text
 product is effectively organized; appealingly presented

Work with students to develop criteria for effective group work. For example:
 listen to others‟ ideas
 contribute to ideas generated by the group
 encourage others through words and body language




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Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 pre-teach basic journalistic style writing skills
 modifications could include use of first language literature
 allow these students to work on the sections that have strong models in real
   newspapers

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow these students to work together if this project is done in pairs or groups


In the Classroom

The following uses The Chrysalids as an example of this literature-based newspaper.

Have students look at a variety of newspapers before they start the activity to discover
parts of a newspaper and newspaper style.

Students will publish newspapers based on issues raised in The Chrysalids. Divide the
class into 6 groups as shown below. The newspapers will be from three different
districts and represent 2 different editorial stances:

Waknuk: one group pro-telepath, one group anti-telepath
The Fringes: one group pro-telepath, one group anti-telepath
Sealand: one group pro-telepath, one group anti-telepath

Each group will be responsible for the following sections of their paper:
1.    Front page
2.    Editorials
3.    Letters to the editor
4.    Reporter interviews
5.    News stories

Additions: pictures, advertisements, comics, cartoons, want ads, classifieds.




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                                    Vocabulary from Text
Have students choose, from a chapter of a novel or a short story, a specified number of words
(e.g. 10) they either don‟t already know, or find interesting or consider important to the text.
Write down the sentence where the word occurs, underlining the word. Students then “guess”
at the meaning using context clues and write down their suggestion. They should be prepared
to support the reason for their guess. Then, they look up the word in the dictionary and write
down its meaning. The compare the actual definition with their original guess and look for
reasons for getting it either wrong or right. As a conclusion, they write down a sentence using
the word correctly.
After words have been selected from the text, this activity could be done orally as a class or in
small groups.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 plausible „guesses‟ for meanings
 correct use in sentence
 logical reason for guess, good use of context clues



Secondary English Resource Binder         116                        Copyright SD #43
Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity for ESL and LC students

Gifted/Enrichment
 if word choices are specific to novel (e.g. “collards” in To Kill a Mockingbird), have students
   research the connection between the item and the novel/story; research either the origin of
   the word or the use of the item; cook collards for class; have a “Southern” meal)
 create a crossword puzzle using words/character names - clues are connections to incident
   or lines from play
 put the words into a glossary or companion dictionary


In the Classroom

Vocabulary From Text Graphic Organizer

         Word                 Sentence in Text        Guess            Actual Definition




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                                      Storytelling
In this activity, as a pre-writing activity, students tell stories to one another in groups of six,
then switch groups and retell to the second group the story they preferred in the first group.

Arrange students in groups of six or seven; have them sit in circles on the floor and have them
tell each other a story. Each group member must tell a story that illustrates some aspect of his
or her life, or of the human condition in general. The other members of the group must listen
carefully as they will be giving suggestions and retelling the stories later. Once every member
has told a story, begin the cycle again until the time is up.

After each person tells a story, the rest of the group members must provide feedback that will
help the storyteller tell a good story. Everyone needs to be listening carefully if this is to work.
Make suggestions that might improve the story. If students don‟t understand a story, they
must say they did not “get it.” Remember that “facts” are not important in storytelling, only
“truth” is.

Once each student has told a story, switch people to different groups. Each member of the new
group will have heard six or seven stories that the others have not. Each student will now pick
the story that he/she liked best and retell it to the new group. Students need not tell the stories
exactly as heard. They can be creative and try to make the stories better. The central idea or
“truth” of the story is what is important, not the factual details. They should embellish and
enhance the story. The group discusses what makes a better story and students give each other
feedback.

Students will then pick one of the stories they have heard, (not their original story) and write it
down. They will use the advice received from others to improve the story, and hand in a final
draft copy. On the due date, each student will come to the front of the class and TELL (not
read) the story written down. After the storytelling, the written story is turned in to the
teacher.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
   professionals use to appraise and improve work
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
   audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals



Secondary English Resource Binder        118                            Copyright SD #43
   Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
    support others
   Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
Mark based on participation, presentation, and writing
 Participation (you are active in telling stories and making suggestions to others)
 Presentation (you speak clearly and energetically; your audience gets the message,
  your body language and presence is appropriate)
 Writing (your written version reflects some thought, is coherent, and shows the
  results of careful editing and revision)


Modifications and Adaptations
Learning Centre/ESL
 students could draw on literature from different cultures
 allow ESL students a few days notice to practice the oral since many are quite
   apprehensive of oral English assignments
 suggest LC students work with shorter or easier stories; have a few suggestions for
   them

Gifted/Enrichment
 students could experiment with telling their personal experience in a different genre
   - mystery, ironic twist, satire, etc.


In the Classroom

Before the storytelling process begins, do the following with your class:
 brainstorm the components of a story (plot parts, relationship beginning, ending and
   conflict, etc.)
 brainstorm some ideas about what makes an entertaining story
 review how to give constructive feedback

NOTE:
 this activity depends on your class composition and the teacher‟s comfort zone
 this activity can take several days to complete
 it is a good idea to have time limits for the telling of each story




Secondary English Resource Binder      119                         Copyright SD #43
                         Connections for Creative Writing
Select three to four phrases from any textbook (English, Science, whatever.). Write these
phrases on the board or overhead. Ask students to brainstorm possible links to each phrase.
As a class weave the phrases and links into a web. From this web, develop an outline for an
essay. Once the students understand the process steps, select three to four unrelated phrases
from the chosen text. Ask students in groups (maximum four) to brainstorm links, using the
phrases and their contexts to represent an issue. (See “In the Classroom”).


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 make connections between ideas
 create or identify metaphors and similes
 develop essay outlines including main ideas and supporting details


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 ensure even distribution of these students into groups
 webbing with the class is very helpful
 model this process with a small web before beginning the large, more complex one
   with the students

Gifted/Enrichment

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   allow these students to work together
   have these students select the phrases with which they will work


In the Classroom

Example of Connections for Creative Writing

1. If the following phrases were selected:
        1. physical states of chemicals
        2. melting point
        3. compound structures

2. Possible links could be „relationships‟ (attraction, rejection) or „organization‟

3. Develop an outline for an essay about „symbolism‟

                  Heat                    Melting           temperatures
                  cold                    points
                                                                                   (State
                                                                                   the link)
                         (State of
                         relationship link)
Physical states
Chemicals                                                                          Compound
      -solid                                                                       Structures
    -liquid                               67 (State the line)                      H20
        -gas                                                                       CH4
                                                                                   bonds




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                            Real Versus Artificial Collage
Individually or in groups, students are to create collages using pictures to reflect
opposite concepts of an issue. The collage will be on a large poster board, which will be
divided in half (down the middle). The right side will be titled „real‟ and the left side
will be titled „artificial‟. The students gather images that reflect each side - real and
artificial - of the issue or topic. Each side must also include a paragraph highlighting
student observations. These two paragraphs will be attached to the collage to be read by
the teacher and other students. Observations may include similarities or differences,
and opinions that students have on the topic. (See “In the Classroom”.) Display all
collages - discuss/debrief.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 clearly identify issue
 clearly present opposite concepts
 effectively use visuals to explain or represent concepts
 explain purpose and design choices
 express and support personal opinions




Secondary English Resource Binder      122                          Copyright SD #43
Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 review terminology and key words
 use graphic organizers where possible
 allow ESL students to contribute ideas specific to their cultures

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow these students to choose their issue or topic
 if working in groups, allow these students to work together


In the Classroom

Opposite concepts of issue: „Beauty‟
1) People who reflect the media‟s concept of beauty - referring to images found in television
shows, movies and especially fashion magazines

2) People who do not reflect the media‟s concept of beauty - for example, everybody else.

                   Artificial                                 Real
 models                                    families
 soap operas                               friends
                                          
                                          
                                          
                                          
                                          
Paragraph                                  Paragraph




NOTE: this also works well to describe the tensions or juxtapositions frequently found in
literature. For example, lust vs. love in Romeo and Juliet or honesty vs. disguise in Macbeth or
action vs. thought in Hamlet.



Secondary English Resource Binder       123                            Copyright SD #43
                             Effective Language Analysis
Photocopy a passage from a work, or essay. Having given students information on a particular
technique (e.g. sentence types and how each is effective such as the simple sentence packs a
punch, sounds firm, states facts simply in an easily understood manner, states a theme or
synopsis of topic) have students underline or highlight examples of whatever technique or
device you‟ve just discussed in class. Discuss how often the author uses this technique, and
where in paragraphs, or in the passage it is located, and how this particular one is effective.
Students could substitute a different technique (e.g. combine simple sentences into
compounds, or join to another sentence forming a complex sentence) to see how the new
construction has altered the mood, intent, or other effect of the passage.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language


Assessment Criteria
 identify samples of writing techniques
 explain author‟s purpose
 alter original writing/write variations
 analyze effect of variations


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 could be a very challenging activity for even proficient ESL learners
 model this activity on the overhead with different coloured pens to emphasize the
   different approaches language analysis can take; ensure use of “think-aloud”
   commentary while doing your analysis so students can follow your train of thought;
   provide students with a copy of the overhead so they can make notes while you talk
 for weaker students, provide them with less complicated reading selections

Gifted/Enrichment


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   students could turn this activity into a team competition with one student reading
    aloud the passage and competing teams noting the exemplars of effective language
    (bonus points could be awarded for a player who can give an original example of
    the same technique)


In the Classroom

Other writing techniques to focus on:
 use of powerful verbs
 use of repetition
 use of imagery (one or more particular poetic devices)
 similar sentence types used repeatedly
 variety of sentence types
 appeal of sentence types
 appeal to five senses (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch)
 use of colour
 appeal to emotions
 use of a particular form of punctuation




Secondary English Resource Binder       125                        Copyright SD #43
                               My Favourite Way to Relax
Identify an item that helps you relax. Focus on a particular sense: sight, smell, taste, etc. Create
a recipe or strategy on how to relax after a stressful day. Each step must be detailed and
logically move on to the next one. Share recipes and/or instructions for relaxation and
evaluate.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
   and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 follow recipe format
 logically sequence ideas
 use clear, precise language
 well organized, easy to follow
 effectively use diagrams or sketches to clarify procedures


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 define terms such as “relaxation”, “stress” and “recipe”
 create an example of the method(s) you use for relaxation and share it with the class
 if this relatively private topic is a sensitive issue for students, let them invent a
   fictional method of relaxation or use one they know other people use

Gifted/Enrichment
 have students organize a mini “Relaxation Therapy Conference” and give inservices
   to each other on different ways to relax
 have students find the medical antecedents for their ideas via research (they could
   consult the areas of physiology, neurology, and psychology in various cultures)


In the Classroom

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Look at various recipes or instructions to build something.
The following suggestions are from Writing Sense 8: Harcourt, Brace Canada, 1998.

How-To’s
How do you know how to make a cake, set up a VCR, put together a model car, or dye a T-
shirt? Usually, you follow instructions, which are a series of steps that explain how to make
something or do something.

When you give instructions, you are sharing your knowledge and information with others.
Sometimes you show someone how to do something by demonstrating the process. Sometimes
you tell them how to do it, and other times, you write the instructions.

If you‟ve ever tried to follow a set of instructions that weren‟t very good, you‟ll understand
how important it is for them to be precise. When you write your “how-to‟s”, you have to be
specific about the order of what to do. You must give step-by-step directions clearly and
concisely. You should also provide any necessary cautions or safety tips, and let your reader
know if any special tools or materials are needed.

When you write your instructions, remember that you‟re the expert, and you must try to share
your expertise as clearly as possible.

Features of How-To’s
 How-to‟s state a purpose (sometimes in a heading)
 They often include an introduction
 Materials, including the size, measurement, number or quantity, are listed, if necessary
 The instructions or steps are written sequentially (in order from first to last) and are usually
   numbered, but may be written in paragraph form
 Linking or transitional words such as “first,” next,” and “finally” are used to show the
   order
 Short command sentences and active verbs are used
 Tips, variations, options, comments, warnings, and descriptions may be included
 Headings, diagrams, and photographs may be used




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                                    Family Possessions
Before beginning, explain to students the difference between “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” values.
Then, ask the students to describe an ordinary object in their possession. Be as detailed as
possible; include its relevance to the owner. Next, ask the students to describe the most
important item that their families own. This item must be something that has significance: a
memento of someone, something that has been passed on from generation to generation, a
souvenir, a portrait, etc. In a multiple paragraph assignment describe the item and explain
why it is revered by the family. This exercise allows the students to assess the difference
between something that is cherished and something that is expendable.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 include detailed description
 explain value and meaning
 make personal connections
 use correct paragraphing
 logical sequence and organization
 correct spelling, sentence structure, punctuation and grammar


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 Venn diagram excellent graphic organizer for this activity
 this activity appropriate for these students

Gifted/Enrichment
 create an episode of “Antiques Roadshow”
 this activity excellent for these students

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   extensions might focus on product - instead of writing paragraphs, for example, the
    students could also do a short video, using a digital camera to capture the object; tape-
    recorded perspectives from family members; old photographs with the object depicted, etc.


In the Classroom

The activity can be used to develop compare/contrast written work (essays).


                         cherished object           expendable object


Another option is to draw a floor and wall plan of the bedroom and describe the objects on the
various surfaces, using details and colours. Have the students each pass their floor plan to
another student who does a “psychological analysis” of the personality of the owner of the
room. Prompt students to think of types of objects, number of items, age and condition of
objects and placement in room.

                                            wall




                      wall                  floor               wall




                                            wall




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                                    The Personal Metaphor
This idea was inspired by the Budge Wilson short story, “The Metaphor”. Students will select
something that represents them (i.e. object, a season, idea, etc.). They will create a visual
representation of this and a written description of their metaphor. The term metaphor must be
familiar to the students before you begin this activity.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 create an effective visual
 explain the metaphor with reasons, descriptions and/or examples
 effectively organize/sequence the ideas


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 excellent activity for these students
 teach specific terms like “metaphor”

Gifted/Enrichment
 create costumes based on object representation and wear costumes during a “Bus Stop”
   presentation where the metaphor-characters meet each other in a line up and introduce
   themselves
 improvise conversations at a get-together
 write a short play using the metaphor-characters and present it to the class as a class
   version of a fringe festival or theatre of the absurd
 students could design a logo or motto for a baseball hat, backpack, planner etc. that reflects
   their personal metaphor




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In the Classroom

Definition of Metaphor: A metaphor is a comparative device. It compares non-similar items
without using the words “like” or “as” in order to illuminate the reader about one of the items
in a unique way. For example (all examples are from “The Metaphor” by Budge Wilson):
 my mother is a sterile office building with stark modern furniture
 Miss Hancock is a birthday cake
 my dog is a clown in a spotted suit
 my little brother George is a whirling top
 the spruce tree is a tall lady in a stiff blue-green dress
 my dad is a warm wood stove

a) This activity could be used in conjunction with the story “The Metaphor” by Budge Wilson
in Inside Stories II or as an introduction to the concept of metaphor in a poetry unit.

Sample:

                     Writing                              Illustration
I am a backpack. The backpack is
flexible. Its appearance is easily        A backpack with stuff in it.
malleable, but the sturdy back and
straps maintain their shape. The
backpack has many pockets; many
things are hidden in them and many
things are lost in the deep dark corners.
A backpack endures a lot of rough
usage and sometimes the seams begin
to wear.

I am a puzzle trying to piece happiness A happy face puzzle with a piece
                                           missing from the smiling mouth.
together. But the last piece is always missing.




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                                    Poetry By Candlelight
In this activity, students read poetry aloud in the atmosphere of a night-time coffee
house. Students may read either their own poetry or work published by other authors
that the students have researched and selected. This activity also works with reading
novel excerpts, short stories or dramatic excerpts; it can be used to as a unit opener to
generate interest in the upcoming poetry unit or as a unique celebration at the end of
the unit.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
   professionals use to appraise and improve work

Self and Society
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
   experiences


Assessment Criteria
 effectively use voice to interpret mood
 use expression and emphasis to convey meaning
 make eye contact with audience
 clearly articulate words



Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 employ group readings, reader‟s theatre
 ask students to use literature in first language, then translate
 good activity for ESL students

Gifted/Enrichment
 this activity is open ended and allows gifted writers many avenues




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In the Classroom

After rehearsing the selection at home, the student presents the poem to the class and
then gives a brief explanation of the theme.

Students choose their favorite poem/song and prepare to present it in front of the class.
The selections may be from a prescribed text or individually written by the students
themselves. If desired, candles and soft music may be used to help create the mood
conducive to poetry reading. The class should sit in a comfortable arrangement, able to
clearly see the presenter. For a very special event, invite parents to an evening
performance and call it a coffee house; “chat sessions” with the author, including a
question and answer period and a “book signing” are also possibilities for the coffee
house.

While student audiences are usually most polite and attentive during this activity as
they are listening to the heartfelt feelings and selections of their peers, sometimes it is
helpful to have a specific assignment for the audience. Audience members could be
assigned the job of listening for the purpose of paraphrasing, they could listen and
draw what they hear; they could be involved by actually doing a choral reading with
the original writer. The audience could also evaluate the reader with the following
checklist*:
 Did the reader have good eye contact with the audience? Did the reader direct his or
    her gaze evenly around the room?
 Did the reader speak loudly and clearly enough to be heard throughout the room?
 Did the reader speak slowly enough to allow the audience to absorb his or her
    words?
 Did the reader avoid distracting movements and nervous mannerisms?
 Did the reader vary his or her voice (pitch, volume, tone, etc.) so as to create interest
    and convey the emotions and ideas of the poem?
 Did the reader stress appropriate words?
 Did the reader demonstrate a good understanding of the poem?

* From Teaching Poetry Today by Stephanie Gray. Weston Walch, 1976. (An oldy but a
goody.)




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                                    Painting The Mood
Appreciating poetry involves understanding all the levels at which a poem works. One
must understand and experience the intellectual, emotional and spiritual aspects of
poetry. In order to better understand the mood or emotional element of a poem or song,
students can finger paint while a poem is read or a song is played. As they hear and
“paint” the poem, every effort must be made to choose colours symbolic of the poem‟s
prevailing feeling. Colours should be changed as the tone changes. The visual balance
(symmetry or asymmetry), the movement and arrangement of colors, the shapes, the
pressure, the speed and pauses should all be such that they can be explained with
reference to a poem‟s mood and tone. Every student or group of students must be able
to relate every aspect of their art work (all their choices) to the poem. Explanations and
justifications can be written on the art work itself.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understanding written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
   experiences


Assessment Criteria
 explain connections between poem and artwork
 use quotations to clarify explanations
 link colour symbolism to personal interpretation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 fine activity with attention to cultural difference
 suitable for beginner to proficient ESL




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Gifted/Enrichment
 ask students to consider how (or re-enact) a student in a different culture would
   have painted the mood
 also ask students to discover why certain colours - like white - represent such
   different meanings for different groups such as Western cultures versus the Japanese
   culture
 have students research the significance of numbers, animals or other symbols - how
   are these things significant, different or similar in other cultures?


In the Classroom

Be prepared for a mess. If possible, implement the lesson in an art room or use tables
rather than desks.

Before painting, the symbolic meaning of colours should be discussed as should the
connotations attached to various shapes and textures.

For example:

  Colour                                        Meaning
RED                passion, anger, love
BLUE               melancholy, peace, loyalty
GREEN              jealousy, newness, innocence
YELLOW             cowardice, cheerfulness
PURPLE             royalty
BLACK              evil, death, sophistication
WHITE              purity, innocence, virginity


NOTE: colour meanings are cultural. For example, white is innocence or virginity in the
western culture but means death to the Japanese. Brainstorm these meanings with your
students.




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                              Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry
A poet uses sounds, imagery and arguments to appeal to the emotions or the intellect.
In this assignment, students choose and compare a number of poems and discuss which
approach the poet has chosen to use to convey his/her ideas.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships, collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 make inferences supported by specific evidence
 interpret meaning
 offer reactions or judgements supported by reasons or examples
 compare and contrast elements of several poems


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 level 1 or 2 students could log the chosen poem in first language with the student
   translating the main ideas into English
 developing (level 2 and 3) stages will work with this more easily
 lots of scope for ESL learners



Gifted/Enrichment


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   students could create their own poems on the same topic emphasizing ear, heart and
    brain
   ask the students which they like best as certain topics lend themselves to one of the
    three better than others


In the Classroom

Students (or small groups of students) must find three poems.
 a poem in which the poet chose words for their beautiful sounds and rhythms (EAR)
 a poem in which the poet chooses images and words that cause us to feel deep
   emotions (HEART)
 a poem in which the poet causes us to think or argue about an issue, idea or choice
   but not a poem that they do not understand (BRAIN)

Once the students have found their poems, they will read the three poems to small
groups of students who will try to determine which poem is which.

The most impressive aspect of this activity is the number of poems the students read in
an effort to ensure their peers correctly identify their choices.

Listener Note-Taking Sheet (add rows as necessary)

     IMAGERY                        EAR             HEART                  BRAIN


poem 1




poem 2




poem 3




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                             Poetry And Performance Art
Small groups of students select a poem and prepare a presentation of that poem
involving one of four strategies in “In the Classroom”. The strategy chosen must be
appropriate to the theme, tone and mood of the poem (This learning strategy is a good
follow up to the Ear, Heart and Brain assignment or may even be incorporated into the
reading of the poems in that assignment.)


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Presenting and Valuing: Use a variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships, collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
Have students complete self and/or peer evaluation. Some guiding prompts might be
 How did the performance enhance understanding of the poem?
 What aspects of the performance helped create the mood of the poem?
 How could this performance be improved or enhanced?
 What would you want an audience to notice about the performance?




Secondary English Resource Binder      138                           Copyright SD #43
Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 pre-teach key vocabulary
 allow use of first language and culture to enrich ESL student experience

Gifted/Enrichment
 incorporate readers‟ theatre and/or the use of masks


In the Classroom

Connect with your drama-teaching or fine-arts-teaching colleague for these ideas. Some
examples of successful strategies are:
 tableaux (silent, posed, pictures where students arrange themselves to illustrate a
   scene)
 choreographed dance
 rhythmic accompaniment (but no musical compositions)
 choral reading




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                                    Choral Reading
Students examine a poem to determine how the poet has used structure and word
choice to convey meaning. Paying particular attention to rhythm, rhyme scheme,
repetition, assonance, dissonance, alliteration (etc.) students analyze the poem for tone
and style.
They must then create a choral reading of the poem to convey the poet‟s intent.

Students must be able to justify the strategies employed with respect to the tone, mood
and theme of the poem.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Presenting and Valuing: Use a variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Building Community: Establish and maintain relationships, collaborate, value and
   support others
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 choral reading enhances understanding of poem
 choral reading reflects mood/tone of poem
 presentation is entertaining and captures audience interest
 pacing enhances interest and understanding of poem
 several strategies are incorporated in the presentation

Adaptations and Modifications

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Learning Centre/ESL
 excellent for ESL
 pre-teach terminology and specialized vocabulary

Gifted/Enrichment
 this could extend to the use of music, masks and mime created to accompany the
   choral reading


In the Classroom

Choral readings may invoke the following strategies:
 repetition
 volume changes (whispers to screams)
 word echoing
 pauses
 accents
 changing the delivery speed
 intonation and exaggeration
 different group members reading (one, all)

Examples of the different strategies for choral reading should be provided before
assigning the project. Shakespearean sonnets work well as examples.




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                                    Poetry Triptych
A triptych is a set of three panels bearing pictures. Sometimes these are three separate
but related illustrations; other times there is one illustration, like a mural, that is
divided into three segments.

In this assignment students are to find three poems that convey a specific message or
theme. The three poems must be clearly linked and supportive. They may deal with a
similar topic or theme; create similar imagery or emotions; or provoke thought about a
particular issue.

Once the poems are selected the students must create a visual metaphor for the theme.
This is not simply a collage on a topic, but rather visual imagery and treatment that
supports the thematic message of the triptych. The theme should be understood
without reading the poems.

When planning the triptych, the students must consider the symbolic meaning of
colour, arrangement, balance, symmetry, treatment, texture, as well as the use of
common symbols.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Use a variety of processes and strategies to generate,
  gather and organize ideas and information
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry using processes that
  professionals use to appraise and improve work

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences




Secondary English Resource Binder       142                          Copyright SD #43
Assessment Criteria
 theme is clearly evident
 colour is used to create mood
 symbols are effectively used to convey meaning
 artwork reflects the poems chosen


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity for ESL students
 pair native-English speaker with ESL students
 model different strategies for choral reading

Gifted/Enrichment
 ask students to pick three poems from a common theme that represent the course of
   a century(ies) to show how common feelings and emotions are despite different
   circumstances (ask what makes poetry universal?)


In the Classroom

Careful selection of the texts and images is crucial to student success. Too often students
mistakenly create collages on a specific topic as opposed to a triptych that makes a
thematic statement. Students aren‟t to illustrate a poem; rather, they are to illustrate a
theme in three panels.

Theme examples include: love, war, death, family, friendship, hate, coming of age, etc.

The following graphic organizer might help students plan for this assignment

Title                               Title                Title

Illustration                        Illustration         Illustration




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                                    Music Videos
Students are to choose (or write) a poem and make a video of the poem. The video must
feature music which reflects the mood and tone of the poem and demonstrate an
appropriate selection of film techniques. These include close ups, pans, montage, deep
focus, first person point of view, fade away, etc. The video may be an original work or
it may be a collection of images from television and film.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral and visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Use a variety of processes and strategies to generate,
  gather and organize ideas and information
 Improving Communications: Enhance precision, clarity, artistry, using processes
  that professionals use to appraise and improve work
 Presenting and Valuing: Use a variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
Work with the students to develop the criteria for assessment. Some possibilities are
 effectively use a variety of video techniques
 music enhances interpretation of poem
 images convey poet‟s intent
 images convey personal response to poem




Secondary English Resource Binder      144                           Copyright SD #43
Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 an excellent activity for both ESL and LC students

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow students to choose their own groups if this project is implemented through
   group work


In the Classroom

Making videos is ten times more difficult than most students imagine, especially the
editing. One way to alleviate the agony of editing is to have students plan around it
with the use of a story board. This only works if students are creating an original video
from the ground up, however. Students plan their entire video on a story board, as if it
were a comic strip, including a list of the video techniques they plan to use. Then, they
shoot the video in order of the scenes as they come, chronologically.

Whether or not students use a story board, they need to understand filming techniques.
Bring a video camera into the classroom and connect it to the television. Show students
examples of different film techniques and discuss when they might be used.

