Biology II Chordata
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. The duckbilled platypus has __________ characteristics.
e. all but "amphibian"
____ 2. Which of the following characteristics is unique to the duckbilled platypus?
a. possession of a cloaca
b. separate sensory systems for land and water
c. pelvic girdle
e. flattened tail
____ 3. The duckbilled platypus is found in
b. the Galápagos Islands.
c. New Zealand.
____ 4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. All chordates have notochords.
b. All chordates have pharyngeal pouches or perforations.
c. All chordates have dorsal tubular nerve cords.
d. All chordates are vertebrates.
e. Chordates are found in all major types of environments.
____ 5. The notochord is most closely associated with the
a. nervous system.
b. spinal cord.
c. skeletal system.
d. skin system.
____ 6. The only chordate feature still present in the human adult is
a. pharyngeal gill slits.
b. nerve cord.
e. all of these
____ 7. Which of the following statements is false?
a. All vertebrates have a ventral tubular nervous system.
b. All vertebrates have a tail at some stage in their life cycle.
c. All vertebrates have a notochord at some stage in their life cycle.
d. All vertebrates have pharyngeal gill slits at some stage in their life cycle.
____ 8. Which of the following is NOT a feature that is found exclusively among all vertebrates?
b. pharyngeal gill slits
c. four legs
d. post-anal tail
e. dorsal nerve cord
____ 9. In filter-feeding chordates, which structure has cilia that create water currents and mucous sheets that capture
nutrients suspended in the water?
b. differentially permeable membrane
c. filiform tongue
d. gill slit
____ 10. The invertebrate chordates are
a. filter feeders.
____ 11. A form of metamorphosis is found in
d. tunicates and amphibians.
e. tunicates, amphibians, and insects.
____ 12. Which of the following is a diagnostic feature of the sea squirts that forms the basis for its classification?
a. metamorphosis from a motile larva to a sessile adult
b. a heart that allows circulation of blood
c. a notochord located in the tail of the larva
d. sexual reproduction during the larval stage
e. the presence of a tunic or coat over the body of the adult
____ 13. During the life of a tunicate, the notochord
a. is present throughout life.
b. appears in the larva only.
c. develops during adulthood.
d. is completely absent.
e. changes into the nerve cord.
____ 14. The "tunic" of tunicate refers to
a. a body covering.
b. the type of food-gathering mechanism.
c. muscle arrangements in the larva.
d. the immature stage of a true fish.
____ 15. "Sessile" could properly be used when referring to
a. sea squirts.
d. true fishes.
e. all of these
____ 16. Suspension feeding is used by
a. sea squirts.
e. all of these
____ 17. Lancelets possess which of the following all their lives?
b. gill slits
c. nerve cord
d. notochord and nerve cord
e. notochord, nerve cord, and gill slits
____ 18. Lancelets are
b. filter feeders.
e. scrapers that feed on the ocean bottom.
____ 19. Which phylum is most closely related phylogenetically to the first vertebrates?
e. none of these
____ 20. Which of the following is NOT a subphylum of Chordata?
____ 21. Which of the following would be considered to be more primitive and perhaps ancestral to the others?
c. hypothetical ancestral deuterostome
____ 22. In fishes ancestral to land vertebrates, pouches in the gut wall developed into
a. heart chambers.
b. the notochord.
c. lobes of the liver.
e. vocal cords.
____ 23. The ostracoderms were
a. an ancient group of spiny, thin echinoderms.
b. a group of primitive protochordates.
c. primitive fishes without jaws.
d. one of the first terrestrial vertebrates.
e. reptiles with a bony skin.
____ 24. The chief predators of the ostracoderms were
b. ichthyosaurs, swimming reptiles.
c. large agnathans.
d. sea scorpions two meters long.
____ 25. Ostracoderms lost out in evolutionary competition to animals
a. with more protective body coverings.
b. who were filter feeders.
c. with lungs.
d. that had begun to develop jaws.
e. with an exoskeleton.
