bobby by vSbWKZ2S


									                  3 Theories of Learning:
A look at “Searching for Bobby Fischer” from a Behaviorist,
             Cognitive and Situative Positions

 Janelle
 Michael K.
 Darlene
“Come on, move already…”
      Behaviorist Theory of Knowing
 Behaviorist    theory of knowing involves:

   An observable connection between stimuli and responses
   The teacher provides direct stimulus to students
   Students are expected to give an appropriate response to the
   When the correct response is given, students are given positive
   When incorrect response is given, negative reinforcement
Behaviorist Theory of Learning and
   Behaviorist theory of learning and transfer involves:

     Strengthening or weakening a students connections between
      certain stimuli and responses through reinforcement and
     Teacher creates behavioral objectives which students are
      expected to meet
     Teacher helps students form new desired associations
     Teacher increases difficulty in small steps
        Behaviorism theory of motivation

   Behaviorist theory of motivation believes:

       In using extrinsic motivators such as rewards and punishments or positive and
        negative incentives that affect the student’s tendency to give a certain
        response to a stimulus
       Extrinsic motivators should be gradually decreased until a student is
        eventually “trained” to give the desired response whenever presented with the
        associating stimulus
       Eventually, students will not require the extrinsic motivator
      Examples Of Behaviorist Theory In The
   Josh is given an extrinsic reward for doing well in his chess class in the form of
    points towards his master certificate
   Josh is rewarded verbally by his father and teacher when he does well
   When Josh loses, he is given negative reinforcement from his father in the form of
    yelling at him in the rain and standing far away from him
   Josh sees another child’s father yelling at him after he loses. He decides losing is
    not good
   The man in the park makes Josh play chess over and over to learn from his
    mistakes. When Josh makes a good move, Vinnie gives him positive verbal
    reinforcement, when he makes a bad move, Vinnie gives negative verbal
         Cognitive Theory of Knowing

 Believes knowing is a combination of structures of
  information and processes
 Students recognize and construct patterns of
  symbols in order to understand concepts
 Students transfer connections into reasoning,
  problem solving, and an ability to understand
  higher level thinking
 Cognitive Theory of Leaning and Transfer

 Based  on Piaget’s theory of building blocks
 Children learn concepts which lead to sequential
 Also based on the Gestalt theory, which focuses on
  structural knowledge and insight.
 Learning is built systematically
        Cognitive Theory of Motivation

 People   are naturally intrinsically motivated
 Intrinsic motivation is used to foster ideas and
 Motivation increases with success and praise
 Reasoning, problem solving and comprehension
  are all aided by intrinsic motivation
    Cognitive Theory Examples in the
   He is intrinsically motivated to learn
       Josh learns the fundamentals of the game without formal training via
        observation and internalization in the park
       He has an intrinsic need to please his parents- through sports and good acts
   His knowledge is the sum of parts from observation, and Vinnie +
    Bruce’s instruction
       Josh’s final knowledge was not possible without learning from each
   During the final match, Josh uses the best instructional practices and
    theories from his two instructors to defeat his rival
       Metacognitition is demonstrated when Josh thinks back to Bruce’s lesson of
        the empty board
       Josh has learned that winning is not a textbook science. Relying solely on “by
        the book” techniques, or strictly on improvisation are not sufficient for victory
Behaviorist + Cognitive + Situative Learning =
   View of knowing

     The way knowledge is distributed in the world among
     People learn from their social environment
     People learn from the communities and practices in which they
     Situated in socially defined practices, ability to participate in the
      practices and to know the differences of the settings

 View   of learning and transfer

   Process of legitimate peripheral participation
   The process of transforming from newcomer to a full-
    fledged participant in a field
   Transfer happens every time we enter a new situation,
    we bring together all our experiences
 View   of motivation

   Maintains   the person’s interpersonal relations and
   Involves satisfying interactions with environments in
    which the person participates
   You do things to please others and to fit into a group
    (external motivation)
       Situative Examples From Movie
   Josh is accepted into the park community once they notice his natural ability and
    he befriends a local chess “master,” Vinny, who is a full participant in the park
    chess community. Vinny recognizes Josh’s potential and becomes his guide,
    putting him in an apprentice-type role. Josh furthers his learning experience by
    playing the game within park community. He learns the affordances of play and a
    street strategy of the game, one which uses speed and an aggressive tactic which
    is meant to intimidate the opponent.

   Later, after Josh’s parents accept that he has an interest and skill for the game, his
    father employs a professional teacher, Bruce, to develop Josh’s skills and
    strategies. Through this training, Josh is expected to learn a new type of
    approach to chess play that focuses on playing the board, rather than playing the
    opponent. Bruce forces him to adopt this more calculated approach which is
    considered optimal for tournament play and Josh struggles to adjust to what he
    perceives as new constraints.
     Powerpoint Affordances and Constraints
   Affordances
       Allows for a lot of written text
       Comes on most computers
       Internet not required
       Easy to use (templates built in, user friendly)
       Easily organizes text
   Constraints
       Not as visual as inspiration (harder to use graphs, etc.)
       Takes up a lot of memory
       Need a computer to show slide show
       Cannot easily view whole show at once
       When presenting to a class, need to consider whether or not text on slide show
        is big enough for everyone to see

To top