Most students don‟t have computer programs capable of editing videos and must make
do with two VCRs and a lot of patience. Therefore, evaluation needs to reflect intent as
much as the quality of the finished product, if not more.




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                                    Sonnet Walks
Shakespeare‟s language is often very difficult for students to read. Sonnet walks help
students understand how punctuation defines where one should pause when reading.

Select a sonnet and provide each student with a copy. Students are then instructed to
walk about the room. Every time they come to a punctuation mark, they must make a
90 or 180 degree turn before they continue reading. Other behaviours could be assigned
to various types of punctuation for a more diverse representation. Try poems other than
sonnets, too.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas And Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language.


Assessment Criteria
In a follow-up discussion, check that this activity has led to increased understanding of
the text.


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity for ESL because of the movement and oral reading - very visual and
   kinesthetic

Gifted/Enrichment
 good community-building activity


In the Classroom:

Sonnet 29 or any sonnet with significant punctuation works well. This is a good activity
prior to reading Shakespearean plays.

The following chart might help students with this activity. Students also benefit from
making their own versions of the charts as they then must really understand the
significance of each form of punctuation in order to decide what the corresponding
behaviour must be during the walk.




Secondary English Resource Binder      146                           Copyright SD #43
Punctuation                            Sonnet Walk Instruction
     ;             5 second pause with a 180 turn
     .             10 second stop
     !             jump up and down
     ?             hands in air with “huh?” expression on face
     ,             5 second pause with a 90 turn


Sonnet 29
by William Shakespeare

When in disgrace with fortune and men‟s eyes,
I all alone beweep my outcast state.
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries.                  (bootless=futile)
And look upon myself and curse my fate,
Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,
Desiring this man‟s art, and that man‟s scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least.
Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,
Haply I think on thee, and then my state,
Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven‟s gate;
         For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings
         That then I scorn to change my state with kings.


Composed Upon Westminster Bridge September 3, 1802
by William Wordsworth

Earth has not anything to show more fair:
Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
A sight so touching in its majesty:
This City now doth, like a garment, wear                         (doth=does)
The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,
Ships, towers, domes, theaters, and temples lie
Open unto the fields, and to the sky;
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.
Never did sun more beautifully steep
In his first splendour; valley, rock, or hill;
Ne‟er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!
The river glideth at his own sweet will:


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Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still!
                                    Imagery Echoes
Poets often repeat specific images to create mood or to help convey a theme. Imagery
Echoes is a strategy designed to help students understand how an image or idea is often
carried throughout an entire poem. Students are partnered. One student reads the poem
slowly and clearly. The other student listens carefully, possibly with closed eyes to help
concentration, and repeats (echoes) every word associated with a specific image. When
students comprehend the strength of the image within a poem a discussion ensues with
respect to why the poet would choose to associate content with that image. What is the
poet‟s apparent purpose?


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, visual and oral communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defended reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works


Assessment Criteria
 reading demonstrates understanding of poem‟s contents and punctuation
 repetition demonstrates understanding of term “imagery”
 discussion connects poem‟s contents and theme with imagery (how does the one
  support the other and vice-versa?)
 discussion demonstrates insight into the poem; student can identify and explain
  image
 discussion demonstrates understanding of the poet‟s apparent purpose
 explains word choice


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 choose poems where the imagery repetitions are obvious, like “The Cremation of
   Sam McGee” by Robert Service

Gifted/Enrichment
 this is a good activity for gifted or enriched students



Secondary English Resource Binder       148                          Copyright SD #43
In the Classroom:

Many poems and poets lend themselves well to this activity. Consider
 Donne‟s metaphysical poems
 anything by Robert Frost
 Robert Service‟s work
 Carl Sandburg‟s “Frost”
 Blake‟s “London”
 Ferlinghetti‟s “Constantly Risking Absurdity”
 anything by Margaret Atwood


Graphic Organizer for Summarizing the Activity

Poem Title

Specific Imagery

Examples of Imagery from poem (quote lines from the poem that the listener repeated)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5. etc.
Concluding Thoughts Re: links between content, imagery and author purpose




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                                    Theme in Poetry
Select a poem where theme is easy to identify. Divide the poem into short phrases and give the
cut-up lines to each student. Students will then categorize the phrases and paste them under
the appropriate headings which they invent. See “Sort and Predict” for more information on
teaching categorization. Discuss, as a class, the various categories and how these headings
relate to the poem‟s theme. Students will then write a theme statement for the poem.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
 identify theme(s)
 explain and justify categorization choices
 choose appropriate headings


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 teach terms such as theme and theme statement; give examples of each
 fine activity for ESL
 helpful for both ESL and LC students if this is done in groups

Gifted/Enrichment
 encourage students to extend their thinking and go beyond the obvious categories


In the Classroom

Prior to this activity students would need to review how to categorize. Ask them to categorize
a list of words or a group of pictures or a set of shapes. Discuss the thought processes that
categorization requires.




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This strategy works quite well with the poem “Résumé” by Dorothy Parker from The Poet’s
Craftt. Harcourt Brace: 1987.

Résumé
Razors pain you:
Rivers are damp;
Acids stain you;
And drugs cause cramp.
Guns aren‟t lawful;
Nooses give;
Gas smells awful;
You might as well live.



Some advice by R.J. Ireland, editor of The Poet’s Craft:

In its simplest terms, a poem is a statement about something:
 What the poem is about is the topic (or subject) of the poem
 What the poem says about the topic is the theme of the poem

When you can summarize what the poem says (about its topic), you will have made a decision
about the theme of that poem. With additional readings, your opinion may well change. The
best statements of theme can be supported by additional reference to all the important aspects
of a poem.




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                                    Interpreting Poetry
In this strategy, students are taught the process of translating and interpreting poetry. Initially
they will go over key terms/devices/definitions and then will find two examples of each in a
poetry anthology.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather and
  organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 identify poetic devices
 interpret meaning
 explain word choices
 use examples to support interpretations
 make personal connections
 connect ideas to other readings


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 modelling and practice will be necessary
 good activity for both ESL and LC students
 consider choosing poems from various backgrounds and cultures




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Gifted/Enrichment
 students could search for examples of more advanced terms such as metonymy and
   synecdoche
 students could write their own poems (real or parodied) to illustrate terms
 students could search for poems on a common theme; compare and contrast
   treatments by the different poets and choose their own method of presentation


In the Classroom

Class Study #1: Part A
Read a poem out loud. Have students answer comprehension questions, including finding five
words they don‟t know the meanings for. They must look up the definitions, and write them
down. Identify as many poetic devices as possible.

Class Study #1: Part B
In groups brainstorm “What‟s going on here?” Present findings to class as well as to individual
written responses. Students write the message/theme of this poem.

Class Study #2:
Repeat above process for a new poem.

Group Presentations
Groups choose one of the selected poems or song lyrics to present to the class. Groups present
three parts to the class:
1. a reading of the poem
2. a translation (what‟s going on here?)
3. response on the message/theme

Individual Project
Students repeat the same process in an individual written project - choose two poems/songs.
Include a copy of the poem, a “translation” and the message for each of the two. Put this
together in an attractive, informative, reader-friendly package. Have student pairs peer-assess
their packages.




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                               Poetic Inductive Thinking
Individual students are given a data list (see “In the Classroom”) and then put the data
into categories. Then, students move into groups and compare categories before
collating the group‟s information onto chart paper. (Don‟t have them re-write the
items; hand out glue sticks.) Students then move from group to group, noting items that
don‟t fit and/or questions they have. Each group poses two original questions to the
other groups about the categorization decisions that were made.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
 correctly sort and classify information
 create definitions based on common attributes


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 excellent activity for ESL and LC students
 modelling what is meant by “categorizing” might be helpful for very weak students

Gifted/Enrichment
 ask students to write definitions for their categories
 allow students to create more examples for their categories once they are sure of
   their categorization decisions




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In the Classroom

Inductive Thinking Data List

Objective: To define metaphor, personification, simile, apostrophe, synecdoche, metonymy
(don‟t provide the definitions of these terms to the students as that is the entire point of this
exercise.)

Your job: Take the following phrases and sentences and put them into groups. Make sure each
group has something in common. Be prepared to state what each group has in common. (Note
sounds are not important.)

“All the world‟s a stage”                      “The black poplars shake with hysterical
                                               laughter”
“And danced the sky on laughter-
silvered wings”
                                               “The holy time is quiet as a nun”
“Dank as a ditch”                              “The moving finger writes”
“Death lays his icy hands on kings”            “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me
                                               your ears.”
Death, be not proud”                           You can‟t fight city hall.
“Fingers like ice”                             “The night was soft as lips on skin”
Helen, thy beauty is to me”                    “The sea is a hungry dog”
“I am becoming sunlight”                       “The wind stood up and gave a shout”
“I wore my hair like a helmet”                 “Those are pearls that were his eyes”
“Kate, like the hazel-twig                     He‟s as big as a house
 Is straight and slender”
“Machine guns chuckled”                        All hands on deck!
“My soul has grown deep like the rivers” “His axe hewn hands”
“No man is an island”                          “My love is like red, red rose”
“The pen is mightier than the sword”           Our life is a “play of passion”
“O, Canada, our home and native land”          Their marriage was on the rocks
“O, Rose, thou art sick”                       “When you are the anvil, bear”
“This is crown land”                           You are “the salt of the earth”



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“Little lamb, who made thee?”             It‟s hard to earn a dollar these days




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                            Impressionism and The Haiku
Many Impressionists, such as Matisse, Monet and Bonnard, for example, painted
beautiful, colourful, vibrant nature scenes. Slides or colour prints of these artists' works
are a great source of ideas for haiku. Talk to your art teacher about borrowing copies or
to your teacher librarian about getting illustrated books from the library.

Assign specific paintings to the students and have them compose a haiku that captures
both the imagery and mood of the impressionist art.


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, visual and oral communications

Communicate Ideas And Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of the conventions of language
 Composing and Creating: Use a variety of processes and strategies to generate,
  gather and organize ideas and information
 Presenting and Valuing: Use a variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self And Society:
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 effective imagery
 effective word choice
 follows rules of haiku
 use haiku form skillfully to create an effect


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 an excellent activity for ESL students
 pre-teach and/or review haiku format (3 lines of 5, 7 and 5 syllables)
 a graphic organizer will be helpful to weaker students




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Gifted/Enrichment
 students could read/research other haiku; they could choose (from specific research
   or personal preference) their own pictures for creating the haiku
 students could create a haiku journal and publish the class haiku in an illustrated
   volume
 students could create their own “the week in haiku” (a poetry journal of images or
   experiences that inspired them throughout a week)


In the Classroom

Coloured prints can be found in art books in the school library. They are often available
in collections of postcards or greeting cards in art gallery gift shops or card shops as
well. Another source might be the Comparative Civilization 12 teacher.

Because haiku involves an economical use of words, accurate word choice is imperative.
Encourage the correct use of the thesaurus.

The following graphic organizer might help students complete this assignment.

  Painting Key Words/Phrases                        Haiku Draft




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                                    One Poem an Hour
This reading activity is excellent because it exposes students to a wide variety of poetry
and allows them a voice in what they study. Also, it gets students into the rhythm of
reading poetry without the hindrance of in-depth analysis, which could come later in
the unit if the teacher so chose. Have the students spend one hour - either in class or for
homework - skimming the textbook. They should look for poems that interest them for
any reason and that they would like to work with more. They should not choose poems
only because they are the shortest or easiest in the anthology because these poems may
prove difficult to work with later (too short and simple!). Then, in the second class, they
answer four questions about one of their poems. (See “In the Classroom”)


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences


Assessment Criteria
 defend and explain selection
 explain meaning of poem
 express opinions and support with evidence


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 allow students to choose from bilingual poetry anthologies such as The Yellow Pear
   as a variation
 provide more time or narrow the selection of poems from which students have to
   choose

Gifted/Enrichment

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   allow students to make this more open-ended and complex as the questions are
    fairly literal (for example, ask them to use more complex poetry, mention what
    doesn‟t work in the poem in their response, choose from poems that are thematically
    linked or create their own poem that is linked in some way, such as theme or
    imagery, to the one they chose for analysis)


In the Classroom

Answer the following questions about the poem:
1. Explain why you chose the poem in two or three sentences. What appealed to you about it?

2. If you had to explain what the poem was about to another person, what would you show
   or tell that person? Use sentences, point form notes, a web, illustrations or a combination of
   the above to make your ideas clear. Make it detailed, please!

3. Choose TWO lines, phrases or images that you think are VITAL to the poem‟s meaning.
   Copy them down. Explain how and why they are so vital to the poem in your opinion.

4. What is the message of the poem in your opinion? Why would the author write such a
   poem? What does it illustrate for the reader?

The final step for “One Poem an Hour” is to copy the one favourite poem onto a larger piece of
paper (11x17 or poster size) and illustrate it. In addition to the illustrations, students should
underline or circle words and phrases they consider key and, in the margins, write their
explanations about why they are so important to the poem as a whole. Poetic devices could
also be identified and explained in the margins. A prose-style summary of the poem should be
included in one corner.


Variations:
 Repeat all instructions for the above, but have students choose their poems from one
   thematic section in the textbook only (i.e.: War, Hope, Nature)
 Either the teacher could choose the theme to connect with something else that is already
   going on in the class or the student could choose the theme out of personal interest
   (Remembrance Day, Christmas, Spring, etc.)




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                                    Poetry Definitions
Choose a few of the famous poet definitions from “In the Classroom” to work with in your
class. Analyze each definition so the whole class understands the basic meaning. Students
decide which ones they agree with or disagree with or like/dislike. Small groups can discuss
their responses before reporting out to the class OR the entire exercise can be done from the
overhead in large-class discussion format. As closure, students make their own definitions on
decorated posters and display them around the classroom.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals


Assessment Criteria
 analyze poet‟s definitions
 compose a clear, concise definition
 add visuals that enhance meaning


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 use this as a unit closure assignment, rather than an introductory assignment
 some students will require assistance with the meaning of the definitions
 modelling the process with other definitions will help students understand what is
   expected of them




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Gifted/Enrichment
 find several examples of poems that fit the author‟s definition by poets OTHER than
   those provided by the teacher
 find other definitions to contribute to the total mix


In the Classroom

Poetry Definitions by Famous Writers and Poets
from Themes on the Journey edited by James Barry. Nelson 1989.
 Images in verse are not mere decoration, but the very essence of an intuitive language. -
   T.E. Hulme
 Poetry therefore is an art of imitation...a representing, counterfeiting, or figuring forth: to
   speak metaphorically, a speaking picture. - Sir Philip Sidney
 The raw material of poetry is human experience: all poetry is made from that. Not only
   from rare and subtle and mysterious and spiritual and abstract and esoteric experiences,
   but from all and every form of human experience. - Elizabeth Drew
 I believe that poetry is the heart of the language, the activity through which language is
   renewed and kept alive. - Margaret Atwood
 Poetry is a kind of wild justice. - Susan Musgrave
 Poetry is the algebra of the heart. - e.e. cummings
 Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; it is not the
   expression of personality, but an escape from personality. But, of course, only those who
   have personality and emotions know what it means to want to escape from these things. -
   T.S. Eliot
 A poem is a small machine made out of words. - William Carlos Williams
 A poem is not a destination, it is a point of departure. The destination is determined by the
   reader. The poet‟s function is but to point direction. A poem is not the conflagration
   complete, it is the first kindling. - A.M. Klein
 Poetry is the language of a state of crisis. - Stephane Malarme
 Poetry is not a thing said but a way of saying it. - A.E. Housman
 A poem should not mean but be. Poetry is art and does what art can do - trap heaven and
   earth in the cage of form. - Archibald MacLeish
 I‟m talking about the smallish, unofficial garden-variety poem. How shall I describe it? - a
   door opens, a door shuts. - Sylvia Plath
 Poetry is nothing less than the most perfect speech of man, that in which he comes nearest
   to be able to utter the truth... - Matthew Arnold
 Poetry is man‟s rebellion against being what he is. - James Branch Cabell




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                            Fantasy Trips and Symbolism
Two methods for helping students understand symbolism at a very basic level are
Fantasy Trips or Dream Interpretations. Fantasy Trips (or Shaman‟s stories popularized
by Jung) are stories in which the student uses his or her imagination to paint a mental
picture of the story as it is read by the teacher. According to Jungian psychology, there
are basic universal sets of symbols and some aspects of an individual‟s personality can
be revealed from the way in which he or she reacts to these symbols. (Teachers may
want to debate the validity of that statement with their classes as a starting point to the
exercise.) If one cannot find an example of a Shaman‟s story, it is also possible to give
students a list of symbols and their meanings and have them write open ended stories
during which students must make decisions involving the symbols.
Dreams are also considered by many to carry a greater meaning. Many books that
interpret dreams are available and provide a fun means of introducing students to
symbolism. Students write down their dreams and underline the key images in the
dreams. These images are then interpreted.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Knowledge of Language: Apply knowledge of conventions of language

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and
   experiences


Assessment Criteria
 identify symbolism in fantasies or dreams
 elaborate on the meaning of various symbols
 provide multiple interpretations of a symbol


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 valuable for beginner to proficient ESL students
 pre-teach key words such as symbolism, fantasy, interpretation
 explore the significance of dreams in various cultures to increase ESL student
   participation in discussion




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Gifted/Enrichment
 more analytical students may like to pursue the accuracy or validity of dream
   interpretations and personality type testing


In the Classroom

Examples of Shaman‟s stories can sometimes be found with your drama teaching
colleague. If not, they can be found in psychology texts and on the internet. Students
need to be made aware that neither Shaman‟s stories nor dreams accurately reflect their
personality. The point of the lesson is to explore symbolism.
Discuss the significance of dreams in various cultures.

An example
Here is an example of a fantasy trip from Teaching Poetry Today by Stephanie Gray.
Weston Walch: 1976. Pause at the asterisk when reading this aloud (in a calm,
monotonous voice) to your students so they can visualize the scene. They may want to
write down their imaginings as well.
Imagine that you are walking through a forest in the afternoon. What does the forest look like?
Imagine it in your mind.* As you are walking, you suddenly meet a bear. Imagine what you do.*
Imagine now that the bear has disappeared and you continue to walk through the forest. You find
a key. Imagine what it looks like and what you do with it.* You continue on and come to some
kind of water. Imagine what it looks like.* Not far away you see a cup; you go over and pick it up.
Then what do you do with it? * You continue walking and now the forest ends and before you is
a long stretch - as far as the eye can see - of flat land without any trees. Imagine what this flat
land looks like.* Sitting in the midst of this flat land is a building or house of some kind. Imagine
what it looks like.* If you want to enter this building, you may. If you decide to enter it, imagine
that you go inside and wander through the rooms.* If there is a door or window in the building,
walk over to it and look outside. What do you see?*

         Symbols                                      What they Represent
forest                          Your life (Is it pleasant? Can you see where you are going or is it
                                so cluttered you feel you are in a maze? etc.)
bear                            A problem. (How do you deal with it? Run away? Meet it head
                                on? etc.)
key                             Yourself. (How do you imagine yourself. Are you bright and
                                shiny? What do you do with the key? Cherish it? Throw it away?)
cup                             Your attitude toward love or other strong emotions. (Do you use
                                the cup? Throw it away? etc.)
flat land                       Old age. (Is it a meadow? A desert?)
building                        Death. (If you are willing to enter the building, you can face the
                                fact of death.)
view from the window            Your vision of life after death. (If the building had no windows,
                                you do not admit to believing in life after death.)


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                                     Bio-Poem
In this assignment, students research a writer or historical figure. Students should get
their information from at least two different resources, including the internet. They
translate their information into a poem. This poem can be adapted to use for characters
from a novel or play as well.


IRP Connections
Comprehend & Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communication

Communicate Ideas & Information
 Composing & Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather &
  organize information & ideas

Self & Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 conveys message in original way
 effective detail and description
 uses literary techniques (e.g. metaphor, irony)
 follows rules of the chosen poetic form
 carefully edited and proofread


Modifications and Adaptations
Learning Centre/ESL
 allow use of first language/culture literature and authors
 suitable for ESL and LC students

Gifted/Enrichment
 put the poem into rhyming couplets or a sonnet
 choose a style of poem that was popular during the subject‟s lifetime
 perform the poem in costume and character (make it an autobiographical poem)




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In the Classroom

Form of the poem
Teachers could choose other items for the lines. For example, if the students are writing
about a character instead of a writer, some lines might include ideas such as the
character's feelings, needs, and fears.

Line 1      First name
Line 2      Date of birth/death
Line 3      Place where author was born, other places author has lived
Line 4      Influence of the place on the writer
Line 5      Show a family relationship (daughter of, brother of, etc.)
Line 6      Four traits that describe the writer
Line 7      What the writer loves (3 item; can be people, ideas, objects)
Line 8      Ideas that recur in the writer's works
Line 9      Writer's beliefs (2 or 3 beliefs)
Line 10     What others say about the writer (for example: critics' comments,
       comments from reviewers, etc.)
Line 11     Last name

Additions: Pictures, images, short excerpts of the writer's work.




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                                       Allusions
This is most suitable for literature that has a lot of allusions, or at least one key one to work
with. Anything by Shakespeare or a novel such as Z for Zachariah works well. Have students
discover literary, classical or biblical allusions. Have students research on the internet or use a
book of quotations to locate the sources of the allusions. Make notes, comparing the original
and the use of the original made by the reference. Make the connection, telling why the author
might have chosen that particular reference.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Strategies and Skills: Develop strategies, skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works


Assessment Criteria
 identify original sources
 explain author‟s use/choice of allusion
 express personal opinions
 defend personal opinions
 cite sources


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 students, especially ESL, may have difficulty with the sources of allusions in English
   Literature
 this activity requires several examples and modelling with the graphic organizer

Gifted/Enrichment
 extend this task after it is completed by suggesting that students create a short piece
   of writing which features their own allusions
 another option would be to complete the chart suggested in “In the Classroom”
   based on an original piece of work by the student which contains allusions or have
   students exchange their writing and chart each others‟ work




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In the Classroom


Allusion and
page reference           Original Source     Reason for Use   Research Source




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                               Internet Research Project
In order to help students develop clarity and precision in writing, they need to read
other people's essays on a topic they are writing about. Using the internet to find
examples of essays and downloading them for critiquing helps in this process.


IRP Connections
Communicate Ideas and Information
 Improving Communications: enhance precision, clarity, artistry, using processes
   that professionals use to appraise and improve work


Assessment Criteria
 effectively use search engine
 locate relevant essay
 analyze for clarity and precision
 support opinions with evidence from text


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 this could be done as a small group or partner exercise
 have a class discussion that examines the different approaches used by the various
   writers
 create a graphic organizer that helps students note the similarities and differences in
   structure, style and content of the essays they have gathered (see “In the
   Classroom”)
 do the first step - the researching and downloading - yourself so students only have
   to concentrate on analysis

Gifted/Enrichment
 have students create their own essay on the topic with points and counterpoints
 include self, peer and teacher critique of their ideas in the above-mentioned essay




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In the Classroom

Decide on a topic you want students to search. For example, you might want students
to search for essays about Macbeth's character development. Use a variety of search
engines and have students locate different essays about the topic. Download the essays.
Students then critique each one for clarity, precision, artistry, appropriateness of
language, form, and intended audience.

It would be helpful for students to apply a consistently used performance scale for
essays, such as the one in the Assessment section in this resource, to evaluate the essays
they find on the Internet.

NOTE: a plagiarism discussion is extremely important before doing this activity.

Essay Title and           Structure   Style (Sample        Content         Point of View
    Author                              quotation)




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                                    Video Analyses
Have students analyze one of their favourite songs/videos with respect to theme, poetic
devices, style and visual interpretation.


IRP Connections
Comprehend And Respond
 Strategies and Skill: Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and
   confirming meaning.
 Comprehension: Understand written, visual and oral communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend, reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works.


Assessment Criteria
 correctly identify poetic devices
 analyze and interpret style
 interpret and explain symbols


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 consider allowing first language songs and videos

Gifted/Enrichment
 create own video or plan for a video using a storyboard for a poem or folksong


In the Classroom:

The choice of video should be restricted to a song that has a theme or is making a
comment about life and to a video that is not merely a performance video (for example:
one in which the band is filmed playing the song).

Students provide the class with the lyrics, present the video and provide a brief
interpretation of both. The class then discusses the poem and video.




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Audio works well here also. Start with Simon and Garfunkel‟s “Richard Cory” and give
the poem out to students after they listen. Compare the poem‟s effect to the song‟s
effect. What does music add or subtract to the effects of the words?

Video Viewing Analysis Guide

Title:
         Theme                 Poetic Devices     Style                Visual




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                                    Picture Writing
Create a „Picture Writing Reference Set‟. You need half as many pictures as you have students;
then make two copies of each picture so there are enough for the class. If you have an odd
number of students, make three copies of one of the pictures.

Shuffle the pictures and hand out one to each student. Ask students to create written
descriptions of their pictures in as detailed a way as possible. When students have completed
the task, ask various student volunteers to read their descriptions aloud. When the first person
has finished reading aloud, ask the class if anyone recognizes his/her picture. Work your way
through the class. Have students partner up (same picture), then ask partners to write a
compare/contrast summary of their writing response/description of picture. A Venn Diagram
is another possibility for this stage of the lesson.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Presenting and Valuing: Variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences

Self and Society
 Working Together: Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 write detailed descriptions of the picture
 logically sequence the description
 compare and contrast the writing to the illustration


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 good activity for these students
 review/teach terms such as compare and contrast

Gifted/Enrichment
 allow these students to work together during the pairs part of the activity
In the Classroom

Secondary English Resource Binder      174                          Copyright SD #43
Example

Student #1
I see a sunset at the beach. There are several boats in the water. The sailboat is heading
towards open water whereas the powerboat is anchored near the shore. Several people are
jogging along the winding pathway. etc....

Student #2
There are a few boats in the harbour with the sun setting in the background. Several children
are playing in the foreground and a couple is jogging along the shoreline.

Develop into a summary or Venn Diagram
Compare - sunset, boats, joggers
Contrast - activities: sailboat sailing away, boat anchored, children playing

NOTE: this is an excellent introduction for descriptive or creative writing.




Secondary English Resource Binder       175                          Copyright SD #43
                                    View, Discuss, Write
Students view a clip from a movie or TV show that shows two contrasting groups of people
which emphasize their differences. They will view for detail, in order to draw conclusions
from the viewing. Students then write a short descriptive essay with a thesis statement,
supporting statements, evidence and a conclusion, all in academic writing style. Ensure your
school has a video viewing license before choosing and showing movie clips.