____ 26. Placoderms were the first fishes to display
b. gill openings.
c. cartilaginous skeletons.
d. jaws and gill openings.
e. jaws, gill openings, and cartilaginous skeletons.
____ 27. Which of the following classes is represented only by fossil forms?
____ 28. The chief advance of the placoderms was the development of
a. paired fins for efficient movement.
b. paired jaws that enabled them to bite and feed.
c. bony plates for protection.
d. an efficient set of lungs.
e. a strengthened notochord.
____ 29. The most primitive, but still existing, vertebrates are members of the class
____ 30. The agnathans were not considered to be very formidable vertebrate challengers to the invertebrates with which
they coexisted because they
a. were poor swimmers due to the lack of paired fins needed for coordinated movement.
b. lacked paired jaws.
c. did not have protective plates like the ostracoderms.
d. were filter feeders that did not compete with predator invertebrates.
e. all of these
____ 31. The feeding habits of lampreys are best described as
a. suspension feeding.
e. all of these
____ 32. The term agnathan could be used to describe
d. ostracoderms and hagfish.
e. placoderms and hagfish.
____ 33. The vertebrate jaw first appeared in
____ 34. Sharks, rays, and skates belong to the class
____ 35. Sharks differ from most other fish in that they lack
d. paired appendages.
____ 36. The feeding behavior of true fishes selected for highly developed
c. sense organs.
d. gill slits.
e. motile organs.
____ 37. In true fishes, the gills primarily serve which function?
a. gas exchange
c. water elimination
d. both feeding and gas exchange
e. all of these
____ 38. Which sequence most accurately describes the complete path of blood through the circulatory system of a fish?
a. atrium-->ventricle-->gill capillaries-->atrium-->ventricle-->all other capillaries
b. atrium-->ventricle-->gill capillaries
c. gill capillaries-->atrium-->ventricle-->all other capillaries
d. gill capillaries-->all other capillaries-->atrium-->ventricle
____ 39. All but which of the following have cartilaginous skeletons?
____ 40. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Shark's teeth are modified scales that are continuously shed and replaced.
b. Many fish use a swim bladder to provide buoyancy control.
c. The bony fishes were the ancestors of the cartilaginous fishes.
d. The ray-finned fishes are the most numerous and diverse of the fish groups.
e. The lobe-finned fish gave rise to the ray-finned fish.
____ 41. Which of the following is associated with lobe-finned fish?
b. replaceable teeth
c. dermal rays
e. none of these
____ 42. The vertebrate lung first appeared in which organisms?
____ 43. The only class that does NOT include animals with scales covering any part of the body is
____ 44. Amphibians are completely dependent on an aquatic environment for
d. respiration and reproduction.
e. respiration, reproduction, and feeding.
____ 45. Amphibians are distinguished from earlier vertebrates by
a. the development of eggs capable of hatching on land.
c. the development of limbs capable of moving on land.
d. the presence of scales to prevent desiccation.
e. absence of gills in any stage of development.
____ 46. A water environment provides more of which of the following than does air?
c. constancy of temperature
e. resistance to movement
____ 47. When the vertebrates invaded land, they encountered several conditions. Which of the following most favored the
a. an increased gravitational force not encountered in water
b. more efficient lungs due to increased oxygen content of air
c. more extreme temperature variations
d. absence of predators and competitors
e. absence of prey
____ 48. The vertebrate sense that underwent the least developmental change with the invasion of land was
____ 49. Members of the __________ are noted for the ability of larval forms to reproduce sexually.
____ 50. Frogs
a. have a three-chambered heart.
b. have an open circulatory system.
c. use their skin and pharynx as respiratory surfaces.
d. have a tongue that is anchored at the front of the mouth.
e. all but "have an open circulatory system" are true
____ 51. The heart in amphibians
a. pumps blood more rapidly than does the heart of fish.
b. is efficient enough for amphibians but would not be for birds and mammals.
c. has three chambers (one ventricle and two atria).
d. is part of a double circuit of blood flow.
e. all of these
____ 52. Which class has a heart with two atria and one ventricle?
____ 53. Exchange of respiratory gases through the skin is a characteristic of many
____ 54. In which group are retention of larval characteristic and sexual maturity seen in the same body?
____ 55. In the evolution of vertebrates, the first evidence of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits for blood flow is
a. bony fishes.
b. cartilaginous fishes.
