Economies of TRACTION
DIESEL VS ELECTRIC
• How Competitive are the Diesels ?
• Is there a need for further Electrification
in Indian Railways ?
Railway Electrification is justified
on various Grounds
Depleting Oil Reserves
Savings in Foreign Exchange
Marginally Capital intensive, but much cheaper
Enables higher speeds and improved throughput
Higher hauling capability
How true is the above ?
Electric Traction - 1881
After many decades of satisfactory performance, the steam
engines were to give way to more modern locomotives.
The year 1881 saw the birth of the first electric Railway run
by a German Engineer Werner Van Siemens using both
the rails to carry the current. Finding this a little too
dangerous, Siemens soon adopted the overhead electric
wires. Electric locomotives today raun on Rail roads in
Diesel Traction - 1912
The diesel engine was invented in the year 1893, by a
young German Engineer, called Rudolf Diesel. But it was
only nineteen years later, that the first Diesel locomotive
came into existence.
Since then, diesel traction has grown from strength to
strength. Over 89,000 Diesel locomotives have been
built in the world so far, the General Motors, USA alone
contributing to as many as 56,000 Locomotives.
Superior Technology -
Diesel or Electric ?
Diesel Traction is thus a far more recent technology, as
compared to Electric traction. One reason why there are
more diesels in the world than electric locos and why
more and more are produced year after year.
Railways in Europe and some other advanced countries
had started Electrification many years before the modern
Diesels came on the scene.
In fact, Railways in modern economies like US, Australia,
etc. are de-electrifying including Suburban services.
Superior Technology -
Diesel or Electric ? - (ii)
Diesel locomotive is in fact an Electric Locomotive
carrying its own powerhouse. Today‟s modern Diesel
locomotives with 6 KMs of Electrical wiring is much more
Electric than an Electric locomotive with 4 KMs of wire.
Electric locomotive provides an easy means of drawing
larger units of power from the OHE for the same axle
Development of Technology for Low weight energy
efficient engine and its controls delayed the advent of
modern diesel locomotives.
Superior Technology -
Diesel or Electric ? - (iii)
Today, technological development in both tractions has
Diesel locos with Electric transmission have all the benefits
of modern technology such as AC-AC transmission.
And for the same weight, Diesel traction has 10% or higher
load hauling capability.
It is conceded that technology of high speed Passenger
operation beyond 220 Kmph has advanced on Electric
traction, but this is perhaps quite irrelevant to us today.
World Railways - Status of
India (BG) 44%
Amtrack (USA) 100%
Source : Rail Business Report, 1999
Electrification on IR
It is often said that
Electrification on IR is hardly 24.5% of total network.
The truth is
Total Network includes BG, MG as well as NG and is
Actual BG Route Kilometers are 44383
BG Running Track KMs are 62441
Electrified Running Track KMs - 27946
which is 44.8% of BG Running Track KMs.
World’s Stock of Mainline Locomotives
86000 Diesel Locomotives 27000 Electric Locomotives
Rest of North Rest of
the America the Europea
World (26%) world n Union
(42%) (47%) (32%)
n Union Latin
China a (1%)
(10%) India Latin India
(5%) America China (10%)
Population of Diesel Locos in the World is 3.2 times that of the
Electric locomotives (Source: World Bank Railway Database 2000)
Electrification on IR (ii)
Railway Electrification on the IR was taken up in a big
way in the late 70s, as a knee jerk reaction to the
1974 oil crisis.
Central Organisation for Railway Electrification
(CORE) was created to speedily electrify the high
density routes; this task has already been completed
in the early 90s. While talking of 1980 Secretary‟s
report, we have blanked off Gujral Committee
Recommendations and the falling crude prices in later
It is felt that Electrification of Low density non-viable
and uneconomic routes continues unabated, perhaps
to sustain the organisation.
Time has perhaps come, to pause and examine if the
need for further electrification still persists.
Sometimes Electric traction is perceived as more
energy efficient, by wrongly computing the efficiency
from the Overhead wire, in stead of from the Primary
Source of Energy, viz., Coal / Oil (used in producing
electricity in power houses)
The energy efficiency of Traction should however be
calculated right from the Primary source of Power,
taking into account, losses occurring at every stage.