IRP Connections
Comprehend and Respond
 Comprehension: Understand written, oral, visual communications
 Engagement and Personal Response: Make connections with literary works and
   mass media
 Critical Analysis: Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various
   works

Communicate Ideas and Information
 Composing and Creating: Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather,
  and organize information and ideas

Self and Society
 Personal Awareness: Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences


Assessment Criteria
 include clear, logical thesis statement
 support thesis with details and examples
 analyze the visual information
 include interpretations and speculation
 make predictions
 use correct paragraph structure
 use correct sentence structure, grammar, spelling and punctuation


Adaptations and Modifications
Learning Centre/ESL
 written assignment could be challenging even for proficient ESL students; offer lots
   of support
 previewing of video clip essential practice for teacher - be aware of films which offer
   stereotyped representations of individuals or groups, especially racial, gender or
   socio-economic stereotypes

Secondary English Resource Binder         176                       Copyright SD #43
Gifted/Enrichment
 have students analyze for and discuss the implications and sources of stereotyping
   in the film clip you show
 allow students to choose their own groups; do this exercise on big paper with felt
   pens and conclude with a Gallery Walk
 pairs of students could use their own notes to create a Siskel and Ebert type dialogue
   on the two different groups in the film


In the Classroom

This activity works very well with the video “Dangerous Minds” starring Michelle Pfeiffer but
any clip from a film that is character-rich will do. Whatever you use, ensure your school has a
viewing license so all copyright issues are dealt with appropriately.

a) Instructions to students before viewing:
Take out a piece of paper. Write name, date, title (Dangerous Minds) and subtitle (Notes). You
will be viewing a clip (short segment) from a film. As you view, take notes. Notes will be
marked out of ... In the first few minutes of this film you will see two very different
neighborhoods, and the two very different groups of students coming from each
neighborhood. After viewing, you will be writing 4-6 paragraphs that describe the “Academy”
students‟ neighborhood. It is to your advantage to note as many details as possible.

b) Brainstorm
Aspects of a film one might consider include: characters/actors (including body language,
words, tone of voice, physical appearance including clothing, hair and makeup),
setting/locations, music, cinematography.

c) View Film
First 10 - 15 minutes; to the point where Michelle Pfeiffer decides to “take on the challenge”,
i.e. not give up. Teachers are advised to inform students that very inappropriate language and
body language is contained in this segment of the film. A brief discussion is advised to
reaffirm. Teachers may also choose to view only the first few minutes of the film, to the point
where the bus arrives at the school although viewing the longer segment allows for the
development of a stronger context. It is a good idea to show the clip more than once as there
are many details to notice and record.

d) Present Overhead
Compile all the details noted by the class as a whole on the overhead using the Summary
Outline provided.

e) Hand Out Paper Copies of Overhead


Secondary English Resource Binder      177                          Copyright SD #43
Students are instructed to write down two or three statements about the academy students‟
neighborhood and, under these “supporting generalizations” group all the details that
“prove” these statements. Teachers may choose to ask students to work alone or in small
groups. After allowing students about 10 or 15 minutes to work on this task, model it for the
class using the summary outline. From there, model how to create a higher level claim or
thesis statement. This uses inductive thinking as the students go from their data to creating
their thesis statement.

d) Composition
Students use the outline to write a 4 to 6 paragraph description.

NOTE
Incorporating a visual component as part of the assignment is highly effective. Another
alternative: compare and contrast the different groups of students, especially noting
similarities in student situations between the two groups (parental problems, stress,
expectations etc.)

Sample Rubric: Verbal/Visual Outline
Details: minimum 12. Must connect logically with supporting statement          /12 marks
under which they are arranged.
Supporting statements: minimum 2, suggest 3 or 4. Must connect                 /4 marks
logically with thesis statement.
Supporting Statements: Correct English.                                       /4 marks
Thesis Statement: Must make a high level claim that follows logically         /2 marks
from the details and supporting statements.
Thesis Statement: Correct English.                                            /2 marks
Visual Appeal: Effective use of colour, original, creative, neat.             /12 marks
Total                                                                         /36 marks




Secondary English Resource Binder      178                          Copyright SD #43
                                         Summary Outline

                                        High Level Claim(s)




                                     Supporting Generalizations




                         Supporting Details (Quotes and Summary References)




Secondary English Resource Binder         179                       Copyright SD #43
Secondary English Resource Binder   180   Copyright SD #43
   For more ideas on media education, we suggest you purchase

                          Media Education in Your Classroom

     by Kevin McKendy of Argyle Secondary School in North
                         Vancouver.
   Email Kevin at kmckendy@sfu.ca for more information or call
                       him at his school.


The resource we mention is a very nice teacher‟s guide that
provides lesson ideas and instructional sequences, all linked to
1996 IRP learning outcomes, for grades 8-12. At the time of
printing, it cost approximately $25.00 per copy. We have
purchased copies for every middle and secondary school in
Coquitlam.




Secondary English Resource Binder     181                     Copyright SD #43
Secondary English Resource Binder   182   Copyright SD #43
                                    ESL Students
Please consider the following when planning lessons for classes that include ESL
students:


1. Group Work and ESL Students
 composition of groups is usually best if ESL students are dispersed into all groups
 clearly outlined expectations of group process is important (for example: each
   person must contribute)


2. Cultural Awareness
 sensitivity to student background/prior experience (for example: refugee student‟s
    possible post-traumatic stress syndrome which may be triggered by choice of
    material or topic)


3. Adaptations
 use graphic organizers and key visuals extensively and allow students to present
    assignments in those forms where appropriate
 create opportunities for the use of first language literature
 check prior knowledge / do not assume prior knowledge
 explore cultural diversity
 review or pre-teach key terms and technical / figurative language
 review types of genre
 consult with the ESL specialist teacher
 use culturally diverse resources where possible


4. Working with Fiction
Level 1 and level 2 students would benefit from working on each story selection with
the ESL teacher in a small group within the class or during ESL periods prior to dealing
with the same selection in the regular English class. Students in Levels 3 and above
could work within the heterogeneous groups in the class with assistance from
classmates and/or classroom teacher. The following suggestions are for the ESL
students in the early levels, although later level students will also benefit.
 Discuss the background, setting and characters in the story
 As much as possible tap into the background knowledge of the students (for
    example, relate the story to others they have read with a similar theme, or list what
    they already know about this setting, group, character etc.)
 Pre-teach difficult vocabulary

Secondary English Resource Binder      183                           Copyright SD #43
   Read the story aloud and discuss difficult concepts
   Have students paraphrase and tell the story back to you in their own words to check
    comprehension
   Select activities for the Pre-Reading, During Reading and After Reading carefully
    (try only those which your group can handle)
   Use graphic organizers wherever possible
   Encourage students to write from the graphic organizers in sentence or paragraph
    form
   Encourage students to act out or draw pictures about certain parts of the story to
    assist with understanding of the plot
   Bring in useful resources, pictures and other printed materials or music to illustrate
    that period in history
   If and when they are able, students could participate in the classroom activities and
    join in the heterogeneous groups with some assistance from teachers




Secondary English Resource Binder       184                          Copyright SD #43
                               Learning Centre Students
The following is a summary; for further information about adaptations and
mofidications contact your student services colleagues.

1. Adapted Programs
 An adapted program retains the learning outcomes of the prescribed curriculum;
    adaptations are provided so the student can participate in the program
 Students are assessed using the standards for the course/program
 Students receive full credit for their work leading to the Dogwood Certificate
 Adaptations must be documented in the student‟s I.E.P. (individualized educational
    program)
 Possible adaptations include the following:
      preferential seating                      use of concrete examples
      photocopied notes                         present long term assignments
      notes with high-lighted key points          as a series of smaller ones with
      prepared summaries                          separate due dates
      alternate text/novels/material            observe demonstrated
      assignments rewritten                       knowledge as an alternative to a
      books on tape                               formal test
      extended time on assignments              extended time for tests
      reduced workload (fewer questions         rewriting tests/quizzes
        to be completed)                         preview of material or tests
      complete first question of assignment  writing tests/quizzes in
        so student has an example                  alternate setting
      break information into chunks and         open-book tests/quizzes
        monitor comprehension                    tests answered orally
                                                 tests read to the student


2. Modified Programs
 Learning outcomes are substantially different from the prescribed curriculum
 Students receive a school-leaving certificate which is not the equivalent of
   graduation, acknowledges attendance to the end of grade 12 only and prevents the
   student from pursuing further education until after age 19
 Modifications must be documented in the student‟s I.E.P. (individualized
   educational program)




Secondary English Resource Binder      185                       Copyright SD #43
3. Possibilities for Differentiating Instruction
The following tips might help you accommodate the wide variety of students you will
find in your classroom:

Inability to Organize
If the student is unable to organize him or herself and needs extra assistance to initiate
and complete a task successfully, consider the following:
 Develop specific routines for the student to follow
 Provide additional time for copying homework assignments from the board or
    overhead and minimize lengthy verbal homework assignments
 When teaching, develop a standard outline or visual/graphic outline on the board
    or overhead projector
 Have another student act as peer helper to take notes or check that homework is
    copied correctly
 Teach memory strategies (mnemonics)
 Give unmistakable cues to identify important information (“This is important!”)
 Long-term assignments require periodic checking for the student with
    organizational difficulties

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
If the student has a short attention span and impulsivity that may or may not be
accompanied by hyperactivity, consider the following:
 Ensure the student is attending when directions are given by turning off the light to
    attract attention, having the student repeat the instructions to you, breaking
    complex instructions into uncomplicated one or two step tasks and establishing
    strong eye contact
 Place the student away from any distracting stimuli such as windows, doors, etc.
 Understand the student‟s need for physical movement (such as getting out of his or
    her seat, chewing on a pencil and doodling)
 Put a hand on the student‟s arm or shoulder for orally presented materials; this will
    help gain and maintain attention
 Use concrete and visual materials where possible to assist the student in attending to
    the task at hand
 Give unmistakable cues to identify and emphasize important information (“This is
    important!”)
 Require the students to provide periodic status reports for long term projects
 Replace long class activities with several short ones where possible




Secondary English Resource Binder       186                           Copyright SD #43
Memory Difficulties
If the student has difficulty remembering things including problems with short term,
long term, sequential, visual, auditory and rote memory, try the following instructional
strategies:
 Present new material in short incremental steps
 Provide for overlearning, using intensive drill when necessary
 Encourage the student to put vocabulary words, concepts, facts, etc. on flash cards
    for continuous review
 Make sure that you have the student‟s undivided attention
 Encourage the use of a multisensory approach (visual-auditory-kinesthetic)

Visual and Visual/Motor Difficulties
If the student is unable to receive, organize, interpret, retrieve and express information
received visually, including fine motor/handwriting problems, consider the following
strategies for instruction:
 Have the student use a tape recorder or word processor for homework
 Suggest that the student use an index card or ruler for keeping his place while
    reading
 Use testing modifications such as getting a scribe or helper to write the answers,
    untimed tests, not expecting the student to use a separate answer sheet or column to
    mark answers, administering the test verbally with oral responses from the student,
    permitting the student to number, underline or circle correct responses
 Have another student copy his or her notes to share with the student with learning
    disabilities
 Seat the student near the front of the classroom
 Limit the amount of visual information presented at one time
 Be aware that spelling my be phonetic for unfamiliar words
 Reinforce all visual directions with verbal cues
 Do not embarrass the student by calling on him to read orally
 Encourage the student to use oral and written rehearsal for material that needs to be
    memorized

Language Disability
If the student experiences problems receiving, organizing or expressing ideas, including
difficulty with word meanings, concept formation and the learning of grammatical
rules, the following instructional techniques might help:
 Use linguistically similar words to teach spelling concepts
 Explain idioms as they convey meanings not indicated by their wording
 When using words with multiple meanings, make sure the student knows which
    one he or she is to focus on
 Either access prior knowledge or provide prior knowledge before the student gets
    an assignment; for example, new concepts could be linked to previously learned

Secondary English Resource Binder       187                          Copyright SD #43
    categorical knowledge or vocabulary could be explained before assigning a chapter
    to read
   Avoid fill-in tests unless a list of choices is provided as a retrieval of technical terms,
    words and/or concepts may be difficult
   Give simple, precise directions
   Have students repeat directions in his or her own words

Auditory Processing Difficulties
If the student is unable to receive, interpret, organize or express information
auditorally, try the following instructional strategies:
 Avoid multiple verbal directions; students will follow directions more easily if
    shown rather than told what to do
 Provide visual outlines/graphic organizers and other pictorial aids such as graphs,
    maps, diagrams, etc.
 Encourage the student with learning disabilities to tape lessons, especially those
    which you are reviewing for a test (allowing for repeat listening)
 Avoid giving homework orally as it is better written on the board or overhead
    projector for these students
 Ask the student to repeat your question before giving you an answer as we don‟t
    necessarily all hear the same thing
 Seat the student in front of the room away from windows, doors or other locations
    that may present an auditory distraction
 Accept concrete answers
 Give ample time for responses
 Do not penalize for spelling
 Reinforce all verbal directions with visual cues
 Limit the use of oral tests
 Encourage the use of a variety of visual learning materials: films, videos, computers,
    etc.




Secondary English Resource Binder         188                            Copyright SD #43
                                     Gifted Students: Learning Strategies Descriptions for Individualizing Instruction
Content Options

Abstractness: The content focuses on abstract concepts, themes, and theories, ideas that Open-ended: Learning activities include more open than closed questions and activities.
have a wide range of uses rather than simple facts.                                            These have no predetermined right answer. They are provocative, stimulating students to
                                                                                               think broadly.
Complexity: Complex content focuses on the relationships between abstract concepts.
                                                                                               Pacing: Students learn at their own pace. Examples include pretesting, “compacting”, or
Extracurricular topics: The content includes ideas and content areas not taught in the “telescoping” curriculum, or acceleration within subject areas.
regular curriculum in the student’s grade. This may include the student’s interests.
                                                                                               Reflective: Students are asked to explain their conclusions and the reasoning that led to
Lives and living: The content includes biographies, autobiographies, and interviews of them. They are encouraged to evaluate both the process and products of others’ thinking.
brilliant individuals (past & present) to enable students to learn how exceptional
individuals have dealt with their own talents, joys, failures, struggles, peers, family, etc., Self-selected process: Students should be given the freedom to choose the ways they
and can also provide students with opportunities to interact with real, passionate,            will learn whenever possible. Some may need assistance identifying their
committed, goal-directed individuals in their community.                                       preferences or following through on their choices.

Organization: The content is multi-disciplinary and integrated, organized in large,         Variety: A range of methods of thinking and feeling while learning.
meaningful wholes around a theme or generalization rather than small, sequential bits.
                                                                                          Product Options
Real life topics: The content addresses problems or provocative questions suggested by
or of interest to the student. Students may need help focusing, analyzing and/or defining Authentic audiences: Products should be shared with real audiences to the greatest
their questions.                                                                          extent possible. This may involve the scientific community, the city council, a
                                                                                          government agency, art critic, etc. At other times, the real audience may consist of
Self-selected content: The content is chosen by the student. Some will need help          classmates or other students in the school.
choosing and reducing their interests to topics that are manageable.
                                                                                          Feedback and evaluation: Products should be evaluated by a member or members of
Process Options                                                                           the real audience for the product, using real, predetermined procedures and criteria.
                                                                                          Students should learn to develop criteria and self-evaluate their products.
Complex thinking: Learning processes used stress the use, rather than acquisition of
information. Students apply new, complex ways of thinking to new situations, use it to    Self-selected product: The student determines an appropriate format for the product that
develop new knowledge, products, or ideas, and evaluate its appropriateness.              reflects what was learned. Students’ interests, strengths, and prior experiences may
                                                                                          influence these choices. Teachers may need to provide assistance in the selection and
Expert methods of inquiry: Students learn by using professional methods of locating       development of the product.
and managing resources, problem solving, production techniques, communication
techniques, etc.                                                                          Transformations: The product should change the original format of the content. For
                                                                                          example, survey data can be presented in a table or chart, or written.
Individual pursuits: Learning alone (with support available) after a plan and evaluation
scheme are developed.                                                                     Variety: Students should learn about and use different types of production techniques
                                                                                          and media. They should also learn how to select an appropriate format for the audience.
Inquiry-based: Learning by discovering patterns, ideas, and underlying principles in
real-life events.



       Secondary English Resource Binder                    189                                    Copyright SD #43
Name: ___________________________________                                 Selecting Challenging Activities

                                                                          DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES

Do you act or feel like any of the BEHAVIORS described in this chart when
you are learning something challenging about a topic you love? Put a
check mark (3) in the “True” column to the left of each BEHAVIOR that is
true of you while you’re learning something fascinating. When you’ve
finished, highlight the row of “Xs” to the right of each behavior that you’ve
checked. Then, count the number of X’s down each column that are
highlighted. Record the total at the base of each column in the row marked
“Number of X’s highlighted”. Compare the “Number of X’s highlighted” to
the “Total number of X’s in the column”. Put an X beneath the
STRATEGIES with the greatest proportion of the X’s highlighted. The
Guide thinks activities like these will challenge you in ways you’ll like when
you are learning about your favorite topic. The definitions for the strategies
are on the back of this page. Do you agree?

Things you LOVE to learn about:

                    True                       BEHAVIORS
    I get totally silly about these things. My sense of humor goes wild.         x   x   x                                   x               x   x   x       x
    I have a wild imagination. I say things, do things, think things,
    feel things in ways other kids don’t.                                                x   x       x   x           x   x   x           x   x   x   x   x   x   x
    I need to find answers to my own questions more than the teacher’s
    questions. I want to test my ideas to see what might work and why.           x   x   x           x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x       x       x
    I know lots more about this than any other kid my age.                       x   x   x       x           x   x       x       x       x   x           x   x   x
    I’m very sensitive. My feelings about these kinds of activities and
    the people I do them with are very strong.                                               x                       x       x       x           x   x
    I can explain my ideas very clearly. My explanations might be in words
    and numbers, but they might also be in actions or symbols or music or                    x       x           x                   x       x   x       x   x   x
    movement.
    I love thinking about these kinds of things. I like to come up with lots
    of ideas and then predict the consequences before trying to do them.         x   x           x   x   x       x       x       x   x           x   x       x   x
    I love to solve hard, messy problems by inventing and checking lots of
    different solutions. I live for the challenge!                               x   x               x   x   x   x       x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x           x
    I see connections between ideas that other kids don’t. I can’t explain
    how I know -- I just know!                                                       x           x       x           x   x       x       x                       x
    I love learning the tough stuff. Its much easier for me to learn it than
    for other kids my age.                                                       x       x       x           x           x   x   x       x   x           x   x
    I absolutely love this stuff even if other kids think its weird.                     x           x   x       x   x   x   x           x   x           x       x
    I need to believe in an idea before doing anything about it. If it isn’t
    fair to everyone or if it just feels wrong, I won’t do it.                   x   x   x   x   x   x   x   x                       x           x   x
    I want MORE! Once I start I can’t shut my mind off. I can’t quit even
    when I run out of time in class.                                                     x   x       x   x       x   x   x   x   x       x   x       x   x       x
    Number of Xs highlighted in each column
    Total number of Xs in column                                                 7   7   8   5   5   8   8   5   7   6   9   8   7   6   8   8   8   7   7   6   8
    Mark the 3 or 4 strategies with the greatest proportion of Xs
    highlighted
This is a list of things you might make to show what you’ve learned. Circle the option that might work for your
assignment.

advertisement                          flag                                    questionnaire
amusement park ride                    floor plan
article for magazine                   flow chart                              recipe
                                                                               report
banner                                 game                                    research report
book                                   group presentation
book cover                                                                     sample
brochure                               invention                               scrapbook
                                                                               sculpture
campaign                               joke                                    secret code
cartoon                                journal                                 sermon
chapter                                                                        simulation
chart                                  lesson                                  skit
checklist                              letter                                  song
collection                                                                     speech
comic strip                                                                    story
commercial                             magazine                                summary
computer graphic                       map
computer program                       mask                                    tape-recording
                                       model                                   telegram
dance                                  mural                                   timeline
debate                                                                         travelogue
demonstration                          news report                             TV show
diagram                                newspaper article
diary
dictionary                             oral report                             YOUR CORNER:
display
drawing                                painting                                Are there any other ways
                                       panel discussion                        you’d like to show what you know?
editorial                              pantomime
encyclopedia                           party or celebration
essay                                  photo album                             This list is adapted from the “Possibilities for
experiment                             plan                                    Learning” survey in Dr. Lannie Kanevsky’s
                                       play                                    Toolkit for Curriculum Differentiation, 1999.
fabric                                 poem                                    Selections are from the author’s collection and
fact file           poster        lists provided by Draze (1986) and Maker and
film or filmstrip   puppet show   Nielson (1996). Thank you to Dr. Kanevsky for re-
                    puzzle        print permission.
How are gifted students different from their peers?

From “Bright Child, Gifted Learner” by Janice Szabos, Challenge. 1989, issue 34, p.
4

                Bright Student                               Gifted Learner

 Knows the answers.                          Asks the questions.
 Is interested.                              Is highly curious.
 Is attentive.                               Is mentally and physically involved.
 Has good ideas.                             Has wild, silly ideas.
 Works hard.                                 Plays around, yet tests well.
 Answers the questions.                      Discusses in detail, elaborates.
 Top group.                                  Beyond the group.
 Listens with interest.                      Shows strong feelings and opinions.
 Learns with ease.                           Already knows.
 6-8 repetitions for mastery.                1-2 repetitions for mastery.
 Understands ideas.                          Constructs abstractions.
 Enjoys peers.                               Prefers adults.
 Grasps the meaning.                         Draws inferences.
 Completes assignments.                      Initiates projects.
 Is receptive.                               Is intense.
 Copies accurately.                          Creates a new design.
 Enjoys school.                              Enjoys learning.
 Absorbs information.                        Manipulates information.
 Technician.                                 Inventor.
 Good memorizer.                             Good guesser.
 Enjoys straightforward, sequential          Thrives on complexity.
 presentation
 Is alert.                                   Is keenly observant.
 Is pleased with own learning.               Is highly self-critical.




Secondary English Resource Binder      193                              Copyright SD #43
                         Assessment and Evaluation
The following information is adapted from “Guidelines for Student
Reporting” which is a Ministry of Education document published in 1994.

1. What is Assessment?
Assessment is the systematic gathering of information about what students know,
are able to do and are working toward. Assessment methods and tools include:
observation; student self-assessments; daily practice assignments; quizzes;
samples of student work; pencil-and-paper tests; holistic rating scales; projects;
oral and written reports; reviews of performance; and portfolio assessments.

2. How does assessment connect to evaluation?
From the information collected through assessment activities, teachers evaluate
student performance. They use their insight, knowledge about learning, and
experience with students, along with the specific criteria they establish, to make
judgments about student performance in relation to expected learning outcomes.

3. How can evaluation promote learning?
Students benefit most when evaluation is provided on a regular, on-going basis.
When evaluation is seen as an opportunity to promote learning rather than as a
final judgment, it shows learners their strengths and suggests how they can
develop further. Students can use this information to redirect efforts, make plans
to practice the learning, and establish future learning goals.

4. What forms can evaluation take?
Evaluation may take different forms depending on the purpose.
a) Criterion-referenced evaluation is best used to evaluate student performance
   in classrooms. It is referenced to criteria based on expected learning outcomes
   described in the provincial curriculum. When a student‟s program is
   substantially modified, evaluation may be referenced to individual goals.
   These modifications are recorded in an Individual Education Plan (IEP).
b) Norm referenced evaluation is used for large-scale system assessments.

5. How does criterion-referenced evaluation work?
In criterion-referenced evaluation student performance is compared to
established criteria rather than to the performance of other students.

Evaluation referenced to curriculum requires that criteria are established based
on the expected learning outcomes listed in curriculum guides for a particular
subject and grade or course.

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6. What steps does criterion-referenced evaluation process involve?
a) Identify the expected learning outcomes (as stated in the curriculum guides).

b) Identify the key learning objectives for students.

c) Establish and set criteria.

d) Involve students, when appropriate, in establishing criteria.

e) Plan learning activities that will help students gain the knowledge or skills
   outlined in the criteria.

f)    Inform students about the criteria their work will be evaluated against prior
     to the learning activity.

g) Provide examples of the desired levels of performance.

h) Implement the learning activities.

i)    Use various assessment methods based on the particular assignment and
     students.

j) Review assessment data and evaluate each student‟s level of performance or
   quality of work in relation to the criteria.

k) Report the results of evaluation to students and parents.


7. What should teachers evaluating student performance consider?
 the expected learning outcomes
 the level or quality of the student performance in achieving these outcomes

8. How does setting criteria improve communication with students and parents?
 improves instruction and clarifies expectations for student performance
 makes evaluation and reporting on students‟ work more objective and better
   understood
 provides important information about students to better meet their
   learning needs
 involves students in setting the criteria with the teacher, which increases
   student motivation, provides structure and clarity for students, and helps
   them understand the marking and grading of their work

Secondary English Resource Binder        195                          Copyright SD #43
   informs students about what is expected of them and the standard for success
    before they begin the learning activity and, as a result, makes success
    accessible to all students
   provides students with opportunities for self-evaluation against criteria that
    facilitate the setting of specific and achievable goals
   informs students what letter grades are based on
   enhances parents‟ understanding of the expectations for their children‟s
    learning
   allows parents to better assist their children
   builds a sense of appropriate expectations in the minds of parents and an
    increased understanding of how their children are progressing in relation to
    the subject, course and grade


9. How does criterion referenced evaluation connect to students on IEPs?
Students whose programs are substantially modified must have an Individual
Education Plan (IEP) that outlines the goals they are working toward. Because
these students are not expected to achieve the learning outcomes outlined in the
provincial curriculum, an evaluation system referenced to individual goals is
used. To evaluate their learning, their performance is then compared to these
established individual goals. Such evaluation has the following characteristics:
 Specific individual standards or expectations are set for the students based on
    their ability and past accomplishments.
 The learning goals and expectations are set by teachers, parents and students
    and are recorded in the student‟s IEP.
 Student performance is evaluated with reference to the goals, expectations
    and criteria recorded in the IEP.
 Structured written reports are provided to parents for reporting purposes.

Students with special needs who can achieve the expected learning outcomes
stated in the provincial curriculum with only adaptations to the instruction or
assessment methods (e.g. having a teacher write for them, tape-recording their
answers) will use an evaluation system referenced to the provincial curriculum.




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   A Process for Developing Assignment Criteria and
        Performance Scales / Scoring Rubrics

Talk about this process with your colleagues before beginning and make any
changes you feel will make the product and process best meet your needs.
Working through the process with students (from step three on) helps them
understand the marking system also.


