Coaching by w07PXmd


									“If we do not change direction, we are liable to
        end up where we are headed.”
            -- Co-Active Coaching, Whitworth, Kimsey-House, Sandahl

                                  Luis Aguilar
                                  Kevin Keifer
                                 Danielle Schmal

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                        i
                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

Book Reviews                                      Page 1
  - Co-Active Coaching                            Page 2
    Laura Whitworth, Henry Kimsey-House
    and Phil Sandahl

   - Coaching for Leadership                     Page 14
     Edited By: Marshall Goldsmith, Laurence
     Lyons, and Alyssa Freas

Annotated Bibliographies                         Page 24
  - ―Forty things every manager should know      Page 25
    about coaching‖
  - ―Behind Closed Doors: What Really            Page 26
    Happens in Executive Coaching‖
  - ―The Manager‘s Role as Coach and             Page 28
  - ―Adler and the Profession of Coaching‖       Page 29
  - ―Working with Executives: Consulting,        Page 31
    Counseling, and Coaching‖
  - ―How Leaders Foster Self-Managing            Page 32
    Team Effectiveness: Design Choices
    Versus Hands-on Coaching‖
  - ―Why Coaching‖                               Page 34
  - ―Mentoring: The Components for               Page 35
  - ―An Investigation of relationships between   Page 37
    communication style and leader-member
  - ―Executive Coaching as a Transfer of         Page 39
    Training Tool: Effects on Productivity in
    a Public Agency‖
Practitioner Interviews                          Page 41
  - LCRD Jeff Priore, Training Officer,          Page 42
    NMCB 28 (Navy Construction Battalion)
  - Diane Dykes, Learning & Development          Page 43
    Supervisor, BP Chemical Plant
  - Reverend Mike Ruth, Senior Executive         Page 44
    Pastor, Metropolitan Baptist Church
  - Joseph deLeon, Systemic Unit Supervisor,     Page 47

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                        ii
Additional Resources                    Page 49
  - Coaching for Performance            Page 50
     by John Whitmore
  - ―Leader as Coach‖, BP Amoco         Page 51
  - International Coaching Foundation   Page 52
  - ―Stay in the Game‖                  Page 52
  - ―The Art of Good Coaching‖          Page 54
Topic Summary                           Page 57
Implications                            Page 66

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching               iii
                                 BOOK REVIEWS

                             Co-Active Coaching-
        New Skills for Coaching People toward Success in Work and Life
          Laura Whitworth, Henry Kimsey-House and Phil Sandahl


                          Coaching for Leadership-
            How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn
      Edited By: Marshall Goldsmith, Laurence Lyons, and Alyssa Freas

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                           1
                                          I. Book Review

 Co-Active Coaching- New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work
                                  and Life
         Laura Whitworth, Henry Kimsey-House and Phil Sandahl

This book is about a particular kind of coaching: professional/personal coaching. The coaching

style called co-active coaching is called that way because it involves the active and collaboration

participation of both the coach and the client. The essential message is that co-active coaching is

a partnership of a willing client and an acceptable coach committed to the client‘s agenda.   I

will summarize the book by the following three parts: ―Coaching Fundamentals‖, ―Co-Active

Coaching Skills‖ and ―Co-Active Coaching Processes‖. At the end I will provide my personal


Coaching Fundamentals

The authors explain that people come to coaching for lots of different reasons, but the bottom

line is they want things to be different. They are looking for change or they have an important

goal to reach. There are four cornerstones that form the foundation of co-active coaching:

       1.   The client is naturally creative, resourceful, and whole.
       2.   Co-active coaching addresses the client‘s whole life.
       3.   The agenda comes from the client.
       4.   The relationship is a designed alliance.

The primary building block for all co-active coaching is this: Clients have the answers or they

can find the answers. The coach does not have the answers; the coach has questions. In some

cases people have powerful sabotaging voice that tells them they don‘t have the answers. But co-

active coaching stands on the certainty that clients really do know. When they look inside, with

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     2
the help of a coach, they‘ll find they know themselves, their strengths, and their limitations.

They have found that clients are more resourceful, more effective, and generally more satisfied

when they find their own answers.

Co-active coaching focuses on these three client principles: fulfillment, balance, and process. In

a co-active coaching relationship the agenda comes from the client, not the coach. This is one of

the most important distinctions of co-active coaching. The coach‘s job is to help clients

articulate their dreams, desires, and aspirations, help them clarify their mission, purpose, and

goals, and help them achieve that outcome.

In co-active coaching, power is granted to the coaching relationships-not to the coach. Clients

don‘t buy a packaged program. They are involved in creating a powerful relationship that fits

their working and learning styles. Clients learn that they are in control of the relationship and

ultimately of the changes they make in their lives.

The product of the work the client and coach do together is action and learning. These two

forces of action and learning combine to create change. One of the purposes of coaching is to

forward the action of the client. The other force at work in the human change process is

learning. Learning is not simply a by-product of action; it is an equal and complementary force.

The learning generates new resourcefulness, expanded possibilities, and stronger muscles for

change. One of the common misunderstandings about coaching is that it‘s simply about getting

things done. But coaching is not just about action; it is just as importantly about continuing to


Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                      3
The heart of the co-active coaching model is the client‘s agenda, so it is at the center of the co-

active Coaching Model diagram in Figure 1. The agenda addresses the three central aspects of

the client‘s life: the three principles of fulfillment, balance, and process. They are principals

because they are fundamental to the liveliness of life.

                             Figure1   The Co-Active Coaching Model

The definition of what fulfillment means to the client is always intensely personal. A fulfilling

life is a valued life, and clients will have their own definition of what they truly value. Sorting

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                        4
out values is a way of sorting out life choices because when the choices honor the client‘s values,

life is more satisfying and seems almost effortless. Achieving a certain goal can be very

fulfilling especially as a benchmark, but most clients find that fulfillment is not the finish line.

At its deepest level it is about finding and experiencing a life of purpose. It is about reaching

one‘s full potential.

At today‘s pace of life, with so many responsibilities, attractive options, demands, and

distractions, balance may feel like an impossible dream. Co-active coaching approaches the

whole person‘s life. It is no service to help client excel in one area of their lives without caring

for the rest. It‘s one of the reasons why coaches almost always do a broad assessment at the very

first session. It‘s a way to see where clients place their level of satisfaction in the significant

areas of a balanced life: career, health, finances, relationships, personal growth, spirituality, and


Coaching for balance, however, focuses on widening the range of perspectives and, therefore,

adding more choices. Ultimately balance is about making choices: saying yes to some things and

no to others. Balance is a fluid state, always in motion, because life itself is dynamic. Therefore,

it makes more sense to look at whether a client is moving toward balance or away from balance-

rather than offering the client ―balance‖ as a goal to be achieved. Figure 2 shows ―The Wheel of

Life‖ exercise that is presented in the book related to balance that I found very useful.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                          5
                                    Figure 2 The Wheel of Life

We are always in process. Sometimes it looks frantic. Sometimes it looks graceful. Because

coaching is effective at achieving results, both clients and coaches can get drawn into the

―results‖ trap—focusing entirely on the destination ahead and losing sight of the flow of the

journey. The coach‘s job is to notice, point out, and be with clients wherever they are in the

process. Coaching the client‘s process allows clients to live more fully in deeper relationship

with all of their life.

The coach listens to the words that come from the client, of course. But the real listening of

coaching takes place on a deeper level. The coach is also listening for resistance, fear,

backtracking, and the voice of that internal saboteur-the Gremlin-who is there to object change,

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     6
point out the client‘s weakness and failure, and cite reasons for holding back. The coach is

listening at many levels at once to hear where clients are in their process, to hear where they are

out of balance, to hear their progress on the journey of fulfillment. To understand this crucial

listening context, imagine there are three levels of listening:

       - In Level I the listening is internal. We hear the words of the other person, but the focus
           is on what it means to us. In a coaching relationship the client is at Level I: looking
       - Level II is focused listening. The attention is laser-focused over there: on the other
           person. The coach needs to be listening at Level II—and at Level III.
       - Level III is a global range of listening: hearing that picks up emotion, body
           language, the environment itself.

Listening at Levels II and III also gives coaches greater access to their intuition—that place just

below the surface where the hard data and soft data merge. It is rather like knowing what resides

in the background and usually remains unspoken. A coach receives a great deal of information

from the client and then, in the moment of coaching, combines it with previous information as

well as experience not only in coaching but in operating in the world. Add to this one more

factor: the unknown exponent of not knowing where some things come from. In the instant that

it takes this whole process to happen, our intuition gives us a message. This is a skill that, for

most coaches, needs practice and development. It is enormously valuable because time and

again it synthesized more impressions and information that we could ever analyze consciously.

One of the fundamental tenets of co-active coaching is that clients are capable and resourceful

and they have the answers. The coach‘s job is to ask the questions. The context of curiosity

gives a certain frame to the question-asking process. Curiosity is open, inviting, spacious, and

almost playful. And yet it is also enormously powerful. Like scientific curiosity that explores

the deepest questions of matter, life, and the universe, curiosity in coaching allows coach and

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                        7
client to enter the deepest areas of the client‘s life, side by side, simply looking, and curious

about what they will find.

In order to truly hold the client‘s agenda, the coach must get out of the way—not always an easy

thing to do. Self-management is the coach‘s ability to set aside his or her own personal opinions,

preferences, pride, defensiveness, and ego. Self-management means giving up on the need to

look good and the need to be right. For the coach, in this case, to manage one‘s self means to

become nearly invisible.