(For example, in production of Electricity in Power
houses and Transmission and Distribution)
ENERGY EFFICIENCY (ii)
ELECTRIC LOCO DIESEL LOCO
Source : The Economics of Railway Traction by
Dr. J. Majumdar (Mcgraw Hill & Co.)
2. Theoretical efficiency of Diesel Cycle (for a volumetric compression
ratio of 1:16)
3. Boiler efficiency (in electric operation: efficiency of steam power
4. Indicated efficiency
5. Mechanical efficiency of diesel engine (auxiliaries included)
6. Efficiency of power transmission to axles
7. Theoretical efficiency of cycle in electric operation
8. Indicated efficiency and mechanical and electrical efficiency of the
entire turbo-a.c. converter (auxiliaries included)
9. Efficiency of power transmission from power plant to substation
10. Efficiency of converter and of power transmission from substation
input to current collector, return current losses included
11.Electro-mechanical efficiency of locomotive at the driving wheels,
allowing for feed-water heating to 100 deg. C by exhaust stem.
Energy Efficiency (iii)
Mode of Traction Energy consumed Energy Relative
per 1000 GTKM consumed in Energy
(AUTHORITY: KCAL Index
Pass – Diesel 4.82 42252 1.0
Pass – Electric 20.6 66892 1.58
Goods – Diesel 2.96 25948 1.0
Goods – Electric 8.28 26887 1.04
1 kg of HSD used in Diesel Traction = 10500 KCAL
1 KWH of Electricity requires = 2952 KCAL
ALL India Average Heat Rate in KCAL / KWH
AUTHORITY : CEA Figures
The table proves that Electric traction as energy
efficient is a myth
Availability of Oil (Reserves)
Will there be any Oil after 30 years ? ? ?
Ever since Col. Blake discovered oil in 1857, this is the usual
pessimistic refrain that we hear.
Arthur Anderson/Cambridge Energy Research Associates
In 1970, the reserves were estimated to last 33.78 years
In 1980, the estimate was 33 years despite increase in
consumption by 30%
In 1999, oil reserves were estimate to last 43 years despite
increase in consumption by 43%
Oil in India
India is the least explored region for oil
per 100 Sq. Km
In 1998, prognosticated hydrocarbon reserves in India
were as high as 17 Billion tonnes that can last for 400
years at the consumption rate of 46 Million tonnes per
year during that year.
India consumes 2% of World‟s oil, while Indian Railway
uses only 1.7% of India „s Oil. (Source : TERI Year
Share of Railways in the consumption
Power (4%) (7%)
(49.7%) Food (2%)
Availability of Oil
The Government is investing Rs.54 400
Crores in connecting the Golden
Quadrilateral and diagonals by Super
Almost every Automobile / Light Motor
Vehicle Manufacturer continues to
expand their production capacities.
A simple device uses Hydrogen from fuel
combines with Oxygen and produces electricity.
No noise, no smoke and no moving parts
As per International Railway Journal of March
2000, Fuel Cell Trains shall be a reality by 2008.
A breakthrough has already been achieved by
All Overhead wires will then become redundant !!!
Diesel locos can be easily converted by replacing
engine with fuel cell.
Bio - Diesels
Renewable fuels from bio sources
As given by Dr.D.K.TULI, Chief Research Manager - IOC
Why Bio diesel is important
for Railways ?