Step One
 Work together as a grade group, team or whole staff to select a writing
   topic
 Choose one of the following types of writing: descriptive, narrative,
   expository


Step Two
 Establish some starting point criteria with the students so they know
   roughly what is expected of them during their writing time
 Provide additional support to the students in the form of a pre-writing
   activity to stimulate ideas
 Have students write a piece of writing that is no more than one page in
   length and then ask them to edit their own work to produce a published
   quality final product. Peer editing is also okay, but the teacher should not
   edit
 Ask the students to put their name on the back of the paper (not the front)
   so that when you sort the samples you aren‟t influenced by who wrote the
   sample


Step Three
 Teachers get together and work in grade groups to sort the piles
 Choose whether you want a five-pile or four-pile sort before sorting
   begins
 The number of piles will determine the number of categories in the
   performance scale




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Step Four
 Review each pile with your grade level colleague and come to consensus
   on the groupings (Do you all agree on the way you‟ve categorized each
   sample?)
 Edit your starting point criteria list (Did anything else come up while
   doing the sorting that should be a criterion?)




Step Five
 Write descriptors for each pile (these descriptors become your
   performance scale or rubric which explains what work of that quality for
   that assignment criteria looks like)
 Ask yourself: What are the characteristics of this writing? What makes
   this writing belong to this pile? How well does this pile of writing
   embody the assignment criteria?
 These descriptions (performance scale / rubric) can be used repeatedly
   during the year for that type of writing
 Save a few samples of performances at each level to be used as “anchor
   papers” (teachers can refer to the anchor papers when working with other
   colleagues, students or parents. They are useful models to have on hand)
 Decide whether or not you want to have the final performance scale /
   rubric marching across or down the page




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Expository Writing


The following are examples of where expository writing is used
letters                        newspaper articles
literary analyses                     formulating questions
field journals                 learning logs
recipes                               advice columns
instructions                          surveys
debates                               summaries
essays                                speeches
documentaries                         book or movie reviews
advertisements                        magazine articles
travel brochures                      directions
epitaphs                              reports
commercials                           rules
editorials                            orders
complaints                            scientific experiments



It is important to select appropriate criteria for your specific writing assignment
and teach to the criteria during the lesson sequence. Building the criteria and the
subsequent performance scale with the students is also a very good idea. The
following are some possible criteria:
 clear statements of position
 line of thought is sustained
 knowledge of subject is demonstrated
 main ideas are emphasized
 minor points are subordinated to major points
 other points of view are considered
 writer stays on topic
 examples or quotations are used to support general statements
 topic sentence is present
 concluding sentence is present
 transition words and phrases are used
 point of view is consistent throughout




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Narrative Writing


The following are examples of where narrative writing is used
journal writing                             short story
diary                                       satire
adventure                                   legend
folktale                                     ballad
autobiography                               biography
fairy tale                                  play
mystery                                     fantasy
novel                                       fable
interview                                   myth
science fiction                             tall tale
cartoon script




It is important to select appropriate criteria for your specific writing
assignment and teach to the criteria during the lesson sequence. Building the
criteria and the subsequent performance scale with the students is also a very
good idea. The following are some possible criteria ;
 characters are believable
 characters grow or change over time
 point of view is consistent throughout story
 tense is consistent
 settings are clearly described
 dialogue is included and supports plot
 sequence of events is logical
 has an interesting lead
 action builds to a climax
 conflict between characters is shown
 the problem or conflict is resolved
 sensory language is used
 appropriate details are selected
 point of view is consistent throughout
 transition words and phrases are used




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              Individual Oral Presentation Performance Scale
A        excellent organization with a product that displays an engaging introduction, a well-
          developed body of material, and a conclusion that summarizes main ideas
         sophisticated content that provides insight, detail, and support
         excellent ability to engage the audience through the use of voice, (tone, volume,
          inflection), eye contact, and body language
         excellent choice of vocabulary and sentence structure that enhances overall effect

B        very good organization with a product that displays a clearly defined introduction, a
          well-developed body of material, and a conclusion that summarizes main ideas
         content that provides insight, detail, and support
         very good ability to engage the audience through the use of voice (tune, volume,
          inflection), eye contact, and body language
         very good choice of vocabulary and sentence structure that enhances overall effect

C+       good organization with a product that displays an introduction, a solid body of material
          and a clear conclusion
         content provides some insight, detail and support
         good ability to engage the audience through some use of voice (tone, volume, inflection),
          eye contact, and body language
         good choice of vocabulary and sentence structure

C        satisfactory organization with a product that displays an introduction, body of material
          and conclusion
         content that provides detail and support
         ability to engage the audience through the inconsistent use of voice (tone, volume,
          inflection), eye contact, and body language
         satisfactory choice of vocabulary and sentence structure

C-       adequate organization with a product that displays an introduction, body of material and
          conclusion
         content that provides some detail and support
         ability to engage the audience through some use of voice (tone, volume, inflection), eye
          contact, and body language, but inconsistent
         adequate choice of vocabulary and sentence structure

F        rudimentary organization with a product that struggles to display an introduction, body
          of material and conclusion
         content that provides little or no detail and support
         rudimentary ability to engage the audience through some use of voice (tone, volume,
          inflection), eye contact, and body language
         limited vocabulary and weak or incorrect sentence structure

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                        Narrative Writing Performance Scale
Adapted from B.C. Writing Performance Standards: Ministry of Education, 2000
A    excellent organization with a product that displays an engaging opening, strong
        development of character and conflict, and a satisfying ending
     precise, vivid vocabulary that may include the use of literary techniques (such as
        metaphor, simile, irony), along with varied sentence styles
     originality and strong voice, with maturity and sophistication of ideas and situations
     excellent mechanics with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, or
        grammar; clear evidence of proofreading and editing

B        very good organization with a product that displays an engaging opening, development
          of character and conflict, and a satisfying ending
         vivid vocabulary that may include the use of literary techniques (such as metaphor,
          simile, irony), along with effective variety of sentences
         some originality and voice, with maturity and some sophistication of ideas and situations
         very good mechanics with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, or
          grammar; clear evidence of proofreading and editing

C+       good organization with a product that displays an engaging opening, some development
          of character and conflict, and a believable ending
         appropriate vocabulary that may include experiments with literary techniques (such as
          metaphor, simile, irony), along with varied sentences
         some creative development, with concrete detail and description
         good mechanics with some errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, or
          grammar; clear evidence of proofreading and editing

C        satisfying organization with a product that displays a problematic opening, some
          development of character and/or conflict, and a logical ending
         satisfactory vocabulary that may include use of simple literary technique (such as simile)
          along with some varied sentences
         straightforward ideas with concrete detail and description
         some mechanical errors but meaning is clear. There may be some evidence of editing and
          proofreading

C-       adequate organization with a product that may display a problematic opening, an abrupt
          or illogical ending, minimal development of character and/or conflict

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         simple vocabulary that may include attempts at use of simple literary techniques (such as
          simile) along with some varied sentences
         straightforward (but at times confusing) ideas with some detail and description
         some mechanical errors that may impede meaning; little evidence of editing and
          proofreading

F        little organization with a product that may display a problematic opening, an abrupt or
          illogical ending, no development of character and/or conflict
         rudimentary vocabulary, often inappropriate language, sentences are repetitive and/or
          flawed
         often confusing ideas with little or inappropriate detail and/or description
         mechanical errors impede meaning. No evidence of editing and proofreading




                                Expository Writing (essay)
A        excellent organization that displays an engaging thesis, effective use of transitional
          devices, and effective use of support material that persuades and convinces the reader
         excellent control of language that displays sophisticated vocabulary and firm command of
          writing skills (such as parallel structure, subordination)
         excellent ability to interpret/develop ideas that show precision and/or originality
         excellent mechanics with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, or
          grammar

B        very good organization that displays a strong thesis, effective use of transitional devices,
          and use of support material that persuades and convinces the reader
         very good control of language that displays strong vocabulary and command of writing
          skills (parallel structure, subordination)
         very good ability to interpret/develop ideas that show precision and/or originality
         very good mechanics with minimal errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure,
          grammar

C+       good organization that displays a clear thesis, use of transitional devices, and use of
          support material that attempts to persuade and convince the reader
         good control of language that displays adequate vocabulary and some command of
          writing skills (such as parallel structure, subordination)
         good ability to interpret/develop ideas that show some precision and/or originality
         good mechanics with some errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, or
          grammar

C        satisfactory organization that displays a thesis, inconsistent use of transitional devices
          and use of support material
         satisfactory control of language that displays correct vocabulary and some command of
Secondary English Resource Binder          203                             Copyright SD #43
          writing skills (such as parallel structure, subordination)
         satisfactory ability to interpret/develop ideas that might show precision and/or
          originality
         some mechanical errors but meaning is clear. There may be evidence of editing and
          proofreading

C-       adequate organization that displays an attempt at a thesis, little use of transitional devices
          and minimal use of support material
         adequate control of language that displays simplistic vocabulary and limited command of
          writing (such as parallel structure, subordination)
         adequate ability to interpret/develop some ideas
         mechanical errors that may impede meaning. Little evidence of editing and proofreading

F        little organization that displays no thesis, no use of transitional devices, and no or
          incorrect use of support material
         rudimentary vocabulary and writing skills (such as parallel structure, subordination)
         not able to interpret/develop ideas
         mechanical errors impede meaning. No evidence of editing and proofreading




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                                        Reading Literature
Adapted from B.C. Reading Performance Standards: Ministry of Education, 2000
A    use strategies* that access genre knowledge to predict, interpret, and evaluate, and
            recognize and interpret literary techniques and figurative language
           comprehend and analyze setting, character, events, themes, and their relationships
           make insightful inferences supported by detailed evidence
           make excellent judgments and analyze with reasoned arguments

B          use strategies* that access genre knowledge to predict and interpret, and recognize and
            interpret some literary techniques and figurative language
           comprehend and perform analysis of setting, character, events, themes, and their
            relationships
           make inferences supported by detailed evidence
           offer very good judgments and analysis with detailed supporting evidence

C+         use strategies* that access genre knowledge to predict and attempt to interpret, and
            recognize some literary techniques; limited interpretation of figurative language
           comprehend setting, character, events, themes and their relationships
           make inferences supported by reasons and examples
           offer good judgements with supporting evidence

C          use strategies* that access genre knowledge to predict; recognize some literary techniques;
            limited interpretation of figurative language
           comprehend setting, character, events and some of their relationships
           make simple inferences supported by some specific evidence
           offer satisfactory judgements with some supporting evidence
C-         use strategies* that access limited genre knowledge to predict; recognize some literary
            techniques; often confused by figurative language
           comprehend setting, character, events
           make simple inferences with some supporting evidence
           offer judgements or reasons with some supporting evidence

F          demonstrates little awareness of genre; may not recognize literary techniques; confused
            by figurative language
           demonstrates limited comprehension of character, setting, events
           makes few rudimentary inferences
           offers vague or no judgements with no supporting evidence

*strategies may include
          - reflecting and responding
          - making personal connections to the text
          - making predictions
          - making mental pictures
Secondary English Resource Binder               205                         Copyright SD #43
        - determining the most important events and details and making
           connections between them
        - identify and interpret literary elements
        - make inferences and draw conclusions


                                    Reading for Information
Adapted from B.C. Reading Performance Standards : Ministry of Education, 2000
A    confidently use a range of strategies* to figure out technical words and/or specialized
        vocabulary
     accurately identify and synthesize main ideas; locate relevant material to respond to
        questions or tasks
     recognize relationships between ideas; make insightful interpretations and inferences that
        are supported by specific evidence
     synthesize information with prior knowledge and beliefs; question and evaluate
        information in terms of prior knowledge and beliefs
B    use a range of strategies* to figure out technical words and/or specialized vocabulary
     accurately identify and restate main ideas; locate relevant material to respond to
        questions or tasks
     recognize relationships between ideas; make some interpretations and inferences that are
        supported by specific evidence
     make logical connections between new information and prior knowledge and beliefs;
        question and evaluate information in terms of prior knowledge and beliefs
C+  use appropriate strategies* to figure out technical words or other specialized vocabulary
     accurately identify and restate main ideas; locate some relevant material to respond to
        questions or tasks
     recognize some relationships between ideas; make some interpretations and inferences
        that are at least partially supported by specific evidence
     make some logical connections between new information and prior knowledge and
        beliefs; question and evaluate some information in terms of prior knowledge and beliefs
C    uses some strategies* to figure out technical words or other specialized vocabulary
     identify and restate most main ideas; locate some relevant material to respond to
        questions and tasks
     recognize limited relationships between ideas; make some interpretations and inferences
        that have some supporting evidence (often simplistic and incomplete)
     connect new information with prior knowledge and beliefs; offer some simple
        comparisons of new information about a topic and prior knowledge and beliefs
C-  analyze word parts; may use a dictionary for technical words and/or specialized
        vocabulary
     identify and restate most main ideas; located limited material to respond to some
        questions and tasks
     recognize some relationships between some ideas; make limited interpretations and
        inferences that have little supporting evidence
     connect new information with prior knowledge and beliefs; offer limited (and often
        incorrect) comparisons of new information about a topic and prior knowledge and beliefs

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F        needs to figure out word; does not use a dictionary for technical or specialized words
         identify some main ideas, but not be able to restate in own words; locate limited material
          to respond to limited questions and tasks
         needs help to find relationships between ideas; misses interpretations and inferences
         tries to connect new information with prior knowledge and beliefs; create illogical or
          unsupported judgements or evaluation of the information
*strategies may include
 access background knowledge about the topic      *   connect what is read with what is already known
 figure out unknown words                         *   summarize what has been read
 self-monitor and self-correct                       determine the most important ideas and the
                                                       relationship between them


                                        Group Work
Adapted from Evaluating Group Communication Skills Across Curriculum,
Ministry of Education, 1995
A     contribute ideas and suggestions, offer feedback, pose questions, offer clarification and
          synthesize material
         use voice and physical expression to build communication, enhance both speaking and
          listening
         shape the way the group works, initiate, develop, and sustain interactions so that the
          group works harmoniously, take on a variety of roles to help solve conflict
         independently plan, monitor and analyze interaction, understand his/her own
          preferences and biases

B        contribute ideas and suggestions, offer feedback, pose questions, offer some clarification
          and synthesize some material
         use voice and physical expression to build some communication
         help to shape the way the group works, take responsibility for group process, be
          responsive to other group members
         plan, monitor and analyze key features of interactions, understand some of his/her own
          preferences and biases

C+       contribute some ideas and suggestions, take part in brainstorming sessions, add
          information to others‟ suggestions
         make some eye contact, use body language for emphasis
         take part in group discussion, follow rules for working with others (taking turns,
          listening), willingly take role assigned by group
         show awareness of strategies to improve communication, understand dynamics of group

C        contribute some ideas, show interest in others‟ ideas, add limited information to others‟
          suggestions
         make some eye contact, use some body language, often repeat favourite words, or echo
          others‟ words
         take part in group discussion, work with others, accept role assigned

Secondary English Resource Binder         207                              Copyright SD #43
         show limited awareness of strategies to improve communication, may take some
          responsibility for group successes and problems

C-       contribute ideas that might be unconnected to group ideas, offer suggestions but have
          little or no elaboration
         make little eye contact, often speak randomly
         struggle to take part in group discussion, relate the activity to person experiences by
          telling stories, hesitate to take role assigned
         recognize the effects of words and actions, often have an unrealistic view of his/her
          contributions

F        contribute few, if any, ideas; may sit silently or talk about unrelated material
         be unable to build positive communication through voice or physical expression
         be unaware of how his/her behavior affects others, be disruptive, aggressive, uninvolved
          or easily frustrated
         have little understanding of how to work with others




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                       M.O.E. Assessment Resources

For other assessment and evaluation ideas, consult these Ministry of Education
Resources:


Integrated Resource Packages (IRPs)
 column three of the main body of the IRP
 appendix D


BC Performance Standards
 Reading
 Writing
 Social Responsibility


The Assessment Handbook Series
 Performance Assessment
 Portfolio Assessment
 Student-Centred Conferences
 Student Self Assessment


Check the Ministry of Education website for ongoing information and down-
loadable assessment packages as they become available.

www.bced.gov.bc.ca




Secondary English Resource Binder     209                          Copyright SD #43
                          “The Readiness is All”:

Introduction
There is a persistent myth among students that there is nothing to study for an
English exam. The purpose of this booklet is to dispel this myth, and to outline
those things which can and should be studied.

The following pages will follow the same four-section organization as the exam
itself, with some additional comments and lists at the end. Each section begins
with the value, recommended time, and instructions that will begin the section
on the real exam.


Where to Find Old Exams
One of the best ways to prepare is to practice writing sections of old exams.
Exams from the last three years are available at the Ministry website:

             http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/exams/search/exsection.htm

Here you will find exams and keys, though some readings do not appear due to
copyright issues. There are more exams available on-line than you could
possibly consume in preparing for the real thing. Bring some of your paragraph
answers or compositions to tutorials in the week before the exam and have the
teacher give you some feedback on your attempts. You can also get explanations
for the answers to multiple choice questions you didn‟t understand. There is no
substitute for practice.


Part A: Editing Skills

Total Value: 10 marks                                               Suggested Time:
10 minutes

Instructions
The following passage has been divided into numbered sentences which may
contain problems in grammar, usage, word choice, spelling, or punctuation. One
or more sentences may be correct. No sentence contains more than one error.
If you find an error, select the underlined part that must be changed in order to
make the sentence correct and record your choice on the Response Form
provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that corresponds to
your answer. If there is no error, completely fill in circle D (no error).
Secondary English Resource Binder        210                             Copyright SD #43
Error Summary
The following information summarizes the kinds of errors tested on 31 recent
exams. The number preceding each error is the number of times that error has
been used in those exams. The more frequently an error is used, the more
important it is that you be able to recognize the error.
On most exams, these errors should account for five or six of the ten questions:

                Frequency                  Error

                         64         Misuse of comma, semi-colon, or colon
                         26         Inconsistent verb tense
                         24         Subject-verb agreement problem
                         22         Sentence fragment
                         21         Faulty parallelism

The following errors are used less frequently, but you should still be prepared
for them:

        15      Misuse of apostrophe
        12      Misuse of capitalization
         8      Incorrect punctuation after “such as,” “by,” or "for example"
         7      Misuse of quotation marks, or incorrect placement of other punctuation
                marks relative to quotation marks
         3      Pronoun-antecedent agreement problem
         3      Pronoun case problem: “I/me” or "us/our"
         2      Misuse of question mark
         2      The word “as” missing from sentence
         2      Use of “can‟t hardly” or “don‟t hardly”
         1      Dangling modifier
         1      Use of double negative


        The remaining errors are words that are commonly misused or
        misspelled:

         9      there/their/they‟re
         8      its/it‟s
         6      who/whom
         5      a lot
         4      whose/who‟s
         3      affect/effect
         3      misspelled words (achieve, definite, independently)
         2      number/amount
         2      real/really

Secondary English Resource Binder                  211                      Copyright SD #43
         2      to/too
         1      accept/except
         1      bare/bear
         1      been/being
         1      between/among
         1      desert/dessert
         1      "irregardless" (not a word)
         1      lay/lie
         1      less/least
         1      not only/but also
         1      “ourself”(not a word)
         1      passed/past
         1      patience/patients
         1      pray/prey
         1      than/then
         1      “theirselves” (not a word)
         1      this/these
         1      who/which


Answer Summary
An analysis of 31 recent exams revealed the following information:

        Number of exams with no "D" (no error) answers in editing section:
             0
        Number of exams with one "D" (no error) answers in editing section:
        26
        Number of exams with two "D" (no error) answers in editing section:
             5
        Number of exams with more than two "D" (no error) answers in editing section:
             0

The distribution of “D” by question number was as follows:

Question Number             # of times “D” was correct answer for that question

         1                                            0
         2                                            1
         3                                            5
         4                                            2
         5                                           10
         6                                            4
         7                                            5
         8                                            4
         9                                            2
       10                                             3

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From the above, we can observe that
      • on 84% of recent exams, there was only one "D" (no error) answer;
        •   on 32% of recent exams, one of the "D" (no error) answers appeared in
            question #5;
        •   the "D" (no error) answer has not appeared in question #1 in recent exams.




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Part B: Poetry

Total Value: 19 marks                                                   Suggested Time:
   25 minutes

MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUCTIONS: Read the poem [title of poem] in the
  Readings Booklet. Select the best answer for each question and record your
  choice on the Response Form provided.

WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUCTIONS: In paragraph form and in
  approximately 125-150 words, answer question 1 in the space provided.
  Write in ink. The mark for your answer will be based on the appropriateness
  of the example(s) you use as well as the adequacy of your explanation and the
  quality of your written expression.

Comments

1. In this section, students read a poem, then answer 7 multiple choice questions
   and write one response which is holistically double-marked on a six-point
   scale; the scale appears at the end of this booklet.

2. You may want to read the questions before reading the poem. Doing so may
   help you understand the poem.

3. In the multiple choice section, there will probably be one or two vocabulary
   questions, such as the following:

                                    In paragraph 1, the word “vagaries” means
                                           A. precision.
                                           B. intentions.
                                           C. weaknesses.
                                           D. randomness.

    You should find the word in the poem or story and see if you can determine
    the meaning from the context in which the word is used. Reading the
    surrounding lines or paragraph is probably helpful.

4. One or more of the following questions will probably appear in the multiple
   choice section:

        •   structure of the stanzas (common answers: couplet, quatrain, sestet, octave)
        •   kind of poem (common answers: ode, lyric, sonnet, ballad, elegy, pastoral)

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        •   organization of the poem (common answers: free verse, blank verse, sonnet
            form, ballad stanza)
        •   style of poem (common answers: didactic, narrative, dramatic, descriptive,
            expository, satirical)

5. Many multiple choice questions require a knowledge of poetry terms, but a
   full list of these terms will be provided later in the booklet, as these terms also
   get used in the Prose section.

6. Your response can be more than one paragraph in length.


Part C: Prose

Total Value: 32 marks                                                   Suggested Time:
   40 minutes

MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUCTIONS: Read the story entitled [title of story] in
  the Readings Booklet. Select the best answer for each question and record
  your choice on the Response Form provided.

WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUCTIONS: Choose one of the following two topics
  and write a multi-paragraph response of approximately 300 words. Write in
  ink. The mark for your answer will be based on the appropriateness of the
  example(s) you use as well as the adequacy of your explanation and the
  quality of your written expression.


Comments

1. In this section, students read a story, then answer 8 multiple choice questions
   and one multi-paragraph response, which is holistically double-marked on a
   six-point scale; the scale appears at the end of this booklet.

2. You may want to read the questions before reading the story. Doing so may
   help you understand the story.

3. As was the case with the previous section, there will probably be one or two
   vocabulary questions.

4. On almost every exam, the following question appears:

                                    The point of view in the story is

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                                    A. objective.
                                    B. omniscient.
                                    C. first person.
                                    D. limited omniscient.

    Make sure you are familiar with the four points of view.

5. Multiple choice questions sometimes require a knowledge of prose terms, but
   a full list of these terms will be provided later in the booklet, as these terms
   also get used in the Poetry section.

6. General comments on written response questions will be provided later in the
   booklet.


Part D: Composition

Total Value: 24 marks                                          Suggested Time:
   45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: Using standard English, write a coherent, unified, multi-
   paragraph composition of approximately 300 words on the topic below. In
   your composition, you may apply any effective and appropriate method of
   development which includes any combination of exposition, persuasion,
   description, and narration.

    Use the page headed Organization and Planning for your rough work. Write
    your composition in ink on the pages headed Finished Work.

    Your composition may draw upon any aspect of your life: your reading, your
    own experiences, the experiences of others, and so on.


Comments

1. The six-point scale used to mark the composition appears at the end of this
   booklet.

2. The topics, by themselves, are seldom interesting. Your task is to make the
   given topic interesting. There have only been three exams given under the
   newest specifications, which provide a phrase or sentence as a topic. The
   topics for the three exams appear below.


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           The important things in life endure over time. (Nov. 1999)
           Keeping an open mind allows for growth. (Jan. 2000)
           The pursuit of freedom involves change. (Apr. 2000)

3. Many teachers suggest that you begin your planning by jotting down as
   many possible ways of responding to the topic as you can generate. Do not
   write on the first three ways you listed, as these are likely to be the
   approaches used by many other students.




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4. The range of methods of responding to the topic is large, including the
   following:

        •   informal and formal essay, including personal, reflective, informative,
            persuasive and argumentative styles;
        •   real and imaginary narration, including use of first and third person;
        •   descriptive writing, including descriptions of characters, places, situations,
            events, etc., real or imaginary.

5. The exam instructions include the following warning: “Ensure that you use
   language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this
   examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a
   zero.” You do not wish to offend your reader. Typical exam markers are at
   least in their forties, are probably parents, are well-read in sophisticated
   literature, are fairly conservative, and are reasonably well-adjusted socially.
   If you write a narrative featuring graphic depiction of sex and/or violence,
   the inappropriateness of your response will outweigh any writing ability you
   exhibit, and your mark will suffer accordingly.

6. If you‟re going to write an essay, you should prepare a brief outline
   containing your thesis and the topic of each body paragraph. You can
   brainstorm, make a web, or use any other approach that works for you. This
   planning time is always well spent.

7. The topics are always thematically linked to one or more of the readings on
   the exam. If you write an essay, you can refer to the readings on the exam.
   You can, of course, also refer to anything else you‟ve read; the plays and
   novels you‟ve read during the last two years can be good choices.

8. If you‟re going to write a narrative, be sure you know how it will end before
   you begin. Also, limit the action so that you don‟t need 2000 words to tell
   your story, as you won‟t have time to write 2000 words.

9. If you write a narrative, kill characters only when they must die to preserve
   the story‟s artistic unity. Death is a convenient way of resolving a conflict,
   but, statistically speaking, it seldom occurs in real-life conflicts.

10. If your writing and purpose are clear, you do not need to explicitly mention
    the topic in your composition. Using the topic word for the first time in your
    concluding sentence is seldom effective. Using the topic word repeatedly in
    your composition is also seldom effective.


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11. According to a survey of exam markers, effective compositions are those
    which
        •   engage the reader‟s attention in the first paragraph;
        •   if essays, may contain implicit thesis statements;
        •   include variation in sentence length and style;
        •   use a wide and precise vocabulary;
        •   include some figurative language;
        •   if essays, contain the following features to engage the reader‟s attention: the
            use of hedges (tentative suggestions rather than absolute statements), and
            pertinent examples;
        •   may use humour;
        •   display originality;
        •   give little indication of being revised -- the writers seem to revise
            internally.


