Cynthia Dougherty Talks About the SDWA Slow Sand Filter Serves by dffhrtcv3


									                                                               Drinking Water News For America’s Small Communities

                                      Summer 1995
                                  Volume 4, Issue 3

Cynthia Dougherty
Talks About the SDWA
by Harriet Emerson                                       Assault on EPA Initiatives.” A House Appropria-
On Tap Editor                                            tions Subcommittee opened the assault this week
                                                         by recommending a 30 percent cut in the EPA’s
    WASHINGTON, D.C.—It’s muggy by 8                     1996 budget, reducing it to $4.87 billion, down
a.m. on Bastille Day 1995. FM radio plays the            $2.4 billion from 1995, the article stated. And       Help us improve
French national anthem in celebration as the             there were some mighty restrictive riders to these
temperature climbs toward 98 degrees. Despite            proposals. Subcommittee chair Rep. Jerry Lewis        by filling out the
heat advisories, dedicated joggers pant through          (R-CA) said the cuts and riders are necessary to
the thick air.                                           force the EPA to reconsider the administrative        On Tap and NDWC
    On the twelfth floor of the U.S. Environmental       direction it is taking. Environmental advocates
Protection Agency (EPA) Building, the director of        say Republicans are trying to roll back environ-      Survey Insert Inside
the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water            mental protection 20 years.
looks worried. This is no day of celebration for             By the end of July, the Wall Street Journal
Cynthia Dougherty. The EPA is under siege.               reported that 51 House Republicans broke ranks
Every answer today has to be punctuated with “if         and helped Democrats strip 17 riders—the ones
we have the funds; if we still have people . . . .”      geared to slow enforcement of clean air and water
    The July 14 headline on The Washington               standards—from the EPA funding bill. According
Post’s Federal Page read: “House Panel Signals           Continued on page 14

Slow Sand Filter Serves Dover a Cool Drink
by Kathy Jesperson                                       gallon reservoir, river intake, and distribution
NDWC Staff Writer                                        system.
                                                             “The treatment plant was needed for years,”
    After six years of boiling their drinking water,     says Steve Tanner, Drinking Water Program
1991 is a year that Dover, Idaho, residents won’t        manager, Idaho Division of Environmental
soon forget. That’s when the community com-              Quality (DEQ). “Dover’s water system was
pleted the installation of its new $762,800 water        one of the most decrepit in Idaho and a real
system, which includes a slow sand filter, 79,000-       health threat to the residents.”
                                                                    According to Tanner, Dover’s drinking
                                                                water problems really began about 15
                                                                years before the installation of the new
                                                                system, with residents reporting system
                                                                leaks and low water pressure. It wasn’t
                                                                until the mid 1980s, however, that the
                                                                DEQ “determined the water was not
                                                                reliably safe to drink and violated several
                                                                state drinking water regulations.”

                                                                 Contamination Concerns DEQ
                                                                     The old system drew water from the             On Tap is a
                                                                 Pend Oreille River about one mile down-         publication of the
The beautiful rural scenery of northern Idaho surrounds the      stream from Sandpoint, Idaho’s, sewage          National Drinking
community of Dover. The city installed a slow sand filter to     treatment plant, says Tanner. And the         Water Clearinghouse,
control its drinking water problems.                             Dover system had no means for removing          sponsored by the
                                                                 Giardia. Besides the lack of any filtration   Rural Utilities Service.
                                                                 Continued on page 10

                                                                                                               OnTap Summer 1995      1
                          D R I NK I N G
     RESOURCES       AL


          N AT IO

                                           E    R


       Volume 4, Issue 3
                                                    On Tap Staff Visits EPA, Surveys Readers
        Summer 1995
                                                        It has been a hot dry summer in the East. As        our children, the more likely they are to form life-
    OnTap                                           water wealthy as West Virginia is, by August and
                                                    September, many wells run dry. Other parts of
                                                                                                            long habits, such as valuing the environment and
                                                                                                            conserving natural resources. And anyone with
         Sponsored by
         Rural Utilities                            the country got more rain than they know what           kids will tell you that they are very good at
           Service                                  to do with. At the National Drinking Water              influencing their parents.
         Administrator                              Clearinghouse (NDWC), we’re trying to figure                 This issue includes an On Tap and NDWC
        Wally B. Beyer                              out what information on small drinking                                                    Survey. We hope
        Loan Specialist                             water systems will be most helpful to all of                                              you’ll take a few
        Donna Roderick                              you, whether you live where it’s wet or dry.                                              minutes to fill it
 Established in 1991 at West                            NDWC Program Coordinator Sanjay                                                       out and return it
Virginia University, the National
Drinking Water Clearinghouse                        Saxena and I left West Virginia’s rural                                                    to us. We want to
  is funded by the Water and                        mountains behind in mid-July to interview                                                  hear from you.
Waste Disposal Division of the
     Rural Utilities Service.                       Cynthia Dougherty, U.S. Environmental                                                      NDWC’s technical
                                                    Protection Agency (EPA) director of the                                                    staff—the people
    National Drinking Water
         Clearinghouse                              Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water                                                  you talk with
Manager, WVU Environmental
                                                    in Washington, D.C. We discussed small                                                     when you call us
Services and Training Division                      systems—viability, exemptions, technical                                                   with a question—
      John L. Mori, Ph.D.                           assistance—and stakeholder meetings.                                                       have added a few
     Program Coordinator                            (See front page feature.) Then I spoke with                                                questions about
        Sanjay Saxena                               Saxena about the EPA stakeholder meetings                                                  NDWC services
      Technical Services                            for small system capacity building that he                                                 to our readership
         Coordinator                                attended in the spring. (See page 4.)                                                      survey. Have you
      David Pask, P. Eng.
                                                        Staff Writer Kathy Jesperson talked with                                               called our 800
          Publications                              folks in Dover, Idaho, about their new slow
                                                                                                                                               number with
                                                                                                      There’s nothing like a cool drink of
          Jill A. Ross                              sand filter system—how they designed and                                                   questions or
                                                                                                      water on a hot summer day. Allison
        Editor/Program                              installed it, and how long they had to boil                                                 products orders?
                                                                                                      Hoornbeek, 2, left, and Sue Priya
        Representative                              their water before the system went in. (See                                                 We want to know
          Diana Knott                                                                                 Saxena, 3, pour each other tall
                                                    front page feature.) Jesperson also gives an                                                what information
        Managing Editor                             overview of filters. (See pages 12-13.) Staff sparkling glasses full. The two girls         is helpful, which
       Harriet Emerson                                                                                are children of Environmental
                                                    Writer P.J. Cameon spoke with a few of our                                                  subjects you want
         Staff Writers                                                                                Services and Training Division staff.
                                                    neighbors to the north about the possibility                                                to know more
         P.J. Cameon
       Lauretta Galbraith                           of Canada instituting drinking water regulations.       about, how we can improve On Tap, and how the
       Kathy Jesperson                              (Page 6).                                               NDWC can serve you better.
       Graphic Designer                                 Since it’s back-to-school time, we’ve included           The response to our groundwater issue and
          Eric Merrill
                                                    articles about a number of educational programs:        especially to the “Groundwater Protection
  On Tap is a free publication,                     Water Education for Teachers (Page 7), the              Begins at Home” poster has been fantastic.
   produced four times a year
  (February, May, August, and                       Illinois Middle School Groundwater Project              Posters are still available if you wish to order
 November). Articles, letters to                    (Pages 8-9), and the Global Rivers Environmental extra. As always, On Tap is brimming with
 the editor, news items, photo-
   graphs, or other materials                       Education Network (Page 9)—all good sources of resources. (See pages 18-20.)
  submitted for publication are                     information. Many find that the earlier we educate
   welcome. Please address
                                                                                                                 In early August, Jesperson and Technical
      correspondence to:                                                                                            Assistant Arjita Sharma braved the hairpin
     Editor, On Tap, NDWC                                                                                            turns of southern West Virginia to tour
    West Virginia University                                 Wrong Number Listed                                     water plants with Larry Rader, West
         P.O. Box 6064
    Morgantown, WV 26506                                                                                             Virginia Rural Water Association program
  Permission to quote from or
                                                                                                                     specialist. Look for information from that
    reproduce articles in this
                                                            We apologize for an error in the last On Tap.            trip in an upcoming operator issue.
  publication is granted when                          We edit very carefully; however, sometimes a
due acknowledgment is given.
   Please send a copy of the                           typo slips through. In this case, the Farm*A*Syst
publication in which information                       program (pages 4–5, Spring 1995 On Tap) bore
 was used to the On Tap editor
      at the address above.                            an incorrect area code. A patient private citizen in
The contents of this publication
                                                       New Jersey has fielded a considerable number of                 Harriet Emerson
 do not necessarily reflect the                        Farm*A*Syst calls. We thank her for accepting our               On Tap Editor
views and policies of the Rural
   Utilities Service, nor does                         mistake with grace, and apologize to her and to
  mention of trade names or                            any of you unable to reach Farm*A*Syst. Their
commercial products constitute
          endorsement or                               correct area code and number is: (608) 262-0024.
   recommendation for use.
         ISSN 1061-9291

2    OnTap Summer 1995
                                                                                                                    NEWS & NOTES

NDWC Makes Bibliographic Searches Easy
    Looking for drinking water resources but find              Sharma says she can quickly provide a caller
library databases overwhelming or confusing? Or            with literature sources, including such information
maybe you don’t have time to search the library            as journal titles, volume numbers, author names,
yourself. Then the National Drinking Water                 article titles, and an abstract—which helps you
Clearinghouse’s (NDWC) bibliographic database              decide if the article is really what you need. And
may be the literature source you’re looking for.           once a search is made, the results are mailed
    Offering a variety of drinking water informa-          directly to you, making your literature research
tion sources, the database contains more than              a much simpler project.
500 article abstracts on such topics as wellhead               For more information or to obtain a literature
protection, drinking water regulations, water              search, call the NDWC at (800) 624-8301.
conservation, treatment technology, and operation
and maintenance. And “it doesn’t take long to
obtain a search,” says Arjita Sharma, NDWC
technical assistant.

