PPTS 20Sept

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					A Comparison of a
New Jersey Patriot
  and a Loyalist



                     1
William Franklin
New Jersey Loyalist




      1731 - 1813     2
Divisions Between NJ
Patriots and Loyalists

   Socio-Economic Considerations

   Religious Considerations

   Appointed Members of Royal
    Government in the Colonies

                                    3
        Socio-Economic
        Considerations
   William Franklin was born in
    Philadelphia, son of the illustrious
    patriot himself, Benjamin Franklin.

   He went on to become a lawyer and
    a popular governor of New Jersey.
             (1763 –1776)



                                           4
   William Franklin was considered
    an aristocrat. He owned a large
    country estate of 600 acres, a fine
    wardrobe, and valuable household
    furnishings.

   William was married to an English
    woman and they threw lavish
    dinner parties at the New Jersey’s
    governor’s mansion.
                                          5
    Does this mean that all
      NJ Loyalists were
          wealthy?
   Probably not. Loyalists came from all
    classes of society in New Jersey, but it is
    mainly the wealthy and educated
    Loyalists who have left records behind.




                                              6
      These Records Come
    From Two Main Sources:
   Letters to family and friends. Do not
    forget that many New Jerseyans of
    lesser means were illiterate. Many
    moved to Nova Scotia following the
    Revolutionary War and did not leave a
    ‘paper trail.’

   Claims filed under the Treaty of Paris.
    Following the Revolutionary War this
    treaty allowed British sympathizers to
    recover property and land confiscated by
    the new state governments. Poorer
    Loyalists could not afford to process
    these type of claims.                   7
           Religious
         Considerations
   William Franklin, like many New
    Jersey Loyalists, was a member of
    the Anglican Church.

   Most of the patriots were
    Protestant.




                                        8
    Anglican Church in NJ
   NJ’s Protestant denominations –
    Congregationalists, Presbyterians,
    Baptists, Quakers, and the Dutch
    Reformed – were fairly well
    established when the Anglicans
    arrived.
   New members of the Anglican
    church tended to be wealthy
    landowners.
                                         9
    The Anglican Church
     Gains Foothold in NJ
   Anglicans vigorously petitioned
    King George III to appoint a bishop
    for New Jersey.

   Many Anglicans felt compelled to
    side with Britain during the
    Revolutionary War because they
    feared that the patriots, largely
    Protestant, would drive their
    church out of the colonies.
                                        10
       Members of Royal
         Government
   William Franklin was appointed a
    royal governor in the colonies in
    1763. As such, he was the last
    royal governor of New Jersey.

   William Franklin clearly saw his
    obligations as lying first with the
    crown that appointed him, and
    secondly, to the citizens of NJ.
                                          11
What Became of William
      Franklin?
   William Franklin felt torn between his
    loyalty to the people of New Jersey and
    the British crown. He chose to remain
    loyal to his king.

   He was arrested by the NJ Militia in 1776
    and sent to prison in Connecticut. In
    1778 his father arranged for his release
    through a prisoner exchange, but not
    before his wife died back home in New
    Jersey.
                                              12
      Franklin’s Loyalist
      Activities Continue
   William Franklin moved to New York City
    upon his release from prison in 1778. He
    then founded and presided over an
    independent political group known as the
    Associated Loyalists.

   Following the American victory, Franklin
    sailed for England in 1782 where he
    hoped to be paid by the British
    government for his loyalty during the
    war. Franklin never returned to America.

                                           13
     Immersed in Britain's
    New American Problem
       – Exiled Loyalists
   Franklin worked tirelessly to help
    former colonists who remained
    loyal to England recover some of
    their property and receive
    compensation. He, however, was
    dismayed that because England
    was suspicious of him due to his
    blood ties to Benjamin Franklin, he
    himself was not paid very
    handsomely.
                                      14
       What Happened to
       William Franklin?
   William Franklin did receive a
    comfortable pension from the British
    government. He married again, though
    his second wife died shortly afterwards.

   William did not fully reconcile with his
    father even though Benjamin was in
    France for long periods after the war.

   William Franklin died in England in 1813.

                                               15
Richard Stockton
A New Jersey Patriot




                       16
Socio-Economic Considerations

         Richard Stockton came from an old
          and respected family

         Stockton’s great grandfather came
          from England about 1670 and
          resided on a 6,400 acre tract of
          land in Princeton

                                              17
            Early Life
   Richard Stockton was born in
    Princeton on October 1, 1730, the
    eldest of John and Abigail (Phillips)
    Stockton

   Graduated from the College of New
    Jersey in 1748

   After college he studied law, and was
    admitted to the bar

                                            18
    The Professional Years
   Enjoyed successful law practice in
    Princeton, NJ area

   Visited England in 1776 and 1777

   Concerned over tense relations
    between Great Britain and colonies


                                       19
Religious Considerations

                Richard Stockton
                 was Protestant

                He was greatly
                 respected for his
                 religious and
                 moral character


                                     20
Leaves Royal Government –
     Becomes Patriot
       Richard Stockton became an
        outspoken advocate of the
        colonies
       Resigned from the Royal Council
        although he had established many
        friendships
       Stockton was selected as one of
        the delegates to the Congress
        (which drafted the Declaration of
        Independence)
                                        21
What Happens to Richard Stockton?

           On November 30, 1776, British troops
            pillage New Jersey

           Stockton goes to prison

           He is treated very harshly, and is forced
            to sign an oath of allegiance to England

           Stockton’s home and library are
            destroyed

                                                        22
    Washington Intervenes
   George Washington arranges for
    Stockton’s release
   Exchanged for another prisoner after one
    month
   Stockton renounces his oath of
    allegiance to England and is forgiven by
    the colonists
   Stockton’s health was ruined
   He had lost all his earthly possessions
   He died in 1781 in Princeton at the age
    of 51
                                          23

				
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posted:11/11/2011
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