Multiple Choice Questions

1. A multiple choice question on mood or tone may appear in the Poetry or
   Prose section. Here are some “mood words” and "tone words" used in recent
   exams (the list includes both nouns and adjectives, as the wording of the
   question changes from exam to exam):

angry                               distress                           nostalgic
anticipation                        euphoric                           ominous
bitter                              hostile                            playful
cautious                            humorous                           reflective
cheerful                            indifferent                        romantic
confusion                           joyful                             sincere
cynical                             loneliness                         thoughtful
despairing                          loving



Written Response Questions

1. The only way to clearly identify a paragraph is to indent the first line of each
   paragraph. If you don‟t indent, your answer may not be perceived as a
   paragraph.

2. If you include quotations from the poem or story, each quotation should be
   integrated into a sentence of your creation. A quotation presented as a
   sentence in itself has no explicit connection to what you‟ve been writing. If
   your statement is a complete sentence, and the quotation you wish to use is
   also a complete sentence, put a colon at the end of your sentence, then write
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    the quotation. Do not use ellipsis (. . .) in your quotations; if your quotation is
    long, it can probably be shortened.




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3. Written response questions often address the content of the poem or story.
   However, they sometimes address writing technique. Here are some
   rhetorical techniques, stylistic devices, and features of prose and poetry
   specifically asked about on recent exams:

      conflict                                    use of descriptive language
      creation of atmosphere                      use of detail
      creation of suspense                        use of dialogue
      development of images                       use of extended metaphor
      development of setting                      use of figurative language
      indeterminate ending                        use of flashback
      mood                                        use of imagery
      significance of title                       use of irony
      symbol                                      use of metaphor
      theme                                       use of personification
      use of contradictions                       use of sound imagery
      use of contrast                             ways in which character is revealed

4.   The November 1999 exam was the first in which all written questions were
     double-marked. In the process of double-marking, your poetry, prose, and
     composition responses will each be marked by two different markers (for a
     total of six markers for the exam). The process is the same for each section.
     After the two markers have independently marked your response, they
     compare marks. If both marks are the same, the marks are kept. If the marks
     differ by one, the marks are also kept. If the marks differ by more than one,
     the markers discuss the response until one or both markers revise their
     marks to within one of each other. If this doesn‟t happen, a third marker is
     brought in to mediate a decision. Over 90% of all responses receive either
     the same mark from both markers or marks that differ by one.

     For the poetry question, the marks of the two markers are added for a mark
     out of 12. For the prose and composition questions, the marks of the two
     markers are added, then multiplied by two for a mark out of 24.


General Comments

1. Get a good night‟s sleep.
2. Eat a good breakfast.
3. Bring a pencil and two blue or black ink pens. Bring a good eraser if the
   pencil doesn‟t have one.
4. Bring picture ID. Having to run to the office to be identified just before
   starting an exam ruins any focus you may have achieved.
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5. As soon as you‟re allowed to open the exam booklet, read the composition
   topic. As you work your way through the exam, the topic will be percolating
   in your mind. You increase your chance of having something interesting to
   say if you‟ve already been mulling over the topic for some time before you
   start writing the composition.
6. Don‟t use white-out. Students tend to leave the white-out to dry, then forget
   to come back and write the correction in. Omitted words count as writing
   errors. Instead, put a single line through your error, then write the correction
   after the line. You have to cross out a lot of writing before the marker begins
   to question your planning.
7. Don‟t cheat. For the purposes of this exam, cheating has been defined as
   follows:
        •   giving or receiving assistance of any kind in answering an exam question
            during an exam;
        •   possessing any book, paper or item that might assist in writing an exam,
            including a dictionary or a piece of unauthorized electronic equipment;
        •   communicating with another student during an exam;
        •   altering an exam booklet or response form after the invigilator has asked
            students to hand in exam papers.

   Any student found cheating on a Provincial Exam will receive a mark of “0”
   for that exam.
8. Exam writers are careful to not provide the answer to one question within
   another question, but it still happens from time to time. As you work
   through the exam, be aware of the possibility of an unintended hint or
   answer.
9. Watch your time. If your invigilator is not posting the time regularly, you
   have the right to ask him/her to do so.
10. If you‟re going to run out of time, don‟t leave any questions unanswered. It
    takes very little time to write one or two sentences for a written response
    question, but that sentence or two may get you a “one” on the six-point scale
    instead of a “zero.” Don't leave any multiple choice questions unanswered.
11. When you think you‟ve finished, you haven‟t. Go back and make sure
    you‟ve seen and answered every question.
12. Proofread your written answers. Read each sentence individually and ask
    yourself, “Does this sentence say exactly what I intended?” If so, read the
    next sentence. If not, fix the sentence.
13. Remember that, while the exam is technically only two hours long, if you
    leave before the allowable 2.5 hours are up, you have wasted an opportunity
    to do better on the exam.



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Terms Used on the Thirteen Most Recent Exams

Kinds of Figurative Language
euphemism                              paradox
extended metaphor                      personification
hyperbole                              pun
idiom                                  simile
metaphor                               synecdoche
metonymy                               understatement
oxymoron

Sound Terms
alliteration                           internal rhyme
assonance                              onomatopoeia
consonance                             repetition
dissonance                             rhyme
end rhyme                              rhythm

Features of Poem Organization
ballad stanza                          quatrain
blank verse                            rhyming couplet
couplet                                sestet
free verse                             sonnet form
octave                                 stanza

Kinds of Poems
ballad                                 narrative poem
elegy                                  ode
lyric                                  sonnet

Rhetorical Techniques and Stylistic Devices
allusion                               jargon
analogy                                memoir
apostrophe                             parallel structure
archaic language                       parenthetical elements
cliché                                 parody
colloquial language                    personal essay
compare                                quotation
contradiction                          rhetorical question
contrast                               run-on sentence
descriptive language                   sarcasm
dialogue                               satire
fable                                  scientific language
figurative language                    sentence fragments
foreign language                       simple sentence

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formal language                               slang
imagery                                       sound imagery
informal language                             technical language
irony                                         title

Elements of fiction
escape literature                             physical conflict
fantasy                                       spiritual conflict
character                                     flashback
characterization                              foreshadowing
protagonist                                   indeterminate ending
dynamic character                             plot
flat character                                climax
round character                               setting
static character                              suspense
stereotypical character                       symbol
sympathetic character                         theme
dilemma                                       first person point of view
emotional conflict                            limited omniscient point of view
intellectual conflict                         objective point of view
moral conflict                                omniscient point of view


Final Comment

Studying for the English 12 Provincial Exam should consist of at least the
following steps:
        •   study the terms listed in the preceding pages;
        •   practice writing sections of old exams (see page 1), keeping to the suggested
            time limits;
        •   bring samples of your writing to tutorials;
        •   keep a dictionary with you as you study (to check meanings and improve
            your vocabulary) and as you write (to check spelling and usage);
        •   make a list of novels and plays you‟ve read recently, and a list of quotations
            you like;
        •   read the editorial section of newspapers and magazines for interesting issues
            and viewpoints;
        •   look for patterns, similarities, and connections in the world around you.
            Such observations make for interesting writing and help you understand
            what you read.


                                       Good luck.




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                                    Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the taking or passing off another person‟s ideas or words as one‟s
own.
During the creation of assignments, students are often urged to research material
and include findings in their work. Sources should be cited (in a bibliography)
on all ideas or direct quotations acknowledged. Failure to do these usually
constitutes plagiarism.

How to avoid plagiarism

Teachers
 Do not repeat assignments very often. This means you must have a large
   bank of essay topics, or topics must be created each term.
 Have essays written in class (topics may be given in advance, but the actual
   writing is performed in one period; if note cards are permitted, they must be
   submitted with the paper)
 Create assignments that compare two like or unlike sources (e.g., compare
   Macbeth‟s quest for power to that of Hitler‟s)
 Insist on a Works Consulted Page (bibliography) that shows all sources of
   information (use the “Documenting Your Research” handout included in this
   section)
 Accept only papers written in the format set out in the APA or MLA
   bibliography style manuals
 Control allowed resources
 Teach your students how to take research notes by going through examples
   of acceptable and not acceptable reworkings of information (use the
   examples given in this section or create your own)
 Teach your students how to “give credit where credit is due” by practicing
   quotation and citation procedures
 Create assignments that do not rely on writing as a major component (e.g.,
   Create a game that explores from where Catcher in the Rye‟s Holden Caufield
   got his attitude
 Display a poster that identifies what constitutes intellectual dishonesty (better
   yet, have students create and display the poster)
 Insist that printed copies of all electronic material be handed in with the
   paper
 Share this entire section with your students




Secondary English Resource Binder      225                           Copyright SD #43
How to Detect Plagiarism

Sadly, memorizing Coles Notes isn‟t enough anymore. As students become more
adept at accessing information, they may be tempted to “borrow” some of that
material for a project. Detecting that the material might be plagiarized is
becoming more difficult.

Suggestions to help decide if the work is plagiarized
 Collect in-class samples of work in September and use these as references to
  check
              Vocabulary sophistication
              Syntax
              Intellectual level
              Organization of any suspected work

   Be aware of any sharp shifts of topic as often students will alter a topic to
    better fit a plagiarized paper
   Check cited works or submitted notes to see if the student has struggled with
    reworking information
   Keep a bank of examples of plagiarism from previous years; this should be
    reviewed periodically
   Have a private conference with a student, asking for clarification of
    vocabulary or ideas (if a student struggles for answers, question why)


Plagiarism Examples: Acceptable and Unacceptable

Original
Descriptions of the Ewell house and property serve to give deeper insight into
the family position in the town. Supported by four uneven blocks of limestone,
the house is made of Maycom‟s refuse – discarded lumber, used metal, and
broken machinery. Even the geraniums, Mayellla‟s one attempt at avoiding
beauty to a dreary life, rest in broken slip jars – (To Kill a Mockingbird).

Not acceptable
The Ewell‟s house and property give deeper insight into the family position. The
house is made of discarded lumber, used metal, and broken machinery from
Maycomb‟s refuse. Even Mayella‟s attempt at beauty, her geraniums, are in
broken slip jars.
 Material is often copied from the original
 Paraphrasing is too close to the original

Secondary English Resource Binder      226                          Copyright SD #43
Not acceptable
Description of the Ewell‟s place helps to give more understanding of where they
fit in the town. The limestone blocks that support the house, the discarded
number, metal, and machinery are all part of Maycomb‟s refuse. Mayella‟s
geraniums, which attempt to add beauty to her dreary life, are planted in broken
jars.
 Voice and ideas too close to the original
 Paraphrasing too close to the original

Acceptable
Harper Lee gives the reader a better understanding of the Ewell‟s position in the
town with her descriptions of both their house and property. Details about the
limestone foundation, house construction and Mayella‟s beautiful geraniums all
show the Ewell‟s as a family who uses what others don‟t want.
 Ideas and voice different from original
 Material selected from original to support new ideas

Acceptable
The Ewells‟ are excellent examples of those people in Maycomb who exist in a
cycle of ignorance and poverty. Bob takes pride in doing as little work as
possible. Burris take pride in not attending school. Even Mayella, whose “one
attempt at adding beauty to a dreary life” with her geraniums, is unable to
escape, being dependent upon her father for food and shelter.
 Material for the original is cited
 Was quite different from the original

Websites to be aware of
 http://www.planetpapers.com/
 http://campus.fortunecity.com/bates/340/
 http://www.linknation.com/
 http://users.ntplx.net/~pffarris/essays/index2.htm
 http://www.screw-essays.com/
 http://www.givemenotes.com/messageboard.html
 http://www.geniuspapers.com/
 http://www.essay.web.com/
 http://www.essaysearch.com/welcome.html
 http://papercamp.com/free_essays.htm
 http://www.atlantic.net/~tenor/essays.htm
 http://www.4essays.com/
 http://www.cyberessays.com/
 http://www.12000papers.com/
 http://www.eduenow.com/
Secondary English Resource Binder      227                          Copyright SD #43
   http://www.essaypage.com/
   http://www.essay.org/
   http://www.essaydepot.com
   http://www.netessays.net/
   http://www.essayworld.com/
   http://www.awerty.addr.com/essays.html
   http://www.bignerds.com/
   http://www.schoolsucks.com/
   http://www.whitenight.com/url/archive.htm


Most of these are free; some require money to gain access.

If you want to search yourself, try ALTA VISTA or METACRAWLER and search
for „essay‟, „free essay‟, „school essay‟. Typing in wording that appears copied
will often identify the paper as well.




Secondary English Resource Binder      228                         Copyright SD #43
                        Documenting Your Research
Whenever you use an idea or information that is not your own, you must give
credit to the author and/or source. This brief guide, based on the MLA
Style (Modern Languages Association), will help you credit the most common
sources. Refer to The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed.,
1999 for complete information.


Sources are cited in 2 ways
Works Consulted
 Formerly called the BIBLIOGRAPHY -- is a separate page or pages at the end of
  your paper. It fully documents all the sources that were researched. (Title the page
  “WORKS CITED” if all sources are cited in the text.)

In-Text Citations
 Formerly called FOOTNOTES, NOTES, OR ENDNOTES - are placed in the text of
   your paper to indicate exactly which paraphrased ideas or quotations were used
   from each source. In-text citations clearly point to full documentation in the “Works
   Cited” or “Works Consulted” page.

   If the author‟s name is included in the sentence, it is not repeated in the
    parenthetical page citation:
                Fitzhenry has argued this point (136-89).
                This point has been well documented (Fitzhenry 136-89).

   Quotation marks indicate exact words of another author:
                Cats are “a reward and comfort to all” (Fitzhenry 160).

   Quoting an author who has been quoted by another author:
                Cats are “sent to comfort the world” (Smith qtd. in Fitzhenry 23).

   If a quotation is more than 4 lines of text or more than one complete sentence, leave
    a blank line before the quote, use indents, single space the quotation, and do not use
    quotation marks. (Note: the period is before the page number in this case.):
                Smith adds thoughts and strategies about cat care in her very successful manual
                of care:

                         Cats are very independent and cannot be easily trained.
                         Some animal trainers have successfully trained cats using
                         very unique methods which require great patience and respect
                         for the cat. If the trainer hopes to be successful, he or she must
Secondary English Resource Binder             229                              Copyright SD #43
                         begin when the cat is very young. (235)



   Collect “documentation data” for every source that is consulted. If information from
    some of the sources is not used, it can easily be removed from the “Works
    Consulted” page. There are many ways to make collecting the source data easier.
    Your teacher or teacher-librarian may ask you to use a specific method.


General Rules for “Works Consulted” or “Works Cited” Page(s)

Please note: the following rules demonstrate the format of the works cited page.

Items are arranged alphabetically IN ONE LIST by the last name of the author,
     or the first name of the title if there is no author. Use the second word in
     a title beginning with “A”, “AN”, or “THE”. Do not number the list. This
     list is in alphabetical order.

The first line of each entry begins at the left margin. Each following line is
    indented five spaces. Single space each item, but leave a space between
    items. This is an example of the rule.

The alphabetical list of sources credited is placed at the end of the report on a
    separate page and is titled WORKS CITED or WORKS CONSULTED.

Underline or italicize titles of books, magazines, newspapers, encyclopedias
    (print or on-line or CD-ROM), and AV materials. (Beware - italics are
    often not clear.)

Punctuation and capitalization are important. Follow the examples on the
    following pages carefully. Do not try to memorize: always consult the
    guide.

Shorten the publisher‟s name - e.g. Macmillan Publishing Company of
     Canada becomes Macmillan.




Secondary English Resource Binder           230                     Copyright SD #43
Print Sources


     Type of Text Being Referenced                                 Examples of “Works Consulted”
                                                                       and “In-text” citations

                                                        If no example is given, assume the citation follows the basic
                                                        example under Book-One author.

BOOK - One author                                       Works Consulted:
Author‟s last name, first name. Title.                  Abel, Henry. Cat Behavior. New York:
     Place of publication: Publisher,                     Macmillan, 2000.
     Year of publication.
                                                        Bond, James. Cat in the Kremlin. Port Moody,
                                                          British Columbia: Inlet Press, 1998.
THIS IS THE BASIC FORM
                                                        In-text citation:
Note - The first word in the title & all                It has been argued that cats are intelligent (Abel 321).
other important words are capitalized.                  A researcher, Henry Abel, said “Cats are intelligent”
The title is underlined or italicized. If the place     (321).
of publication is a small town, add the state,
province or country.                                    Note - 321 is the page number; the period follows the page(s)
                                                        in parentheses; and if the information is in the sentence, it
                                                        does not need to be repeated in the citation.

BOOK - 2 or 3 authors                                   Works Consulted:
                                                        Brown, Sue H., Sam Black, and Mary Green.
See basic form. Note only first author                    More about Cats. Vancouver: Talon Books, 1999.
(named on title page) has name
                                                        In-text citation:
inverted.
                                                        “Cats have exceptional eye sight” (Brown,
                                                           Black & Green 32).

BOOK -more than 3 authors                               Works Consulted:
                                                        Canary, Harold P., et al. Habitat of Cats.
See basic form - , et al indicates all                    Lethbridge, Alberta: Pets Press, 1999.
other authors.
                                                        In-text citation:
                                                        “Cats live alone usually” (Canary, et al 47).

BOOK - with an editor                                   Works Consulted:
                                                        Doe, Jane, ed. Theories of Cat Development.
See basic form - ed. or eds. follows the                  Montreal: Viking, 2000.
editor.
                                                        In-text citation:
                                                        This paper will summarize several well researched
                                                        theories described in Doe‟s Theories of Cat

Secondary English Resource Binder                 231                                  Copyright SD #43
                                          Development.

                                          Note: When the author & title of the book are in the text of
                                          your paper, & you are referring to the entire book, NO
                                          FURTHER CITATION IS NECESSARY.




Secondary English Resource Binder   232                                 Copyright SD #43
BOOK - 2 or more books by the same            Works Consulted:
author                                        Morris, Dale. Men and Cats: Partners. New York:
                                                Abrams, 1997.
The second citation does not repeat
                                              ---. Trends in Pet Ownership. New York:
the author‟s name - use 3 dashes.
                                                  Abrams, 1999.
Alphabetize by author, then title for
the “Works Consulted” or “Works               In-text citation:
Cited” pages.                                 Morris argued that men and cats each gain from the
                                              partnership (Men 48).

                                              Note: To distinguish between the 2 Morris titles, a word from
                                              the title of the correct source was added to the page number.
                                              The author was not necessary, in this case, as it was in the
                                              sentence.

BOOK - with an author AND an                  Works Consulted:
editor or a translator                        Poirier, Diane. Les Chats. Trans. Sam Smith. New York:
                                                Seabury, 1997.
Trans. or Ed. follows title. Note
                                              Zanks, Tom. My Life with Cats. Ed. Ann Jones. Toronto:
capitalization is different from book
                                                Dent, 2000.
with only an editor.
                                              In-text citation:
                                              Kittens in France are everywhere (Poirier 147).

BOOK - selection from an anthology            Works Consulted:
Author of selection. “Title of                Fern, Russ. “Calico Capers.” Feline Capers. Ed. Dianne
  Selection.” Title of Anthology.                White. Toronto: Macmillan, 1997.
  Editor(s). Place of publication:
                                              Note - If more than 2 poems or stories are taken from an
  Publisher, Date.
                                              anthology, cite the anthology, not the selections.

BOOK - multivolume                            Works Consulted:
 If you are using 2 or more volumes          Bie, Sam, et al, eds. Cats of the World. 9 vols. New York:
  of a work, cite the total number.              Wiley, 1997.
 If you are only using one volume,           Coy, Bill. “Cheshire Cats in Literature.” Contemporary
  give information for that volume              Literature. Vol. 12. Ed. Mike Holmes. New York:
  only.                                         Gale, 1992.

BOOK - using only an introduction,            Works Consulted:
preface or appendix to a primary              Scull, Tom. Introduction. The Cat in the Hat. By Dr.
source -                                      Seuss.
                                                New York: Random House, 1962.
Author of introduction or preface or
                                              In-text citation:

Secondary English Resource Binder       233                                Copyright SD #43
    appendix. Title of section. Title of               “In the introduction to The Cat in the Hat, Scull writes,
    Primary Source. By Author. Place,                  “I believe that this is one of the twentieth centuries
    Publisher, Date.                                   greatest books ...” (xi).


ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE                                   Works Consulted:
                                                       Jolier, Mary. “Cats.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2000.
Author‟s last name, First name.
  “Article Title.” Title of                            “Siamese Cats.” Encyclopedia Britannia. 1999.
  Encyclopedia. Date.
                                                       Smith, Hal. “Cats.” International Encyclopedia of Cats.
                                                         Ed. Bill Moon. New York: Dutton, 1998.
Note: When articles in encyclopedias are
signed, the name is at the beginning or end of
                                                       Note: Well known encyclopedias, like World Book do NOT
the article. Often there will not be a name,
                                                       require a place of publication or publisher’s name. Special
simply begin with the Article’s title.
                                                       reference books require full publication information.

The MLA style does not require
volume or page numbers in
encyclopedias that are arranged in
alphabetical order.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE                                       Works Consulted:
                                                       Dall, Peter. “Persian Cats.” Pet Monthly Feb. 1999: 72-86.
Author‟s last name, First name.
  “Article Title.” Title of Magazine                   “Visiting the Vet.” Canadian Geographic Sept. 1998:
                                                         45-46.
  Day Month Year: Page(s).
                                                       Wiky, Maude, and Bill Bond. “Feeding Cats.”
Notes:                                                   Macleans 14 May 1998: 6.
   If the article does not have an author, begin
    with the article title.                            In-text citations: Follow same form as books
   If the magazine is a weekly, the day
    precedes the month.
   If you abbreviate a month, put a period
    after the abbreviation.

JOURNAL ARTICLE                                        Works Consulted:
(more scholarly than a magazine)                       Bool, Ira. “Personality Disorders of Cats.” Journal of
                                                         Animal Psychiatry 117 (1999): 123-145.
Volume replaces date, follows the
                                                       In-text citations: Follow same form as books
  journal title and the year is in
  parentheses.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE                                      Works Consulted:
                                                       Morry, Ken. “Stray Cats are Hungry.” Vancouver Sun
Author‟s last name, First name.                          22 Mar. 1997, late ed.: A1+.
  “Article Title.” Place of Publication
                                                       “Wild Cats Roam the Suburbs.” Vancouver Province
Secondary English Resource Binder                234                                 Copyright SD #43
   (if not in title) followed by Title of           22 Mar. 2000: A12.
   Newspaper Day Month Year,
   edition (if relevant): Page(s).                In-text citations: Follow same form as books




Secondary English Resource Binder           235                              Copyright SD #43
Non-Print Sources

RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAM                           Works Consulted:
                                                      Cats. Writ. and dir. Jan Hew. Prod. Ron
“Title of Episode (in quotation marks)                  Hees. CBC. CBUT, Vancouver. 7 April
  if appropriate.” Title. Writer,                       1999.
  screenwriter, director, and/or
                                                      Dogs. Prod. Doug Little. CBC. CBUT,
  producer (if available). Name of                      Vancouver: 8 June 1998.
  network. Call letters, City of local
  station. Broadcast Date.                            “My Friend.” Friends. CTV. BCTV,
                                                        Vancouver. 7 Dec. 1997.

                                                      In-text citations: Follow same form as
                                                      books

FILM OR VIDEORECORDING                                Works Consulted:
                                                      My Best Friend. Screenplay by Ann
Title. Written by _________,                            Anderson. Dir. Jake Jones. Toronto:
   Screenplay by _______,                               Capital Films, 1999.
   Dir.________ (Director),
                                                      Note: Media citations will vary, and can be
   Prod. _________(Producer).                         very complex to cite.
   (provide what is available). Place of
   Publication: Publisher, Date.                      In-text citations: Follow same form as
                                                      books

INTERVIEW                                             Works Consulted:
                                                      Stroet, Tom. Telephone interview. 30 June
Person interviewed, Kind of                              1998.
  interview. Date.
                                                      In-text citations: Follow same form as books

LECTURE, SPEECH, OR ADDRESS                           Works Consulted:
                                                      Perry, Cass. Speech. Centennial School.
Speaker‟s last name, First name. “Title                 Coquitlam. 12 Sept. 1998.
  of Presentation (if known).”
                                                      Pillison, S. “Feeding Cats.” SPCA
  Sponsoring organization. Location.
                                                         Convention. Vancouver Hotel,
  Date.                                                  Vancouver. 30 Jan. 1997.

If no title, use a descriptive label - e.g. Speech,   In-text citations: Follow same form as
Lecture, Address. Do not underline.                   books




Secondary English Resource Binder          236                        Copyright SD #43
Secondary English Resource Binder   237   Copyright SD #43
CD-ROMS and Other Portable Databases

CD-ROM - publications (e.g. ENCYCLOPEDIAS)                    Works Consulted:
                                                              Fiegler, Hal. “Distemper.” The Multimedia
Author‟s last name, First name (if                               Encyclopedia. Vers. 2.5. CD-ROM.
  available). “Title of Article (if                              Boston: Softworks, 2000.
  applicable).” Title of Product
                                                              Pets. Vers. 1.0. Eyewitness Series. CD-ROM.
  (underlined or in italics). Version or                         London: Chelsea House, 1999.
  edition number. Series Name (if
  applicable). Publication Medium -                           In-text citations: Follow same form as books
  e.g. CD-ROM. Place of Publication:
  Publisher, Date.

Note: If you cannot find some of the information, cite what
is available.

CD-ROM - MAGAZINE OR NEWSPAPER                                Works Consulted:
DATABASE                                                      Angel, Nat. “Cats for Tomorrow.” New York
                                                                Times 12 Sept. 1997, late ed.: D3+.
If the full text of the article was found on the CD-            Magazine Article Summaries. CD-ROM.
                                                                Canebsco. Nov. 1998.
ROM, add to the basic form for magazine or
newspaper articles. ADD Title of CD-ROM -
                                                              “Towards Understanding Cats.” Macleans
underlined or in italics. Publication medium, e.g.              14 Mar. 1998: 23. Macleans Online.
CD-ROM. Name of Vendor (if relevant). Electronic                CD-ROM. Micromedia. Sept. 1998.
Publication Date.
                                                              In-text citations: Follow same form as books
If the CD-ROM was only used as an index to help you
find an article in a magazine or newspaper in print,
simply CITE as a magazine or newspaper
article. Do not cite the CD-ROM.

