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									            Super’s Theory
           Holland’s Theory
 Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment
Hershenson’s Model of Work Adjustment
        Gottfredson’s Theory
       Organizational Theories
         Traditional Theories
         Alternative Theories




     Cathy Chambless, Utah State
             University
          Changes in work
• Globalization
  – Increased competition and economic
    pressures worldwide
• Technological innovations
• Sociopolitical factors – changes what
  government does
  – Homeland Security, immigration, War on
    Terror
• Shifts due to mergers and downsizing
                  Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                          University
      New demands on workers
•   Greater adaptability demanded
•   Ability to work with computers
•   Ability to work in groups
•   Commitment to life long learning
•   Change jobs and careers several times in
    a worker’s lifetime.


                 Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                         University
   Vocational behavior and career
       development theories
• Career development theory focuses on
  targets for intervention, while career
  counseling theory focuses on the
  intervention itself.
• Major theories are foundation for current
  instruments and software programs
• Theories need to be viewed critically for
  how they do or do not account for
  characteristics of people with disabilities.
                 Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                         University
         Super’s Career Theory
• Life roles                      • Life stages
   –   Child                           –   Growth (birth to 14)
   –   Student                         –   Exploration (15-24)
   –   Leisurite                       –   Establishment (25-44)
   –   Citizen                         –   Maintenance (45-64)
   –   Worker                          –   Decline (65+)
   –   homemaker




                   Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                           University
   Holland’s trait factor theory
• Person-environment fit
• Matching individual and environmental
  characteristics
• Work environments - 6 categories
  – Realistic                      --Social
  – Investigative                 --Enterprising
  – Artistic                      --Conventional


                    Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                            University
     Minnesota Theory of Work
           Adjustment
• Each individual has unique set of traits
• Occupations require specific
  characteristics
• Matching is possible; assumes traits can
  be measured
• Closer the match the better likelihood of
  success.

                Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                        University
        Concerns for people with
              disabilities
• Focus on traits does not consider AT or job
  modifications
• Impact of early experiences on career
  development
• Supported employment uses trait factor theory
   – Identifies consumer traits
   – Conducts job analysis
   – Performs matching
• Difference is: consider supports to individual or
  changes to environment

                     Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                             University
    Hershenson’s model of work
           adjustment
• Person and environment
  – Work personality (Self concept, motivation for
    work, work values)
  – Work competency (Habits, skills, work related
    interpersonal skills)
  – Work goals
• 3 domains interact with each other and
  with environment and this comprises Work
  Adjustment

                 Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                         University
        Gottfredson’s Theory
• “Circumscription, compromise and self
  creation”
• Addresses narrowing of aspiration and
  compromising to meet external realities.
• “Cognitive map” of occupations
  – Images people hold of acceptable
    occupations
  – People initially only consider those within their
    map

                  Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                          University
 Organizational career theories
• Effort to link individual’s career needs with
  needs of organization
• Company’s commitment to employee
  extends only to current need for skills
• Individual and organizational flexibility &
  planning are key to future survival/success
• “Free agent” model - persons manage
  their careers across many orgs over time
  & accumulate skills & experience
                Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                        University
    Traditional career counseling
               theories
• Parsons (1909) model uses 3 part approach
  – 1. Assessing person’s characteristics, 2. available
    occupations then 3. matching based on logic
• Others have included additional factors
  – Person-centered - recognizing feelings (Nathan & Hill
  – Person’s cognitive understanding (Yost & Corbishley)
  – Develop client independence and responsibility
    (Salomone)
  – Irrational beliefs (Spokane)
• All are based on 3 part model
                    Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                            University
    Alternative career counseling
               theories
• Major models of career counseling are
  based on white, male norms
• Different identity development of women
  and minorities
• Culture affects career develop and
  decisions
• Impact of bias and discrimination

               Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                       University
        Fouad and Bingham
• Considers various racial, ethnic, cultural
  worldviews; identity formation and
  acculturation; and interaction between
  worldview and environment
• Focus is on development and
  implementation rather than assessment
  and choice
• May include group interventions, involve
  family and community
                Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                        University
  Other alternative approaches to
         career counseling
• Narrative approach – seeks to identify
  gaps, problems in person’s “life script” –
  based on constructionist perspective
  (Cochran)
• Group career counseling for career
  exploration (Pope)
  – Use of visual imagery, locally relevant
    occupational info, teach career decision
    making and job interview skills
                 Cathy Chambless, Utah State
                         University

								
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