LINKS Offers Small-Town Network
    Environmental LINKS (Local Government                  LINKS in April to avoid
Information Networks) helps local governments              being confused with The
of towns with populations of 10,000 or less                Rensselaerville
understand and participate in the development              Institute’s Small Towns
of federal environmental regulations. The program          Environment Program, also known as STEP.
distributes federal regulatory information, and            Rensselaerville’s STEP program helps small
assists small communities with strategic planning          communities with minimal funds find innovative
and exploration of financing alternatives.                 solutions to water and wastewater problems. (See
    Environmental LINKS also helps foster and              article on page 19.)
maintain cooperative regional partnerships. They               Environmental LINKS is funded by the U.S.
provide a quarterly newsletter, an online commu-           Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of
nications bulletin, publications and case studies,         Regional and State/Local Relations.
regional forums, and a small town clearinghouse.               For more information on Environmental LINKS,
    Originally called the Small Town                       contact Shannon Flanagan at (202) 962-3540, or
Environmental Partnerships (STEP) program,                 write to ICMA, 777 North Capitol St., NE, Suite
The International City/County Management                   500, Washington, DC 20002-4201.
Association (ICMA ) changed the name to

               RUS Loan Interest Rates Change This Quarter

      Interest rates for water and waste disposal               • market rate: 5.750 percent (down .250 percent
  loans offered by the Rural Utilities Service (RUS)              from last quarter).
  changed slightly for the fourth quarter of Fiscal               RUS loans are administered through local
  Year 1995.                                                  or state Rural Economic and Community
      Rates are set quarterly at three different levels,      Development (RECD) offices, formerly known
  which have specific qualification requirements.             as Farmers Home Administration offices. Local
  The new rates, in effect from July 1 through                RECD offices can provide specific loan and
  September 30, 1995, are:                                    application information.
    • poverty line rate: 4.500 percent (unchanged                 For the number of your state RECD office, call
      from last quarter);                                     the National Drinking Water Clearinghouse at
    • intermediate rate: 5.125 percent (down .125             (800) 624-8301.
      percent from last quarter);

                                                                                                                   OnTap Summer 1995   3

                        EPA Stakeholder Meetings: What’s the story?
                        by Harriet Emerson                                     that, of course, cost was prohibitive for some
                        On Tap Editor                                          people—particularly those from the western
                                                                               states—to fly into Washington for a day or half-
                            The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency           day meeting. Indeed, another dozen participated
                        (EPA) has been hosting “stakeholder meetings”          by conference call, including representatives
                        all spring—a series of meetings in eight areas of      from five EPA regions and mayors and city
                        interest to the drinking water community. What         officials from two towns in Oregon.
                        are these stakeholder meetings all about?                    “Many systems are subsidized to the point
                            In very broad terms, stakeholders are groups,      that they cannot afford to run the systems which
                        industries, communities, and individuals affected      have been built for them,” one contributor said.
                        by or interested in EPA activities, stated Sarah       “Most systems are run by towns or villages
                        Layton in the June 1995 APWA Reporter. Thus,           which are making decisions to spend large
                        individuals and industrial and program represen-       amounts of money without a full understanding
                        tatives who have a stake in EPA decisions were         of the project under consideration. This is
                        invited to Washington, D.C., to comment on their       exacerbated by rapid turnover in local leadership
                        areas of expertise.                                    and the lack of any system to review for such
                            There were two major stakeholder meetings          decisions . . .,” said another.
                        devoted to small systems capacity building. The             “From the time many of these systems were
      Water Fact        first, on March 29, sought input on monitoring         created with federal money they were under-
                        reform, viability and restructuring, technology,       capitalized,” said George Zoto, Massachusetts
                        and training. The second meeting focused on            Department of Environmental Protection.
                        viability and restructuring. Peter Shanaghan, EPA           “Debt repayment is not the principal cause of
                        Small Systems Coordinator, organized the meet-         nonviability,” said Jake Blair, Maryland Center
                        ings and was assisted by a professional facilitator.   for Environmental Training, representing the
                            Separate stakeholder meetings were also held       Rural Community Assistance Program. “Less
                        to gain additional input regarding the monitoring      than two percent of systems go into receivership.
                        reform and technology issue. The scope of these        The principle cause is nonviability of the com-
                        meetings was not limited to small systems.             munity itself—rural communities experiencing
     Three quarters     Technology and monitoring reform are major             out-migration and losing their tax base.”
     of the weight of   issues that affect larger systems as well. EPA              Vanessa Leiby, Association of State Drinking
       a living tree    senior managers are reviewing and evaluating           Water Administrators (ASDWA), said there are
         is water.      input received from stakeholders and are               ideas for addressing new systems and their regu-
                        considering options for program redirection            lation, “but what about existing systems which
    —America’s Clean    based on this input.                                   were put in under the old rules when there was
    Water Foundation        Sanjay Saxena, program coordinator for the         little or no regulation? Changes in the regulatory
                        National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC),          framework are forcing these existing systems to
                        was invited to attend several stakeholder meet-        become businesses. We have to make sure we
                        ings. Since the NDWC provides information and          don’t recreate a situation in regulating these old
                        technical assistance to small systems, the NDWC        systems that pushes people back into [using]
                        has a stake in EPA decisions. Saxena attended          `individual wells. We don’t want to run these
                        both small system capacity building meetings as        old systems out of business with regulation.”
                        well as the standard setting group. The primary             In summary, among the issues and challenges
                        intent of the latter was to determine priorities for   small system participants identified were: lack of
                        standard setting.                                      long-range planning, operating capital deficit,
                            The small system viability and restructuring       lack of managerial capability or oversight, the
                        meeting was composed of a mix of organization          federal government helping to capitalize many
                        directors, operators, and other “task performers,”     systems but providing no ongoing financial
                        Saxena said. “There was a good representation of       support for operations and maintenance, best
                        various concern groups.”                               available technology requirements, role of local
                            When he welcomed participants, Shanaghan           planning and local government, age of some
                        noted that the meeting was part of an “ongoing         systems, contaminants—particularly microbial—
                        process of collaborative problem solving.” The         cost of monitoring, use of large-system standards,
                        purpose, he said, was to get opinions from             and means for assessing viability.
                        individuals who hold a stake in the process.                “The need for assistance to small systems was
                            Saxena said that approximately two dozen           pointed out very strongly—the need to provide
                        people attended. “There were phone hookups for         Continued on next page
                        people who could not attend,” he said, explaining

4   OnTap Summer 1995
                                                                                                           NEWS & NOTES

It Takes Partners To End Water Pollution
    New partnerships, not new technology, are             Susan Seacrest, president of the Groundwater
the answer to ending water pollution. This was        Foundation, talked about the Groundwater Guard-
the consensus reached by experts at the American      ian Program, a voluntary partnership where
Water Works Association’s (AWWA) Source               groundwater protection is accomplished by
Water Protection teleconference, according to         community teams from local government,
an AWWA press release.                                citizens groups, educational institutions,
    The AWWA teleconference, held in early            business, and agriculture. (See cover story,
August, was downlinked to 140 sites across            On Tap, Spring, 1995.)
the U.S. and Canada to an audience of more                Despite efforts, some communities are
than 5,000. Discussions centered on methods           unable to protect their drinking water source.
of protecting drinking water sources from             And clean up can carry a hefty price tag. Jack
contamination.                                        DeMarco, superintendent of Water Quality and
    Jack Hoffbuhr, AWWA deputy executive              Treatment, Cincinnati Water Works, explained
director, called source water protection “the         Cincinatti’s “elaborate water monitoring program
first barrier in the multiple barrier approach to     on the Ohio River.”
protecting consumers from water contamination.”           The Ohio River is rimmed with industries that
    Dr. Daniel Okun, professor emeritus of            use the water, so Cincinatti’s best option was to
environmental engineering from the University         build the largest Granular Activated Carbon plant
of North Carolina, said “a major gap is that there    in the world—at a cost of approximately $60
are no regulations for watershed protection.”         million. It cleans water at an added cost of $20
Okun reported that North Carolina has passed          per family, per year.
innovative legislation requiring all local                “Protection is cheaper than remediation,”
authorities with jurisdiction over water supplies     commented Davis Jennings of the Washington
to send land use plans to the state for approval.     State Department of Health.
    Douglas Hall, environmental protection                The AWWA, an educational organization for
manager for Dayton, Ohio, explained how               water professionals, is dedicated to improvements
Dayton formed a partnership between elected           in science, technology management, and commu-
officials, administrators, planning commissions       nication concerning public drinking water issues.
and the local U.S. Air Force base. The partners           For further information on the American
agreed to regulate hazardous materials near wells.    Water Works Association, call (303) 749-7711,
    The Dayton water protection program,              or write them at AWWA, 6666 West Quincy Ave.,
partially funded by water customers, also uses        Denver, CO 80235.
economic incentives to encourage “groundwater-
friendly” businesses to settle in their area.

