APEC 202003 - DOC by q2dPeg6s

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									[1]   "Eighteenth annual ieee applied power electronics conference and exposition - volume 1," in Proceedings
      of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 601.

                                The proceedings contain 90 paper from the Conference on Eighteenth Annual
      IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - Volume 1. Topics discussed include:
      defining the future for microprocessor power delivery; scalable data center architecture for on-demand
      power infrastructure; power electronics in hybrid electric vehicle applications; a novel single-stage
      full-bridge buck-boost inverter and model of permanent magnet inductor type synchronous motor.

[2]   "Eighteenth annual ieee applied power electronics conference and exposition - volume 2," in Proceedings
      of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 617.

                               The proceedings contains 97 papers from the Eighteenth Annual IEEE Applied
      Power Electronics Conference and Exposition- Volume 2. The topics discussed include: photovoltaic
      convertors; independently sourced parallel-connected power systems with maximum power tracking; a
      reduced common mode hysteresis current regulation strategy for multilevel inverters; a complete solution
      to the harmonic elimination problem; and high performance, low impedance power interconnects.

[3]   A. M. Abou-Alfotouh, A. V. Radun, H.-R. Chang, and C. Winterhalter, "A 1 mhz hard-switched silicon
      carbide dc/dc converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
      2003, pp. 132.

                                 Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor material that offers
      performance improvements over Silicon (Si) for power semiconductors with accompanying benefits for
      power electronics applications that use these semiconductors. The wide bandgap of SiC results in higher
      junction forward voltage drops, so SiC is best suited for majority carrier devices such as FETs and Schottky
      diodes. The wide bandgap of SiC results in it having a high breakdown electric field, which in turn results
      in lower resistivity and narrower drift regions in power devices. This dramatically lowers the resistance of
      the drift region and means that SiC devices with substantially less area than their corresponding Si devices
      can be used. The lower device area reduces the capacitance of the devices enabling higher frequency
      operation. Here the results from a 1 MHz hard-switched DC/DC converter employing SiC JFETs and
      Schottky diodes will be presented. This converter was designed to convert 270Vdc to 42Vdc such as may
      be needed in future electric cars. The results provide the performance obtained at 1 MHz and demonstrate
      the feasibility of a hard-switched DC/DC converter operating at this frequency.

[4]   A. Alderman, G. Kennedy, and K. Rinne, "New technical marketing research methods - a process for
      achieving focused results," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
      2003, pp. 196.

                                One of the greatest challenges confronting marketing has been the gathering,
      digesting, and prioritizing technical marketing information. Today, gathering the information is a lot easier
      via the Internet. In some ways it is much more difficult due to the amount of information available and the
      accuracy of that information. This was dramatically exemplified in a recent technical study conducted on
      behalf of an industry association. This paper provides the details of the data gathering and analysis process
      used to condense it into easily usable material on over 4000 ICs that are available today for dc-dc power
      supplies. The Issues are identified that confront such an undertaking. The developed survey provides
      Insight into methods that can effectively identify, sort, and prioritize significant amounts of technical data.
      The results are reported and examined as to the effectiveness. Finally the surprises encountered and lessons
      learned are candidly stated with further suggestions for process improvement. Engineering and marketing
      managers may find this process helpful for future data gathering for any technology.

[5]   C. Attaianese and G. Tomasso, "Optimal low switching frequency modulation of a front-end inverter
      feeding induction motors," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
      2003, pp. 833.

                               In power converters, PWM techniques generally offer acceptable spectral shapes
      for load currents only if high switching frequencies are adopted. In medium-high power applications, in
      order to reduce the EMI and commutation losses, the basic goal of the modulation strategies must be the
      minimization of the harmonic distortion by keeping, at the same time, the switching frequency to a low
      value. In the paper, this feature is achieved for an ac drives by adopting a front-end inverter structures. In
      fact, the possibility of achieving variable dc link voltages allows to perform an optimization procedure
      which drastically reduce the motor current harmonics working with very low value of the switching
      frequency. The proposed technique has been validated by means of an experiment analysis and a
      performance comparison with a traditional space vector modulation technique. A full EMC analysis is also
      performed to evaluate radiated and conducted emissions.

[6]   M. R. Baiju, K. K. Mohapatra, V. T. Somasekhar, K. Gopakumar, and L. Umanand, "A five-level inverter
      voltage space phasor generation for an open-end winding induction motor drive," in Proceedings of IEEE
      Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 826.

                                 A topology for voltage space phasor generation equivalent to a 5-level inverter for
      an open-end winding induction motor is presented in this paper. The open-end winding induction motor is
      fed from both ends by two 3-level inverters. The three level inverters are realised by cascading two 2-level
      inverters. This inverter scheme does not experience neutral point fluctuations. Of the two 3-level inverters
      only one inverter will be switching at any instant in the lower speed ranges. In the multi level carrier based
      SPWM used for the proposed drive, a progressive discrete DC bias depending upon the speed range is
      given to the reference wave to reduce the inverter switchings. The drive is implemented and tested with a
      1Hp open-end winding induction motor and the experimental results are presented.