PUBLICATION ON DISKETTE                                       Works Consulted:
                                                              Jamis, Alfred. Understanding Cats. Diskette.
Cite as a book, ADD description of the medium of                Chicago: U of Chicago, 1998.
publication.
                                                              “Shakespearean Cats.” Disclit: English
Author‟s last name, First name. “Title of Part of               Authors. Diskette. London: 1999.
  Work in Quotations (if relevant).” Title of
                                                              Smith, H. Cats Calendars. Vers. 3.0.
  Product, underlined or in italics. Edition,                   Diskette. Boston: Collier, 1999.
Release
  or Version (if relevant). Publication Medium.               In-text citations: Follow same form as books
  City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year
  of Publication.


Secondary English Resource Binder             238                            Copyright SD #43
Secondary English Resource Binder   239   Copyright SD #43
     World Wide Web


     WWW sources may include texts of books, articles in magazines or
     newspapers, professional and personal sites, reference databases, and
     scholarly projects. This simple guide is far from complete.

Include as many of these items as are relevant           Works Consulted:
and appropriate:
 Name of Author, Editor, Compiler or                    ARTICLE IN REFERENCE DATABASE
    Translator of the Article, Poem, Book, etc.          “Cats.” Britannica Online. Vers 98.1. Je.
                                                           1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. 30
“Title of Article, Poem, Short work from a
                                                           Nov. 2000
    scholarly project, etc.” ( in quotation marks)         <http://www.eb.com/index.html>.
 Title of Book.(underlined or in italics)
 Name of Editor, Compiler, etc. if different from       ARTICLE IN MAGAZINE
    name first cited                                     Bennett, Hilary. “When Cats are Feral.”
 Publication data for any print version. (see             Pets Magazine 1 Feb. 1996. 4 Jl. 1999
    basic forms)                                           <http://www.petsmagazine.com.ca>.
Title of the Site (underlined or in italics); OR for
    personal sites with no title, a description such     POSTING TO A DISCUSSION LIST
                                                         Driscoll, Dianne. “Cats - Works Consulted.”
    as Home page. (not underlined)
                                                           Online posting. 12 Nov. 1998.
 Name of the Editor of the Database or Project            BCTLA Forum. 13 Nov. 1998
    (if available)                                         <http://www.bctf.bc.ca/>.
 Version number or Volume, Issue or other
    identifying number of a journal                      PERSONAL SITE
 Date of electronic publication, latest update or       Goode, Sally. Home page. 12 Nov. 1998
    posting                                                <http://www.ilovecats.bc.ca/sally/
 Forum or List Name, if a posting to a                    index.html>.
    discussion list or form
                                                         SCHOLARLY PROJECT
 Number range or total number of pages (if              Historical Feline Project. Ed. Paul Hurt.
    numbered)                                              May 1997. Kalamazoo U. 24 Feb. 1998
 Name of any Organization sponsoring or                   <http://www.kalamazo.edu/letrs/>.
    associated with the site
 Date when source was accessed                          Note: always try to keep http addresses on one
 Electronic address, or URL enclosed in angle           line.
    brackets followed by a period
                                                         In-text citations: Follow same form as books
CHECK THE EXAMPLES FOR PUNCTUATION




     Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   240                        Copyright SD #43
                              Thematic Connections

Thematic units can be the central organizer for English for the teacher who
prefers this instructional approach to the more traditional genre-based approach.
Themes can reveal universal ideas and concepts and present the big picture,
sometimes in ways that genre-based instruction cannot. Thematic connections
can also appeal to current student interest and development as certain topics are
of higher interest to students depending on their ages. Students will therefore be
able to make connections between their lives and the works they study. A third
reason to consider theme-based instruction lies in the burgeoning field of brain
research. Increasingly, brain research indicates that people learn best when
considering wholes, rather than parts. Sometimes thematic connections can
provide a more vivid picture of relationships and connections between ideas and
concepts; brain research demonstrates the importance of emphasizing this
interconnectedness.

Wherever possible, the title suggestions below were taken from textbooks that
are at the listed grade level. It was impossible to be consistent with this, however,
as different schools in the district use the same book at different grade levels; in
this case, titles were usually taken from books below the grade in question. If,
during the creation of a thematic unit, you are in doubt about which books to
use, ask a colleague or your department head. (Using a textbook for a grade
other than the one the department has agreed the book will be used for can
create great strife as teachers are then in the dreaded position of having their
students moan “We read that last year!” at the sight of the textbook being
handed out.) Sometimes, a department is not in the position of having enough
textbooks to support a thematic approach to instruction, as this method requires
a plethora of textbooks to be available to the students at any given time. If this is
your position, a few paper resources (photocopied according to CanCopy
guidelines) is a good alternative, especially if the photocopied resources are short
pieces of poetry, fiction and/or non-fiction.

The following thematic suggestions for grades 9-12 are based on current teaching
practices in Coquitlam District #43 and represent a mere sampling of the total
possibility. Full references for the textbooks mentioned follow the grade 12
thematic suggestions.




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   241                     Copyright SD #43
                                       Grade Nine

Possible Themes for Grade 9
 Generation Gap
 Revolution
 Making a Difference
 Creation and Destruction
 Freedom and Bondage
 Journeys
 Parent-Child Relationships


Two Grade 9 Themes in Detail

1. Parent-Child Relationships

poetry
 “Lullaby of the Iroquois” by Pauline Johnson (Departures)
 “The Man Who Finds that his Son has Become a Thief” by Raymond Souster
   (Inside Poetry)
 “The Chimney Sweeper” by William Blake (Inside Poetry)
 “Father” by Dale Zieroth (The Poet’s Craft)
 “This One‟s on Me” by Phyllis Gotlieb (Departures)

stories
 “The Father” by Hugh Garner (Inside Stories I)
 “The Veldt” by Ray Bradbury (Inside Stories I)
 “Young Man‟s Folly” by Susan Michalika (Coast to Coast)
 “Penny in the Dust” by Ernest Buckler (Inside Stories I)

novel or play
 The Giver by Lois Lowry
 A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare

non-fiction
 “Traveller” by Garrison Keller (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
 “My Mother, My Rival” by Mariah Burton-Nelson (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)


2. Freedom and Bondage
Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   242               Copyright SD #43
poetry
 “The Worst Pain” by Scott M. Sandler (Coast to Coast)
 “God Bless General Motors Whoever He Is” by Al Pittman (Departures)
 “The Lesson of the Moth” by Don Marquis (Departures)
 “Dreams” by Langston Hughes (Departures)
 “Unemployment” by Tom Wayman (The Poet’s Craft)

short stories
 “The Michelle I Know” by Alison Lohans (Coast to Coast)
 “So, What are You, Anyway?” by Lawrence Hill (Coast to Coast)
 “Willow Waist” by Chi Li (Inside Stories I)
 “Alicia” by Gabrielle Roy (Inside Stories I)

novel or play
 The Pearl by John Steinbeck
 Z for Zachariah by Robert C. O‟Brien

non-fiction
 “The Search for the Perfect Body” by Mary Walters Riskin (Discoveries in Non-
   Fiction)
 “Interview with Victor Malarek” by Andrea Mozarowski (Transitions)




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   243                 Copyright SD #43
                                        Grade Ten
Possible Themes for Grade 10
 Human Rights and Equality
 Persecution and Survival
 War and Death
 Coming of Age
 Taking a Stand
 Discrimination
 Personal Identity


Two Themes in Detail:

1. War and Death

poetry
 “Crash” by Leona Gom (Inside Poetry)
 “Rumours of War” by Pat Lowther (Departures)
 “Dreamers” by Siegfried Sassoon (The Poet’s Craft)
 “The Man He Killed” by Thomas Hardy (Departures)
 “Disabled” by Wilfred Owen (Departures)

stories
 “All the Troubles of the World” by Isaac Asimov (Inside Stories II)
 “Ashes for the Wind” by Hernando Tellez (Inside Stories II)
 “Identities” by W.D. Valgardson (Coast to Coast)
 “Stones” by Sandra Birdsell (Voices 1)

novel or play
 Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
 Animal Farm by George Orwell

non-fiction
 “A Child in Prison Camp” by Shizuye Takashima (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)
 “Remembrance” by Timothy Findley (Sightlines 10)




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   244                   Copyright SD #43
2. Discrimination

poetry
 “He Sits Down on the Floor of a School for the Retarded” by Alden Nowlan
   (Departures)
 “My Father Hurting” by Fred Wah (Coast to Coast)
 “The Poison Tree” by William Blake (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Two Prisons Divided by a Gulf” by Jean Vanier (Themes on the Journey)
 “Home” by Karen Gershon (Themes on the Journey)

stories
 “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut (Inside Stories II)
 “Boys and Girls” by Alice Munro (Inside Stories II)
 “What I Want to Be When I Grow Up” by Martha Brooks (Voices 1)
 “White Places” by Mary Flanagan (Voices 1)

novel or play
 The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan
 To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

non-fiction
 “I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King (Sightlines 10)
 “Voices of the Grandmothers: Reclaiming a Metis Heritage” by Christine
   Welsh (Discoveries in Non-Fiction)




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   245              Copyright SD #43
                                      Grade Eleven

Possible Themes for Grade 11
 Rebels
 Canadiana
 Culture-Multiculture
 Friendship
 The Green Planet
 Healthy Living
 Family Life
 Love

Two Themes in Detail

1. Love

poetry
 “The Highwayman” by Alfred Noyes (Departures)
 “The Day of the Bride” by Joy Kogawa (Coast to Coast)
 “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allan Poe (The Poet’s Craft)
 “First Person Demonstrative” by Phyllis Gotlieb (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Sonnet 43: How Do I Love Thee?” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (The Poet’s
   Craft)

stories
 “The Red Convertible” by Louise Erdrich (Voices 2)
 “Queen For A Day” by Russell Banks (Voices 2)
 “The Famous Poll” at Jody‟s Bar by Ellen Gilchrist (Voices 2)
 “The Last Day of the Circus” by Veronica Ross (Coast to Coast)

novel or play
 Othello by William Shakespeare
 Snow Falling on Cedars by David Guterson

non-fiction
 “What I Have Lived For” by Bertrand Russell (Essays: Patterns and
   Perspectives)
 “Afternoon of an American Boy” by E.B. White (Essays: Patterns and
   Perspectives)

Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   246                  Copyright SD #43
2. Canadiana

poetry
 “W.L.M.K” by F.R. Scott (Inside Poetry)
 “Vancouver Lights” by Earle Birney (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Canadian Railroad Trilogy” by Gordon Lightfoot (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Erosion” by E.J. Pratt (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Canadians” by Miriam Waddington (Coast to Coast)

stories
 “Death by Landscape” by Margaret Atwood (Voices 2)
 “The Loons” by Margaret Laurence (Voices 2)
 “The Jade Peony” by Wayson Choy (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
 “The Shining Houses” by Alice Munro (Inside Stories for Senior Students)

novel or play
 A Bird in the House by Margaret Laurence
 Who Has Seen the Wind by W.O. Mitchell

non-fiction
 “A Land Worth Loving” by Neil Bissoondath (Coast to Coast)
 “Why Canada Has To Beat Its Literacy Problem” by June Callwood (Essays:
   Patterns and Perspectives)




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   247                  Copyright SD #43
                                     Grade Twelve

Possible Themes for Grade 12
 Aging
 Gender Matters
 Adulthood and Responsibility
 Brave New World
 Take a Risk
 Choices
 Escape


Two Themes in Detail

1. Aging

poetry
 “Before Two Portraits of My Mother” by Emile Nelligan (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Grandfather” by George Bowering (The Poet’s Craft)
 “Keine Lazarovitch” by Irving Layton (Themes on the Journey)
 “The Philosophers” by R.G. Everson (Themes on the Journey)
 “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas (Themes on the
   Journey)

stories
 “Miss Brill” by Katherine Mansfield (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
 “The Jade Peony” by Wayson Choy (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
 “Imagine a Day at the End of Your Life” by Ann Beattie (Inside Stories for
   Senior Students)
 “Electric Arrows” by E. Annie Proulx (Fiction)

novel or play
 The Stone Angel by Margaret Laurence
 King Lear by William Shakespeare

non-fiction
 “When Does a Boy Become a Man?” by Henry G. Felson (Essays: Patterns and
   Perspectives)
 “Predictable Crises of Adulthood” by Gail Sheehy (75 Readings Plus)

Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   248                   Copyright SD #43
2. Gender Matters

poetry
 “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning (Inside Poetry)
 “Young Girls” by Raymond Souster (The Poet‟s Craft)
 “Rose‟s Mother was Not Good at Keeping House” by Rosemary Aubert
   (Poet‟s Craft)
 “Housewife” by Susan Fromberg Schaeffer (Inside Poetry)
 “Song of Perfect Propriety” by Dorothy Parker (Themes on the Journey)

stories
 “The Painted Door” by Sinclair Ross (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
 “The Yellow Wall Paper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Inside Stories for Senior
   Students)
 “Holding Things Together” by Anne Tyler (Inside Stories for Senior Students)
 “The Wedding Gift” by Thomas Raddall (Fiction)

novel or play
 The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood
 Hamlet by William Shakespeare

non-fiction
 “Why I Want A Wife” by Judy Syers (Essays: Patterns and Perspectives)
 “Sexism in Rock and Roll Lyrics” by Rod Cohen (Essays: Patterns and
   Perspectives)


Anthology References

Short Stories
Gordon, Jane B. and Karen Kuehner, Eds. Fiction: The Elements of the Short Story.
      Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company, 1999.

Fisher, David and Sharon Jeroski, Eds. Voices 2: Contemporary Short Fiction.
       Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories I, 2nd Edition.
      Toronto:     Harcourt Brace Canada, 1999.

Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories II, 2nd Edition.
      Toronto:     Harcourt Brace Canada, 1999.
Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   249                        Copyright SD #43
Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Stories for Senior Students.
      Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada, 1993.

Jeroski, Sharon and David Fisher, Eds. Voices 1: Contemporary Short Fiction.
       Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Poetry
Barry, James, Ed. Departures: Reflections in Poetry. Toronto: Nelson Canada,
       1991.

Barry, James, Ed. Themes on the Journey: Reflections in Poetry. Toronto:
       Nelson Canada, 1989.

Ireland, Robert J., Ed. The Poet’s Craft. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company,
       1987.

Kirkland, Glen and Richard Davies, Eds. Inside Poetry. Toronto: Harcourt Brace
and Company, 1987.

Multi-Genre
Barry, James, Ed. Coast to Coast: Reflections in Literature. Toronto: Nelson
       Canada, 1995.

Crane, Mary, Barbara Fullerton and Amanda Joseph. Sightlines 10. Toronto:
      Prentice Hall Canada, 2000.

Hilker, Douglas, Barrie Duncan, Sue Harper and Andrea Mozarowski.
       Transitions: Fiction, Poetry and Non-Fiction. Toronto: Harcourt Brace,
       1995.

Non-Fiction
Barker-Sandbrook, Judith. Essays: Patterns and Perspectives. Toronto: Oxford
      University Press, 1992.

Buscemi, Santi V. and Charlotte Smith. 75 Readings Plus, 4th Ed. Boston:
      McGraw Hill, 1998.

Drapeau, Patricia, Jon Terpenning and Alex White. Discoveries in Non-
      Fiction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993.




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   250                       Copyright SD #43
                                  What Do I Teach?
This section contains, for each grade, a scope and sequence, a sample course
outline (each one from a different teacher in District #43) and a grid that
demonstrates the link between instruction and assessment, per strand, in the IRP.


Scope and Sequence
This scope and sequence is not a district mandate as decisions to that end are best
made by individual English teachers and departments at the school level.
However, the following scope and sequence, as well as the sample course
outlines, provides a starting point for departments comprised of teachers
interested in creating a school-based document or for teachers who would like
structure of the type that is not provided by the Ministry-mandated Integrated
Resource Packages (IRPs). Indeed, this optional district scope and sequence owes
its creation to various school-based documents that already existed while the
Secondary English Resource Committee was assembling this resource package.
In essence, it is a culminating reflection of seven Coquitlam secondary schools
and their English departments.

It is important to note that neither this scope and sequence, nor the various
textbooks teachers have in their classrooms comprise the curriculum that
teachers are legally required to deliver or “cover” as the mandate of their job.
The curriculum is provided by the IRP alone. This Scope and Sequence is
merely another frame to consider as a vehicle for the curriculum; we, the
committee, hope that our colleagues will find this framework helpful.

Each section of the Scope and Sequence is dedicated to one grade; each grade‟s
section is divided into two parts: 1. terminology and content per genre, and 2.
instructional strategies and assessment ideas from the IRP.


Teaching Writing in the Context of a Scope and Sequence
While the following data is over ten years old, more recent research confirms all
of the findings. The implications for a scope and sequence are profound:
although the scope and sequence categories imply that a separate writing unit is
the best approach for writing in your classroom, another approach is, in fact,
preferable. Writing should be woven throughout the year‟s work, whether the
teacher chooses a genre or thematic approach.



Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   251                     Copyright SD #43
Research on Written Composition
New Directions for Teaching by George Hillocks, Jr. NCRE (1986) indicates the
following:

Grammar and Mechanics
 the study of traditional grammar and mechanics in a separate unit has little or
   no effect on the improvement of writing

Sentence Combining
 SC exercises can influence syntactic planning more than grammar can but SC
   exercises alone cannot influence higher-level plans dealing with content,
   audience, voice and so forth

Studying Models
 Using models does not significantly improve the quality of written work but
   some studies found that using them increases student ability to identify
   effective techniques (any study reporting significant gains in writing used
   models that were relatively brief and were used to illustrate relatively few
   and specific points about writing)

The Use of Scales (meaning performance scales or rubrics)
 Studies indicate rather clearly that engaging young writers actively in the use
  of criteria, applied to their own and others writing, results not only in more
  effective revisions but in superior first drafts

Teacher Comments
 Studies strongly suggest that diffuse teacher comments (those ranging over
   content, development, organization, style, mechanics, etc.) have little impact
   on student writing

Feedback and Revision
 Comments that focus on a single dimension may be more effective than
   diffuse comments; focused comments coupled with the assignment and
   revision produced a significant quality gain

Inquiry
 Presenting students with sets of data and following this up with instruction
   designed to help students develop particular skills or strategies produced
   significant results

Free Writing

Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   252                    Copyright SD #43
   Little evidence suggests that free writing as a main focus of instruction is
    effective

                                          Grade 9

Terminology and Content per Genre

Stories and Novels
 myth (explanatory, social, instructional, entertainment)
 mythological characters (trickster, wise old person etc.)
 conflict (internal and external)
 character and motivation
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or conclusion)

Drama (including Shakespeare)
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue
 dialogue
 aside
 soliloquy

Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric, concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
   comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
   understatement)
 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm

Non Fiction
 autobiography and biography
 essay
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis
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Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
  production and influence of audience (see Kevin McKendy resource “Media
  Education in YOUR Classroom” in this package)

Writing
Forms
 narrative paragraph
 descriptive paragraph
 expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
   contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
   structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 short stories
 letters

Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
 write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
 write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   254                Copyright SD #43
                           English 9 Course Outline

COURSE DESCRIPTION

English 9 is a course of study in literature, media, and language. It is designed to
help you comprehend, and draw reasoned conclusions from, what you read,
view, and hear. You will be encouraged to make connections between your own
experiences and those presented in a variety of works, including short stories,
novels, poems, plays, essays, newspaper and magazine articles, video
documentaries, and films. You will read the work of local, national, and
international authors from various cultural backgrounds. In responding to what
you read, view, and hear, you will apply an understanding of the conventions of
language and use an appropriate vocabulary. You will edit and revise your
written responses to improve the quality of your expression. Also, you will
work collaboratively on some assignments to foster a sense of community in the
classroom.

Units of Study

The following are some of the units which may be done during the course:

Short Stories
Novel Study
Shakespearean Play
Poetry
Research Writing and Composition Unit
Public Speaking/Debates/Presentations
Composition and Writing Skills
Library Resources Unit
Media Analysis


COURSE PROCEDURES

Absences. In the case of school functions, you must give notice as far in advance
of the function as possible. After any other absence, you must provide a signed
note from a parent or guardian explaining the reason for your absence or have a
parent or guardian phone the school to explain your absence.



Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   255                     Copyright SD #43
Tardiness. If you arrive late, knock once and wait for a convenient moment to
be admitted.

Tutorials. Formal English tutorials are offered by the department. See the
posted schedule for times and locations.

Materials. All work submitted in class must be written in blue or black pen,
never in pencil, on lined, white loose-leaf paper. In addition, you must bring
your Agenda Book to record homework assignments and due dates. Please note
that food and drinks (other than bottled water) are not permitted in the
classroom at any time.

Participation. Willing participation is expected in all class activities. You are
encouraged to ask questions in class and contribute your opinions to discussion.
Also, you will often be required to work cooperatively with one another in pairs
or groups.

Plagiarism. Copying the words or ideas of others without documenting your
sources and having relatives, friends, or tutors complete your work for you
constitutes plagiarism. To represent the work of others as your own is dishonest;
therefore, plagiarism will not be tolerated in this course. Ask before you submit
an assignment, if you are uncertain about plagiarism.

Evaluation. Your class mark will be calculated cumulatively throughout the
course. Your final grade will consist of your class mark (85%) plus your final
exam mark (15%). Your class mark will be divided as follows:

   50% daily work: homework checks, quizzes, oral participation, short written
    responses, group preparation, brief presentations

   50% major work: tests, longer papers, speeches, major presentations




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   256                   Copyright SD #43
                          Ideas From Your Gr. 9 IRP

               Activity Ideas                             Assessment Ideas
                                   Reading
Provide students‟ opportunities to      Ask students to write predictions at
make and discuss predictions about      regular intervals. Assess what should
new reading. (p. 35)                    be the increasing accuracy of the
                                        predictions (p. 35). Check for use of
                                        detail, examples, logical relationships
                                        (p. 37).

Have students identify reading            Analyze students‟ abilities to apply
challenges a particular piece of writing reading strategies to a given reading
represents and explain strategies they    situation
might use to deal with these challenges
(p. 34)
                                       Writing
Ask students to rewrite a familiar text   Evaluate according to clarity,
in a new way and present it to the class efficiency, accuracy and thoroughness
(p. 48).                                  (p. 49).

Give students the facts about an            Discuss the accuracy of each students‟
accident scene and have each student        report in light of the facts and how the
write a report for the police from a        viewpoint influences how that
different viewpoint (p. 50).                character saw the event.
                                        Speaking
Have students choose an issue and           Collaborate with students to develop
research both sides of it using a variety criteria for a persuasive speech.
of information sources. (p. 44) Have        Criteria might include identifying the
students choose one side of the             issue, staying on topic, generating a list
argument and develop a persuasive           of key questions about the issue, etc. (p.
speech about it. Present the speech.        45)

Invite students to describe and                 Assess the accuracy and propriety of
demonstrate how they communicate                the oral demonstration. Consider
with various audiences. Have them               evaluating for clarity, delivery,
develop a chart of the information. (p.         “match” of delivery and audience.
46)



Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   257                        Copyright SD #43
                                        Listening
Have students listen to a script that is    Ask students to evaluate the script or
either taped or read aloud in class.        reading with the following criteria:
                                                   dialogue conveys all important information
                                                   language and speech patterns are
                                                    appropriate
                                                   characters reveal motivation via speech (p.
                                                    49)

                                                Partner A assesses the accuracy of
Ask students to pick out the most               Partner B‟s listening and vice-versa.
important issues from a reading and
discuss their opinions with a partner.
Partner A must paraphrase what
Partner B said and vice-versa (p. 50).
                                     Viewing
Ask students to examine editorial        Look for evidence that students are
cartoons to note how they depict only    able and willing to (p. 41)
one aspect of an issue (p. 40).           go beyond a surface interpretation
                                                   connect specific examples to broader issues
                                                   consider a work from several perspectives

                                                Require students to keep a media
Ask students to examine current or
                                                journal of their observations.
past TV programs to identify examples
                                                Assessment criteria might include: (p.
of satire and devices such as puns,
                                                41)
irony, and parody and how they are
                                                   entries are relevant and complete
used (p. 40).                                      comments go beyond surface interpretation
                                                   summary focusses on key insights,
                                                    supported by specific and relevant
                                                    examples
                                      Representing
Have students use a variety of methods Check to ensure the information is
for organizing information such as       organized in a way that relates to the
compare and contrast charts, webbing, final product and purpose. Some
categorizing and outlining (p. 44)       organizational tools are better for some
                                         purposes than others.
Have students create posters about an
issue and display them in the school (p. Establish criteria for the posters before
54). Have them write summaries that      the class begins. Include things like use
include what they were trying to         of colour, impact of presentation and
accomplish in their poster presentation. organization, quantity and quality of
(p. 55)                                  information, etc.