EPA Stakeholder Meetings: What’s the story?
Continued from previous page                              Shanaghan then defined the term restructuring
assistance to systems so they can operate under       as referring to a broad range of options, and
compliance,” Saxena said.                             basically, he said, it covers everything that a
    Another section of the small system meeting       system can do to make itself more viable. Most
centered on viability and restructuring. What do      meeting participants agreed that restructuring
these terms mean to stakeholders, and would           was a good umbrella term.
another term be easier to explain and understand?         Stakeholders made the following suggestions
    Diane Kiesling, a public utilities commis-        in which EPA can assist or direct efforts toward
sioner from Florida, indicated that viability is a    viability and restructuring: develop a pilot
fine term, but that another term is needed for        program demonstrating restructuring, give
non-viable. Dave Sieburg, Washington Public           systems computer capability and training,
Utilities District, suggested that viability can be   develop a model program, provide incentives,
best explained by putting it in the larger context    and give information and examples to local
of sustainable communities.                           governments. Discussions followed on the
    “This is a tough issue,” said Bridget O’Grady,    roles of state programs, local governments and
ASDWA. “No matter what you call it, it’s still a      systems, and federal programs.
tough issue. It may be more confusing to change           For information on small drinking water
the terminology where you’re still talking about      systems, call (800) 624-8301.
the same thing.”

                                                                                                          OnTap Summer 1995   5

                         Canada Considers Drinking Water Safety Act
                         by P.J. Cameon                                       less-reputable companies that make grand claims
                         NDWC Staff Writer                                    about the alleged health benefits of their products,
                                                                              when those products treat only aesthetic problems
                             Canadian officials are considering a Drinking    with the water.
                         Water Safety Act, which would allow its govern-          These devices are used in individual
                         ment to adopt national regulations pertaining to     residences to purify private well water or
                         certain aspects of drinking water quality.           municipally supplied water. They may treat all
                             Each Canadian province adopts its own drink-     the water entering a residence (point of entry)
                         ing water standards, based on federal government     or just the water flowing from a single faucet
                         guidelines. Passage of the act would allow the       (POU). The legislation might also include point
                         federal government to regulate some drinking         of dispense devices, which include drinking water
                         water issues directly.                               vending machines in stores.
                             For instance, federal government officials are       In 1993, Canadians spent $700 million on the
                         interested in regulating water treatment units, or   more than 450 models of home treatment devices
                         “point-of-use” (POU) devices, sold for home use.     sold in Canada, according to Green. He added
                         The regulations would combat what Canadian           that sales have continued to increase.
                         officials say are unwarranted claims by some             If the Canadian Parliament adopts the
                         companies selling these devices.                     legislation, regulations could then require that
                             “We want to ensure that what the public          models sold in Canada meet certification
                         is being told they are getting is what they are      standards set by a third party, such as the
                         actually getting,” said David Green, senior          National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Interna-
                         engineering consultant with Health Canada,           tional, formerly National Sanitation Foundation.
                         the federal agency considering this action. He       Green said roughly 30 percent of the models sold
                         said Canadian officials have had a continual         in North America already meet NSF standards.
                         problem with health claims associated with               Any federal action would also ensure that
                         treatment devices.                                   proper maintenance instructions are provided to
                             Green said the problems are not normally         consumers who buy treatment devices. “Some
                         with major manufacturers, but instead with           devices that are OK when they are installed can
                                                                              cause illness if they are not properly operated or
                                                                              maintained,” Green said.
          Herbicides Taint Midwest’s Water                                        The proposed action would cover treatment
                                                                              devices claimed to limit biological and chemical
                                                                              contaminants in water. It would not address claims
          Middle America’s drinking water may contain herbicide levels far    of aesthetic improvements to water taste or odor.
     greater than federal standards dictate, according to an August 18,           Additionally, drinking water treatment
     1995, Washington Post article.                                           additives and system components would be
          The Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit research               regulated. This effort is designed to ensure that
     organization, collected tap water samples in 29 communities in           community water systems, especially in small
     the Midwest and South from mid-May to July—the peak growing              communities, are using chemicals and materials
     season. Water samples showed the presence of at least one weed           appropriate for drinking water.
     killer in all but one city: Memphis, Tennessee, where the water              The U.S. federal government does not
     comes from deep wells.                                                   currently regulate drinking water POU devices,
          The research focused on the two most common herbicides—             according to the U.S. Environmental Protection
     atrazine and cyanazine—used to control broadleaf weeds on                Agency (EPA). But it does require that
     corn and sorghum crops. However, drinking water samples                  manufacturers register—with the EPA—any
     indicated the presence of up to nine weed killers in a single glass      treatment device that contains a pesticide to
     of midwestern water.                                                     prevent bacteria buildup.
          While chemical industry and water system officials say these            This EPA registration is designed to show
     findings do not necessarily mean the water is not safe to drink, U.S.    that the pesticide used does not harm human
     Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assistant administrator for        health, according to the agency. However, EPA
     pesticides, Lynn R. Goldman, said that health risks should always        registration does not imply that the device meets
     be considered, especially for children.                                  its advertised claims.
          Both atrazine and cyanazine are suspected carcinogens, and              Several states—including California, Iowa,
     have been linked to cancer in animals. The study indicated that          Wisconsin, and Massachusetts—have some form
     atrazine exceeded federal standards in 14 study communities, while       of regulations for drinking water POU devices.
     cyanazine levels were too high at least once in 18 communities.

6   OnTap Summer 1995

Project WET Educates Teachers
Students Learn about Groundwater
by Jennie Lane                                         The Project WET Curriculum and Activity
Curriculum Development and Research                Guide will be distributed nationally through
  Coordinator                                      WETnet, Project WET’s network, to teachers at
Water Education for Teachers                       the grassroots level who participate in Project
                                                   WET teacher education workshops. Peer-
    The classroom suddenly becomes quiet as        nominated educators from all 50 states, the
students match their “well logs” to those made by District of Colombia, and the U.S. territories
other students. They are                                             helped create activities for the
constructing their own                                               guide. Workshop participants
geologic cross-section of
                                                                     prioritized the water topics they
a groundwater system.                                                perceived as most relevant for
    Like piecing together                                            young people, and the project
a puzzle, a picture forms.                                           is seeking funds to develop
The noise level increases to                                         in-depth guides (modules)
an excited buzz as students
                                  Water Education for Teachers on each topic, including
make discoveries.                                                    groundwater.
    “Look what happens to the water table!”            The Watercourse, a youth and adult water
exclaims one student. “I thought the water in      education program, and Project WET, along
my shallow well would be clean,” says another,     with the National Hydrology Research Centre,
“but now that I see a landfill is nearby, I’m      Environment Canada, and the American Ground
not so sure.”                                      Water Trust, will publish the Groundwater
                                                   Education Module in the fall of 1996. This
Workshop Uses Hands–on Learning                    module, designed for use by secondary teachers
    Are these revelations taking place in a high-  and their students, teaches basic groundwater
tech research lab? No, these students are in an    hydrology and contemporary groundwater
ordinary classroom—ordinary except that their      management issues.
teacher has attended a Project WET (Water
Education for Teachers) workshop, and is using     Model Makes Learning Easy
a creative, hands-on activity called “Get the          A Groundwater Flow Model Package—a
Groundwater Picture.”                              popular, easy-to-use teaching tool which includes
    Project WET is an interdisciplinary, nonprofit a model, users guide and video, and everything
water education program. The project’s goal is to  needed to conduct a class or workshop in
promote the awareness, appreciation, knowledge,    groundwater education, is also available from
and stewardship of water resources. It is based at Project WET. The model is constructed with a
Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana.      clear Plexiglas front that allows observers to
    Since its formation in 1984, Project WET has   watch water and contaminants move through
mushroomed into a national and international       “underground rock formations.” It also
leader in water-based science and environmental    demonstrates how surface sources, such as
education. It is endorsed by a growing network     rivers or wetlands, can connect to groundwater.
of educators around the country who actively           Project WET is co-sponsored by the Western
participate in the design, development, and        Regional Environmental Education Council
dissemination of educational products.             (WREEC) and The Watercourse. WREEC and its
                                                   partners developed the highly successful Project
Guide Overflows with Activities                    Learning Tree and Project WILD programs.
    The Project WET Curriculum and Activity            For more information on groundwater
Guide is a cornerstone of the program. The guide, education materials or WETnet, contact
designed for grades K–12, is a collection of       Dennis Nelson, Project WET director, 201
innovative, interdisciplinary, water-related       Culbertson Hall, Montana State University,
activities that supplement teachers’ curricula. In Bozeman, MT 59717-0057, or call him at
“The Pucker Effect,” students locate a hidden      (406) 994-5392; fax: (406) 994-1919; e-mail:
source of groundwater contamination by digging
“test wells.” Powdered lemonade drink mix is
buried in a pan of sand and students measure the
pH of samples to locate the “contamination” site.