Indian Rail has very large available
Bio diesel will help Railways to :
Improve upon emission norms
eventually reduce diesel cost
redeploy surplus manpower
contribute to environment protection
Importance of Bio diesel
No engine modification
Increase in engine life
Biodegradable and non-toxic
Easy to handle and store
Bio diesel process at
IOC (R & D)
Base Catalyzed transesterification of oil
Raw Materials Used
Rice Bran Oil
Sun flower oil
Scale : 100 g to 60 Kg batch
IOC R & D BIODIESEL PILOT PLANT
The Indian Scene
Annual Growth rate -8% compared to world average of
Oil pool deficit & subsidies Rs.16,000 Crores, Rs.18,440
Current per capital usage of petroleum is abysmally low
(0.1 ton / year) against 4.0 in Germany or 1.5 tons in
Even Malaysia‟s figure would be beyond our paying
Our domestic production would meet only 33% of
demand at the end of 10th plan and only 27% by 2010-
Investment in Biofuels make strong Economic
Jatropha may be the Answer
According to the Economic Survey (1995-96), Govt. of India, of
the cultivable land area about 100-150 million hectares are
classified as waste or degraded land
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot, wild castor) thrives on any
type of soil
Needs minimal inputs or management
Has no insect, pests & not browsed by cattle or sheep
Can survive long periods of drought
Propagation is easy
Yield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30
25% oil from seeds by expelling 30% by solvent extraction
The meal after extraction an excellent organic manure (38%
protein, N:P:K ration 2.7:1.2:1)
Photograph of Jatropha plant with seeds
EU Initiatives on Biofuels
Regulatory package COM-2001 / 547 containing
action plan and directives
20% alternate fuels for gasoline and diesel by 2020
Major options biofuels, natural gas and biohydrogen
Biofuels minimum 5.75% in 2010
Member states can give tax benefits
Bio fuels to include Bio diesel, Bio ethanol, ETBE,
Reduce dependency on imported oil
Greenhouse gas reduction (8% Kyoto)
Support agricultural sector
Bio diesel Potential - Indian Railways
Track length of 1,00,000 km
If 50% tract available and 50 meters of both sides
Approx. area 5000 sq..km
considering an yield of 2 tons / ha
Yield of oil crop 1 MMTPA
Approx. Bio diesel potential 200-250,000 tones i.e.
about 10% of the Railways‟ diesel requirements
Indian Oil as Partner in technology development
The Railway Minister said that Railway Ministry and Indian Oil
Corporation signed a memorandum of understanding for a pilot
project for production of eco-friendly biodiesel for the Railways.
Courtesy : The Hindu dt. 13th Feb.2003
Electric Traction -What it
costs the Nation ?
All figures are in MUs (millions of units)
Total Demand of the Country 507216
Actual availability 467400
Consumption of Railways in 7308
Avoidable Shortage inflicted by 27.7%
Source : Central Electrical Authority
(Figures for 2000-01)
Electric Traction -What it
costs the Nation ? (ii)
Total Shortfall in Peak Load 10457 MW
Requirement of Railways ** 5500 MW
Avoidable Capacity constraints 54.1%
caused by the Railways
* Source : Central Electrical Authority
(Figures for 2000-01)
** Requirement as computed for 2800 Electric locos,
assuming Loco Availability (85%), Load factor
(60%) and T & D Losses (22%) etc.
Every Diesel Loco of 4000 HP put on line
adds to the Power Generation Capacity of the
country by 3 MW
Every Electric Loco of 6000 HP put on line
Eats into the Power generation capacity by
about 4 to 5 MW *
Deprives 15000 Houses of Electric Power
Adds to use of inefficient small DG sets by
Industrial, Agricultural & Domestic sectors
* Taking into account the Locomotive, Transmission
and Distribution Losses.
Electrify the Railways and
Dieselise the Industry ??
In a country where 14.7% villages are yet to
be electrified, can we afford to electrify
The Energy Policy should ideally aim at
replacing inefficient use of Fuel
Electrification replaces a highly efficient
Turbo charged Railway Diesel locomotive
with small sized high inefficient gen-sets
resulting in higher consumption of HSD and
Anticipated Drains from the Power
production in future years, even with no
Year Electric Energy
required by IR
Assuming a 5% Growth / annum in Freight and
Passenger Traffic over the 10th and 11th Plans and
with same share of Traffic between Diesel and Electric
Further Drain into the scarce
At the end Additional Capital Cost
of Plan Generation required for
Capacity Locos / Power
required by IR Plant / T & D
X 1520 Rs.12760 Cr.
XI 1939 Rs.16112 Cr.
Assuming a 5% growth / annum in Freight and
Passenger Traffic over 10h and 11th Plans
Optimum Utilisation of Energy -
There is a lot of reluctance in the States for
establishing any new coal-based Power Plants
in view of the serious limitations like poor quality
of coal with high ash and sulphur content,
pollution of ash and dust, high cost of
developing new coal fields, extreme shortage of
Most of the Power houses set up in the country
in the last five years and those in the pipe line
are based on Petroleum products such as LNG,
Diesel, Naptha, etc.
Does Electrification save
Foreign Exchange ?
Electrification ends up draining the
Foreign exchange, instead of saving it.
The classic case is Ernakulam -
Trivandrum Electrification at Minus 29%
rate of return, tapping Power from a
Diesel Power station of Nallalam.
Capital investment in Power plants is
mostly by way of imported equipment.