The coach‘s role is to create an environment in which clients focus entirely on their fulfillment,

balance, and process. The coach and client work together to design the working alliance, and the

coach uses the five contexts of coaching to make contact with the client and facilitate action and

learning. Because clients set the agenda in co-active coaching, when the coaching session

begins, coaches need to be ready to respond to whatever clients have determined is most

important. To be effective, co-active coaches must really be on their toes, ready to move

gracefully into the next question or to employ a coaching skill—not knowing until that moment

which skill is called for.

Co-Active Coaching Skills

The authors of the book believe that the easiest way to see and understand the application of

coaching skills is to view them within the five contexts of coaching. Following are the five

context of coaching that is presented in details in this chapter:

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                       8
        -    Listening
        -    Intuition
        -    Curiosity
        -    Action/Learning
        -    Self-Management

Listening is a talent that each of us is given in some measure. People who become coaches tend

to be gifted listeners to begin with. But listening is also a skill that can be trained and developed.

There are two aspects of listening in coaching. One is attention, or awareness. It is receiving of

information through what we with our ears, but it is also listening with all the senses and with

our intuition. The attention is on information in: the words, impressions, shift of energy. The

second aspect is what we do with our listening. This is refers to the impact of our listening on

others, specifically the impact of the coach‘s listening on the client. Active listening involves

clarifying what the other person says, noticing body language, increasing your awareness of the

feelings behind the words, and sharpening your sensitivity to the context of the conversation.

There are three levels of listening that were mentioned on the previous section, level I, level II

and level III. These three levels give the coach an enormous range and, ultimately, a greater

capacity for listening. The following coaching skills are generally associated with the context of


        -    Articulating: It involves mirroring back to clients what they‘ve just said to you.
             Articulating is a skill that affirms the client
        -    Clarifying: Coaches serve as a resource for their client‘s self-reflection to create
             greater clarity.
        -    Meta View: Presents the big picture and opens up room for perspective. It‘s easy to
             get pulled into the details on the moment and lose focus on the client‘s meta-view of
             the situation.
        -    Metaphor: Using metaphor is a skill to draw imaginary and experience to help the
             client comprehend faster and more easily.
        -    Acknowledging: The coaching skill of acknowledgment strengthens the client‘s

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                       9
Speaking from your intuition is extraordinary valuable in coaching. It‘s right alongside the

ability to listen deeply and deftly. Intuition is a powerful asset in coaching. Intuition, however,

is not directly observable-although sometimes its effects are. Like the wind in the trees, it may

not be visible, but we can see and hear its effect. That is why it is sometimes called the ―sixth

sense‖. It is sensitivity that goes beyond the physical world. In order to express our intuition in

words, we make an interpretation. It‘s our interpretation of the intuitive nudge that can be off

target. The intuitive impulse itself was neither right nor wrong. The important thing to

remember in coaching is to be open to intuition-trusting it, aware of it, and completely

unattached to the interpretation. In the end, intuition is valuable when it moves the client to

action or deeper learning. It‘s irrelevant, really, whether your intuition was correct. If you‘re

going to use your intuition effectively, you can‘t be attached to the interpretation. Being

unattached to an interpretation can be a challenge, and it is one reason people don‘t express their


Curiosity presents a paradox in coaching: on one hand it has a wonderful quality of playfulness;

and yet, in practice, the coach‘s curiosity is a powerful way of opening doors that the client has

closed, locked, and forgotten. Curiosity is therefore disarming but also engaging. When you are

curious, you are no longer in the role of expert. Instead, you are joining clients in a quest to find

out what‘s there. You are exploring their world with them, not superimposing your world on

theirs. By finding the answers in themselves-rather than in you the coach-clients become even

more resourceful. Curiosity generates the search, defines and directs it, but it is the exploring

that creates learning. As a coach your curiosity leads you to know the client from the inside out,

building internal capabilities.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                      10
Coaching works for many reasons that reasons that overlap and intertwine, but one of the

strongest threads in this weave is action. In fact, it‘s the cycle of action and learning, over time,

that leads to sustained and effective change. Coaching works because it is not easy to maintain

momentum alone. One of the defining qualities of coaching is that it creates accountability: a

measuring tool for action and a mean to report on learning. Accountability is essential to

forwarding the action and deepening the learning in co-active coaching because the coaching

session is more than just conversation: it is conversation that leads to some form of action. To be

accountable simply means: to give an account. What worked? What didn‘t work? What

happened? What would you do differently next time? Co-active coaches are not attached to the

results clients achieve. Coaches want their clients to excel, of course, and have fulfilled lives,

but the results belong to the client. Accountability can provide means for change and creates a

great opportunity to acknowledge how they succeed. This is ultimately what clients are

accountable for: their own lives, their own agenda. If nothing else as their coach, hold them

accountable for this and you will be a powerful coach. Each of the following skills helps to

forward the action and deepen the learning:

       -   Brainstorming
       -   Planning/Goal Setting
       -   Request for action
       -   Challenging the client
       -   Putting structure to make it work

The context of self-management is about how coaches manage the distractions and still succeed

in being effective coaches. By paying attention to your own self-management, you learn more

about how to help clients with their self-management and, moreover, you model good self-

management for them. The professional coaching relationship demands that the client‘s

fulfillment, balance, and process receive your full attention as coach as well your client‘s

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                       11
attention. There‘s really no room to deal with your own feelings, opinions, and judgments

without taking something away from the client. As a coach you need to be physically grounded,

emotionally steady, and mentally present. Despite your best intentions to always be present, there

will be times when you disconnect from your client. Admitting that you disappeared actually

creates trust.

Coaching Processes

In a chaotic, high speed world of schedules, commitments, stress, and demands on time and

energy there is a yearning for something called balance. Balance is dynamic; it only exists in the

midst of action. Balance requires consistent, conscious, and controlled motion. There is a seven

step approach designed to lead clients from powerlessness to possibility and finally into action to

create a more balanced life.

        1.   Help clients see they are fixated on one way of looking at the issue.
        2.   Identify additional perspective
        3.   Get inside the different perspectives
        4.   Choose the perspective
        5.   Create a plan that addresses the situation
        6.   Commit to the plan
        7.   Take action

Every client will have a unique model of what balance looks like.

The focus of process coaching is on where clients are now and how they want to be. Part of the

coach‘s job is to be with the client in the process. Be aware that clients almost never come to

coaching for the process. They mostly come for setting goals and getting into action to achieve

those goals. And in their minds that‘s all about doing: action steps, to-do lists, and

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                    12
accountability. Yet there are times when it is indeed the process that needs coaching. Process can

be compared to the river of life. Life has a constant flow but it changes form. In one part it is

steady, and then it hits rapids, and then a waterfall. There are eddies and whirlpools, backwater

and swampy parts. Process is about being wherever you are on the river and not trying to dam

the river, walk upstream, or stop the river.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                      13
                                          Book Review

                             Coaching for Leadership
               How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn
         Edited By: Marshall Goldsmith, Laurence Lyons, and Alyssa Freas

In today‘s business world, having a coach is becoming more and more of a necessity for

executives and CEOs. The purpose of an executive coach is to help people become more than

they realize they can be. Having a coach can be compared to having a sturdy set of shoulders to

stand on – you can see more and farther than you might see on your own.

For there to be a successful coaching relationship, there must be two people with a deep burning

inside them: one who desperately wants to move forward, and one who longs to help that

individual on the journey. This will be the leadership path for the 21st century. In the past,

leadership was defined as being a decision maker and resource allocator who made decisions

based on how much they could get an employee to contribute to the company‘s bottom line.

Today, a leader is a people developer and a relationship builder who asks, ―How can I help this

person be more valuable as an individual – as well as to all of us?‖ In short, today‘s leader is a


For the above reasons, Coaching for Leadership – How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help

People Learn, is a must have, must read volume for anyone who endeavors to be in the executive

coaching field, either on the giving or receiving end. The editors have accumulated the work of

many distinguished executives, authors, professors, and consultants in the human resources field

who have first-hand knowledge of coaching practices and created a virtual encyclopedic

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                       14
reference for the topic of executive coaching. The book is structured in such a way that it does

not have to be read chapter by chapter, front to back. ―This is an ideal book to ‗dip into‘ when

looking for an approach, a technique, or even for some inspiration on the subject.‘ (p. XIX)

Even though the book covers a myriad of topics, the editors did provide some structure for

traditional readers. The book is separated into parts that represent an important aspect of

coaching for leadership. These are:

      Foundations of Coaching – In this section of the book, the topic of coaching is
     introduced and the topic is presented in a way to make it accessible to readers from any

      Role and Identity – This section of the book explores the many roles we might take in a
     coaching activity and in our day-to-day behaviors as leaders.

     Moments and Transitions – This section of the book examines coaching activities that
    are inspired by a change of circumstance or by our participation in a process that may or
    may not seem to be related to coaching on the surface.

      Practice and Techniques – This section of the book is a collection of some of the best
     practical approaches to coaching. By referencing this section, the reader should be able to
     develop their own style of coaching based on the practices of coaching pioneers who
     explain what works, and what can derail effective practices.

      Expanding Situations – This section of the book collects the ideas of leaders who have
     applied the coaching concept to real and important leadership situations. There is a
     compendium of case studies in which the ideas of coaching can and do make a difference in
     achieving results.

Since this book is more of an overall reference book rather than a traditional text on the topic of

executive coaching, this summary will focus on the writings of a few of the contributors from

each section in the hope of giving the reader an idea of how experts view the importance of

having a coach and being coached well in your career.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     15
Part One: The Foundations of Coaching

Chapter 2 of this section is ―Coaching for Behavioral Change,‖ contributed by one of the book‘s

editors, Marshall Goldsmith. Goldsmith is a founding director of Keilty, Goldsmith &

Company, a consulting firm and one of seven key providers of customized leadership

development in the United States as identified by Penn State University.