                                                                                                         OnTap Summer 1995   7

                        Students Protect Groundwater and Learn Skills
                        Illinois Groundwater Project Thrives
                        by William Donato                                      They test the water they drink and compare it
                        Northern Coordinator                                   with others in the area.
                        Illinois Middle School Groundwater Project                  The Illinois Farm Bureau has been instrumen-
                                                                               tal in developing a well site survey designed for
                            Ninety percent of rural residents in the U.S.      students to use as they test their samples. Working
                        receive their drinking water from groundwater,         with the local health department, farm bureau and
                        and communities across the country are debating        other agencies, teachers and students analyze
                        critical questions concerning water use and water      their watershed—learning first hand the impact
                        quality. Many organizations and government             of groundwater on their lives.
                        agencies attempt to educate the public about                They test community and private wells for
                        the importance of water issues; however, attempts      nitrates, pH, chlorine, hardness and iron content.
                        are often isolated and tend to focus on groups or      Instead of reading a book about testing, students
                        individuals that already know how important            become active researchers who report data di-
                        groundwater is to their lives. At the same time,       rectly to each well owner. They complete well
                        there is a demand for schools to make science          histories, send out land use surveys to citizens,
                        more practical—more relevant to local                  and poll groundwater awareness—reporting their
                        community needs.                                       findings to local officials.
                                                                                    Students explore how water can become pol-
                        Working Together                                       luted and learn to distinguish between point and
                            The Illinois Middle School Groundwater             nonpoint source pollution. Then, they work with
                        Project unites schools, government agencies, and       their parents to complete an inventory of hazard-
                        community leaders around the issue of ground-          ous household products. From this, students
                        water conservation. The project, initiated in the      begin to realize that they can make a difference
                        northern counties of Illinois in January 1994,         in conserving and protecting groundwater.
                        combines a hands-on curriculum with the support             Students from Lundahl Middle School in
                        of community members. The goal of the project          Crystal Lake, Illinois, recently presented at a
                        is to bring groundwater education to middle            groundwater symposium in Washington, D.C.
                        school students living in three sections of Illinois   “It’s easy to get excited about this program,”
                        designated as areas of groundwater concern.            says eighth grader Chris Gonew, summing up
                        Ultimately, the information the project is             the reaction of many of the students involved.
                        currently developing will be incorporated into         “It doesn’t seem like school. We are actually
                                              each school’s curriculum.        doing something important. I now think I can
                                                  A team of middle school      make a difference.”
                                              teachers and groundwater
                                              experts developed H2O:           Students Share Their Knowledge
                                              Below, a curriculum that             As an extension to the program, students act
                                              gives students the opportu-      as mentors to other students. High school students
                                              nity to test local well sites    are visiting middle and elementary schools teach-
                                              and work through a well’s        ing the basics of the hydrologic cycle. Eighth
                                              history. Most schools adapt      graders from St. Bernadette in Rockford, Illinois,
                                              the H2O: Below curriculum        visited Rockford Boylan High School. They
                                              to their individual needs,       taught older students about the principles of
                                              and many, such as                groundwater and set up hands-on experiments for
                        Barrington Middle School in Barrington, Illinois,      the high school students. “It was pretty scary at
                        use a problem-solving approach. First, students        first looking at all those big kids staring at you,”
                        and teachers study the entire hydrologic cycle—        admits Summer Hughs from St. Bernadette, “but
                        exploring basic groundwater concepts such as           after we demonstrated a couple of experiments, it
                        porosity, permeability and capillarity. Then they      was pretty cool!”
                        use a groundwater model to practice basic hydro-           The network of teachers and local profession-
                        logic principles—testing variables and exploring       als provides an excellent opportunity for students
                        concepts such as recharge and discharge.               to become involved in their community while
                                                                               learning about interrelationships between science
                        Students Test Wells and Report Data                    and society. Not only are misconceptions of
                            Once they have established a background and        groundwater being broken, but the Illinois Middle
                        have a good grasp of basic principles, students        Continued on next page
                        turn their attention to local issues affecting them.

8   OnTap Summer 1995

Program Makes It Easy Being GREEN
    The Global Rivers Environmental Education            The GREEN educational model revolves
Network (GREEN) was born in 1984, when               around two key content areas:
several Huron High School students became ill        • water quality monitoring and
after windsurfing on the Huron River. As it turned   • understanding the changes and trends in the
out, the students had suffered from an outbreak of     whole watershed.
Hepatitis A—a viral infection associated with            “Finding out that what goes into the water
ingesting fecal matter contaminated with the virus   upstream can affect the quality of the water
(the hand to mouth route), according to the          downstream is a critical part of this educational
Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta. Wonder-      model,” says Appel. “And so is getting
ing if the river water had become contaminated          students to understand their role in this
with the virus led the students to take action.            fragile environment.”
    “If the water had made them sick, they                         Through GREEN’s educational
wanted to find out why,” says Mike                              program, Appel continues, students
Appel, GREEN Information and Out-                                learn how to monitor the physical,
reach Coordinator. The students then                             chemical, and biological aspects of
contacted William Stapp, Ph.D., at the                           water. “Seeing how the water quality
University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.                          changes as it goes through communities
Stapp taught at the university’s School of                helps them understand the real toll of
Natural Resources and Environment, and, as the       pollution,” he says.
students learned, he had a reputation for taking         Students learn through classroom study
action based on sound analysis, says Appel.          and workshops, and they can share information
    Together, Stapp and the students discovered      through computer conferences. The program
that the river water’s fecal coliform count was      also encourages students to develop student
high, particularly after a rain storm—about 2,000    congresses to learn about their communities’
fecal coliforms per 100 milliliters, which is 10     land use practices and other human activity that
times Michigan’s allowable limit of 200              can affect water quality, Appel says.
coliforms per 100 milliliters for body contact.          Other GREEN educational components include:
    Using this information, the students were            • an international quarterly newsletter;
able to have the windsurfing concession better           • watershed studies educational materials;
controlled, says Appel. They posted signs                • water quality monitoring workshops;
indicating when the water was safe for swimming          • computer conferences on EcoNet and a
and, most importantly, when it was not. But they          GREEN Home Page on World Wide Web; and
didn’t stop there. Stapp and the students then           • an online database of global water quality
developed a comprehensive educational program             information.
known as GREEN, which grew quickly around                “One thing that makes our program different is
the Great Lakes region. The program involves         that we encourage the students to come together
water quality monitoring and environmental           and share what they’ve learned,” Appel points
awareness education.                                 out. “We hope that environmental education will
    By 1989, the program got its real boost.         promote positive environmental changes.”
Beginning with a series of international work-           GREEN offers student, individual, and
shops on watershed monitoring—conducted              group memberships with varying costs. And
on five continents—GREEN now involves                the organization accepts members of all ages.
educational professionals in 135 nations, with           For more information about GREEN, call
the program growing into a world-wide                (313) 761-8142.
watershed educational model.

Illinois Groundwater Project Thrives
Continued from previous page                         Because of partnerships with local agencies and
School Groundwater Project affords students an       the relevant hands-on curriculum, the project has
opportunity to break away from textbooks and         flourished and currently encompasses more than
view school as part of the community.                100 schools.
    The project, sponsored by the W.K. Kellogg           For information, contact William Donato,
Foundation, started with 35 schools in January       Northern Coordinator, Illinois Middle School
1994—testing more than 300 wells—and began           Groundwater Project, McHenry County
the fall semester with a groundwater celebration     Government Center, 2200 N. Seminary Ave.,
where a wide array of volunteers taught students.    Woodstock, IL 60098, or call (815) 334-4086.

                                                                                                          OnTap Summer 1995   9

                       Slow Sand Filter Serves Dover a Cool Drink
                       Continued from page 1                                  the remainder of the project through a revenue
                       method, the chlorination system often broke            bond, says Tanner.
                       down and provided almost no detention time—                The next step was to conduct a pilot study,
                       which is necessary to kill pathogens in water.         says Tanner. The community decided on slow
                       Adding to an already worrisome situation, the          sand filtration, which—although it was not the
                       system’s operators found that the water being          least expensive system to install—provides
                       produced consistently violated the maximum             simple operation and low operation and mainte-
                       turbidity level.                                       nance costs. “Slow sand filtration is one of the
                           “With contamination coming from sewage             most effective and reliable methods for removing
                       treatment and agricultural activity, this was an       pathogens,” says Tanner. “And that’s what we
                       accident waiting to happen,” says Tanner. So           were most concerned about.”
                       Idaho’s DEQ finally stepped in and ordered a               The pilot study involved operating a miniature
                       continuous boil water                                             slow sand filter, using the same kind of
                       advisory for the resi-                                            sand and operated in the same manner as
  “At least once a
                       dents—which lasted                                               a full-scale plant, says Tanner. Idaho’s
                       for the next six years.                                          DEQ loaned the community a portable
 week the system
                           “If you knew our                                             pilot slow sand filter to help them in the
                       [drinking water]                                                 study. (DEQ continues to loan out the
would break down.
                       history, you’d be                                                filter to other communities in the state.)
                       amazed,” says                                                    Once the year-long study was completed,
And you don’t know
                       Maggie Becker, a                                                 the full-scale filter was installed—and
                       Dover city council                                               the first glass of water was drawn in
   what misery is
                       member. “At least                                                November 1991.
                       once a week the
 until you’ve lived
                       system would break
                                                                                      Maggie Becker, Dover city council member,
                       down. And you don’t
 without water for                                                                    checks the flow rate of the city’s new water
                       know what misery is
                                                                                      treatment system.
                       until you’ve lived
    three days.”
                       without water for three days.”
                           According to Becker, Dover, a community of         Operation Is Easy
                       87 residences, is an old mill town that sits along          According to Tanner’s description, slow sand
                       the Pend Oreille River. The mill owned and             filtration is a method of treating surface water
  Maggie Becker,       operated the original water system. However, a         that is simple and reliable. Water influent flows
 Dover city council    declining economy forced the mill to move out,         over the surface of the filter and percolates
                       “and that left nobody to take care of the system.”     through a bed of porous sand, with the filtered
                                                                              water drained from the bottom. No chemicals are
                       Dover Becomes a City                                   added to aid in the filtration process.
                           With no operator and an ancient water system            As water filters through the sand, a biologi-
                       to contend with, the community decided it should       cally active layer, or a schmutzdecke, forms on
                       take matters into its own hands—but Dover              the top layer of sand. The schmutzdecke—the
                       wasn’t incorporated. This presented a real             German name for this layer—is made up of
                       problem for the residents because to qualify for       deposits, microorganisms, and biofilm. Once
                       any kind of financial assistance, they had to          the layer is established, the filter will perform
                       become a city. Being a persistent bunch, they          beautifully, says Tanner.
                       didn’t allow even one barrier to stop them, says            After several weeks or months of operation,
                       Becker. And so, on July 26, 1988, the city of          however, the filter can become clogged and the
                       Dover was established.                                 flow rate can be reduced. When this happens, the
                           Ruen-Yeager and Associates, Inc., an               operator must drain the filter and shovel off the
                       engineering firm in Sandpoint, Idaho, conducted        clogged layer. The filter is then refilled, and the
                       a study for the city to establish the best treatment   process starts over, says Tanner.
                       method for the city’s water. Using that information,        “When you start to see lower water flow—
                       along with a survey of local incomes, the city         usually down to about 20 gallon per minute
                       qualified for a $561,100 grant from Rural              (gpm)—the filter has to be cleaned,” says Ron
                       Utilities Service, part of the Rural Economic and      Barrett, Dover’s system operator. “They need to
                       Community Development mission area (formerly           be cleaned about every two months. Since we
                       Farmers Home Administration), and financed             Continued on next page