To Sum up,
It is quite obvious that
Electrification of Railways
is leading to:
Dieselisation of the Industry,
Agriculture and Domestic Sector
Increased Fossil Fuel Consumption
and not Reduction
Higher Outflow of Foreign Exchange
and not savings for the Nation
Is Electric Traction only
marginally Capital intensive ?
The Nation pays
dearly by spending our
scarce Capital to
create this vast
infrastructure and to
On the Diesel traction,
a modest engine is all
that we require.
Power Requirement of a 5000 HP
Equivalent MW Capacity 3.75 MW
(Let us assume that Plant
and Loco Load factors
cancel each other)
Transmission Losses 10%
Generation Capacity 3.75 / 0.9
required = 4.2 MW
Current Cost of Power Rs.4.25 Cr. **
House / MW
Cost of Distribution Network / Rs.4 Cr.
Cost / MW of Power at the Rs.8.25 Cr.
Capital to be invested / loco 4.2 x 8.25
= Rs.34.65 Cr.
Source : Data as published by CEA
Electric Traction is
prohibitively Capital intensive
(Rs. In Crores)
Loco Cost 3.66 3.79
Cost of OHE per Loco - 3.25
Cost of Power House per Loco - 17.85
Cost of transmission / 16.80
distribution system per loco
Total Capital Cost 3.66 41.69
Based on prices for the year 1999-2000
5 km of OHE per locomotive and Rs.65 lakhs /km
Break-even Level as Assessed
by various Committees
Committee Year Break-even
Level (GMT *)
SAHAI 1963 6.06 – 6.91
NCAER 1970 13 – 18
RAJ 1978 29.6 – 37.5
Railway Board 1984 31 – 46
Railway Board – Eds 1989 34.9
Railway Board – Eds 1996 49.72
* Gross Million Tonnes per Route KM / Annum
Today, we are executing projects of Sections
with 0 – 15 GMT !!
Sections under Electrification
Traffic densities on Sections under Electrification
are far less than 49.7 GMT (Break-even level)
Lucknow – Kanpur 14 GMT
Kharagpur – Bhubaneshvar 26 GMT
Ludhiana – Amritsar 29 GMT
Ambala – Saharanpur 27 GMT
GMT of Non-electrified
sections on All India basis
GMT % of RKM
> 49.72 Nil
40.0 – 49.72 1.6%
30.0 – 40.0 6.7%
20.0 – 30.0 11.1%
10.0 – 20.0 31.8%
5.0 – 10.0 24.0 %
< 5.0 24.8%
Justification for any more
electrification thus does not
appear to exist.
Breakeven was given a Go By since no
sections on IR in 1996 qualified for
Electrification on 49 GMT basis and the
CORE was facing a closure.
If ROR should only be the criterion, can
we de-electrify the low density routes
already electrified ?
If Oil prices come down, as it did from
$36 in 1979 to $9 in 1998, can we
attempt de-electrification of the entire
country based on ROR ?
Gujral Committee - 1990
For the period 1990-2005, Electrification of 2510
Electrification recommended @ 214 Kms per year
Sections specifically recommended for Not
Electrifying already electrified.
Actual Electrification done between 1990 and
2000 has been 5000 KMs which is double of what
Rate of Electrification is 2.33 times of what was
Line Haul Costs
The Operational Line Haul Costs for Diesel
and Electric Traction are expressed in terms
of the Line Haul Costs per 1000 GTKMs of
Traffic carried. It has the following
-Costs of Fuel, Stores, etc.
-Repair, Maintenance and Operating Expenses.
Anomalies in Line Haul Costs
OHE Financing through Budgetary support
(Applicable 7% Dividend)
Capital-at-charge (Rs.4359 Crore *) of Electrification retained
Capital-at-charge of Zonal Railway kept low
(Example-WR/43 Crore, SR/69.9 Crore since 1987, CR/120).
Interest of full Capital-at-charge Rs.15 per 1000 GTKM
ROR worked out for 36 years, slightly less than the OHE Codal
life of 40 years to avoid Replacement costs getting reflected.
IRFC Lease Hire Charge apportion to Diesel locos only
IRFC Lease Hire charge distributed in proportion of loco holding
to the disadvantage of diesel traction where shunting locos also
* Source : 2001-02 (BE) Figure as per Budget Documents
Explanatory Memorandum 2001-02
Line Haul Costs
Proof of the Pudding is in the Eating !!