____ 56. Vertebrate colonization of terrestrial habitats increased dramatically with the evolution of
b. paired appendages.
c. shelled eggs.
d. the four-chambered heart.
____ 57. The early reptiles
a. developed a land egg.
b. had a four-chambered heart.
c. had lungs equipped with air sacs.
d. were bipedal and gave rise to the mammals.
____ 58. Reptiles differ from earlier vertebrates by
a. their large size.
b. their three-chambered heart.
c. internal fertilization.
d. the possession of a slimy skin.
e. having external scales.
____ 59. The first group to exhibit an amniotic egg belonged to the
____ 60. Reptiles resemble __________ in not being able to __________.
a. fish; leave the water
b. birds; breathe using lungs
c. ostracoderms; utilize their jaws
d. amphibians; maintain a constant body temperature
____ 61. The reptiles differ from the amphibians in that they
a. have a more developed cerebral cortex.
b. have scales that prevented desiccation.
c. have internal fertilization.
d. use a shelled amniotic egg.
e. all of these
____ 62. The most primitive of the current reptiles based upon the time of divergence from the stem reptiles are the
____ 63. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Turtle shells may contribute to heat retention during hot weather.
b. Turtles do not have teeth.
c. Turtle shells are enlarged in marine forms.
d. Turtles must return to land to lay eggs.
e. In some turtles, the temperatures in the egg's environment control the sex of the
____ 64. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Lizards are a very small component of the present-day reptiles.
b. Lizards gave rise to the snakes.
c. Lizards are primarily insect eaters.
d. Lizards can break off their tails to serve as a distraction to predators.
e. Lizards are most numerous in deserts and tropical forests.
____ 65. The reptile group believed to be most closely related to the birds is
____ 66. An organism that possesses feathers must also possess
a. malpighian tubules.
b. a three-chambered heart.
c. a dorsal nerve cord.
d. a pseudocoelom.
e. replaceable teeth.
____ 67. Birds differ from earlier vertebrates by
a. their lack of scales.
b. the land egg.
c. the ability to maintain a constant body temperature.
d. the ability to fertilize eggs internally.
e. their possession of a dorsal nerve cord.
____ 68. Birds and mammals share which of the following characteristics?
a. ectothermy (body temperature regulated by environment)
b. body hair
c. four-chambered heart
d. lung design
e. amniotic egg
____ 69. Adaptations for flight in birds include all but which of the following?
a. sound production
b. lightweight bones
d. efficient respiration
e. four-chambered heart
____ 70. Which adaptation(s) is (are) common to insects and mammals?
a. jointed appendages
b. closed circulatory system
d. jointed appendages and closed circulatory system
e. jointed appendages, closed circulatory system, and lungs
____ 71. Egg-laying mammals
a. cannot feed their young with milk.
b. have no teeth.
c. are hairless.
d. are confined to South America.
e. bear their young into pouches.
____ 72. Which of the following statements concerning the placenta is incorrect?
a. It nourishes the young in the uterus.
b. Nutrients pass to the fetus.
c. It is entirely a maternal structure.
d. It promotes faster growth than does the pouch of marsupials.
e. It cleans the fetal blood of impurities.
____ 73. Which is NOT an anthropoid?
c. spider monkey
____ 74. Humans are least closely related to the
____ 75. Which group includes all the others?
____ 76. Humans belong to all but which one of the following?
____ 77. Which of the following can be included in the group called "hominids"?
d. humans and apes, only
e. monkeys, humans, and apes
____ 78. Well-developed molars would be most valuable to
____ 79. The study of teeth tells the researcher what about an animal?
a. its diet
b. its life-style
c. its intelligence
d. its diet and life-style
e. its diet, life-style, and intelligence
____ 80. The ability to grasp objects by wrapping the hand around them is termed
____ 81. The ability to hold a paintbrush as an artist does is to the thumb and fingers being
b. in line with each other.