Behavioral coaching is exactly what it purports to be: coaching for a change in a person‘s

behavior. But Goldsmith theorizes that leaders have difficulty in promoting change among those

they can influence the most, their direct reports. Why? Because, like most people, leaders want

to be liked, and they believe that if they confront others about behavioral problems, they will be

disliked. But for the organization‘s continuing success, individual behavior should be aligned

with corporate values. Some of the world‘s leading companies are using 360° feedback

(feedback from an individual‘s supervisors, employees, clients etc) to help bring about desired

behavioral changes.

Before starting on behavioral coaching, Goldsmith recommends that certain conditions be

examined as they pertain to the subject individual. If any of these conditions are present,

behavioral coaching would not be appropriate. These are:

        Is the person being coached willing to make a sincere effort to change?
        Has the individual been ―written off‖ by the company?
        Does the person have the skills to perform their job?
        Does the organization have the right mission? If the organization is not headed in the
       right direction, behavioral coaching will not help it change direction.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                    16
According to Goldsmith, behavioral coaching involves eight steps. For the process to work, an

environment has to exist where the individual is willing to change and the company gives the

individual a chance to change. The steps are:

   1. Identify attributes for the individual you are coaching. This involves identifying
   characteristics for an individual in a given position and asking the individual if they agree
   that these are the correct behaviors for that position. Agreement on these topics helps secure
   commitment to the process.

   2. Determine who can provide meaningful feedback. Stakeholders have to be identified, and
   the coach should strive for a balanced mix that doesn‘t stack the deck for or against the

   3. Collect feedback. The assessment should be written, anonymous, and compiled into a
   summary report by an outside party and given to the individual being coached.

   4. Analyze Results. The coach should speak with the individual about the results of their
   peers‘ feedback. The objective is just to discuss strengths and weaknesses.

   5. Develop an action plan. In behavioral coaching, the most helpful outcome of an
   assessment is specific advice and the development of alternatives for consideration rather
   than a mandated list.

   6. Have the individual respond to stakeholders. The individual being coached should talk
   with the member of the assessment team and collect additional suggestions on the key areas
   targeted for improvement.

   7. Develop an ongoing follow-up process. The coach should contact the assessment team
   within a couple of months for further assessment of whether or not the individual has
   improved in the targeted areas.

   8. Review results and start again. If the process has been taken seriously, improvement
   should be reported by the assessment team. Follow-up could uncover additional areas for
   improvement, and stakeholders should not object to continued participation if the result is
   improved behavior.

In summary, behavioral coaching is simple, but it‘s not easy. It is just a part of total strategy of

performance appraisal that can reinforce positive behavioral change. And it is worth trying,

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     17
especially if an organizational leader wants their direct reports to demonstrate the behaviors the

organization promotes.

Part Two: Role and Identity

Chapter 13 from this section is ―Coaching From Below‖, contributed by Deepak Sethi, Director

of Executive and Leadership Development for Thomson Corporation. Sethi states that while

more and more companies are engaging in a 360° feedback process, some of the most insightful

and valuable sources of feedback come from those who have worked with us and for us for a

long time and our families. These sources are often overlooked, but these people have an

unvarnished view of us and can provide a wealth of feedback and coaching, if we have the

courage to tap into this resource. This is what he calls ―coaching from below.‖

For this type of coaching to be successful, Sethi states that three factors must be in place. The

first is a Safe Climate, where managers can have an open dialog with subordinates without their

fearing reprisal on your part. Sethi also points out that just because you request candor from

your underlings doesn‘t mean that it will be forthcoming. A subordinate may not believe that

you actually do want honest feedback. Patience and sincerity on your part will help win them

over. Subordinates will coach you when and if they trust you, and not a moment before.

The second factor that needs to be in place for coaching from below is Excellent Communication

Skills. When being coached by subordinates, all traces of judgment and defensiveness have to be

suspended. Listening must be strictly for learning, and listening skills must be enhanced.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                      18
Additionally, most communication is non-verbal, so another aspect to master is our body

language so that it is consistent with our listening and learning intentions.

The third factor is Practicing Self-Discipline. Having received the coaching from a subordinate,

it is a natural response to want to act on the recommendations in some way. An important

resource is to find a role model to help us learn new behaviors, alter existing behaviors, or

unlearn old behaviors. Patience and perseverance are keys here as well as ensuring that the

employee who gave the feedback becomes part of the follow-up process. To extinguish an old

behavior, it‘s necessary to start practicing a new one. Starting in a simulated safe environment is

the best way to engage in a new behavior. Also, the practice of visualizing every detail of what a

successful behavior is will assist in having that new behavior become reality.

Part Three: Moments and Transitions

Dave Ulrich, the renowned professor at the School of Business at the University of Michigan is

the contributor for Chapter 16, ―Coaching CEO Transitions.‖ Ulrich states that under the best of

conditions, coaching is difficult because the very nature of coaching assumes that someone can

change someone else‘s behavior or attitude. He believes, however, that there may be more

opportunities for success in coaching by concentrating on transition moments, times when

individuals experience a major change in their circumstances and are more open to new ideas

and willing to experiment with new behaviors. One of the readily identifiable transition

moments occurs when an individual assumes a new role within an organization, such as the

appointment of a new CEO (chief executive officer).

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                  19
As with other types of coaching, there are steps to be followed in transition coaching. The first is

Setting the Stage. The stage is set for coaching to begin when the current CEO identifies their

successor and has initiated a dialog about transition. Also, the current and future CEO have to be

comfortable with the idea of having a third party coach help them through the transition.

The reason for having a coach during the transition from one CEO to the next is to make the

change in regimes as seamless as possible. To enable the transition to be seamless, Ulrich

recommends using an individual from outside the firm who has no personal agenda in the


The second step in transition coaching is to Define the Purposes. Ulrich uses the term

relationship equity as an item that needs to be transferred from the outgoing CEO to the

incoming CEO. Relationship equity is the network of personal contacts and alliances formed by

the current CEO (all stakeholders). The transfer is accomplished through coaching. The benefits

of this coaching from the incoming CEO‘s perspective are that they get to develop a point of

view for dealing with each of the stakeholders and get to decide how to allocate time to the

stakeholders. Coaching allows the ending to occur and the new beginning to be initiated.

During the transition between CEOs, the coach assists both parties in the Creation of a

Stakeholder Map. The coach helps identify stakeholders from inside and outside the company

and helps determine what kind of future relationships there should be for the outgoing CEO and

the kinds of relationships the incoming CEO needs to develop from the transition. Both the

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                    20
outgoing and incoming parties have to realize that there will also be an impact on their personal

lives, and a coach can help with personal issues and family demands.

Hand in hand with the creation of the stakeholder map is the identification of the key

stakeholders and the kind of relationships that need to be formed with them. Coaches help the

CEO build an agenda for each stakeholder and help force a dialog between the parties. And

finally, coaches help by assisting the new CEO in the management of their calendar because

everyone wants a piece of their time. The behaviors of the stakeholders have to be managed so

that the appropriate amount of time is dedicated to them. The coach helps the CEO prioritize and

sequence their activities so that they have the greatest impact and help the CEO establish their


Part Four: Practice and Techniques of Coaching

Chapter 29 in this part of the book is ―The Big Three Derailment Factors in a Coaching

Relationship,‖ contributed by David Noer, owner of a consulting firm in North Carolina. His

practice involves executive coaching, team development, and dealing with the human aspects of

mergers, downsizing, and acquisitions. His specialty is helping organizations and people get

through difficult transitions.

Noer states that with the delayering of organizations and expanded spans of control, the coaching

and mentoring roles previously performed by managers is increasingly being farmed out to

consultants. However, many consultants do not have the expertise or training to maintain the

special kind of relationship necessary for effective coaching. Noer identifies and explains the

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     21
three biggest reasons that coaching efforts run into trouble and examines them from the

perspective of the coach and client.

Noer identifies the first reason for coaching failure as Confusion, Collusion, and Lack of Clarity

as the Who is the Client. An organization may want a coach to work with an employee, but the

contract should be between the coach and the person being coached, not their boss, HR

representative, or any other third party.

For the person being coached, it is imperative they ask why they are being chosen for coaching

and if they choose to be coached, insist that they, not the boss, be the client. As the client, ask to

choose your own coach, and if that is not permitted, ask for veto power over the selection. Noer

states that the three ―Cs‖ be followed: Clarity: You are the client, not the organization;

Confidentiality: All information belongs to you and the coach makes no reports about your

progress to your boss or anyone else without your endorsement; and Control: you are in charge

of the process and the only one qualified to decide if it‘s helpful.

The second reason coaching efforts fail is Solutions Looking for Problems – Coaches Enamored

of a Single Model or Approach. Coaching is not a ―one model fits all‖ relationship. The base

line between coach and client has to be that of a helping relationship with empathy, being non-

judgmental, and mutually exploring the problem and searching for an accurate diagnosis. Each

client will have different needs calling for different approaches from the coach.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                      22
The client will realize they have a good coach if the coach does most of the listening, and is more

interested in your ideas, hopes, dreams and aspirations than they are in their model or process.

An athletic coaching model, one that concentrates on the content of the game, is inappropriate

for an organizational setting. Organizational coaches are hired to help you grow and develop as

you define them. They don‘t have to be familiar with your content (business or service). They

have to be interested in you.