Diesel Line Haul Cost on
Non-electrified Railways (NE & NF) are
significantly lower than that of
NE 46.48 65% Lower than IR Ave.
NF 62.10 24% Lower than IR Ave.
Line Haul Costs
In any case,
the Average Line Haul Cost
derived from the High Density
Electrified Routes cannot obviously
be Extrapolated to justify the
Electrification of Low Density
Procedure for sanction of
Each Electrification Project will be justified on ROR
which should exceed 14% with the DCF Method.
In certain specific cases, Electrification will be
justified on considerations of Operational flexibility
Electrification of a single line section (Main Line)
will normally not be considered.
The ONLY Recommendation followed is
to Do Away with Breakeven,
due to obvious reasons.
World Bank Appraisal
Only Independent Appraisal of Two sections
done in 1995
Projected ROR 23.4% 40.5%
Actual ROR 9% 2%
Speed of Goods trains Diesel 24 28
Electric 36 29
Maintenance cost in Diesel 3.3 7.69
Rs. Per 1000 GTKM
Electric 2.2 7.54
Energy Cost (Rs.) Diesel 2.8 / lit 5.9 / lit
Electric 0.4 / kwh 2.5 / kwh
No.9 of 2000
on FUEL MANAGEMENT
DELHI - AMBALA - ROR
Projected : 14.5%
Actual : (-) 10.25%
BINA - KATNI
Full Diesel Operation Cost : 68.9 Crore
Full Electric Operation Cost : 110.79 Crore
Rate of Return (-) ve
CAG Report 2000
For the Period 1994-95 to 1998-99
Total Working Expenses Rs.87,057 Cr.
Fuel alone Rs.21,772.9 Cr.
Steam Rs.149.31 Cr.
Diesel Rs.8,590.38 Cr.
Electric Rs.13,033.21 Cr.
Share of GTKM – Diesel 46.17%
Railways have made no provision for energy meters in
locomotives either to monitor the electric energy
consumption or to work out the electricity consumed for
electric traction of different classes of traffic.
The apportionment of electricity consumed between
goods and passenger services is being done on an
estimated standard specific energy consumption (SEC)
for passenger services.
The SEC adopted was obviously erroneous.
Sometimes, the adopted SEC for passenger traffic
resulted in negative consumption for goods traffic.
The figures, therefore, have no realistic basis.
Electrification of the main routes picked up momentum in
1970s. By March 1999, 14,050 route kilometres were
electrified at the cost of Rs.4,008.55 crores.
It is imperative that a review is undertaken now for choice of
traction with reference to the operational results of the
electrification already done.
Review by Audit of 2 electrified sections and a project
completion report prepared by the World Bank in 1994 tend to
indicate that the projected returns were significantly
overstated and could not be achieved.
Besides, the expected economy in cost of operation has not
fructified having regard to the trend of international oil prices
vis-à-vis the sharp rise in domestic electricity costs.
Further in Indian conditions, uninterrupted electricity supply
to Railways inevitably affects industry adversely.
(v) Consumption of diesel/ electricity per
1000 GTKMs (BG)
Diesel (Litres) Electricity (KWH)
Passenger Goods Passenger Goods
Period and and and and
proportion proportion proportion of proportion
of mixed of mixed mixed of mixed
1 2 3 4 5 6
1. 1994-95 5.33 3.33 20.26 8.88
2. 1995-96 5.30 3.20 19.98 8.88
3. 1996-97 5.15 3.15 19.89 9.02
4. 1997-98 5.39 3.12 19.82 8.85
5. 1998-99 5.27 3.12 19.75 8.51
5.29 3.18 19.93 8.82
Opportunity Cost of
Investments in Electrification
Electrified Route 15,398 KMs
Current Cost 10,000 Crores
Interest Cost @ 16% 1,601 Crores
The interest cost alone can finance CIF value of the
Total HSD consumed by IR
The Capital Investment in Electrification can buy 2734
Diesel locos almost the same number that we have
*@ Average Current Price Rs.63 Lakhs per KM
4000 HP 3100 HP
Adhesion 0.31 0.36
Starting TE 38t 40.5t
1 in 100 2200 t 2750 t
1 in 50 3150 t 3705 t
Modern Diesel Vs Electic
6000 HP 4000 HP
Adhesion 0.37 0.42
Starting TE 47t 53t
1 in 100 3205 t 3655 t
1 in 50 4250 t 4840 t
Average Freight Train Speeds - BG
Year Diesel Electric
1960-61 22.2 19.5
1970-71 22.9 25.2
1980-81 21.3 22.8
1990-91 22.6 23.1
1995-96 22.5 23.8
1996-97 22.5 24.1
1997-98 22.7 24.7
1998-99 22.2 24.9
1999-00 22.6 24.8
1) Train KMs Goods 5,724,512 78,57,387
2) Train Engine Hours 2,25,816 3,27,027
3) Wagon KMs 47,50,76,841 76,94,37,326
4) Net Tonne KM 5,49,78,59,400 9,87,04,92,200
5) GTKM (Goods) 10,78,62,15,100 17,98,57,43,600
6) GTKM (Goods) 11,93,18,50,700 19,28,83,12,100
including eng. Wt.