10 OnTap Summer 1995
                                                                                                               COVER STORY

Continued from previous page                             50 gpm production rate at a maximum filtration
only have 79,000 gallons of storage, I always            rate of 0.075 gpm/sq.ft. During the summer of
alternate the cleaning.”                                 1994, the average filtration rate was .045 gpm/
    Dover’s system has two filters, allowing             sq.ft., producing an average daily demand of
Barrett to drain and clean one filter while the          60,000 gallons.
other is still in operation. “I take every effort I          The intake system uses two three horsepower
can to make sure there’s always water available,”        (hp) submersible pumps, and the intake screen lies
he says.                                                 in 56 feet of water, and is approximately 1,700
    Barrett says it takes him about three hours to       linear feet from the shore of the Pend Oreille
clean one filter, and it’s very labor intensive. “The    River. The water is filtered and chlorinated, then
hardest thing about operating a slow sand filter is      pumped by two 7.5 hp centrifugal pumps at 100
that the cleaning has to be done manually. There         gpm through an eight-inch dedicated line to a
aren’t any buttons to push or levers to pull—just        79,000-gallon baffled reservoir. The distribution
a shovel and a wheel barrel.”                            system is then fed from the reservoir at a static
    Even with the manual labor, Barrett says he          pressure of 78 pounds per square inch.
appreciates the simplicity of the system. “It’s very
basic. The system doesn’t change much. It’s not          System Has Good News and Bad News
like one you have to add coagulant to. And you                A benefit of a slow sand filter, according to
don’t have to worry about having facilities to deal      Drinking Water Quality Management (Technomic
with the wastewater when you backwash.”                  Publishing Company, 1995) is that it has the
    Besides the system’s simplicity, Barrett says        ability to remove greater than 99.9 percent of
there are also differences in the quality of the         Giardia cysts found in many raw water sources.
water. “I also operate a rapid sand filter in            Other benefits include routine maintenance and
Sandpoint,” he says. “And one of the biggest             good quality product water.
complaints customers have about the water there               However, disadvantages to this type of system
is taste and odor.                                       may be the large amount of land required to
    “Both systems draw from the same source,”            install and operate the filter bed. The filter’s
he continues. “But Dover’s water doesn’t get that        surface area must be large to accommodate the
odd taste that some surface water systems have. I        low flow rates necessary for efficient operation.
guess it may have something to do with slow sand         And “it’s about 100 times slower than other sand
being a biological treatment while rapid sand is a       filtration methods,” says Tanner.
physical treatment.”                                          Dover residents, however, aren’t complaining
                                                         about anything, says Becker. “The water wasn’t
System Design Is Simple                                  fit to drink for so long that most people said,
    According to Tanner, the treatment plant is          ‘Thank you, thank you,’” she boasts. “In our
effluent controlled, with two 652-square-foot            opinion, the quality of the water is excellent.”
(sq.ft.) filter bays. Each bay was designed for a             The old mill town is proud of its accomplish-
                                                                     ment, and its ability to now provide
                                                                     safe drinking water to its residents.
                                                                     “Dover has easily complied with the
                                                                     Surface Water Treatment Rule and
                                                                     other contaminant levels,” says
                                                                     Tanner. “The system really is
                                                                     working beautifully.”
                                                                         For more information about
                                                                     Dover’s slow sand filter, contact
                                                                     Steve Tanner at (208) 769-1422.

  Dover operates a housed slow sand filter that produces approximately 60,000 gallons of finished
water daily. The two 652-foot filter beds were designed with a 50 gallon per minute production rate
and generally require cleaning four to six times per year.
  The city chose this type of filtration because of its simplicity and overall cost effectiveness.
Besides being economical, these filters have a 99.9 percent success rate for removing Giardia
cysts from raw water.

                                                                                                              OnTap Summer 1995 11

                           Filtering Water Makes It Easier To Swallow
                           by Kathy Jesperson                                    filtration systems because chlorine often reacts
                           NDWC Staff Writer                                     with material in the water, creating harmful
                                                                                 by-products such as trihalmethanes.”
                                Producing a safe drink of water is what public
                           water systems are all about. These water systems      What is filtration?
                           are responsible for operating and maintaining the          Filtration, according to EPA’s May 1991
                           most up-to-date and reliable treatment options        Manual of Small Public Water Supply Systems,
                           available—and that includes filtering water to        is “the process of removing suspended matter
                           remove microbes, turbidity, and other materials.      from water as it passes through beds of porous
                                Most surface water systems know that             material.” How much of this suspended matter
                           filtration is inevitable. But filtration isn’t just   is actually removed depends “on the type and size
                           important to comply with the Surface Water            of the filter media, the thickness of the media bed,
                           Treatment Rule (SWTR)—which requires most             and the size and quality of the suspended matter.”
                           surface water systems and groundwater systems              According to Drinking Water Quality
                           under the influence of surface water to filter        Management, Technomic Publishing Company,
                           their water. It’s also important to the health        1995, several types of filters exist, including
                           of the community.                                     the following:
                                                                                   • Slow sand filtration. This process consists of
                           Why filter?                                               percolating untreated water slowly through a
                               “There are really three reasons to filter your        porous bed of sand. No chemicals are added to
                           water,” says James Goodrich, environmental                aid in the filtration process. After the filter has
                           scientist with the U.S. Environmental Protection          been in operation for awhile, a biologically
                           Agency’s (EPA) National Risk Management                   active layer forms on the top of the filter. This
                           Research Laboratory. “Right now filtering is              layer, called a schmutzdecke, is made up of
                           the best thing going for getting rid of                   deposits, microorganisms, and biofilm, and
                           Cryptosporidium and Giardia.                              helps the system function optimally. The
                               “Second,” Goodrich continues, “by filtering           advantages of this filter are its simplicity and
                           out particles like algae and other microbials, it         low cost operation. And an operator need not
                           makes disinfection more effective. If the water           have extraordinary skills or spend an extensive
                           is close to being drinkable already, disinfection         amount time on its operation and maintenance.
                           is simple.                                                  Disadvantages, however, include the large
                               “And finally,” he concludes, “you reduce              amount of land needed to support the filter.
                           the risk of disinfection by-products with some            Primarily, low flow rates make it necessary to
                                                                                     have a large filter surface area; however, the
                                                                                     exact size of the filter bed depends on how
       Slow Sand Filter                                                          Continued on next page

                       Outlet                                         Effluent flow                          Clearwell
     Raw water                                                      control structure

                     Raw water

 Ground level

                Sand filter bed                                                                                       Filtered water

                                                                                 To sewer or
                                                                                  raw water
                Support gravel
                                                           Telescoping valve
                  Under drain

12 OnTap Summer 1995

Continued from previous page                                 headloss—the resistance that results in
   much water a system needs to treat. Flow rates            pressure loss. Water is filtered at two gallons
   for a typical system may be 50 to 100 times               per minute or more per square foot of filter
   slower than a conventional system. And                    area. Chemical pretreatment is required and
   because of low loading rates, storage is                  equipment must be provided to allow for
   necessary to accommodate peak water                       frequent backwashing.
   demands, creating the need for additional               • Diatomaceous earth filtration. These filters
   space. (See front page story on Dover, Idaho.)            usually come in one of two types—vacuum or
 • Rapid sand filtration. This process is usually            pressure. As water passes through the filter,
   part of a conventional treatment system that              suspended solids are removed at about the
   employs chemical addition, coagulation,                   same rate as pressure sand filters. The filter
   flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and              has several elements, including small tubes
   disinfection. As its name implies, according to           or hollow plates, which are coated with
   EPA’s Manual of Small Public Water Supply                 diatomaceous earth. These filters require
   Systems, the process is fast. For example,                regular attention because they quickly become
   water is usually applied at a rate at or above            clogged. However, when they are properly
   two gallons per minute per square foot of                 operated and maintained, they are effective at
   filter area, with an allowance for frequent               removing bacteria and cysts.
   backwashing.                                            • Bag filtration. With these filters, one or more
      Because this process relies on gravity,                layers of fabric are formed as a seamless bag,        “Right now filtering
   some times a top layer of crushed quartz or               which comes in various micron ratings. These
   anthracite coal is used to slow the process. In           filters usually require a pressure vessel.              is the best thing
   addition, the sand must be the proper size for            Particle removal occurs deep in the fabric,
   the filter to work efficiently. If it’s too fine, it      leading to longer filter runs and less pressure       going for getting rid
   will not allow water to pass through freely,              loss across the filter, says Pask. In most cases,
   and it will require frequent cleaning. If it’s            the filters are capable of handling a high            of Cryptosporidium
   too coarse, it will not effectively remove                volume of dirt and debris between filter
   suspended matter (turbidity).                             changes. And, according to the water quality             and Giardia.”
 • Membrane filtration. This technology has                  textbook, they also have shown strong promise
   some of the best prospects for small systems              for point-of-entry compliance for the SWTR.
   because of the filters’ size and cost effective-
                                                                                                                    James Goodrich,
   ness. Further, these filters can be designed           Which option to choose?
                                                                                                                       U.S. EPA,
   for selective contaminant removal, enabling                 In considering a filtration option, communities
                                                                                                                      National Risk
   them to remove viruses and bacteria, and               should look at a variety of factors. “You need to
   lower molecular weight organic and                     know what the raw water quality is and how that
   inorganic contaminants.                                quality changes,” says Goodrich. “Considering
      “Membrane technology uses a thin sheet of           the stability of the source is also a major concern.
   material that is permeable to water molecules,         For example, when a heavy rain occurs it can
   yet forms a barrier for those contaminants it          change turbidity levels dramatically. In cases like
   is intended to remove,” says David Pask,               that, it’s also a good idea to have a storage facility
   National Drinking Water Clearinghouse                  available to aid in the settling of material in the
   technical services coordinator. According to           water before treatment.”
   Pask, a whole range of membrane technologies                Other considerations are:
   have been developed, including:                             • filtration complexity,
          • particle filtration,                               • operator skills required,
          • microfiltration,                                   • land area required, and
          • ultrafiltration,                                   • total system cost.
          • nanofiltration, and                                Unless otherwise noted within the text, all the
          • reverse osmosis.                              information about the above filters comes from
      Often these filters provide all the purification    the Drinking Water Quality Management text-
   needed for specific drinking water treatment           book, published by Technomic Publishing
   needs. (For more about these types of filters          Company, 1995.
   see On Tap Spring 1994, page 6.)                            For detailed information on slow and rapid
 • Pressure filtration. These filters also use a          sand filters, diatomaceous earth filters, and direct
   granular medium to filter water, according             filtration, see On Tap, Winter 1994, page 8. Call
   to the EPA manual, and are contained in a              (800) 624-8301 to order back copies of On Tap.
   pressure vessel—which allows for a greater