____ 82. The most primitive living primate is the
a. Old World monkey.
c. New World monkey.
d. tree shrew.
Choose the one most appropriate letter for each.
a. cartilaginous skeleton; jaws
b. jawless fishes; now extinct
c. placental mammal
d. legless amphibian
e. invertebrate chordate; no metamorphosis
f. endotherm with feathers
g. limbless reptile
h. most primitive fishes with jaws
i. modern-day parasitic agnathan
k. adult is called "sea squirt"
l. egg-laying mammal
m. swim bladder for buoyancy
n. may be sexually mature but not adult
____ 83. birds
____ 84. bony fishes
____ 85. caecilians
____ 86. humans
____ 87. lampreys
____ 88. lancelets
____ 89. opossum
____ 90. ostracoderms
____ 91. placoderms
____ 92. platypus
____ 93. salamanders
____ 94. sharks
____ 95. snakes
____ 96. tunicates
Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.
a. a group that includes apes and humans
b. a population of Homo sapiens that lived from at least 100,000 to as recently as 35,000
years ago; tool users and artisans
c. the order that includes animals with freely swiveling limbs, mobile grasping digits, upright
body posture, good depth perception, and exquisite neural control
d. organisms in a suborder that includes New World and Old World monkeys, apes, and
e. an era that began 65 to 63 million years ago; characterized by the evolution of birds,
mammals, and flowering plants
f. a group that includes New World monkeys only
g. a term denoting multicellular animals
h. an epoch of the Cenozoic lasting from 25 million to 7 million years ago; characterized by
the appearance of primitive apes, whales, and grazing animals
i. organisms in a suborder that includes tree shrews, tarsiers, lemurs, and others
j. an epoch of the Cenozoic lasting from 7 million to 2 million years ago; characterized by
the appearance of distinctly modern plants and animals
k. a group that includes Old World monkeys only
l. bipedal organisms from about 3.8 to 1 million years ago, with essentially human bodies
and ape-shaped heads; brains no larger that those of chimpanzees
m. transitional apelike forms that could climb about in trees and walk on the ground
____ 97. anthropoids
____ 98. australopith
____ 99. ceboids
____ 100. Cenozoic
____ 101. cercopithecoids
____ 102. dryopiths
____ 103. hominoids
____ 104. Miocene
____ 105. Neandertals
____ 106. Primates
____ 107. Pliocene
____ 108. prosimians
Answer the following questions in reference to the five classes listed below:
109. Refer to Five Classes. Members of this class are fully terrestrial except for reproduction.
110. Refer to Five Classes. Ostracoderms could qualify for membership in this class.
111. Refer to Five Classes. Members of this class have cartilaginous skeletons but also possess jaws.
112. Refer to Five Classes. Some species of this class live in water but are not dependent upon an aquatic environment.
113. Refer to Five Classes. Members of one unusual class may have been ancestors of amphibians.
114. Four of the five answers below are members of the same group. Select the exception.
115. Four of the five answers below are correct pairings of group name and common name. Select the exception.
a. Chondrichthyes: sharks
b. Urochordata: lancelets
c. Amphibia: toads
d. Reptilia: lizards
e. Agnatha: hagfish
116. Four of the five answers below are classes of living chordates. Select the exception.
117. Four of the five answers below are related by a common group. Select the exception.
118. Four of the five answers below are principal characteristics of all chordates. Select the exception.
b. bony vertebra
d. nerve cord
e. pharyngeal gill slits
119. Four of the five answers below are breathing mechanisms in chordates. Select the exception.
e. lining of pharynx and mouth
120. Four of the five answers below characterize a group of chordates. Select the exception.
c. four-chambered heart
d. hollow skeleton
e. no teeth
121. Four of the five answers listed below are related. Select the exception.
b. jawed fish
c. jawless fish
122. Three of the four answers listed below are prosimians. Select the exception.
a. tree shrews
123. Four of the five answers listed below are anthropoids. Select the exception.
b. Old World monkey