The third reason coaching relationships become derailed is identified as Creation of a

Dependency Relationship. The coach should work to empower the client and then withdraw

from the relationship. The creation of a dependent relationship, oft times for the sake of a steady

income, may be tempting for some coaches, but all it really does is trivialize the relationship and

the process. The client should be willing and able to go solo. Therefore, it is important in

establishing the relationship guidelines to know when to end the process with an agreed upon

termination plan.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                     23

Burdett, John O., “Forty things every manager should know about coaching”, Journal of
      Management Development, Vol. 17, Issue 2/3, p 142, 1998.

Hall, Douglas T., Karen L. Otazo, George P. Hollenbeck, “Behind Closed Doors: What
       Really Happens in Executive Coaching”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 27, Issue 3,
       p 39, Winter 1999.

Orth, Charles D., Harry E. Wilkinson, and Robert C. Benfari, “The Manager’s Role as
       Coach and Mentor”, 2001.

Page, Linda J., “Adler and the Profession of Coaching”, The Journal of Individual
       Psychology, Vol. 59, No. 1, Spring 2003.

Sperry, Len, “Working with Executives: Consulting, Counseling, and Coaching”,
      Individual Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 1993.

Wageman, Ruth, “How Leaders Foster Self-Managing Team Effectiveness: Design Choices
     Versus Hands-on Coaching”, Organization Science, Vol. 12, No. 5, p 559-577, Sept.-
     Oct. 2001.

Wales, Suzy, “Why Coaching”, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 3, Issue 3, p 2.75-285,

Young, Clara Y., “Mentoring: The Components for Success”, Journal of Instructional
      Psychology, Vol. 28, Issue 3, p202, Sep. 2001.

Yrle, Augusta C., Sandra Hartman, and William P. Galle, “An Investigation of
       relationships between communication style and leader-member exchange”, Journal
       of Communication Management, Vol. 6, p 257-268, 2002.

“Executive Coaching as a Transfer of Training Tool: Effects on Productivity in a Public
      Agency”, Public Personnel Management.

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                            24
                                       Annotated Bibliographies

Burdett, John O., “Forty things every manager should know about coaching”, Journal of
Management Development, Vol. 17, Issue 2/3, p 142, 1998.

Burdett begins by comparing the competitive world of sports to the competitive world of commerce. He
says that businesses have become more competitive due to globalization and that like sports, ―winning
and losing has far more to do with the heat than the head.‖ Coaching helps people redefine what‘s
possible. To do this, organizations must get rid of the traditional ―cop‖ role and become more like
―cheerleaders‖ by challenging, empowering, encouraging and reinforcing. Burdett then defines forty
philosophical and practical critical issues that define coaching as a characteristic of leadership.

1. Coaching is a process that focuses on                21. Ownership of the problem should be given to
      performance.                                          the employee.
2.    Employee needs come before those of the           22. Feedback should be specific.
      coach.                                            23. All learning starts with a question.
3.    Coaching is a managerial philosophy, not a        24. The coach should present possible options to
      periodic activity.                                    remedy poor performance.
4.    The coaching agenda reflects an appreciation      25. The coach should outline why the employee
      of the organization‘s context.                        needs change.
5.    Tools are trust, mutual respect, common           26. Negative feedback should be delivered with
      purpose, integrity, openness and honesty.             honesty and sensitivity.
6.    Meaningful coaching and focus are                 27. There should be a sensitive balance between
      synonymous.                                           building self-esteem and introducing creative
7.    The process includes managing expectations,           tension.
      monitoring performance, and giving feedback.      28. Sharing best practice, role play, simulation,
8.    The coach shares their vision of success at the       micro-experiences, and scenario building are
      beginning of the relationship.                        good coaching tools.
9.    Issues of disagreement must be resolved           29. Feedback should damage the employee‘s self-
      before meaningful coaching can take place.            esteem.
10.   The behavior change expected must be              30. The coach should avoid employee negative
      specific or nothing will change.                      self-talk.
11.   Acceptable behavior is shared values, both        31. Don‘t use ―but‖ transitions between positives
      personal and organizational.                          and negatives.
12.   Every coach should ask, ―What should I do         32. Before change can occur there must be a will
      differently?‖                                         to change, a capability to act, and practice
13.   Not all employees can be or want to be                opportunity.
      coached.                                          33. Exploration and play are more meaningful that
14.   The coach must determine if the problem is            instruction.
      ―can‘t do‖ or ―won‘t do‖.                         34. Team members coaching each other can be a
15.   The time, place and rapport for feedback will         powerful form of coaching.
      determine its effectiveness.                      35. Employee commitment to change behavior
16.   Sometimes the best opportunities for coaching         must be obtained.
      happen by accident.                               36. The change should be defined in specific,
17.   Beginnings start with endings.                        unambiguous behavioral terms.
18.   What the coach non-verbally communicates is       37. Action steps should emphasize the employee‘s
      possible can determine the success of                 learning style.
      coaching.                                         38. Follow-ups must be done.
19.   Feedback should have simple framework to be       39. Celebrating successes is integral.
      effective.                                        40. If carried through with purpose, subtlety, and
20.   The feedback is ―as the coach sees it.‖               character, but behavior hasn‘t changed, the
                                                            employee may be in the wrong role

Team # 5 – Training & Coaching                                                                         25
Hall, Douglas T., Karen L. Otazo, George P. Hollenbeck, “Behind Closed Doors: What
       Really Happens in Executive Coaching”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 27, Issue 3,
       p 39, Winter 1999.

The method of coaching is appealing because it can deliver executive career development that is

formed around the company‘s strategic objectives; and it can be highly cost-effective. This

article looks at the ways coaching has been applied, how effective it has been, and what lessons

can be learned. Coaching is the ―buzzword‖ of the day because executives like the

confidentiality and personal attention they receive.

When adopting a coaching practice, companies can choose to have external coaches from outside

the organization or internal coaches who are actually employed by the organization. Executives

tend to prefer external coaches when confidentiality and anonymity are required, when a wide

range of experience in needed, or when the coach needs to speak candidly. With an external

coach, the executive may feel that the information is privileged and be kept between the two. A

disadvantage is that someone from the ―outside‖ doesn‘t always have knowledge of the


Internal coaches are preferred when knowledge of the company culture and politics is important,

when convenience is valued, and when the executive needs someone that can trust and are

comfortable with. Many times the internal coach is an HR manager. Because HR has a dual role

in that they serve both the company and the employees, a ―conflict of interest‖ can occur, which

can lower the trust level. The authors mention that one of the most complex issues in coaching is


Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                 26
Today coaching is used for a practical, goal-focused from of one-on-one learning. It can

improve performance behaviors, enhance a career, and help to work through organizational

issues. Coaching is limited because it is time-bounded and short-term and focused on specific

competencies or problems. The authors quote an internal coach who states, ―A coach is not a

life-long mentor. Ending is important so that closure is reached and action is taken.‖

The authors state some things that should be considered when implementing a coaching practice.

Coaching should be results oriented. Coaches should not follow their own agenda nor provide

only negative feedback. The coach should be competent and knowledgeable. Some qualities

that good coaches posses are reflecting, caring, integrity, and commitment to client success.

The benefits of executive coaching include learning by both parties and executive acquisition of

new skills, abilities, and perspectives. However, there are some concerns that the authors

mention. The primary concerns are: (1) Managing the growth for demand. (2) Addressing

ethical issues arising from the coaching process. (3) Defining program scope and controlling

costs. To meet the demand the authors suggest that the number of internal coaches be increased.

To address ethical issues that may arise, a coaching code of ethics should be drafted to govern

decisions concerning coach assignment and information use. Finally, to better define the

program scope, clear guidelines should be established as to the use of coaches and the coaching


Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    27
Orth, Charles D., Harry E. Wilkinson, and Robert C. Benfari, “The Manager’s Role as
       Coach and Mentor”, 2001.

The authors open by stating that ―by serving as mentors, managers can help employees expand

their capabilities and improve their performance, but first a manager must create the proper

climate and develop the specific skills needed for effective coaching.‖ The developing of

employees requires managers to incorporate coaching into their management style. This creates

an organizational culture that exhibits stronger management teams, increased management

performance, and a low stress work environment. There would also be more teamwork and less

competitiveness, which may help personnel problems.

Coaching is neglected in organizations for three reasons. First, organizational climates do not

offer rewards or incentives for developing employees. Second, because there are no incentives

or role models in the area of coaching, managers cannot see the benefits. Finally, coaching

requires a lot of practicing. To obtain the skills, one must deal with the constraints of time,

training, and changes in attitudes.

An effective mentor is skillful with their use of power, relationships, and teaching. Coaching is

unlike career counseling in that it is a ―day-by-day, hands-on process.‖ Managers must be able

to analyze performance, plan action, create a supportive workplace, and influence to change

behavior. The authors state that to be an effect manager, you also need to be an evaluator and

coach. The coach helps improve performance daily and over the long term, while the evaluator

makes judgments about performance. While coaching, managers must not make judgments and

instead listen, probe, and offer suggestions.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    28
A growth environment must be created by the mentor. There should be a free and open

exchange of ideas. This can be done by: not using threatening language, respect from both

parties, showing interest in the employee, having no interruptions, and correct timing. There are

four critical skills that a manager should have to also be a good coach. They are observational,

analytical, interviewing, and feedback skills.

The authors conclude by saying, ―Coaching is not a way of solving one-time problems. It is a

way of helping employees, over time, improve their performance to outstanding levels…‖

Page, Linda J., “Adler and the Profession of Coaching”, The Journal of Individual
       Psychology, Vol. 59, No. 1, Spring 2003.