                                                                                                                   OnTap Summer 1995 13

                       Cynthia Dougherty Talks about the SDWA
                       Continued from page 1                                       A current problem with variances and
                       to the article, the Democrat’s said the riders were    exemptions, according to Dougherty, is that the
                       a “GOP strategy of using appropriations bills to       statutory provisions create a cumbersome and
                       punish regulatory agencies and grant relief to         burdensome administrative process. She spoke
                       favored industries.” The GOP Whip called the           quite a bit about variances, exemptions, and
                       EPA “the Gestapo of government.” It’s a long,          viability. In EPA language, these are very specific
                       hot summer all over.                                   terms. Variances and exemptions are defined in
                           In addition to battling for it’s own funds, the    the statute. States grant variances and exemptions
                       EPA is actively engaged in efforts to reauthorize      to PWS under special circumstances so that a
                       the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). One of the         system can continue to serve customers—without
                       primary acts protecting the public’s health, the       being penalized by the EPA—even though their
                       SDWA has been stalled in Congress since last           monitoring tests show them as above the
                       year. That it wasn’t reauthorized in 1994 is a         maximum contaminant level.
                       source of great disappointment for the EPA.                 A state can grant a variance to a PWS if its
                           Over the last few years, Dougherty said, the       water quality is such that even by installing the
                       EPA has provided many recommendations for              best available technology (BAT), the system still
                       the SDWA, primarily in three areas: regulatory         won’t meet standards. A PWS receives a variance
                       reform, funding for infrastructure, and “balance       for a set time, during which the state works with
                       in the statute between up-front regulations and        the system to bring it into compliance. PWS must
                       a need for prevention programs.” The EPA               notify their customers of the variance.
                       recognizes that ensuring contaminants don’t                 A state grants an exemption from compliance
                       get in drinking water in the first place is the        if there are “compelling factors,” such as if
                       best way to avoid health risks as well as cost.        the community is so poor that it can’t afford to
                                                                              meet water quality standards. A state will then
                       Law Needs To Be More Flexible                          exempt the PWS from meeting requirements
                           “One, we need responsible regulatory reform,”      for a set time.
                       Dougherty said. “We need to have the flexibility            “Also, with at least one of the bills last year—
                       to not continue to regulate 25 contaminants every      and there’s discussion again this year—the
                       three years.” In the 1986 amendments to the            variance and exemption approach would actually
                       SDWA, EPA was mandated to regulate 83                  require EPA to put out information on small
                       specific contaminants and to select and regulate       system BAT,” Dougherty said, explaining that as
                       25 additional contaminants every three years.          the law stands now, the EPA is required to look at
                       For instance, the primary concern for many public      technology for the larger systems, rather than the
                                               water systems (PWS) is         smaller ones. And, she said, even if the EPA
                                               microbial contamination—       would like to concentrate efforts elsewhere, “we’re
                                               such as Giardia and            driven by the things that we’re mandated to do.”
                                               Cryptosporidium. These              Dougherty said that a good variance and
                                               aren’t on the original list.   exemption provisions are essential tools for states
                                                   “We do think that          and the EPA to use in helping small systems
                                               there needs to be some         address viability concerns. The EPA defines a
                                               sort of a mandate on the       viable system as one that has the financial,
                                               EPA to look at contami-        technical, and managerial capacity to consistently
                                               nants for regulation over      provide quality service at an affordable cost.
                                               time,” she said, adding,
                                               “we also think we need         Viability Isn’t a Bad Word
                                               to change the statutory            “In traveling around the country the last
                                               authorization right now        several months, I’ve heard that people look at
                                               for variances and              viability as a bad thing,” she said. “To me it’s
                                               exemptions.”                   not a bad thing. It’s a good thing to help systems
                                                                              figure out what is the best way that they can
            Cynthia C. Dougherty was named director for the U.S.
                                                                              provide their service, and their service should
            Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Ground Water
                                                                              be providing good safe water.
            and Drinking Water in January 1995. She has been with the
                                                                                  “Viability is important as a tool,” Dougherty
            EPA since 1974 and the Office of Water since 1978. In 1988,
                                                                              continued, “not as a way to punish someone or
            Dougherty became the permits division director in the
                                                                              not allow a system to exist, but to make sure that
            wastewater management office. She held this position until
                                                                              we can assess PWS and ensure that systems
            her recent appointment.
                                                                              Continued on next page

14 OnTap Summer 1995
                                                                                                                 COVER STORY

Continued from previous page                           up-front regulations and national standards versus
understand what they’ve got to do to provide           the need to have prevention programs to ensure
service to their customers.”                           that contaminants don’t get in drinking water
     She said the EPA wants to see that PWS and        sources in the first place. I don’t believe there’s a
states have tools—“restructuring tools that come       balance in the current law.
short of folding a small system into a large system.       “We’d like to see something in the law that
     “Not to close them down,” she emphasized,         provides both recognition and incentives for
“not to have a community-controlled federal            states and communities to have source water
program on viability. And not to have a list of        protection programs. We also believe that states
names of nonviable systems, but to provide the         should have viability programs to ensure that
support that systems need to recognize when            small systems are capable of providing safe drink-
they’re getting to the edge—the gray area.             ing water over the long term to communities,” she
     “You have systems that are already out of         said, adding that states and communities need to         “We’d like to see
compliance—and you know you need to look at            be certain that they can operate long term and
those systems—but there are other systems who,         provide safe water long term.                            something in the
if they sit down and look at where they’re going           “We’re thinking about the federal role in
to be over the long term, will realize that they’re    prevention as being to work with the states to           law that provides
going to have problems. And we need to be              establish criteria for source water protection and
looking at different things to do.” She suggested      viability programs,” she said. The EPA has the            both recognition
that small systems can sometimes reduce costs          unenviable task of establishing rules that will
by sharing operators or going in together with         protect the most people for the least amount of           and incentives
other small systems to acquire supplies or             money. But this is a huge country and there’s
laboratory services.                                   no way to consider each individual system at the           for states and
     And as costs rise, such partnerships may be       federal level.
unavoidable. More than 50,000 of the 58,000                “We have also suggested some changes to the           communities to
community water systems in the U.S. are small          enforcement provisions of the act so that the
water systems—serving up to 3,300 people. Many         federal enforcement process is less bureaucratic           have source
of these systems were developed when regula-           or less bureaucratically burdensome,” she added.
tions were few and water treatment costs low.                                                                    water protection
                                                       Customers Have a Right To Know
Infrastructure Funds Are Needed                             Dougherty believes that states and communi-            programs.”
    The second area, Dougherty said, is making         ties need to give consumers more information
sure that there is a way to provide funding for        about what’s happening with their drinking water,
drinking water infrastructure needs over the long      “where it comes from and what’s done to treat it,
term. The agency recommends a drinking water           if it is treated, so that consumers can participate     Cynthia Dougherty,
state revolving fund (SRF) to provide loans—           in the decision-making process if they want to.         Director, U.S. EPA
particularly for small communities.                         “As the EPA provides more flexibility, PWS          Office of Water
    “The President supports that very strongly,”       need to be more accountable to the people they
Dougherty emphasized. “Even in his approach to         serve,” she said.
balancing the budget in 10 years, he would still            “There’s some discussion of changes in the
fund drinking water loan funds.”                       area of public notification,” Dougherty said,
    She admits that there’s a real issue as to         “and we think it’s very important to listen to
whether a loan program is of value to small            what all the stakeholders have had to say in
communities with extremely limited funds.              our reassessment.”
The poorest communities can’t take out loans
because they can’t afford to pay them back.            SDWA Needs Public Health Bias
And, she said, some PWS need to obtain grants               The EPA has been hosting stakeholder meet-
for disadvantaged communities, such as those           ings, composed of individuals who “have a stake
available to publicly owned and nonprofit              in” EPA decisions. The purpose of these meetings
systems through the Rural Utilities Service.           is to explore the concerns and needs of the regu-
The proposed EPA SRF would focus on drinking           lated community. (See related story, pages 4-5.)
water compliance, and these funds would not be              “The bottom line in terms of how we develop
limited to public systems.                             standards is that standards must have a bias
                                                       toward public health protection,” Dougherty
Prevention Programs Are Imperative                     stressed. “That’s what the SDWA is about. And
    “The third area,” Dougherty said, “is making       we have to make sure that we have that bias.
sure that there’s a balance in the statute between     Continued on page 16