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                                         Grade 10
Terminology and Content per Genre

Key  review material taught previously
     new material to be taught in grade 10

Stories and Novels
 myth (explanatory, social, instructional, entertainment)
 mythological characters (trickster, wise old person etc.)
conflict (internal and external)
 different types of conflict (person vs. self, person, environment,
   supernatural)
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 point of view (third person limited omniscient, third person omniscient,
   third person objective)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 character and motivation
 ways authors develop or reveal character
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or conclusion)
 four ending types (twist/surprise, indeterminate/unresolved/cliffhanger,
   happy, sad)
 irony
 theme
 foreshadowing
 flashback
 suspense

Drama (including Shakespeare)
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue
 dialogue

   aside
   soliloquy
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 iambic pentameter
 comic relief
 pun
 dramatic irony

Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric; concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 found poetry, blank verse, free verse, sonnet
 devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
   comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
   understatement)
 oxymoron
 paradox
 allusion
 symbol
 imagery
 figurative language
 literal language
 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm
 repetition
 chorus/refrain
 tone
 mood
 rhyme scheme

Non Fiction
 autobiography and biography
 essay
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis

Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
   production and influence of audience (see Kevin McKendy resource “Media
   Education in YOUR Classroom” in this binder)
 analysis of media products via key concepts of purpose, control, codes
   conventions and characteristics, interpretation, (see “Media Education in
   YOUR Classroom”)

Writing
Forms
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  narrative paragraph
  descriptive paragraph
  expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
   contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
   structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 five paragraph essay (personal, research, literary)
 short stories
 letters
 poetry
 parody
 memos

Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 understand different sentence types and structures
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
 write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
 write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense
 understand difference between active and passive voice
 write/identify/edit for modifier problems
 write/identify/edit for use of dashes and parentheses
 write/identify/edit for subject-verb agreement
 write/identify/edit for noun/pronoun agreement




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                                     English 10
                                   Course Preview

COURSE OBJECTIVES:
 To develop strategies to communicate effectively in written, spoken and
  visual forms
 To interpret details and draw conclusions about information presented in
  various forms
 To develop an understanding of the main ideas, events and themes of novels,
  stories, poetry
 To reinforce literary techniques, elements of literature, figurative speech
 To develop organization strategies for information and details through essays
  and presentations
 To expand on the mechanics of writing such as grammar, punctuation,
  spelling
 To develop strategies to appraise work (student‟s own and others)
 To create a variety of personal, literary, and technical communications
  including personal essays and letters
 To expand a variety of writing styles such as persuasive, narrative and
  expository
 To analyze and assess the impact of specific techniques and designs used by
  the media

COURSE CONTENT:

Initial Reading Assessment and Writing Sample

Short Story Unit:
   -Approximately 10 stories will be read, some discussed by entire class, some
   individually
   -Review of the elements of fiction and literary devices used in the stories
   -Literature will be seen as both a vehicle for understanding human nature
   and as a form of entertainment
   -Vocabulary building (words selected from stories)
   -Test at the end of the unit

Novel Unit:
      - formal novel study - term 3
      - one individual novel of choice - term 4

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Shakespearean Drama Study:
      - figurative language
      - structure of the sonnet, sonnet assignment
      - if time comparative analysis: play to film
      - school-wide project

Media Issues:
      - stories, media (TV, magazines, advertising)
      - Persuasive Essay

Poetry:
      - Introduce/review poetic terms, figures of speech
      - Analysis of poems, songs
      - Poetry writing (develop portfolio of own work)

Grammar:
     - Parts of Speech, word usage, sentence structure, sentence combining,
     etc. will be integrated throughout the semester

Speaking:
      - oral response, class discussion, 3 - 5 minute speech
      - various forms of communication including non-verbal elements of
      oral communication

Writing:
      - develop the writing process of drafting, editing, proofreading and
      „publishing‟.
      - increase the writing repertoire to include letters, formal and informal
      essays, poetry


   Students will be encouraged to pursue personal areas of interest for
    individual study. If available, films/videos will be used to show literary
    devices (i.e. symbolism) and as a basis for class discussions and writing
    assignments.

   Tutorial time is available so that the student can seek individual assistance.
    Tutorials will be mandatory for those who fall behind.




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COURSE EVALUATION:
Each Term:
Daily Assignments, response journals, projects, essays        60%
Participation (working together and building community)              10%
Quizzes and Unit tests                                               30%

Final Mark
40% each term for a total of 80%; Final Examination is 20%


ASSESSMENT:
     - all assignments, in-class discussions, writing, projects, presentations,
     quizzes, units tests, final exam


Timeline of Unit Study: (tentative order due to availability of texts/novels;
please note that dates are given for first or second semester)

September / February:
Short Stories, parts of speech, vocabulary

October/March:
Formal Novel Study: grammar

November/ April:
Shakespeare study, sonnet assignment, grammar

December/May:
Media Issues, Poetry, portfolio project, grammar

January/June:
Informal Novel Study (individual choice)
review grammar and literary devices, preparation for final




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   264                     Copyright SD #43
                         Ideas From Your Gr. 10 IRP

                Activity Ideas                              Assessment Ideas
                                    Reading
Provide students with a package of     Look for evidence that students have:
reading materials. Have them work in  focused on key items or aspects
groups to summarize the information     included relevant and accurate details
on one page using a graphic organizer   made clear logical connections
(p.58).                                 presented information clearly and
                                                      logically (p.59)

Have students choose a current topic              Assess using double-entry journals;
related to a novel (poem, story) they             emphasize a few key elements, for
are reading and respond to it (p. 56).            example:
                                                     willingness to reflect on relevant
                                                      opinions and ideas
                                                     openness to others‟ views
                                                     use of specific examples from the
                                                      novel (p.61)
                                   Writing
Ask students to write using strong      Ask students to describe how imagery,
imagery and a variety of moods (p.56). mood and tone affect a story, play or
                                        film (p.56) or have them compare
                                        different treatments of a particular
                                        topic.

Use appropriate and different levels of           Students can check on their
language (p.69). Students identify and            understanding about language and
write in formal language, informal                language conventions by answering
language, and slang.                              questions on the writing posed by their
                                                  classmates as part of an impromptu
                                                  quiz (p.65).
                                              Speaking




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder     265                           Copyright SD #43
Provide opportunities for students to           Ask students to identify one or two
review their oral skills (debating,             specific goals for improvement and
reading in a group or individual                have them develop individual action
presentations) (p.69).                          plans (p.69).

Have students read aloud a passage              After students have finished reading,
from which all punctuation has been             ask them questions to prompt
removed, noting the problems this               reflection. For example: which
causes. Then have them add                      punctuation marks were most
punctuation and re-read (p.64).                 important.

                                       Listening
In a class discussion, have students        Focus assessment on the content of the
generate a set of criteria to describe      profiles, looking for evidence that
effective communication (p.72). Ask         students are:
students to create a profile of an           open and honest
effective listener.                          able to identify areas of strength and
                                                    make plans for improvement
                                                   able to offer specific examples to
                                                    support their analysis (p.73)
Arrange students in groups to read an
anonymous student paper. Ask                    When students work in feedback
students to consider the following:             groups, watch for evidence that they
   What issue is being examined?               are offering positive feedback and
   What is the author‟s position?              focusing on key issues (p. 69).
   Are ideas in a logical, organized order?
    (p. 68)
                                    Viewing
Encourage students to keep logs of the Ask questions that require students to
TV programs and movies they view         provide evidence to support their
and have them evaluate (review) these opinions (p. 61).
materials (p. 60).

Show students two different versions            Students‟ understanding of different
of a film (Romeo & Juliet, for example)         film techniques can be assessed by
and have them make a chart                      having them redesign a scene as a
comparing the film techniques used in           direction (p. 61).
the different versions (p. 60).

                                        Representing




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   266                            Copyright SD #43
Have students design a multimedia               When students submit the project, have
presentation on a controversial topic           them assess and review the product.
drawn from a piece of literature (p. 70).       Post questions such as:
                                                   Who is the audience?
                                                   What are you trying to accomplish?
                                                   What are the conventions of format?
                                                    (p. 71)
Teach students different techniques for
organizing and presenting information           When students work on extended
(e.g. brainstorming, webbing, linear            projects, have them maintain project
outlines) (p. 66).                              records that demonstrate the skills and
                                                strategies they are using (p. 67).




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   267                          Copyright SD #43
                                         Grade 11
Terminology and Content per Genre

Key  review material taught previously
     new material to be taught in grade 11

Stories and Novels
 myth (explanatory, social, instructional, entertainment)
 mythological characters (trickster, wise old person etc.)
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 point of view (third person limited omniscient, third person omniscient, third
   person objective)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 ways authors develop and reveal character
 character and motivation
 anti-hero
 character foil
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or conclusion)
 four ending types (twist/surprise, indeterminate/unresolved/cliffhanger,
   happy, sad)
 different types of conflict (person vs. self, person, environment, supernatural)
 conflict (internal and external)
 irony
 theme
 foreshadowing
 flashback
 suspense
 universal symbols
 novella

Drama (including Shakespeare)
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue

Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   268                   Copyright SD #43
 dialogue
 aside
 soliloquy
 iambic pentameter
 comic relief
 pun
 dramatic irony
 catharsis
 hubris
 tragic hero
 tragic flaw

Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric; concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 found poetry, blank verse, free verse, sonnet
 epitaph, epigram
 devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
   comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
   understatement)
 oxymoron
 paradox
 allusion
 symbol
 imagery
 figurative language
 literal language
 apostrophe, cacaphony, euphony, synecdoche, metonymy, connotation,
   denotation
 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm
 repetition
 chorus/refrain
 tone
 mood
 rhyme scheme
 syntax, cliche

Non Fiction
 autobiography and biography
 essay
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis
 satire
Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   269                  Copyright SD #43
Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
  production, influence of audience, purpose, control, codes conventions and
  characteristics, interpretation, (see “Media Education in YOUR Classroom”)

Writing
Forms
 narrative paragraph
 descriptive paragraph
 expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
   contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
   structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 five paragraph essay (personal, research, literary)
 longer multi-paragraph (not “canned”) essays (analytical, literary, research)
 non-fiction article
 short stories
 letters
 poetry
 parody
 memos
 experimenting with voice and style
 one act play


Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation

   write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
   write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense
   understand difference between active and passive voice
   understand different sentence types and structures
   write/identify/edit for modifier problems
   write/identify/edit for use of dashes and parentheses
   write/identify/edit for subject-verb agreement
   write/identify/edit for noun/pronoun agreement
Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   270                   Copyright SD #43
 different sentence types
 write/identify/edit for use of clauses and verbals
 write/identify/edit for use of semi-colons
 write/identify/edit for use of colons




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   271      Copyright SD #43
                                     English 11
                                   Course Preview

OBJECTIVES
English 11 adheres to and follows the prescribed Learning Outcomes as outlined
by the Ministry of Education. It is expected the students:
 develop and demonstrate effective reading, listening and viewing skills and
   strategies
 demonstrate understanding of written, oral, and visual communications
 identify connections between their own ideas and experiences and a variety
   of literary material
 draw reasoned conclusions from a variety of information sources
 employ a variety of effective processes and strategies, including the use of
   electronic technology, to generate, gather, and organize information and
   ideas
 apply knowledge of the conventions of language and appropriate usage
 enhance their understanding of and precision, clarity and artistry of
   communications
 use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences
 use language to interact and collaborate with others

ACADEMIC DISHONESTY & PLAGIARISM
Plagiarism is to take or use the thoughts, writings, or inventions of another and
present them as your own. The English Department strictly adheres to a zero-
tolerance for plagiarism. All plagiarized work results in an immediate zero for
all students involved. The following are examples of academic dishonesty or
plagiarism:
 failure to cite or document quoted or paraphrased material from another
    source
 submitting as one‟s original work essays, presentations or assignments which
    were purchased or otherwise acquired from another source
 cheating on an examination by either sharing material, use of unauthorized
    course notes or any aids not approved by the instructor
 submitting identical or virtually identical assignments unless authorized by
    the instructor
                                    Source: SFU Academic Dishonesty Policy




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder   272                   Copyright SD #43
MATERIALS & UNITS
Students will be working on their own , in small groups, and with the whole
class on a variety of topics and subjects. The following are some of the materials
or units which may be done during the course:
 Short Stories
 Novel Study
 Shakespearean Play
 Poetry
 Research Writing and Composition Unit
 Public Speaking/Debates/Presentations
 Composition and Writing Skills
 Library Resources Unit
 Media Education

DUE DATES, ATTENDANCE & ASSESSMENT
All assignments have due dates. If a due date is impossible to meet, it is the
student‟s responsibility to discuss it with the instructor prior to the due date.

Prompt attendance is mandatory. If a student is unable to attend class, the office
must be notified or a note must be brought with the student when he or she
returns. All missed assignments are due on the student‟s return to school and all
tests must be completed on that same day. Missing more than 10% of the course
will cause concern regarding the student‟s ability to complete the course
successfully.

Student work will be continually assessed and anecdotals will usually be sent
home three times per semester and marks will be cumulative. There is no final
exam for this course.

Letter grades will be assigned based on the following scale:
A      =      86 - 100%
B      =      73 - 85%
C+     =      67 - 72%
C      =      60 - 66%
C-     =      50 - 59%
I      =      0 - 49%

Please read the course preview, sign this section and return it with your son or
daughter.
I, ___________________________, parent/guardian of ___________ acknowledge
that I have read and understood this course preview.
Signature: ___________________________ Date ______________
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                         Ideas From Your Gr. 11 IRP

                Activity Ideas                       Assessment Ideas
                                     Reading
Ask students to locate three sentences  Students develop mind maps that
from a novel, short story or TV         summarize the material they have
documentary that reflects or captures   studied. Look for evidence that they
its theme (p.16).                       are able to focus their work on key
                                        themes and make clear and logical
                                        connections (p.17).

After they read/view material on a        Students keep ongoing lists of skills
single topic, generate several questions and strategies they develop along with
(use Bloom‟s taxonomy as a guideline) examples of how and when they have
and answers (p.14).                       used each one (p.15).
                                      Writing
Discuss with students the difference      Note the extent to which the language
between connotation and denotation.       is clearly differentiated. Ensure
Have students write two descriptions      students provide illustrative examples
of a person; one uses emotionally laden (p.24).
language and the other is neutral
(p.22).

Introduce students to the five-                   Criteria should focus on student
paragraph method of expository                    abilities to:
organization, including use of thesis             a) define issues
statement, transition and conclusion              b) analyze purpose and audience
(p.24).                                           c) articulate own knowledge, opinions
                                                  d) identify implications (p.25)
                                              Speaking




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Engage students in a class discussion             Work with students to develop criteria
on censorship. Give students a list of            such as:
banned materials and ask them to                  a)    develop logical positions
speculate on why they were banned.                b)    identify specific evidence
                                                  c)    be accurate/precise in using evidence
                                                  d)    connect evidence to build compelling
                                                        arguments (p.19)
Invite students to prepare live
                                                  Develop criteria for scoring and self-
presentations for the class illustrating
                                                  assessment by posing questions:
how to prepare or deliver a speech for
                                                  a) Who is your audience?
a particular audience (p.28).                     b) What is your purpose?
                                                  c) What are key feature and conventions
                                                      that characterize the medium and
                                                      format you have chosen? (p.29)
                                       Listening
Invite a panel of writers and artists to    Students show evidence of:
speak to the class on the concept of        a) identifying issue
artistic freedom (p.18).                    b) recording examples
                                                  c) responding to issues
Ask each student to choose an area of
interest (e.g. music, leisure activities,         After students have discussed
career interests) and find a partner              divergent ideas and opinions with
with a contrasting view. Ask each pair            partners, and observed and offered
to join another pair. Students in pair A          feedback to other pairs, have each
discuss the topic, explaining and                 group of four present a brief report to
defending their respective positions              the class about the strategies they used
and inquiring about each other‟s                  and observed. The teacher may wish
reasoning. Pair B observes and                    to provide an outline such as the
provides feedback on strategies used              following:
for dealing effectively with divergent            a) Language that helped to keep the
                                                     discussion calm
views (p.34).
                                                  b) Strategies that helped to make a
                                                     position clear
                                                  c) Strategies that people used to keep the
                                                     focus on why they held their own view
                                                     (rather than attacking another view)
                                                  d) Ways people showed that they
                                                     respected each other‟s right to hold a
                                                     different opinion or view
                                                  e) Students can also write brief self-
                                                     assessments. (p.35)
                                              Viewing



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Have students view a variety of                 Collect five quotes that are significant
election campaign speeches. Prompt              and display them, with appropriate
students with questions such as:                visual images (p. 20).
   How are the speeches alike or
    different?
   Which were successful and which
    unsuccessful? (p.28)

After watching a time-travel video, ask         Ask students to summarize what they
students to use the setting from the            learn, in note form/diagrams (p.17).
novel to write stories that occur in a
different time, reinterpreting the              Collect 5 - 10 visual images that
impact of the setting on the characters         represent the them or essence of the
and plot (p.16).                                story (p. 20).




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                                  Representing
Challenge students to investigate their Criteria to be applied to a wide variety
heritage by interviewing and reading.     of representations would include:
Provide opportunities for students to     a) clear central theme
display their finished products (stories, b) relevant detail to develop and support
essays, albums) and answer questions          central theme
from their peers about the work (p.34).   c) draws on appropriate sources
                                                d) information is balanced
                                                e) reaches conclusions that avoid
                                                   stereotyping (p.35).

Invite several students to present the
same folk tale. After they have                 Look for evidence that students have
prepared and presented their versions           a) identified similarities and differences in
of the tale, have students compare              the presentations
what was similar and different about            b)made connections
each presentation. Have them discuss            c) accounted for differences
why some elements remained the same             d) considered how the messages were
while others changed (p.20).                    affected by the intended audience and e)
                                                hypothesized or drew logical conclusions
                                                (p.21)




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                                     Grade Twelve
Terminology and Content per Genre

Key  review material taught previously
     new material to be taught in grade 12

Stories and Novels
 myth (explanatory, social, instructional, entertainment)
 fable
 mythological characters (trickster, wise old person etc.)
 conflict (internal and external; emotional, intellectual, moral, physical,
   spiritual dilemma)
 different types of conflict (person vs. self, person, environment, supernatural)
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 point of view (third person limited omniscient, third person omniscient, third
   person objective)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 suspense (creation of suspense and atmosphere)
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 ways authors develop and reveal character
 anti-hero
 character foil
 sympathetic character
 character and motivation
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or conclusion)
 four ending types (twist/surprise, indeterminate/unresolved/cliffhanger,
   happy, sad)
 irony
 theme
 foreshadowing
 flashback
 universal symbols
 novella
 colloquial language and jargon
 sarcasm
 contradiction
 rhetorical question

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 genre types: escape, fantasy, romance, historical, mystery, etc.
  significance of title


Drama (including Shakespeare)
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue
 dialogue
 aside
 soliloquy
 iambic pentameter
 comic relief
 pun
 dramatic irony
 catharsis
 hubris
 tragic hero
 tragic flaw

Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric; concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 found poetry, blank verse, free verse, sonnet, epitaph, epigram
 elegy
 epic
 narrative
 ode

   devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
    comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
    understatement)
   oxymoron
   paradox
   allusion
   symbol
   imagery
   figurative language
   literal language

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  apostrophe, cacaphony, euphony, synecdoche, metonymy, connotation,
   denotation
 diction, chiasmus, conceit, caesura
 dissonance
 end rhyme, internal rhyme
 idiom
 euphemism
 parody

 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm
 repetition
 chorus/refrain
 tone
 mood
 rhyme scheme
 syntax, cliche
 octave, sestet

Non Fiction
 autobiography and biography
 essay
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis
 satire

Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
   production, influence of audience on media, purpose, control, codes
   conventions and characteristics, interpretation, (see “Media Education in
   YOUR Classroom”)
 analysis of media products via key concepts of scope and influence of
  media on audience




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Writing
Forms
 narrative paragraph
 descriptive paragraph
 expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
    contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
    structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 five paragraph essay (personal, research, literary)
longer multi-paragraph (not “canned”) essays (analytical, literary,
 including quotation incorporation, and research)
 multi-media report
 short stories
 letters
 poetry
 parody
 memo
 experimenting with voice and style ( compare and contrast, avoid cliche,
    use of analogy)
 one act play
 non-fiction article
 variety fiction and non-fiction styles
 graphic organizers
 memoir
 diction (formal and informal language, slang, scientific language, technical
   language, archaic language)

Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
 write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
 write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense
 understand difference between active and passive voice
 understand different sentence types and structures ( including
  parenthetical elements and parallel structure)
 write/identify/edit for modifier problems
 write/identify/edit for use of dashes and parentheses
 write/identify/edit for subject-verb agreement
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 write/identify/edit for noun/pronoun agreement
 different sentence types
 write/identify/edit for use of clauses and verbals
 write/identify/edit for use of semi-colons
 write/identify/edit for use of colons
 wide variety sentence types
 write/identify/edit for faulty coordination and subordination




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                                     English 12
                                   Course Preview

During the course of English 12 students will have opportunities to improve,
practice and develop their skills in writing, speaking, listening, viewing and
representing. The emphases of this course will be to develop the student‟s ability
to think, write and speak critically.

General Course Objectives:
 to develop skills and strategies necessary for effective communication
 to engage and make connections with a variety of literary works
 to draw and defend reasoned conclusions in a critical manner
 to interact and collaborate to explore ideas and issues
 to prepare effectively for tests and examinations
 to develop positive attitudes toward language and learning

Literature
 Short Story: Students will study the short story as a genre. They will develop
   fluency in the literary terminology necessary for critical analysis and
   discussion.
 Novel: Students will explore the elements of a novel and discuss the
   motivation behind and implications of the novelist‟s craft.
 Drama: Students will dive into the dynamic world of Shakespearean drama.
   They will explore dramatic conventions and the role of the actor in bringing
   the text to life.
 Poetry: A variety of poems will be studied with emphases on analysis of
   meaning and form. Students will also produce an anthology of their own
   poetry.

Communication
 group and class discussions
 individual and group presentation
 formal and informal debates
 effective note taking
 dramatizations

Language
 usage
 vocabulary building
 punctuation

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Composition
 students will write in a variety of forms and styles for specific purposes and
  audiences (narratives, expository, argumentative, descriptive, poetry ...)
 the writing process will be used to develop and expand writing skills

Mark Breakdown: Classroom work is worth 60% of the final grade. The
Provincial exam is worth 40%.
      Daily Assignments       50%
      Tests and Quizzes            30%
      Communication Skills         20%

Assessment and Evaluation
 criterion referenced evaluation
 self and peer assessment
 literary analyses
 seminar discussions
 writing in a variety of modes/for a variety of purposes
 contributions to class discourse
 unit tests
 public speaking
 presentations


10 Rules to Live By

I)      The Bottom Line:
        -     Respect the teacher‟s right to teach.
        -     Respect the learner‟s right to learn.

II)    The Givens: the following information should appear on the upper right
corner of every piece of work you do in all classes and on all handouts:
       -      name
       -      teacher‟s name
       -      date
       -      title




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III)    Each student should come to class prepared with the following materials:
        -      blue or black pen and pencil
        -      binder with dividers
        -      textbooks
        -      lined, blank and graph paper
        -      pencil crayons

IV) Each student will come to class on time; if you are late, enter the room
quietly and proceed to catch up on work. Do not disturb the class. Speak to the
teacher at the end of the class.

V)      Washroom, locker and fountain visits should occur between classes.

VI) If a student is absent or ill, he/she should contact someone in the class to
find out what work was missed. Any missed quizzes, tests or in class
assignments will be made up at the next scheduled tutorial. It is the student‟s
responsibility to catch up immediately.

VII) Homework will be checked at the teacher‟s discretion. Make sure it is
complete and ready for checking.

VIII) Each student is provided with an agenda for planning and recording
homework assignments. Students must bring it to class with them everyday. If
the agenda is lost, it must be replaced with a similar type of student planner
(major stationary stores sell student planners).

IX)    Tutorial: I strongly recommend that you take advantage of tutorial times
to receive assistance with difficult assignments, to catch up after an illness or for
enrichment purposes. You may be asked to attend tutorials on a regular basis to
ensure success in the course.

X)      There is to be no food or drink in the classroom.




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                          Ideas from Your Gr. 12 IRP

                Activity Ideas                        Assessment Ideas
                                      Reading
Have students research the work of       Have students create test or quiz
innovative communicators (e.g.           questions based on the information
Marshall McLuhan, Isadora Duncan,        they have read, or on the information
Alfred Steiglitz, Nellie McClung). Ask presented as the chosen character.
them to role-play their chosen           Questions are used as contributions to
characters, introducing themselves to    class quizzes (p.41).
the class, describing three pieces of
their work, and arguing why they
should be remembered (p.40).

Ask students to brainstorm the            Have student keep a reading log or
characteristics of an able reader. Have response journal commenting on their
them compare their lists to information progress with their reading
on confident and interpretive readers     improvement goal, and offering
in a reference set such as Evaluating     insights into the process of proficiency
Reading Across Curriculum. Challenge      (word, competency, acquisition, e.g.,
students to set one goal to improve       problems, ease of attaining goal, etc.).
their reading, giving a reasonable time Use Response Journal Rating Scale in
frame, such as the end of the term or     Appendix D, Sample 1. (p.43)
course. Have them suggest criteria for
determining if the goal is reached
(p.40).
                                      Writing




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Have students keep response journals            Use the Response Journal Rating Scale,
over a period of time to discuss specific       Appendix D Sample 1 (p.D-13).
devices such as symbolism and irony,            Emphasize that the process of response
while they review particular genres,            and interpretation is ongoing, not finite
citing specific examples and recording          (p.43).
their reactions (p.42).

Ask students to change ritualized or
formal language (e.g. Shakespeare               Ask students to demonstrate their
play, marriage ceremony, “Oh                    abilities to adjust to a variety of
Canada”) into other language registers          audiences and purposes by preparing
such as informal, slang, rap (p.46).            presentations of the same information
                                                in different formats and present their
                                                work to representatives of the different
                                                audiences (p.47).

                                        Speaking
Have students select and promote            Before students work on assignments,
favourite pieces of fiction or non-fiction discuss key features of effective work.
by developing communications they           Develop a definition of success for the
think will have impact. Their               assignment. Analyze the work in
promotions must catch other students‟ terms of the definitions, eliciting peer
attention, tell about their selections and feedback (p.53).
generally “sell” them. After the
presentation, ask other students if they
would now like to read the material,
explaining why or why not (p.40).

Explain that interviews and personal
recollections can add richness to the      Have students brainstorm ways to
content of a report. Have them prepare document each interaction
reports on the contributions of various (photographs, audio/video tape). Ask
cultures to Canada, collecting taped       them to include self-analyses to
interviews with older people. Students identify purpose strategies, strengths,
present information to the class, either weaknesses, what they learned and
live, on videotape, on bulletin boards,    how they can apply the new
etc. (p.58)                                knowledge to new situations (p.59).
                                      Listening




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Give a lesson on note-taking and                  After students have listened to
questioning techniques.                           speakers on various employment
Invite several employers or business              possibilities, have them prepare
people to talk to students about                  appropriate résumés and letters of
employment prospects, educational                 application for jobs in those fields.
requirements, etc. Have students                  Letters and résumé information should
listen, take notes, ask questions (p.38).         reflect speaker content (p.38).