In developing a Professional Coach training program at the Adler School of Professional

Psychology in Ontario, Page compares the underlying principles of coaching with the principles

of the school‘s philosophy. According to Page, there are three trends that have contributed to the

expansion of coaching. First, she states that in the practice of ―coaching…it is as if the recipient

is an athlete who is seeking to improve his or her performance. Second, the coaching principles

of athletics began to appear in the business world in the 1980‘s due to a trend of flatter

organizations. Finally, there was also a shift in the field of psychology as technology ―enabled

people to think differently about how people learn.‖

Next, Page compares the Adlerian assumptions with that of the practice of coaching. She

identifies five assumptions: Phenomenology, Social Embeddedness, Idiography, Teleology, and

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     29
Holism. Phenomenology refers to the important things in the client‘s subjective mind rather than

the objective mind of another viewing from the outside. Similarly, coaches help their clients to

think on their own and to communicating their own subjective understanding of their life.

Social embeddedness takes into account the external environment around the person rather than

just the internal processes going on inside their minds. When coaching on an organizational or

business level, coaches are trained to listen to what‘s going on in their client‘s life outside of

work in order to develop a work-life balance.

Idiography refers to seeing each person as unique and creative rather than placing everyone into

broad categories. Likewise, in coaching clients are encouraged to think on their own and find

answers within themselves rather the coach recommending solutions to the problem.

Teleology takes people away from the past and puts them in the present. For example, don‘t ask

why something happened, but instead ask what‘s stopping you from attaining a future goal. The

co-active approach to coaching pertains to helping clients distinguish and attain their own goals.

Finally, holism refers to the individual as a ―whole being‖ rather than a ―collection of traits.‖

Page further describes this assumption by saying that just because the separates parts are known,

doesn‘t mean that the whole person is known. For example, in a jigsaw puzzle, you can see all

the pieces and know them each, but you do not see the picture until the puzzle is complete. As in

the social embeddedness assumption, coaches take into account all of the pieces of a person‘s life

including health, relationships, work, etc.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                       30
Sperry, Len, “Working with Executives: Consulting, Counseling, and Coaching”,
      Individual Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 2, June 1993.

Sperry focuses on the changing needs of executives and how a consultant who is psychologically

trained can better respond to these needs through consulting, counseling, and coaching. First, the

author begins my developing the view from an executive‘s perspective. They must see the larger

picture and envision long-term successes and consequences. To do this they must be passionate

in both their personal and work lives. They usually have to rely on their own judgment and

therefore, exploit their own potential. The traits that executives exhibit are similar. However,

the manner in which they function can be different in each executive.

The author identifies three profiles of executives. The first is the Healthy, Effective Executive.

These executives are characterized by active leadership, high need for power and control, high

levels of stress, and risk-oriented behavior. The Distressed Executive is like the Healthy

Executive in that they are both active, functioning members in their corporation and personal

life. However, this executive doesn‘t always perform or function consistently because of

stressors present in their lives.

The Impaired Executive is different from the above two in that when there are setbacks, it hard

for this executive to bounce back. They have ―dysfunctional patterns of behavior that reflect a

lack of ‗fit‘ or negative interaction between a predisposed executive and their corporation.‖

Impaired Executives lose touch with their surroundings and behave strangely. They are usually

unpredictable or tend to act inappropriately.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     31
Because today‘s executive has to rely on his own judgment, an executive consultant can give

them an opportunity to share their ideas and concerns. This helps to clarify and validate their

conclusions before the executive must put his plan into action. Sperry recommends that the

consultant be a guide to help them form their own thoughts. Consultants can do this by asking

key questions to help formulate the problem, generating courses of action, and anticipating


Executive counseling is like consulting, but more of a clinical role. A counselor has a process-

oriented role and nondirective role, while a consultant is more expert-oriented and directive.

The disadvantage to the executive is that a counselor usually provides services on their own

terms. This may be hard for an executive being that they are usually in control.

Sperry defines executive coaching as ―the teaching of skills in the context of a personal

relationship with the learner.‖ The most useful way to exhibit coaching to executives is by

teaching them human relations skills. A principle focus of this concept is providing feedback. In

a team building environment, the coach‘s role is to facilitate a bonding between members.

Wageman, Ruth, “How Leaders Foster Self-Managing Team Effectiveness: Design Choices
     Versus Hands-on Coaching”, Organization Science, Vol. 12, No. 5, p 559-577, Sept.-
     Oct. 2001.

This research investigates the effects of team design and hands-on coaching on team self-

management and team performance. To begin, Wageman discusses for functions must be done

in order to perform work. The person must execute the work, monitor and manage the work

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     32
processes, structure the performing unit and its context, and specify the goals. The first two

functions are what a self-managing team has control and accountability for.

Three behavioral indicators are identified for self-managing teams: the degree of collective

responsibility, the degree of monitoring own performance and seeking feedback, and the degree

of performance management. The three indicators of team effectiveness are the degree of

member interaction, the degree of task performance, and the degree of individual satisfaction.

The author defines two actions that are characteristic of team leaders: designing the team and

hands-on coaching. First, the author hypothesizes that, ―Well designed teams exhibit more self-

management and are more effective than teams whose designs are flawed.‖ Through research,

team design had a positive effect to the overall level of team self-management. The effects are

due to clear direction, group rewards, and strategy norms (self-management).

This is where Wageman defines coaching as ―the direct interaction with the team that is intended

to shape team processes to produce good performance.‖ It is stated that coaching can affect

engagement with task, interpersonal issues, and the acceptance of collective responsibility.

There is also evidence that coaching can improve group processes and member satisfaction.

However, coaching alone may not make a difference in the team‘s actual performance. The

second hypothesis states that, ―Teams that receive coaching exhibit more self-management,

higher quality interpersonal relationships, and higher member satisfactions—but not higher task

performance—than do teams that receive no coaching at all.‖ This hypothesis was also

supported by research. Positive coaching contributes to a higher level of team self-management

and quality of group processes. However, there is no effect on group performance or

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    33
satisfaction. Negative coaching contributes to a lower level of team self-management and

satisfaction, but had no effect on group performance or quality of group processes.

Finally, the author looks at the interaction between team design and hands-on coaching. The

third hypothesis states, ―Leaders‘ design activities and hands-on coaching interact in affecting

team self-management and effectiveness, with coaching having a greater positive impact for

well-designed teams than for poorly designed teams.‖ The research showed that this hypothesis

was supported in the level of self-management and quality of group processes, but not for

objective task performance or satisfaction. The effects of leader‘s coaching behaviors depend on

how well the team is designed: Effective coaching helps well designed teams more than poorly

designed teams, and ineffective coaching has a negative effect on poorly designed teams more

than well designed teams.

Wales, Suzy, “Why Coaching”, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 3, Issue 3, p 2.75-285,

In ―Why Coaching‖, Suzy Wales describes the experiences of a group of managers who are

participating in a coaching program. Her research examines the practice of coaching and

demonstrates the view of coaching from the recipients‘ side. The research takes place in a UK

bank with fifteen managers. The bank was recently reorganized into five separate businesses.

The Head of the Sales and Marketing Department wanted to change the bank structure to one of

―consultation and empowerment‖ and away from the traditional ―command and control‖

structure. Each manager received one hour of coaching to support them through the transition of

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     34
structure. In order to show the recipient‘s view of coaching, Wales created a self-report

questionnaire that was based on six levels of learning and change; environment, individual

behavior, beliefs, values, and capabilities; their role, vision, and purpose.

From the questionnaire, key benefits were identified and could be divided into three groups:

internal, external, and mediating. Wales says that the benefits formed a pattern throughout the

three groups. The benefits of self-awareness and confidence are internal processes for ongoing

development, which facilitate five external benefits of management, assertiveness,

understanding, differences, stress management, and work/life balance. Mediation involves the

benefit of communication and acts between the internal and external groups.

Her research concludes that the practice of coaching involves self-development, management

development and organizational effectiveness. Coaching makes the link between the three more

effective by providing for personal development, supporting organizational initiatives, and

making managers feel valued.

Young, Clara Y., “Mentoring: The Components for Success”, Journal of Instructional
      Psychology, Vol. 28, Issue 3, p202, Sep. 2001.

This article focuses on what causes mentoring relationships to be successful. Its purpose is to aid

in developing the process for those looking for a mentor and/or those hoping to become mentors.

Young describes a mentor as one who is ―skilled, knowledgeable, a visionary, dynamic, and

committed to the process of improving individual‘s skills.‖ She goes on to describe some of the

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    35
behaviors that a mentor displays. Those behaviors are guiding, coaching, nurturing, teaching,

and modeling.

In the story of Odysseus‘ son, Mentor is entrusted with the responsibility of educating him. This

was where the concept of mentoring was first visualized. It‘s comparable to today‘s concept of

mentoring in that Mentor was not only involved in Odysseus‘ son‘s education, but also the

physical, intellectual, spiritual, and social areas of his life. This process teaches protégé‘s to

―think and act‖ for themselves as Mentor guided Odysseus‘ son to do the same. Young goes

further to say that the relationship between the mentor and the protégé need to be arranged so

that they are beneficial to both parties.

The author describes the characteristics of a good mentor as: committed; accepting; skilled;

effective in interpersonal context; communicates optimism; models continuous learning;

understanding of the role; knowledgeable; sensitive, accepting, and trusting of the protégé;

responsive; objective and clear. The roles of the protégé are as follows: respecting and trusting

of the mentor; understanding of mutual relationship; taking initiative; resourceful; willing;

development of a plan; listening and responding; knowledgeable of need for the mentor; open to

feedback; committed and willing to learn.

In order to establish a mentoring relationship, it is the protégé‘s responsibility to understand why

they need a mentor and what they want to gain. This includes evaluating the need for the

mentor. Does the mentor need personal development, professional development, or professional

growth? It is during this process that the protégé should ask two questions: ―What do I expect

from my mentor?‖ and ―What characteristics will I bring to the relationship?‖

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                       36
Next, the protégé begins their search and solicitation for a mentor. The answers from the

original assessment questions should identify the characteristics that should be looked for in

choosing a mentor. Solicitation is done in a face-to-face interaction. During the interaction,

needs and expectations should be identified to the potential mentor.