                                                                                                               OnTap Summer 1995 15

                         Cynthia Dougherty Talks about the SDWA
                         Continued from page 15                                  Drinking Water and Small Flows Clearinghouses,
                         That’s one of the biggest issues under discussion.”     among others.
                         She conceded that there’s intense disagreement              “As the result of all the stakeholders meetings,
                         on what “public health protection” means—even           we’ve gone through a very extensive process—
                         within organizations.                                   that’s not finished—but a very extensive process
                             “We’ll still have schedules that include            where we look at the resources that we have in
                         regulating contaminants that we don’t think are         the groundwater and drinking water programs.
                         the most important contaminants for us to pay               “I think what we probably didn’t understand
                         attention to,” she said. “Under the existing statute,   was the real cost of following through on some of
                         only the courts can decide whether or not the EPA       the things on the standards side.
                         can change the schedules for pollutants, regardless         “We know that we have to be able to collect
                         of priority in terms of public health protection.”      better data, not just for purposes of standard
                             Dougherty believes that a reauthorized SDWA         setting, but overall for the program. We know we
                         will benefit small systems. “I think it’s going to      have to convince people that the science on which
                         provide more tools to assist small systems than         we’re basing our decisions is sound science;
     Water Fact          have existed before,” she said, adding that she         whether people believe it has been in the past, we
                         thinks the reauthorized law will pay more atten-        probably have to do a better job of defending the
                         tion to small systems issues than the current law       basis on which we make our scientific decisions,”
                         does. She hopes the act will give states the option     Dougherty continued.
                         of tailoring monitoring requirements and variance
                         and exemption programs so that they suit small          It All Comes Down To Viability
                         systems better.                                              “We want to make sure that we focus our
                             “I think source water protection will be really     standard-setting activities on those contaminants
                         important for small systems, since a great number       that pose the highest risk to human health. We
                         of influences on their drinking water sources may       want to try to encourage and facilitate prevention
                         be out of their control.”                               activities, and that covers viability and source
  Nearly one million         Source water protection, strengthening              water protection.
 Americans lack direct   small systems’ capabilities, and more technical              “We know that we want to make sure that we
  water hook-ups in      assistance for small systems emerged as very            have reasoned implementation and oversight. And
    their homes.         important issues during some of the stakeholders        it is very important that we work effectively with
                         meetings, Dougherty said.                               our state partners.
 —USDA Rural Utilities       EPA wants “to help communities empower                   “It’s an interesting set of challenges,”
 Service, Water 2000:    themselves so that what they do is in their hands       Dougherty grinned, her wry humor surfacing. “You
   A Plan for Action     as opposed to someone else telling them what            couldn’t have come at a more interesting time.”
                         they need to do,” she said. “And in terms of                 And the challenges for the future of small
                         strengthening small systems’ capabilities,              systems?
                         stakeholders identified needs for case studies               “It all comes back to viability,” Dougherty
                         on small system restructuring and state                 stressed. “I haven’t quite figured out why that’s
                         viability programs.”                                    such a powerful word. We’ve got to look at
                                                                                 where we have systems that are working now.
                         EPA Relies On Partnerships                              We’ve got to make sure that we’re planning
                             However, EPA’s technical assistance role            now for the repair and replacement of the infra-
                         is essentially one of orchestrating partnerships.       structure as it ages.
                         “Even if we got the budget that we had asked                 “We’ve got to ensure microbiological safety
                         for, as opposed to a tremendous cut in our budget,      of drinking water. We’ve got to be able to provide
                         EPA doesn’t have a lot of resources to go out           small systems with the tools they need to assess
                         and do technical assistance itself,” Dougherty          how they’re going to operate long term, and what
                         said. “Effective partnerships are really the key        they can do to make their operations either more
                         for us there.                                           cost effective or more technology effective so that
                             “We’ve been working on some guidance                they can provide the best possible service for the
                         documents which deal with viability and small           least amount of money.”
                         systems issues,” she said. “That’s clearly a big
                         part of what we see ourselves doing.
                             “We look to ourselves as, at best, playing the
                         role of catalyst or facilitator in a lot of these
                         areas—working with states, working with third
                         party technical assistance providers, the National

16 OnTap Summer 1995

Water Festival Workshop Slated for Fall
by Chris Berry                                       (NSFC) outreach coordinator. Miller will present
National Small Flows Clearinghouse Staff Writer      workshops that explain how to educate students
Reprinted with permission from Small Flows,          about septic systems. Several speakers will
Summer 1995, Vol. 9, No. 3                           discuss how they organized their own water
                                                     festivals. Fundraising and promoting water
    Water festivals are held all year long around    festivals will also be discussed.
the country. But when spring comes bursting              Nancy Galloway from Moscow, Russia,
forth in all her glory, so do the water festivals.   is slated to speak at the conference. Galloway
    To help festival organizers prepare for          is developing a water festival in New Delhi,
successful activities, The Groundwater               India. She is presently involved in water
Foundation is sponsoring “Priming the Pump:          education in Moscow.
A Water Festival Workshop,” to be held in                Killham explained, “Presentations by water
Nebraska City, Nebraska, September 22–23.            festival organizers and water educators will
    The conference will focus on organizing          discuss what works best to keep the kids’
water festivals and other programs aimed at          attention and how to develop a water day at
grade school children. A water day consists of       grade schools.” In addition, evaluation techniques
explaining and demonstrating how to conserve,        to determine the success of water festival
as well as protect water quality. Children will      programs will be discussed.
have the opportunity to do hands-on activities.          “Priming the Pump” is an annual event that
“It’s fun entertainment for the kids. They are       last year attracted more than 100 participants
very receptive to it,” said Amy Killham, program     from around the country.
director for The Groundwater Foundation.                 For more information on “Priming the Pump,”
    Eight to 10 guest speakers are anticipated       contact The Groundwater Foundation at (402)
for the Nebraska event, including Patricia Miller,   434-2740, and request a brochure.
Ph.D., National Small Flows Clearinghouse

NETCSC Hosts Train-the-Trainer Workshop
     The National Environmental Training Center            BESM cost is $190 per person. If two or more
for Small Communities (NETCSC) will host a             people from your organization attend, the cost is
train-the-trainer workshop for environmental           $125 each. The fee covers course materials—
systems management.                                    including a trainer’s manual, master copies of
     NETCSC will hold a “Basics of Environ-            training materials, and transparency masters—
mental Systems Management (BESM)” program              lunches, and refreshments.
September 27–28, in Chelmsford, Massachusetts.             For more information on this training
Environmental trainers and technical assistance        program, contact Sandy Miller at (800) 624-8301,
providers who participate will become familiar         ext. 536.
with the BESM curriculum. They
will also learn techniques for
delivering BESM training to local           Training Information Is Available
officials, as well as how to use
camera-ready training materials.             Are you interested in more information on training
     The content of the workshop         programs? E-Train, The Environmental Training Newsletter
includes:                                for Small Communities, a quarterly publication produced
    • Drinking water and waste-          by the National Environmental Training Center for Small
       water regulations                 Communities (NETCSC), keeps you informed about the
    • Drinking water treatment and       latest training sessions for water, wastewater, and solid
       distribution                      waste professionals. For a free copy of E-Train or to have
    • You as a decision maker            your name put on the mailing list, call (800) 624-8301 or
    • Group decision-making              write to E-Train Editor, NETCSC, West Virginia University,
       techniques                        P.O. Box 6064, Morgantown, WV 26506.
    • Citizen involvement                    For current training program schedules, contact Sandy
       techniques                        Miller, NETCSC conference manager, at (800) 624-8301,
    • Inviting citizen participation     ext. 536.

                                                                                                           OnTap Summer 1995 17

                       The Children’s Groundwater Festival Works
                           The Groundwater Foundation holds a                Groundwater Foundation and the Rensselaerville
                       Children’s Groundwater Festival each year in          Institute, which found that children’s behavior
                       Grand Island, Nebraska. At the festival, children     and attitudes about groundwater do change as a
                       write their own public service announcements          result of participation in the festival. In fact,
                       or create an “Aquifer-In-A-Jar,” which they           their knowledge about groundwater increased 23
                       “pollute” with drops of food coloring. Others         percent. Thirty-eight states and foreign countries
                       examine aquatic insects through a microscope          now feature groundwater festivals. There’s even a
                       connected to a television monitor.                    newsletter called Sprinkles, the water festival
                           This year, U.S. Environmental Protection          newsletter which provides new ideas for water
                       Agency Administrator Carol Browner, Nebraska          festival organizers.
                       Governor Ben Nelson, and 3,000 students                   For more information, contact The Ground-
                       attended the festival—the seventh annual day-         water Foundation, (402) 434-2740. To obtain a
                       long, hands-on event.                                 detailed executive summary and/or the complete
                           In 1994, the foundation released the results of   report of the study, write the Foundation at P.O.
                       a year-long study, designed and conducted by The      Box 22558, Lincoln, NE 68542-2558.