Have students listen to and comment               Have students apply their knowledge
on a recent political campaign or other           of persuasive strategies and techniques
speakers on a controversial issue.                to their own communications. Have
Prompt discussion with questions such             students record strategies used by a
as:                                               speaker, and by themselves, and
   How were different viewpoints                 summarize their observations in charts,
    presented?                                    notes or written reports. Look for
   What would persuade you to decide             evidence of ability to:
    one way or the other?                              identify techniques
                                                       analyze impact
Have students prepare their own                        draw conclusions about purpose,
persuasive arguments (p.50).                            accuracy, objectivity (p.45)

                                              Viewing




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Have students watch video clips of              When students develop group
meetings in progress such as John               presentations, collaborate with them to
Cleese‟s More Bloody Meetings or the            develop criteria for both processes and
meeting scene from Life of Brian and            outcomes. Assessment of processes
identify facilitating and inhibiting            might focus on their abilities to:
behaviours. Ask them to prepare a                  commit to collective goals
chart to prompt their own constructive             respect and encourage individual
behaviour in groups. (p.56)                         voices
                                                   deal constructively with conflicts
                                                   produce coherent presentation
                                                   show insight and openness in
                                                    assessing work. (p.57)
Ask students to compare, contrast and
critique two or more performances of a          After students participate in an activity
work, e.g. The Tempest or Romeo & Juliet        comparing different communications
(p.44)                                          for a given purpose (e.g. review a
Students then either write or present           group of movies), prompt reflection
their reviews.                                  and discussion by asking questions
                                                such as:
                                                   What were the important factors of
                                                    your comparisons? Why?
                                                   What did you do to ensure you were
                                                    being fair and objective?
                                                   What can you use in other contexts?
                                                    (p.51)
                                    Representing
Have students redesign a short work,       When students redesign a selection,
or an aspect of a selection in different   look for evidence that the
forms, such as dramatizations or           presentations:
multimedia presentations. Have them  show insight into original (theme,
write explanations of their choice of          character, events)
material, their changes and                 draw on a close analysis of the original
reformatting, and how the changes              text for detail, style and use of
affected the original stories. (p.42)          language. (p.43)


Have students look at history via
different types of artistic expression          When students develop group projects
(.e.g. Spanish Civil War through                or presentations, have each group
Hemingway‟s writing, news reports,              create a peer editing criteria sheet
Picasso‟s Guernica, poetry, music,              specific to purpose and audience. The
which can be related to a required or           groups review, edit, and revise using
chosen text. Create a multi-media               criteria, then include their criteria sheet
presentation using the different                as a guideline for teacher and peer
formats; present to class (p.46).               response (p.51).
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                                Communications 11

Terminology and Content per Genre

Stories and Novels
 conflict (internal and external)
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 character and motivation
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or conclusion)
 theme

Drama
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue
 dialogue

Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric; concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
   comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
   understatement)
 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm

Non Fiction
 autobiography, biography, essay,
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis
 page or chapter layout components such as headings, subheadings, side bars,
  summaries, indices, tables of content, icons, highlighted vocabulary,
  glossaries, graphics
 business proposals, letters, business plans, brochures, newsletters, résumés


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Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
  production and influence of audience (see the Kevin McKendy resource
  “Media Education in YOUR Classroom” in this binder)
 stereotype, sexism, bias, realism, manipulation

Writing
Forms
 narrative paragraph
 descriptive paragraph
 expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
   contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
   structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 short stories
 letters
 page or chapter layout components such as headings, subheadings, side bars,
   summaries, indices, tables of content, icons, highlighted vocabulary,
   glossaries, graphics
 business proposals, letters, business plans, brochures, newsletters, résumés

Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
 write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
 write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense




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                                Communications 11
                                 Course Preview

Communications 11 correlates the study of literature and the language arts. Each
unit is designed to blend together some aspect of reading, writing, speaking,
listening and cooperative learning. The central aim is to enable each student to
explore literature and to use language with satisfaction and confidence, striving
for fluency, precision, clarity and independence.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
 To develop positive attitudes toward language
 To make connections using the various functions of language: listening and
  speaking, reading and writing, viewing and presenting
 To develop the ability to think critically, creatively, and reflectively
 To increase an appreciation and understanding of own culture and that of
  others
 To develop the ability to communicate clearly in spoken and written
  language, and develop the forms of language common to the work place
 To explore the uses of information technology
 To continue to develop a variety of personal, literary, and technical
  communications including personal essays and letters

COURSE CONTENT
(The order of unit studies will depend on availability of texts)

The Short Story:
In this unit the students will read approximately eight (8) short stories and build
their comprehension and vocabulary, based on new words introduced in the
context of the stories. They will also review literary terminology. The focus will
be on increasing one‟s ability to interpret literature.

The Novel:
Students will increase their understanding of a novel and the techniques of the
novelist‟s craft. They will write reader responses and an expository essay in the
course of the unit.

Poetry:
A variety of poems will be studied with an emphasis on meaning, form and
technique. The students will also review poetic terms and figures of speech in
addition to writing a collection of poetry and popular songs.

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Public Speaking:
Students will continue to learn effective communication skills and present a
polished 3-minute presentation. They will also analyze non-verbal elements of
oral communication and participate in class discussion.

Writing Skills:
Students will write in a number of modes, including letters, poetry, descriptions,
narratives, and formal and informal essays. They will use the process approach
to writing from establishing the context, focusing on the writing task, drafting,
editing, proofreading and “publishing”. Writing skills will be integrated
throughout the course.

Grammar and Usage:
Grammar and usage will be taught in conjunction with writing and will
emphasize common errors, parts of speech, word usage, sentence structure and
sentence combining. Grammar skills, like writing, will be integrated throughout
the course.

Media Studies:
A media studies unit will focus on the impact of the media on the public and on
the public‟s perceptions of media message (stories, advertising, news-video,
audio, written).



COURSE EVALUATION
Each unit will entail a considerable number of assignments and will culminate
with either a unit test or final performance of skill. Your work will be evaluated
as follows:
        Daily assignments, response journals, major/minor assignments 55%
        Unit tests/final performances                                          25%
        Final Examination                                                      20%

Tutorial time has been made available so that the student can seek individual
assistance. Tutorials will be mandatory for those who fall behind.




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              Ideas from Your Communications 11 IRP
               Activity Ideas                          Assessment Ideas
                                   Reading
Teach students a two-column note        Look for evidence of good note-taking
format in which main points are placed skills. Look for the ability to
on the left column and supporting       differentiate between main and
details on the right. (p. 12)           supporting ideas and succinct
                                        recording of information. (p. 13)

Teach/demonstrate common reading           Have students keep lists of skills and
strategies such as using titles, headings strategies and, periodically, reflect
and subheadings to predict content,        about how frequently they use each
creating mental summaries of new           one and in what situation. They should
information, defining unfamiliar           also track skills and strategies they find
vocabulary. (p. 12)                        difficult to use. (p. 13)
                                        Writing
Review with students common                Look for evidence of correct use of
grammar, usage, punctuation and            grammar, usage, punctuation and
spelling errors before having them         spelling errors in student writing. (p.
exchange class assignments to edit. (p.    21)
20)

After teaching/reviewing the writing        Before students submit their portfolio
process with students, have them            for assessment, create marking criteria
create a portfolio of various pieces of     with them. Consider criteria such as
their written work. At term end,            presentation, organization, logical
students select three pieces for formal     development, correct grammar and
assessment. (p. 20)                         original ideas. (p. 21)
                                        Speaking
Have students practice formal and           Have students perform their formal
informal language functions such as         and informal language skills in front of
greeting, thanking, welcoming,              the class, evaluating each one for skill
apologizing and requesting. (p. 20)         and propriety of choice.

Have students create a guide to their  Look for a clearly defined purpose, a
community for teenagers and present it sense of audience, engaging ideas, eye
in a speech to the class. (p. 26)      contact, poise, enunciation, etc. (p. 27)




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                                         Listening
Discuss listening with students as a         Provide regular opportunities for
form of communication and its                students to review their progress in
application in daily life. Ask students      listening. Set aside a few minutes at the
to prepare an inventory of their use of      end of certain classes for students to
this skill, describing their current use of record examples of their listening skills
the skills and hopes for the future. (p.     and set goals for future improvement.
28)                                          (p. 29)

Have student groups simulate meeting       Have each group member provide
process, each person taking turns being    feedback to the minutes-taker(s) about
the minutes-taker. (p. 30)                 the accuracy of his/her listening and
                                           recording. (p. 31)
                                       Viewing
Have students view and discuss             Assess students on their ability to
simples of the literature and films of     conduct themselves appropriately in a
other countries and cultures then          group setting.
compare them with Canadian works
on similar topics. (p. 32)

Provide students with three or more       Assess their advertisements using a
ads drawn from magazines or               class-created rating scale that includes
newspapers and discuss which is the       visual impact, appealing language,
most effective based on use of            audience suitability, atmosphere, use of
language, quality of visual presentation colour and images, humour and use of
and appeal to a specific audience. Have detail. (p. 25)
students then create their own ads for a
fictional product. (p. 24)
                                       Representing
Ask students to research their cultural   Have students self assess their song
heritage and create a song that           and presentation of it according to
illuminates some aspect of the history    criteria agreed upon by the teacher and
or way of life of the culture. (p. 32)    class before work on the assignment
                                          began.
Have student groups design a group
name, motto, logo or icon, and group      Assess the group-identity charts for
cheer; each group must also put its       visual appeal, completion, unity,
group-identity items on a chart to show effective use of colour and effective use
the class. (p. 30)                        of language. Ensure all students in each
                                          group contributed to the chart. (p. 31)


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                                Communications 12

Terminology and Content per Genre

Key  review material taught previously
     new material to be taught in grade 12

Stories and Novels
 conflict (internal and external)
 different types of conflict (person vs. self, person, environment, supernatural)
 character and motivation
 character types (protagonist, antagonist, flat, round, dynamic, static, stock or
   stereotype)
 ways authors develop character
 point of view (first, second and third person)
 point of view (third person limited omniscient, third person omniscient, third
   person objective)
 setting (emotional: mood and atmosphere; physical: time and place)
 plot parts and diagram (introduction, rising action, climax, falling action,
   denouement or ending)
 four ending types (twist/surprise, indeterminate/unresolved/cliffhanger,
   happy, sad)
 theme
 foreshadowing
 flashback
 suspense

Drama
 act
 scene
 dramatis personae
 stage direction
 monologue
 dialogue




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Poetry
 types (formula poetry like haiku, diamonte, limerick, cinquain, tanka, etc.;
   lyric; concrete, experimental, ballad, song)
 found poetry, blank verse, free verse, sonnet

  devices (sound devices: onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, consonance;
   comparison devices: metaphor, simile, personification; hyperbole;
   understatement)
 oxymoron
 allusion
 symbol
 imagery
 figurative language
 literal language

 terminology: verse, stanza, quatrain, couplet, rhyme, rhythm
 repetition
 chorus/refrain
 tone
 mood
 rhyme scheme
 connotation

Non Fiction
 autobiography, biography, essay
 purpose in writing: audience and thesis
 page or chapter layout components such as headings, subheadings, side bars,
   summaries, indices, tables of content, icons, highlighted vocabulary,
   glossaries, graphics
 business proposals, letters, business plans, brochures, newsletters, résumés
 irony and satire (in cartoons and texts)
 visuals like charts, graphs, schedules
 questionnaires, research reports, surveys

Media Literacy
 know how to use the library and all resources in it
 analysis of media products via key concepts of value, representation,
  production and influence of audience (see Kevin McKendy resource “Media
  Education in YOUR Classroom” in this binder)
 stereotype, sexism, bias, realism, manipulation

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 ad appeal methods: testimonial, bandwagon, plain folks, status, stereotype,
   health, safety
 creating ads

Writing
Forms
 narrative paragraph
 descriptive paragraph
 expository paragraph (explanatory and persuasive; includes compare and
   contrast approach as well as cause and effect approach)
 three paragraph essay (personal, expository and research types: focus on
   structure - introduction, body and conclusion - and transitions)
 short stories
 letters
 page or chapter layout components such as headings, subheadings, side bars,
   summaries, indices, tables of content, icons, highlighted vocabulary,
   glossaries, graphics
 business proposals, letters, business plans, brochures, newsletters, résumés
 questionnaires, research report, surveys

Mechanics/Grammar
 parts of speech
 write/identify/edit for complete sentences (simple, compound, complex)
 edit for fragments and run-ons
 punctuate dialogue
 write/identify/edit for correct use of end punctuation
 write/identify/edit for correct use of the apostrophe
 write/identify/edit for correct use of verb tense




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                                Communications 12
                                 Course Preview


COURSE OBJECTIVES
 Students will develop strategies for increasing their understanding of
  literature, the media, workplace communications
 Students will demonstrate the ability to connect their experiences and values
  to those reflected in literature and the media
 Students will demonstrate the ability to support a position by citing specific
  details from what they have read, heard, or viewed
 Students will demonstrate the ability to assess material presented to them
 Students will demonstrate the ability to edit their written work through a
  variety of strategies, including peer editing, computer editing, and self-
  monitoring
 Students will use a variety of techniques to gather, organize and present
  information
 Students will evaluate their own and other‟s work for content and language
  with the intent of enhancing quality
 Students will assess their own communication skills, interests, and attitudes
  in light of their future personal and career plans
 Students will demonstrate the ability to work together effectively

COURSE CONTENT AND MATERIALS
1. The Short Story Unit: A variety of anthologies will be used to provide the
   material for this unit. The focus will be on character development, plot,
   irony, and symbolism.
2. The Novel Unit: Students will use the strategy of making personal
   connections in order to understand and appreciate the characters fully. This
   will be followed by analytical responses and group discussions. Prediction
   will be one of the key strategies taught during the reading of the text.
3. Drama Unit: Students will prepare parts in the play for oral reading and to
   build a sensitivity to how interpretation of thorough reading can affect
   understanding. Emphasis on group building and appreciation of literature
   and the relevant issues presented will be the focus.
4. Media Unit: Influences of the media on attitudes and behaviour will be the
   focus of this unit. Students will analyze media techniques and create an
   example of a media form themselves.
5. Poetry Unit: A variety of sources will be used to appreciate and interpret
   poetry, including song lyrics.

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6. Grammar/Usage: The practical applications of grammar will be the focus of
   this unit, which will be light on grammar jargon and heavy on sentence
   combining strategies and the mechanics of English. This will be an ongoing
   unit throughout the semester.
7. Speaking/Listening: This is an ongoing focus throughout all of the previous
   units with emphasis on oral contributions to class discussion and cooperative
   group work.
8. Writing Unit: This is also an ongoing unit with application in all of the above
   units. The focus will be on the process of writing, from generating ideas (in a
   group and alone) to drafting, editing, and proofreading. “Publishing” will be
   undertaken judiciously with emphasis on oral presentations to the class and
   analysis through overhead copies of work.
9. Novel Unit: This novel study will review the concepts of literature, such as
   characterization and motivation, and build on reading, vocabulary, and
   analytical writing.

CLASS EXPECTATIONS
1. Students are expected to attend class regularly and on time. Those who are
   absent are expected to see the teacher the day they return to school, during
   tutorial time or between 8 and 8:30 on days without tutorials. They are
   expected to make up all missed assignments. A call should be made to the
   office verifying their absence.
2. Students are expected to complete all work on time, particularly since it is
   frequently used as part of the class group work on the day it is due.
3. Students are expected to recognize that our class is a community of learners
   and that working together will assist them in their own learning.
   Cooperation and mutual respect are integral to the functioning of the class.

EVALUATION AND WEIGHTING
Term 1:          30%
Term 2:          30%
Provincial Exam: 40%

Daily assignments, sentences, paragraphs, essays, discussion, journals, projects,
quizzes and exams will all be used to evaluate performance.

The weighting of assessment will be approximately 50% on written work and
projects, 30% on exams and quizzes, and 20% on homework and oral
contributions. Homework completion counts in two areas: The provincial
learning outcomes met by the assignment contributes to your letter grade; your
work ethic demonstrated in doing your homework contributes to your work
habit mark. Class participation and oral contributions are divided in a similar
way.
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              Ideas from Your Communications 12 IRP

               Activity Ideas                             Assessment Ideas
                                      Reading
Review various ways of organizing          Have students summarize what they
information such as webs, concept          have learned re: reading in a response
maps and outlines. Ask students to         journal. Ask them which strategies are
select from their repertoire of strategies most helpful or efficient, which are
when they read, choosing the best          difficult and which the student should
strategy for each type of reading. (p.     practice more in the future. (p. 35)
34)
                                           Look for evidence that students have
Review with students reading               connected the reading to their own
strategies such as scanning for specific   experience, described feelings about
information, skimming to get an idea       the topic, provided specific
of the contents and to prepare for in-     information, considered other points of
depth reading, and rereading to            view and explained gaps in their
confirm understanding. (p. 34)             understanding. (p. 35)
                                        Writing
Ask students to write paragraphs           Assess the writing for a clearly stated
describing their school for three          purpose in each paragraph, adjusted
different audiences: a film producer       language, and presentation to suit the
who is looking for a movie set, a          audience. The student should be able to
secondary student from another             explain the differences in presentation
country and the chair of the school        for each audience. (p. 45)
board who wants to understand the
principal‟s request for money. (p. 44)

Have students participate in an editing         Assess the student suggestions for
workshop whereby they state the                 improvement, looking for reasonable
purpose and topic of the piece and then         suggestions that demonstrate
read it aloud to a small group of peers.        understanding of the writing process
The peers listen for places where they          and language conventions. Teachers
have problems understanding.                    could also assess the final piece of
Students rewrite the piece in response          writing produced by the writing
to the peer suggestions for                     workshop process, looking for unity of
improvement. (p. 46)                            purpose and topic and writing
                                                conventions.



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                                       Speaking
Pairs of students script and present two When students discuss the effect of
telephone conversations re: the same       different telephone conversation styles,
complaint. The first speaker is polite     check that they support their
and diplomatic; the second speaker is      statements with references to
angry and abusive. Ask the class the       differences in vocabulary and tone,
most effective approach in lodging a       connections to their personal lives and
complaint. (p. 40)                         what they have learned. (p. 41)

Have student groups prepare a debate Look for evidence of a clear thesis,
on a controversial question such as      information to support the students‟
“should cloning of animals or humans     position drawn from a variety of
be legal?” Have students go through a    sources, focussed examples and
full research process and prepare        arguments, accurate and relevant
affirmative and negative responses       information, and correct use of
before holding the debate. (p. 44)       language. (p. 45)
                                     Listening
Have students interview each other       Assess the ability of students to listen
and make notes of the others‟ goals and effectively when they are in the
accomplishments. Then, each person       interview situation and when they are
makes a speech about his or her          listening to the speeches in the class
partner. (p. 54)                         setting. Check for “listening” body
                                         language and accurate notes.

Have students understand how                    Have students listen to the two oral
information can be adjusted for                 descriptions and give feedback about
particular purposes by asking them to           whether or not the speaker:
describe something that needs to be                recognizes differences in purpose and
sold (car, bike, house, etc.) to a                  audience
salesperson who will handle the deal,              uses language that suits each audience
then describing the same item to a                 adjusts the amount and level of
repairperson who will replace or fix it.            information for each audience
Ask students to consider at what point             recognizes that adjusting content may
the adjusting for audience can become               be unethical if the result misleads the
                                                    listener (p. 49)
unethical. (p. 48)




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                                      Viewing
Provide students with a how-to video      Check that students can identify the
and a music video and have them write intended purpose and audience for
summaries of each before comparing        each video and can discuss differences
them for the amount, depth and type of in amount, type and depth of
information. Have students explain the information. Look for clear and concise
different viewing strategies used for     explanations, logical conclusions and
each video. (p. 36)                       statements supported with video
                                          references. (p. 37)

Have student groups create a time         Evaluate the writing that goes in each
capsule or Museum of the 20th C. Have time capsule. Look for concise, detailed
the groups write a brief explanation of and original perspectives on each
the significance of each item and         item‟s importance. Look for student
include it in the capsule in a sealed     ability to use language that
envelope. Then, the groups exchange       compliments others on their choice of
capsules, view each others‟ capsules      items and demonstrates pride in the
and make guesses about what the           project being completed. (p. 55)
significance of the objects might be.
They check their understanding by
opening the sealed envelope. (p. 54)
                                       Representing
Have student groups survey the school Check that the graphs accurately
about student interests, attitudes or     represent the student survey
consumer preferences. Each group          information. Criteria for assessment
should do a different survey, then        might include chooses an appropriate
present a graph of their findings on a    type of graph, includes titles and
poster, complete with visuals and text    labels, includes a clear description of
to support and explain their survey       the survey, includes a correct legend,
results. (p. 44)                          graphs are neat and visually appealing.
                                          (p. 45)

Have students create a verbal/visual            Assess the verbal/visual report with
report in which they combine writing            these criteria: design and images help
and illustration in order to explain the        clarify meaning, design and images
meaning - both literal and inferential -        suited to purpose and audience, colour
of a reading selection.                         used effectively to emphasize, show
                                                connections and help the reader locate
                                                information. (p. 47)




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                                                            Index



Comprehend and Respond (reading, viewing, listening)

STRATEGIES, SKILLS
Develop strategies and skills for anticipating, predicting and confirming
meaning
Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Conscience Alley .............................................................................................................22
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Two Column Notes .........................................................................................................50
Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Effective Language Analysis .......................................................................................124
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Imagery Echoes .............................................................................................................148
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Poetic Inductive Thinking ............................................................................................154
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Allusions.........................................................................................................................168
Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172

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COMPREHENSION
Understand written, oral, visual communications
Mandala ............................................................................................................................24
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Two Column Notes .........................................................................................................50
Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Flexibility ..........................................................................................................................58
Originality ........................................................................................................................60
Elaboration .......................................................................................................................62
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Acrostics ...........................................................................................................................84
Emotional Distance .........................................................................................................88
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
The Personal Metaphor ................................................................................................130
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Imagery Echoes .............................................................................................................148
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Theme in Poetry ............................................................................................................150
Poetic Inductive Thinking ............................................................................................154
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Bio-Poem ........................................................................................................................166
Allusions.........................................................................................................................168
Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176

ENGAGEMENT AND PERSONAL RESPONSE
Make connections with literary works and mass media
Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Flexibility ..........................................................................................................................58
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Postcards ..........................................................................................................................76
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Theme in Poetry ............................................................................................................150
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
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Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176




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CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Draw, defend reasoned conclusions from information in various works.
Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Conscience Alley .............................................................................................................22
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Colourful Description ...................................................................................................104
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
U-Debate .........................................................................................................................110
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
Effective Language Analysis .......................................................................................124
Family Possessions........................................................................................................128
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Imagery Echoes .............................................................................................................148
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Allusions.........................................................................................................................168
Video Analyses ..............................................................................................................172
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176




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Communicate Ideas and Information (write, speak, represent)

KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
Apply knowledge of conventions of language
Inner and Outer Circles ..................................................................................................26
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Two Column Notes .........................................................................................................50
Elaboration .......................................................................................................................62
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Effective Language Analysis .......................................................................................124
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Sonnet Walks .................................................................................................................146
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
Fantasy Trips and Symbolism .....................................................................................163

COMPOSING AND CREATING
Variety of processes and strategies to generate, gather and organize
information and ideas.
Mandala ............................................................................................................................24
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
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Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Personal Profile ...............................................................................................................80
Group Essay .....................................................................................................................82
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Family Possessions........................................................................................................128
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Bio-Poem ........................................................................................................................166
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176

IMPROVING COMMUNICATIONS
Enhance precision, clarity, artistry, using processes that professionals use to
appraise and improve work.
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Strongest Memory Sense ................................................................................................46
Fluency .............................................................................................................................56
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Group Essay .....................................................................................................................82
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Poetry By Candlelight ..................................................................................................132
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
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Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Internet Research Project .............................................................................................170




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder                  312                                           Copyright SD #43
PRESENTING AND VALUING
Variety of forms and styles for specific audience and purpose.
Inner and Outer Circles ..................................................................................................26
Pictorial Story Diagram ..................................................................................................32
Conflict Poster .................................................................................................................34
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Psychiatrist‟s Report .......................................................................................................38
Character Résumés .........................................................................................................40
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Elaboration .......................................................................................................................62
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Setting Map ......................................................................................................................72
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Postcards ..........................................................................................................................76
Character Diary ...............................................................................................................74
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Language Translation .....................................................................................................92
Choices: Into, Through, Beyond ...................................................................................94
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Colourful Description ...................................................................................................104
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
U-Debate .........................................................................................................................110
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
One Poem an Hour .......................................................................................................159
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174




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Self and Society (group)

WORKING TOGETHER
Interact and collaborate to explore ideas and accomplish goals.
Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Philosophy Journal .........................................................................................................52
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Personal Profile ...............................................................................................................80
Jeopardy! .......................................................................................................................90
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
U-Debate .........................................................................................................................110
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Theme in Poetry ............................................................................................................150
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Poetic Inductive Thinking ............................................................................................154
Poetry Definitions .........................................................................................................161
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174

BUILDING COMMUNITY
Establish and maintain relationships; collaborate; value and support others.
Verbal Word Association ...............................................................................................36
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Board Game .....................................................................................................................64
Found Poetry ...................................................................................................................66
Novel = Play ....................................................................................................................68
Emotional Distance .........................................................................................................88
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Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Numbered Heads Together .........................................................................................108
Newspaper .....................................................................................................................114
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Poetry By Candlelight ..................................................................................................132
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140

PERSONAL AWARENESS
Use language to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings, experiences.
Synectics and the Extended Metaphor.........................................................................18
Conscience Alley .............................................................................................................22
Mandala ............................................................................................................................24
Inner and Outer Circles ..................................................................................................26
Response Journal .............................................................................................................28
Picture the Characters ....................................................................................................30
Story Graph ......................................................................................................................42
Story as Sporting Event ..................................................................................................44
Another Name .................................................................................................................48
Oral Journals ....................................................................................................................54
Fluency .............................................................................................................................56
Time Capsule ...................................................................................................................70
Postcards ..........................................................................................................................76
Character Profile .............................................................................................................78
Personal Profile ...............................................................................................................80
Emotional Distance .........................................................................................................88
Body Shadow Maps ........................................................................................................96
Sort and Predict ...............................................................................................................98
Character Hot Seat ........................................................................................................100
Antagonist on Trial .......................................................................................................102
Colourful Description ...................................................................................................104
Fiction Documentary ....................................................................................................106
Reading Articles ............................................................................................................112
Vocabulary from Text ...................................................................................................116
Storytelling .....................................................................................................................118
Connections for Creative Writing...............................................................................120
Real Versus Artificial Collage .....................................................................................122
My Favourite Way to Relax .........................................................................................126
Family Possessions........................................................................................................128
The Personal Metaphor ................................................................................................130
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Poetry By Candlelight ..................................................................................................132
Painting The Mood .......................................................................................................134
Ear, Heart And Brain Poetry .......................................................................................136
Poetry And Performance Art ......................................................................................138
Choral Reading ..............................................................................................................140
Poetry Triptych..............................................................................................................142
Music Videos .................................................................................................................144
Interpreting Poetry .......................................................................................................152
Impressionism and The Haiku ....................................................................................157
Fantasy Trips and Symbolism .....................................................................................163
Bio-Poem ........................................................................................................................166
Picture Writing ..............................................................................................................174
View, Discuss, Write .....................................................................................................176
Index ...............................................................................................................................305




Coquitlam Secondary English Resource Binder                      316                                             Copyright SD #43

								
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