Once it is determined that the mentor wishes to take on the role, the two parties discuss the

relationship that will evolve. It is in this step that the ground rules should be laid out.

Yrle, Augusta C., Sandra Hartman, and William P. Galle, “An Investigation of
       relationships between communication style and leader-member exchange”, Journal
       of Communication Management, Vol. 6, p 257-268, 2002.

This research examines the relationships between literature of communication theory,

contingency ideas of coaching vs. counseling communication styles, and leader-member

exchange (LMX) theory from management literature. The LMX theory says that supervisors use

different communication styles with subordinates based on whether the relationship is high

quality or low quality.   On the other hand, the communication literature focuses on ‗best‘

practices that should be used with all employees equally. The authors tackle the issue of whether

to two literatures can be used together to gain a better understanding of the differences in the

ways that managers communicate with different employees.

The study found that close supervision resembles a coaching style while when given latitude, a

more counseling or participative style is used. Three hypotheses were reviewed for the purpose

of the research. (1) Subordinates who report higher-quality LMX will also report better

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     37
communication quality from their supervisors. (2) Supervisors‘ assessments of LMX will be

similar to subordinates‘ assessments. (3) Supervisor-subordinate pairs which are similar

demographically will experience higher LMX.

The first hypothesis concerning the relationship between higher-quality LMX and

communication quality was found to have a positive relationship. The research specifically

found that LMX is a predictor of the communication practices of coordination and participation.

As subordinates perceived higher exchange with managers, they also reported an increased

ability to participate due to good coordination by the manager.

Hypothesis (2) regarding the difference in perceptions by employees and supervisors on LMX

reported another positive relationship. However, the positive relationship was weak. The

authors suggest that this could be attributed to different constructs being measured. For example,

when measured from the different perspectives of leaders and supervisors, the same construct

may not be being measured.

The final hypothesis attempts to examine whether supervisors who are using lower-quality

communication exchanges are doing so for objective reasons. The authors suggest that more

research and study be put into this area. They were unable to find any conclusions.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                 38
“Executive Coaching as a Transfer of Training Tool: Effects on Productivity in a Public
      Agency”, Public Personnel Management.

This article discusses research that studies the effects of executive coaching in a public sector

municipal agency. In the research thirty-one managers completed a managerial training

program, followed by eight weeks of one-one-one coaching. The classroom training gave an

overview of important managerial roles that increase productivity, quality, and effectiveness.

The coaching involved goal setting, collaborative problem solving, practice, feedback,

supervisory involvement, evaluation of end-results, and a public presentation. The author

identifies one-on-one coaching as a critical factor that provides for transferring classroom

training to the job. One-on-one coaching gives managers the opportunity to practice and obtain

feedback on what was learned in the training.    One of the factors of the coaching was a public

presentation. Managers made a presentation of results to a group of peers, supervisors, and top-

level executives.

The trainees anonymously took a pre-test and post-test that paralleled the classroom training.

The results of the tests were 71.1 percent correct for the pre-test and 88 percent correct for the

post-test. Once the coaching phase began, the trainees were able to document their results. The

data documented showed an increase in productivity of 22.4 percent.

In conclusion, the research showed the effects of one-on-one coaching to transferring knowledge

gained in training to the job. When augmented with coaching, training showed an increase in

productivity four times greater that with training alone. The authors believed that the goal-

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                       39
setting and public presentation were critical factors in the coaching phase. Goals must be

specific, challenging, measurable, assignable, realistic, and time-bound.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                               40
                     PRACTITIONER INTERVIEWS

LCRD Jeff Priore, Training Officer, NMCB 28 (Navy Construction Battalion)

    Diane Dykes, Learning & Development Supervisor, BP Chemical Plant

Reverend Mike Ruth, Senior Executive Pastor, Metropolitan Baptist Church

               Joseph DeLeon, Systemic Unit Supervisor, EEOC

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                          41
                                   Practitioner Interviews

LCRD Jeff Priore, Training Officer, NMCB 28 (Construction Battalion with the Navy)

On October 12, 2003 I interviewed LCRD Jeff Priore, training Officer with NMCB 28

(Construction Battalion with the Navy). He mentioned that coaching is an area that is utilized in

the Navy to help learners assume responsibility and to become self-motivating. In the Navy

there is a need for coaching and it is on-going with opportunities to improve. He mentioned the

value of tailoring a personal development approach for each of the four worker generations:

Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Next.

Silent generation workers are able-bodied learners if you treat them with courtesy. Coach them

with the following in mind: treat them with respect, they want well respected & experienced

coaches and want to be trained tactfully.

Coaching baby boomers to strive for self-improvement shouldn‘t be difficult. But you need to be

sensitive to: coaching tactfully to clarify self-vision, reinforcing developmental initiative and

steering workers to make new skills habitual.

Generation X and Next are more geared towards multimedia, online and interactive materials and

should be taken into consideration when coaching. The point being of mentioning the above

generations is that we have experienced different approaches based on generation type has made

a difference. In the military the outcome of coaching can be the results of a life & death

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      42
situation. That is why we take training seriously and ―train as we fight-to fight like we train‖.

This includes coaching that is on-going and expected from all senior personnel. In the Navy

LCDR Priore explained that the soldiers not necessarily go for coaching on their own, they are

required coaching annually. After discussing co-active coaching model with LCDR Priore he

enjoyed the concept and thought it was interesting, but he mentioned that for a lot of the

situations he has experienced this approach wouldn‘t work, but he also said that he can think of

other situations that co-active coaching would be beneficial to.

Diane Dykes, Learning & Development Supervisor, BP Chemical Plant

On October 15, 2003 I interviewed Diane Dykes. She is the Learning & Development Supervisor

at a BP Chemical Plant in Alvin, Texas. She has been in her position for two years. She

mentioned that four years ago several managers were trained to be coaches, to help transition

into a self-directed team organization. As coaches they facilitated meetings and helped the

different manufacturer teams with the re-organization. This was a temporary assignment and

these coaches have moved on to different assignments.

BP is currently developing some coaching sessions for management and for the first level

leaders. She expressed the need for a continuous coaching program at the chemical plant in the

management and first level leadership level. One of the challenges she confronts is the turnover

rate. Engineers and Managers move at an average rate of two years and it is difficult to

effectively see the progress or benefits of coaching, since coaching should be a long term

commitment and takes time for the changes to occur general. In general, she feels that in the past

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      43
they haven‘t done a good job of following up on training sessions to make sure the skills are

implemented. In other words, validating the value of the seminars and training sessions.

I gave her a brief summary of my book review and she agreed with the author‘s approach. One

of the companies they have used is Innovation Associates Inc to facilitate their coaching

sessions. Their objective is to coach without controlling, pretty similar to the co-active coaching

model from the book review.

Reverend Mike Ruth, Senior Executive Pastor, Metropolitan Baptist Church

Mike Ruth has been Senior Executive Pastor of Metropolitan Baptist Church (The Met) for two

and a half years. The church‘s congregation numbers over 6,500 and its affiliation is with the

Southern Baptist Convention headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. The church employs a full-

time staff of over 60 people along with numerous part-time employees and volunteers. As

Senior Executive Pastor, Mike‘s primary duties include overseeing the HR function and the daily

business operations of the church. Mike brings to his position many years of experience in

management from the private sector. My objective in talking with Mike about Executive

Coaching was to find how a church assists its staff in becoming the best ministers they can be

and to see if there were any similarities in their approach versus what we‘ve read about in the

private sector.

I asked Mike if he was familiar with the concept of Executive Coaching, and if so, had any of the

principles of coaching been used with the ministerial staff of the church. I wanted to know how

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    44
the church responded if they discovered that any of the ministers was having difficulty in their

position and appeared as if they could benefit from having a coach they could turn to.

Pastor Mike told me that he was familiar with the concept of Executive Coaching and he wanted

to explain to me what approach the church uses with its senior staff. While not couched under

the terminology of Executive Coaching, he explained that there are ―coaching-like‖ approaches

used by the church if a need is detected. The needs of the staff could be brought to the attention

of the Senior Pastor and Executive Assistant Pastor by the individual or by another staff member.

Pastor Mike‘s contention is that there is a lot of pressure on all of the ministers on staff and that

it is in the church‘s and congregation‘s best interest for the organization to operate as

economically and efficiently as possible. This includes having all ministerial staff members be

―at their best‖ as much of the time as possible.

The church employs traditional employee reviews on a semi-annual basis. Beyond that, there

have been times when members of the ministerial staff have been identified as having greater

potential than what is required for their current position, and the church leadership moves to

encourage the individual and help them advance their career, usually in a more responsible

position at another church. (Robert Witherspoon, founder of Performance and Leadership

Development Ltd. has identified this situation as ―Coaching for Development.‖) In such a case,

senior church ministers will work with the individual to assess their current abilities and

determine which areas need performance enhancement to make the individual more attractive for

their next position. A working plan is established along with expectations and a time line for

achieving the goals. The individual being coached is encouraged to bring their questions and a

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      45
concerns to their mentor/coach at scheduled review times and as the need arises so that

corrective suggestions can be made. When the established goals have been achieved, that

person‘s name is made available to a church inquiring about personnel recommendations. 0ne

church making referrals to another is the main avenue for filling ministerial job openings.

Another way in which the church makes use of coaching practices for its ministerial staff is to

work with an individual who needs assistance in performing their current job responsibilities.