7) GTKM (Rev.) 10,58,36,82,538 17,66,97,08,475
8) NTKM (Rev.) 5,42,15,54,336 9,74,03,57,505
9) GTKM including wt. 3,02,47,64,52,131 4,63,43,49,23,558
Of eng. X
Avg. speed (Diesel)
10) (9) ÷ (6) 25.35 24.02
(Line 42 of the
Courtesy : Traffic Accounts – Goods Analysis 2001-02 (BG)
Study by LRDSS
HP to Load Ratio of 1.5 - Most beneficial & Cost
effective. This, of course, pertains to sections near
saturation. On Passenger dominant sections, HP to
Load Ratio >2 for Diesel also. Further overpowering not
recommended. - Benefit insignificant.
On Single Line sections, gain under Electric traction is
low. (Tract & Other reasons limit the speed
improvement). HP to train load ratio is not a traction
Positive impact of Electric traction on Freight dominant
double line sections where HP to trailing Load ratio is
low. - 12 - 16% higher line capacity
This recommendation of course is not traction specific
but only HP specific.
Contrary to popular perception, Electric
traction is more polluting than Diesel
Power for Electric Loco comes from
either Diesel based Power station with
same level of pollution as Diesel loco
Or from Coal based Thermal station whose
“Green House” gases emission is 26% more
than Diesel loco (UNDP Study)
Electric Loco- Environment
friendly - Is that really so ??
= 16 Tonnes of coal Ash per day
One Electric Loco of 5000 HP requires 4.2 MW of
One MW of Power requires 10 Tonnes of Coal per
And at 40% Ash content, generates 4 Tonnes of
Coal Ash per day.
Source: Central Electricity Authority Annual Report
Break Up Price of HSD
Custom duty Others
10% 9% CIF Cost
Excise Duty 7%
Price of HSD Oil
Basic Price * Rs.14.54 per Litre
Inclusive of Sales Tax & Freight the price
ranges between Rs.15.12 to Rs.17.69
Average Issue Price Rs.16.25 per Litre
* Authority : Board‟s rate contract dt.12.1.2001
Is Electricity overpriced ?
Railway Traction needs immune power,
with no cuts, warranting duplication of
Transmission and Distribution systems,
which obviously comes at a Premium.
Unlike HSD, Electricity is subsidised by waiving off Sales
Tax and Excise, though it is an Economic Good
manufactured and sold.
Cost of Fuel & Electric Energy
(Rs. Per 1000 GTKM)
Year Pass. Goods
Diesel Elect. Diesel Elect.
94-95 39.30 55.95 23.99 23.48
95-96 38.52 63.45 23.69 28.58
96-97 41.40 74.98 25.51 32.47
97-98 52.02 81.78 30.76 34.54
98-99 52.38 86.31 30.10 34.06
99-00 57.31 90.43 35.19 36.35
Increase 46% 62% 47% 55%
Source: ASS Published by Ministry of Railways
(1994-95 to 1999-2000)
Electric Vs Diesel debate is not an issue of Departmental
dominance but Economic survival.
Electrification of High Density Traffic Route (49.72 GMT
and above) is not being questioned.
There is no pressing need for electrifying remaining
sections when Railways are facing Financial Disaster.
A complete moratorium on Electrification should be place,
as an immediate measure.
CORE should be wound up.
Work of ongoing projects should be executed only by the
concerned Railway as is the case with projects of BG
conversion, doubling of lines and other Engg. / S&T / Elect.
Works, which also overlap on Multiple Railways.