                       EPA Offers Pollution Prevention Directory
                           The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s        costs of pollution control and waste disposal,
                       (EPA) Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics       improve regulatory compliance, reduce the
                       is offering a revised 103-page directory of pub-      liability associated with the management of
                       licly sponsored pollution prevention resources,       hazardous materials and wastes, and improve
                       including technical assistance programs for small     employee safety.
                       and medium-sized businesses, universities in              This free Pollution Prevention Directory
                       each state that conduct research and training,        and other information on EPA’s programs may
                       and information about federal pollution               be ordered from the Pollution Prevention
                       prevention assistance programs.                       Information Clearinghouse, EPA, 401 M St.,
                           The EPA defines a pollution prevention            SW 3404, Washington, DC 20460, or by calling
                       program as “a comprehensive and continual             (202) 260-1023. When ordering the directory,
                       effort to systematically reduce or eliminate          request EPA publication #742-B-94-005.
                       pollution and wastes.” Part of such a program             Information is also available via Internet on
                       is “source reduction,” which the 1990 Pollution       EPA’s Main Gopher Server at
                       Prevention Act defines as reducing the amount of      By using Gopher’s word search capability, you
                       hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants     can type pollution prevention when you log on
                       entering waste streams or that are released into      the server and a list of publications will appear,
                       the environment prior to recycling, treatment,        including the Pollution Prevention Directory.
                       or disposal.
                           By implementing pollution prevention prac-
                       tices, businesses and organizations can reduce the

                       Do you like to talk water?
                           WaterTalk is the communications system of             A user may participate in a discussion by either:
                       the Universities Water Information Network                • logging onto the WaterTalk Bulletin Board
                       (UWIN). Designed to link those with water                   System;
                       resources interests, WaterTalk provides a                 • subscribing to WaterTalk discussion forums
                       convenient communication forum for                          in a mailing list format and receiving
                       researchers, teachers, managers, consultants,               messages at an e-mail address; or
                       and administrators in the academic, private, and          • having your organization receive the forums
                       governmental sectors.                                       as Usenet-style newsgroups.
                           The system is set up as a series of discussion          WaterTalk discussions are also archived at
                       forums. Each forum is devoted to a particular         UWIN’s gopher and World Wide Web sites,
                       water-related topic, including hydrology, geology,    which are located at and
                       global water issues, groundwater quality, water       http:\\ respectively.
                       policy issues, and education. And users are               For more information about WaterTalk,
                       encouraged to suggest other forum topics              e-mail your questions to UWIN at
                       they would like to see.                     

18 OnTap Summer 1995

               STEP Publishes Self-Help Handbook
                       In this era of cutbacks, down sizing, and fund-                   with ideas, suggestions, and resources.
                   ing shortfalls, everybody is looking for ways to                          “For our purposes,” Harold Williams,
                   save money. And literally thousands of small                          president of TRI, explains in the book’s
                   communities are searching for low-cost answers                        introduction, “self-help refers to collective effort:
                                    to the problem of inadequate water                   people working together to create or improve a
                                      and wastewater infrastructure.                     service or facility that they will use in common
The                                       The Self-Help Handbook
                                                     ro je
                                                           ct s
                                                                                         but which is not exclusively owned by any one
                                                er P

F or
       Sm al
             l To
                  W. Sc
                        at er
                  w n W z an d C hr
                              an d
                                   W as
                                        te w at
                                              er M
                                                   . Con
                                       may provide the guidance
                                        you’re looking for. It is a
                                                                                         person or household.”
       By Ja
                                                                                             TRI, a nonprofit development center
                                         comprehensive guidebook                         established in 1963, has operated STEP since
                                          for communities that under-                    1989 with major support from the U.S.
                                           take self-help projects.                      Environmental Protection Agency and The Ford
                                               Written by Jane W.                        Foundation. STEP’s mission is to help states
                                             Schautz and Christopher                     achieve compliance with health standards in less
                                                                            di ti   on
                                             M. Conway, senior staff
                                                             R ev is
                                                                       ed E
                                                                                         time and for less money, and help communities
                                      members of The Rensselaerville                     to meet environmental standards while sustaining
                         Institute’s (TRI) Small Towns Environment                       an improved quality of life.
                   Program (STEP), it describes a set of tools that                          The Self-Help Handbook, Revised Edition,
                   small communities can use to reduce the costs                         costs $21.95, plus $3 shipping and handling.
                   of drinking water and wastewater projects.                            For more information on STEP or to obtain a
                       It is intended as a desktop reference for                         copy of the handbook, call (518) 797-3783,
                   three primary audiences: local residents,                             or write Small Towns Environment Program,
                   including elected officials, plant operators, and                     The Rensselaerville Institute, Rensselaerville,
                   state and federal officials responsible for water                     NY 12147.
                   and wastewater facilities. The book overflows

               GEM Provides Wealth of Information
                      The Groundwater Education in Michigan                              Michigan State University and the W.K. Kellogg
                  (GEM) program provides a wealth of information                         Foundation, GEM has a network of local commu-
                  that helps people understand the relationship                          nity groups and universities across the state who
                  between their actions and the quality of their                         share environmental information, particularly
                  environment.                                                           groundwater facts.
                      In its seven years of operation, GEM has                               For a free copy of Precious GEMS, mail a
                  supported the development of more than 35                              request to: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, P.O. Box
                  projects ranging from groundwater education                            5196, 180 South Union St., Battle Creek, MI
                  for school children to community wellhead                              49017-4918.
                  protection. Many of the “stories” are contained                            For a copy of Tapping the Source, a listing
                  in their publication Precious GEMs: Ground-                            of GEM educational materials, contact Ruth
                  water Education Strategies that Work.                                  Kline-Robach, Institute of Water Research,
                      To better share insights and advances, GEM                         115 Manly Miles Building, MSU, 1405 South
                  established GEMNET, an e-mail and bulletin                             Harrison, East Lansing, MI 48823-5243, or call
                  board system where anyone with a computer and                          her at (517) 355-0224.
                  modem can access information on groundwater,
                  surface water, and other environmental issues.
                      To access GEMNET, at the host prompt, type:                         Reading Water Sense Makes Sense
         If direct access or a local
                  number to access the Internet is unavailable, users                        Do you have big plans for your small community water
                  with a modem and communications software can                            system? Even great ideas won’t get far without funding.
                  dial MSUnet at (517) 353-8500 (300-2400 Baud)                           Water Sense, a quarterly publication produced by the
                  or (517) 432-3200 (9600-38400 Baud), and log in                         National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC), offers
                  as guest. At the MSU prompt, telnet using the                           financial drinking water news for America’s small
                  above address. Communications parameters                                communities. For a free copy or to put your name on
                  should be set to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity.                    the mailing list, call (800) 624-8301 or write to the NDWC,
                  Long distance charges will apply.                                       West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6064, Morgantown,
                      Established in 1988 through the cooperative                         WV 26506-6064.
                  efforts of the Institute of Water Research at

                                                                                                                                                 OnTap Summer 1995 19


   Cynthia Dougherty
 Talks About the SDWA,
                                           Viability and Assessment Products Available
         page 1                               Note: The free items listed below are limited to       POU/POE Units and Home Water Testing
                                           one of each per order. A minimum $2 shipping              Item #DWPCGN11
            Slow Sand Filter
            Serves Dover a
                                           and handling (s/h) charge applies unless other-           This 11-page document is a collection of
               Cool Drink,                 wise noted.                                           questions and answers about point-of-use units,
                page 1                        Call (800) 624-8301 to place an order. Please      which deliver treated water to a drinking water
                                           allow four to six weeks for delivery.                 faucet and about point-of-entry units, which
            EPA Stakeholder                                                                      treat all water entering a home or building.
            Meetings: What’s
              the story?,
                                               Self-Assessment for Small Privately               Information provided includes the differences
                page 4                         Owned Water Systems                               between the two water treatment devices, their
                                               Item #DWBLMG01                                    operations and effectiveness, production, and
  Students Learn About                         This 28-page 1989 U.S. Environmental              regulations. Some associated addresses are
      Groundwater,                         Protection Agency guide will assist local officials   presented for contact when further information
         page 7
                                           in identifying current or future management           is needed.
     Illinois Groundwater                  problems and suggests steps to remedy them.               Cost: $1.60
         Project Thrives,                  A series of questionnaires is included that can
             page 8                        help assess a system’s financial condition.               Technical and Economic Capacity of
                                               Cost: $4.10                                           States and Public Water Systems To
       Filtering Makes It
       Easier To Swallow
                                                                                                     Implement Drinking Water Regulations:
            page 12                            Helping Small Systems Comply with the                 Report to Congress
                                               Safe Drinking Water Act: The Role of                  Item #DWBKGN20
     On Tap and NDWC                           Restructuring                                         This 172-page book examines the financial
       Survey Insert                           Item #DWBLMG12                                    and technical capacity of states and public water
                                               This 1992 pamphlet uses a question and            supply systems to comply with the federal
                 Departments:              answer format to address some of the most             drinking water regulations. The report, prepared
                                           commonly asked questions about restructuring. It      for Congress, contains detailed cost estimates
             NDWC Page,                    also provides sources for additional information.     of all federal regulations, and it recognizes that
               page 2                          Cost: $0.00                                       small communities face the greatest challenge
            News and Notes,
                                                                                                 in meeting the regulatory requirements.
              pages 3–6                        Improving the Viability of Existing Small             Cost: $0.00
                                               Drinking Water Systems
              Education,                       Item #DWBKGN06
             pages 7–9, 17                     This 1990 report provides information about          NDWC Mission Statement
             Drinking Water
                                           ways others have successfully addressed prob-            The National Drinking Water Clearinghouse
               Resources,                  lems common to small drinking water systems.               assists small communities by collecting,
              pages 18–19                  Case studies, a contact list, and recommendations        developing, and providing timely information
                                           for implementing state programs are included.                 relevant to drinking water issues.
            On Tap is printed on               Cost: $6.90
              recycled paper.

National Drinking Water Clearinghouse
West Virginia University                                                                                                           Nonprofit
P.O. Box 6064                                                                                                                     Organization
Morgantown, WV 26506-6064                                                                                                       U.S. Postage Paid
                                                                                                                                 Permit No. 34

                 D R I NK I N G


                                  E    R



20 OnTap Summer 1995

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