According to Pastor Mike, an individual struggling in their current position is encouraged to seek

assistance from a minister working in a similar position at another church. For example, if the

Minister of Senior Adults is not meeting their job expectations, that person will meet with his

own church staff in brainstorming sessions. He will also be given the names of senior adult

ministers at other churches with successful, active programs in order to glean ideas about what

makes their programs successful. Pastor Mike said that cost of recruiting and employing

qualified ministers is very costly to most churches; so before making a change, the church wants

to give an established individual every opportunity to make their particular area of responsibility

a success, even if it means ―consulting with the competition.‖

Finally, Pastor Mike relayed to me the fact that, thus far in his tenure at The Met, the need for

engaging in coaching opportunities has been limited. He said that, for the most part, they have

been blessed with a very stable staff with little performance problems. He attributed this to the

strong leadership of the church‘s Senior Pastor, Rev. Sal Sberna, and the fact that very clear

expectations are laid out for the ministerial staff at the church‘s annual retreats which occur

every summer.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      46
Joseph DeLeon, Systemic Unit Supervisor, EEOC

Joseph DeLeon is a supervisor for the systemic unit at the Equal Employment Opportunity

Commission in the Houston District Office. His unit investigates both individual and group

claims of discrimination by employers. Joseph‘s responsibilities include keeping his staff on

track and helping them to investigate claims in a timely manner. His supervisory role has many

characteristics of coaching.

I spoke with Joseph about how he feels that his role as supervisor uses the concept of coaching.

He feels that the act of investigating itself follows a lot of the principles of coaching. When

investigating a claim, you must ask many questions to get to the facts. Also, the EEOC

investigators are neutral parties when investigating the claim. They are not there to help an

employee find a cause for discrimination nor are they there to help the employer prove there is

no cause. It is important that they stay neutral and not begin to follow their own agenda.

As far as his particular job as a supervisor, investigators come to him when they are having

problems with an investigation. Sometimes they are not sure where to begin in the investigation

or other times, they want validation that their decision is correct. Joseph uses the concept of

coaching to aid the investigators in finding the answers they are seeking. He goes through a

series of questions to help them to answer their own concerns. Although there are times, when

Joseph knows the facts of the case, there are times when he has no background on the case at all.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    47
However, through his coaching and questioning, he is still able to help his staff with their

investigation and help them to see the case more clearly.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                 48
                        ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

                            Coaching for Performance
                               by John Whitmore

                          “Leader as Coach”, BP Amoco

                   International Coaching Federation Website

   Levinsky, Rosemary, “Stay in the Game”, Black Enterprise, April 2000.

Bossidy, Larry, “The Art of Good Coaching”, The Chief Executive, May 2002.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                             49
                                     Additional Resources

Coaching for Performance
by John Whitmore

This resource is one of the training models that was offered to management at Amoco as a virtual

training assignment. The objective of the training is to help learners to assume responsibility for

their own development and to become self-motivating. Another objective is to help learners

develop greater levels of awareness. This, in turn, leads to greater knowledge and skill. It starts

talking about the flow of coaching which involves: Establishing a relationship, recognizing

openinsg, observing/assessing, and enrolling the client and having coaching conversations. This

is in-line with the co-active coaching model presented in the book review. Effective coaching

requires the ability to establish a trusting relationship and the ability to ask questions that enable

the client to become aware of his/her own thinking which stimulated action(s) and yielded

results. Performance coaching is based upon: awareness and responsibility, effective questioning

and goals/reality/options/will. Key coaching questions are: GOAL-What do you want to

develop? REALITY-What is happening now? OPTIONS-What could you do to reach your

goals? WILL-What will you do?

Amoco merged with BP and this virtual training is not being offered. But BP offers other

coaching type training throughout the world. One that is offered to the first level leaders is a

training called Leaders as Coach.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      50
Leader as Coach

The ―Leader as Coach‖ workshop introduces three essential elements for coaching and

developing employees: providing an environment conductive to coaching, confirming

development objectives with employees, and using on-the-job opportunities and face-to-face

discussions to improve performance. The workshop helps leaders understand the coaching

process and gives them practice in listening and communicating, observing behavior, evaluating

and prioritizing developmental opportunities, negotiating developmental opportunities with

employees, and creating concrete coaching plans. The program focus is on leveraging the

strengths and motivations of employees while aligning their performance with corporate

objectives. The coaching strategy modules are as follow:

      Shape the Environment: Building a Culture for Coaching
         The Pipeline for /Development-necessary conditions for development
         Culture enablers

      Forging a Partnership: Building Trust and Understanding
         Understanding how people differ
         Looking for motivation
         Listening-moving to a ―viewing point‖
         The trust test
         Organizational issues

      Inspire Commitment: Building Awareness and Alignment
         ―Gaps‖ )Goals, Abilities, Perceptions and Success Factors) analysis
         Gathering information for coaching
         Giving feedback using BEST
         Focus on priorities

      Grow Skills: Leveraging Learning
         How people learn
         Skill building tactics that work
         Planning for development
         Development discussion guides
         Case Study

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                               51
         Promote Persistence: Orchestrating Opportunities
            Managing behavior change
            Ways to ensure learning is applied
            Capitalize on ―coaching moments‖
            Developing people through work experiences
            Dealing with emotions
            Coaching to keep the momentum going
            Getting to GO! model

International Coaching Federation Website The website of the International Coaching Federation--the largest

association of professional business coaches--has a free coach referral service. The site helps

you select a coach using your specific criteria by putting in a "Request For Proposal" or RFP

online, which is sent out to members who can respond to you. Or contact them for a free referral


          PO Box 1393
          Angel Fire, NM 87710

          888-423-3131 (general info)
          888-BE-MY-COACH (referrals only)

Levinsky, Rosemary, “Stay in the Game”, Black Enterprise, April 2000.

In ―Stay in the Game‖, Levinsky examines the role of executive coaches as it could benefit

African-American executives and explains why many African-Americans are not availing

themselves of this career-enhancing benefit.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    52
Levinsky begins her article by stating the main reason executives work with an executive coach:

to improve their performance and image. The coach‘s objective is to assist the individual in

improving their skills and shoring up the areas that need improvement. She distinguishes

between the function of a coach and a management consultant by stating that the coach works

with an individual for the long term to help resolve ongoing issues while a management

consultant may analyze and try to correct a problem and then be gone.

It is not just corporate employees who benefit from working with a coach. More and more,

entrepreneurs are enlisting the assistance of coaches to have a confidant to share experiences

with and possibly gain a new perspective on their businesses.

According to the International Coach Federation (ICF) the majority of people seeking coaching

assistance are professionals with college degrees and annual incomes over $60,000. The main

reasons for seeking coaching assistance are:

      Help with Time Management
      Career Guidance, and
      Business Advice

while looking to achieve these benefits:
    Higher level of self-awareness
    Smarter Goal Setting
    A more balanced life
    Reduced stress levels
    More self confidence

Yet, while executive coaching is coming to the forefront as an accepted performance enhancing

utility, African American participation with coaches is at very low levels. Theories for the

reasons behind this are lack of familiarity with the coaching process, a reluctance to go outside

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      53
the established circle of family and friends for advice, and the existing prejudicial stigma that

their performance on the job is already viewed as inferior. Having to be coached would only add

to the misconception.

One of the best ways to increase African American participation in the coaching/mentoring

process is to change the overall corporate strategy and implement formal mentoring strategies for

everyone. Having or wanting a coach does not have to indicate that something is wrong. It can

be that the individual is stating, ―I want to be extraordinary.‖

The article finishes by mentioning the accepted methods of establishing a coaching relationship,

from setting the criteria for success from the organization‘s standpoint, to assessing the

individual against the criteria established by the organization, to establishing an action plan to

meet developmental needs, and then launching the action plan. Finally, Levinsky mentions that

it isn‘t in the best interest of the individual to decline an offer to participate in a coaching process

because of not being perceived as being a ―team player‖ or being motivated enough to improve

your skills.

Bossidy, Larry, “The Art of Good Coaching”, The Chief Executive, May 2002.

Bossidy, chairman and former CEO of Honeywell and former CEO of AlliedSignal, believes that

those who think of people as a company‘s most important asset must also be good coaches. He

defines coaching as pointing out the best way to accomplish something, not because of one‘s

intelligence, but because of the number of times you‘ve seen similar things happen before.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                       54
Bossidy believes that every interaction with direct reports or meeting can be an opportunity for

coaching. To him, it‘s a matter of asking the ―right‖ questions, to get people knowledgeable

about business matters to start to think ―outside the box.‖

The results of a coach‘s efforts will be seen in the improved performance of those he is

interacting with. Bossidy believes that an executive coach has to be realistic and determine if

they are truly interested in helping others improve or if they just want to hear themselves talk.

Effective coaching methods have changed over time also. Methods that follow the command

and control model (think Bobby Knight or Vince Lombardi) are no longer relevant to those being

coached because people want to have input into what affects them. Coaching has to be tailored

to the people being coached. Additionally, it should be remembered that what is working today

may not work in the future because companies and working environments will continue to


Who makes the best coach? Usually, it‘s the person with the best interpersonal skills and best

communication skills; the person who knows when to praise and when to press forward. A

measure to determine a person‘s effectiveness at Honeywell is to see how well they develop

those employees under him. Just by listening to comments from other employees, it is easy to

determine who is developing employees and those who aren‘t. According to Bossidy, those not

doing it usually have short careers.

Bossidy concludes by stating that his success depends on how well he has developed and

coached people. But being the best technologist or financial wizard in and of itself isn‘t going to

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                      55
be sufficient to get to the level of performance the company needs. The differentiating factor for

success will be the ability to identify, develop and coach great people.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                  56
                                 TOPIC SUMMARY

Team #5: Training and Coaching                   57
                                       Topic Summary

Co-Active Coaching- New Skills for Coaching People Toward Success in Work and Life

by Laura Whitworth, Henry Kimsey-House and Phil Sandahl.

In today‘s modern business environment a need for more coaching is perceived. Coaching is a

tool that can be used to make your business more competitive. If you agree that your people are

your strongest assets or important assets, developing them and unlocking a person‘s potential to

maximize their own performance will impact the bottom line. Being able to balance your life and

fulfilling your life is achievable. Using processes and co-acting coaching models can help you

achieve it. This is an important implication derived from the books, research articles and


The premise of the co-active coaching model is that people come to coaching because they want

things to be different and they are capable and resourceful enough to make changes. Sometimes

this might not be the case. Sometimes people seek coaching because they were asked or ordered

to go to coaching and they really are not interested in changing. This book does not address that

type of scenario. A different type of coaching model should probably be used instead of the co-

active coaching model approach in that situation.

The book is very clear and simple to read and understand, but it will be difficult to implement the

co-active coaching successfully without coaching experience and real-world experience. There

are always a dozen different tunnels to go down with every client in every situation. This book is

not a coaching rule book or user‘s manual, and there probably is not one that covers all

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                   58
scenarios/situations. The approach of fulfillment, balance & process was quite interesting. On

the wheel of life or co-active coaching model, I would add another piece of the pie related to

spiritual principles.

A quote from the book that was interesting and worth remembering is: ―If we do not change

direction, we are liable to end up where we are headed‖. In my life experience I have worked in

environments that are reluctant to change. Sometimes because they just don‘t see or agree the

need for change and other times because they just don‘t want to change because it is out of their

comfort zone. To make progress and to be competitive during the existing world environment we

need to constantly make changes and those who can learn faster will most likely have the

competitive advantage.

People living fully, passionately, enjoying their work and giving their best is a great vision.

Coaching has emerged as a mean to accomplish the vision previously mentioned. This world

would be a lot different if the culture co-opted the principles of fulfillment, balance, and process

and made them a basic expectation for everyone.

The book was very enjoyable and supportive of continuing learning and growth. Coaching is a

tool that can be used to accomplish learning and growth. Everyone at all levels is strongly

encouraged to consider coaching.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    59
Coaching For Leadership – How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn

Editors: Marshall Goldsmith, Laurence Lyons, and Alyssa Freas

Executive Coaching is becoming the buzzword in this first decade of the 21st century for the

approach of helping managers and executives expand their capabilities and skills, both on the job

and beyond. There are different coaching approaches for different situations, and this book,

Coaching For Leadership – How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn, is an effort

by the editors to create a manual for coaching individuals to be more than they ever thought


The book draws on the expertise of many experienced practitioners of the coaching arts, from the

world of academia to consultants, to business executives. Each contributor draws on their

personal knowledge and research and presents their theories in a short article on a particular

topic. The editors‘ job was to contribute to the text as well as group the various submissions

under one of the areas of concentration: Foundations, Roles and Identities, Moments and

Transitions, Practice and Techniques, and Expanding Situations.

The editors acknowledge that their book should be viewed as a reference work that one could

consult often when presented with a coaching challenge in their life. Their stated hope is that the

reader will see how coaching fits in with other techniques and approaches, such as consulting

therapy and organizational development.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                   60
Coaching For Leadership – How the World’s Greatest Coaches Help Leaders Learn has many

strengths. Among them, a chief strength is its readability by anyone with an interest in the topic.

Its audience is primarily those in the business world and chapters are written concisely and

succinctly, something busy executives will appreciate. Second, the book is a comprehensive

compilation of theories and suggestions for conducting a successful coaching relationship.

Anyone who is serious about becoming familiar with the coaching process will discover many

favorite sections, and I would imagine that many copies of these texts will become dog-eared and

high-lighted as the readers refer back to the passages that affected them the most.

Coaching for Leadership should become an executive coach‘s handbook. At a minimum, it

should be a part of a practitioner‘s library.

Annotated Bibliographies

The academic research follows the same major themes of each of the books that were reviewed.

The articles analyzed the effect of coaching on the individual, individual performance, the team,

team effectiveness, or the organization. In ―Why Coaching‖, Wales says that the practice of

coaching involves self-development, management development and organizational effectiveness.

Coaching can also improve team effectiveness. Specifically, Wageman looked at how the

combination of a good design and hands-on coaching affects team effectiveness and

performance. She found that effective coaching helps well designed teams more than poorly

designed teams, and ineffective coaching has a negative effect on poorly designed teams more

than well designed teams.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                   61
The articles looked at how coaching can be used by managers. In ―The Manager‘s Role as

Coach and Mentor‖, the authors mention that managers can use this technique to help improve

the organizational culture and help employees expand their capabilities and improve their

performance. Coaching can also aid in transferring skills learned in a classroom to the actual job.

A critical factor in this is feedback. Almost all of the articles expressed the importance of

feedback in the coaching process.

In Young‘s article on mentoring, she discusses the important characteristics that those seeking

coaching should look for in a coach. Some of those characteristics are: skilled, knowledgeable, a

visionary, dynamic, and committed to the process of improving individual‘s skills.

Overall, the articles looked at how to apply the models of coaching introduced in the books to an

organizational setting and how coaching can affect the performance and culture. Most of the

articles supported their information through research or real-word observations.

Practitioner Interviews

From the interviews we conducted, we found that although not all organizations employ an

actual specific coaching model, the broad concept of coaching (aiding in personal growth to

improve performance) is used in practice. For example, Reverend Mike Ruth adopts the practice

of Coaching for Development in that employees are identified if they have greater abilities than

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    62
their current position allows. They are then coached to find a position that better suits their


LCRD Jeff Priore of the Navy commented that they although they use coaching regularly in the

military, a co-active style is not utilized. This shows that different organizational cultures

require different styles of coaching. The purpose of coaching in the Navy is to expand their

leadership roles to assume responsibility and become self-managing. Because the outcome of

coaching in the military can mean life or death, coaching is required annually. This idea actually

goes against what the books and academic literature say about coaching. However, when life or

death is the outcome, required coaching seems to be more than appropriate.

At the BP Chemical Plant, there is a formal coaching program. The purpose it to help transition

themselves into a self-directed team organization. This purpose is similar to that of the Navy in

that they both focus on the goal of self-managing. Diane Dykes emphasizes the importance of

feedback. Validating the transfer of skills to the job is something that would help BP‘s coaching

program sustain long lasting results. Feedback was mentioned as an important role in most of

the literature reviews and this goes hand-in-hand with the article ―Executive Coaching as a

Transfer of Training Tool.‖ The article states that when coaching is used to transfer classroom

skills, productivity and on-the-job performance increases.

Joseph DeLeon uses coaching daily in his role as Supervisor at the EEOC. He uses the art of

conversation and questioning to help his staff investigate claims and see a case more clearly.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                    63
The investigators themselves follow coaching rules. One in particular is that they must not

follow their own agendas.

Additional Resources

The additional resources presented all support what information is found in the books, annotated

bibliographies and in the practitioner interviews. Coaching for Performance poses relevant

questions that coaches should use to facilitate a coaching meeting. GOAL-What do you want to

develop? REALITY-What is happening now? OPTIONS-What could you do to reach your

goals? WILL-What will you do? This gives a logical flow that coaches can follow to help

employees answer their own questions about their performance. Another tool used at BP Amoco

is the ―Leader as Coach‖ training. This gives an example of a real-world coaching program that

goes along with company strategy. This resource shows that a coaching program should be

aligned with corporate objectives in order to be successful.

We also looked at several additional annotated bibliographies. ―Stay in the Game‖ addresses

some of the issues and concerns that employees may have about coaching. Sometimes being

coached is seen as a weakness. To others it can mean you have a serious problem. Levinsky

states that a way to avoid this misconception is to implement formal mentoring strategies and

therefore, change the overall corporate strategy. This goes hand-in-hand with what was found in

the ―Leader as Coach‖ training at BP Amoco.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                  64
Finally, in ―The Art of Good Coaching‖ Bossidy acknowledges that being the best technologist

or financial wizard in and of itself isn‘t going to be sufficient to get to the level of performance

the company needs. The differentiating factor for success will be the ability to identify, develop

and coach great people.

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                         65

Team #5: Training and Coaching                  66

In conclusion, coaching is a tool that can be used to improve an individual‘s personal and

professional life. In organizations it is has been proven to increase productivity and

organizational effectiveness. Both being able to balance your life and fulfilling your life is

achievable. Using coaching processes and coaching models can help you achieve it. This is an

important implication derived from the books, research articles and interviews.

The research in this paper looks at many different ways to utilize coaching. Executive coaching

is one approach that helps managers and executives expand their capabilities and skills, both on

the job and beyond. On the other hand, the interviews and articles looked at way that managers

and supervisors can use coaching skills to increase productivity of their staff. Coaching is

especially useful in the transfer of classroom skills to on-the-job situations.

When selecting a coach, a client should decide first if they need an internal or external coach.

The research presented shows advantages and disadvantages to both. Some characteristics of a

good potential coach are skilled, knowledgeable, good listener, empathetic, and dynamic. But

most importantly the coach should be committed to the process of improving individual‘s skills.

Finally, anyone can use the skills of coaching in their personal and professional life. It can help

to improve performance and productivity in the workplace, but the skill set of a good coach can

also improve interpersonal relations outside of the workplace. ―If we do not change direction,

we are liable to end up where we are headed.‖

Team #5: Training and Coaching                                                                     67

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