[7]   A. Barrado, R. Vazquez, A. Lazaro, J. Pleite, J. Vazquez, and E. Olias, "New dc/dc converter with low
      output voltage and fast transient response," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
      and Exposition, 2003, pp. 432.

                                A new alternative to get fast transient response DC/DC switching converters is
      presented in order to feed devices such as microprocessors and DSPs. The topology of the switching power
      supply is composed of two buck converters connected in parallel, each one of them with different aims,
      controlled by means of the Linear-Non-Linear control. In this paper, the LnL control is reviewed and
      applied to the proposed power supply (fast response double buck, FRDB). Also, experimental results are
      obtained to show the main features of the proposed converter and to compare them with the features of
      some other solution.

[8]   S. Behera, S. P. Das, and S. R. Doradla, "A novel quasi-resonant inverter for high performance induction
      motor drives," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
      819.

                                A novel quasi-resonant inverter is proposed for a high performance induction
      motor drive. With the exception of auxiliary switch in the resonant link, all other devices in the resonant
      link and inverter are operated under zero-voltage switching (ZVS). The auxiliary switch is turned on under
      zero-current switching (ZCS), but turned off hard. The dc link voltage is clamped to source voltage. The
      quasi-resonant inverter-fed Induction motor is operated under direct torque control (DTC) scheme. The d-q
      model of the complete scheme is formulated and analyzed by SABER simulator. The simulation is
      extended with a robust, reduced order stator flux observer. Both the schemes with and without observer
      have been implemented on a laboratory-sized experimental setup. A comparison of simulation and
      experimental results under identical operating conditions reveals good agreement.

[9]   A. R. Beig and V. T. Ranganathan, "Space vector based bus clamped pwm algorithms for three level
      inverters: Implementation, performance analysis and application considerations," in Proceedings of IEEE
      Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 569.

                                This paper describes the different types of space vector based bus clamped PWM
      algorithms for three level inverters. A novel bus clamp PWM algorithm for low modulation indices region
      is also presented. The principles and switching sequences of all the types of bus clamped algorithms for
       high switching frequency are presented. Synchronized version of the PWM sequences for high power
       applications where switching frequency is low is also presented. The implementation details on DSP based
       digital controller and experimental results are presented. The THD of the output waveforms is studied for
       the entire operating region and is compared with the conventional space vector PWM technique. The bus
       clamped techniques can be used to reduce the switching losses or to improve the output voltage quality or
       both. Different issues dominate depending on the type of application and power rating of the inverters. The
       results presented in this paper can be used for judicious use of the PWM techniques, which will result in
       Improved system efficiency and performance.

[10]   C. Branas, F. J. Azcondo, and S. Bracho, "Design of lc<sub>p</sub>c<sub>s</sub> resonant inverters as a
       power source for hid lamp ballast applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1214.

                                 This paper presents a new criterion for the design of resonant inverters for driving
       high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The proposed converter behaves almost as a power source, for a
       wide load range, regardless of the lamp aging. In order to achieve a better production yield at industrial
       scale, the analysis of lamp power sensitivity regarding the tolerance of the circuit components is carried
       out. The design is validated with experimental results and a statistical simulation by the Monte Carlo
       method.

[11]   S. Chandrasekaran and V. Mehrotra, "Matrix integrated magnetics (mim) for low voltage, interleaved dc-dc
       converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 103.

                                 In this paper, we present the application of the Matrix Integrated Magnetics
       (MIM) core to an interleaved current doubler rectifier (ICDR) controlled according to the symmetric
       modulation scheme. Detailed modeling and design equations that describe the effect, due to magnetic
       coupling, of integrating the magnetics of two CDRs on a single core structure on the currents and fluxes are
       presented. Comparative analyses between an ICDR using a MIM core and two El-cores and a CDR using a
       single El-core for a 48V-3.3V/100W DC-DC converter design example show that the MIM core can be
       effectively used for the ICDR providing substantial benefits over a dual EI-18 core solution or a single
       EI-22 core. Preliminary experimental results from a 100W, 48V-3.3V ICDR laboratory prototype
       demonstrating the validity of the MIM core structure for this application are presented.

[12]   L.-K. Chang and H.-F. Liu, "A flexible and low cost design for flyback ac/dc converter with harmonic
       current correction," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 677.

                                A new simple flyback AC/DC converter with harmonic current correction and fast
       output voltage regulation is presented. In the proposed AC/DC converter, an extra winding is wounded in
       transformer and yields two major merits: The bulk inductor used in the conventional boost-based PFC cell
       is omitted in the proposed converter and consequently almost 1/2 volume and weight in magnetic material
       can be saved. The voltage across bulk capacitor can be hold under 450v by tuning transformer windings
       ratio even though the converter operates in wide range of input voltage (90v [similar to] 265v/ac). This new
       converter compiles with IEC 61000-3-2 under the load range of 200w and it has fast output voltage
       regulation.

[13]   S. Chattopadhyay, K. Rajaganesh, and V. Ramanarayanan, "Impedance emulation method for a single
       phase shunt active filter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
       2003, pp. 907.

                                 A new strategy for harmonic elimination for single phase shunt active filter system
       is proposed in this paper. The control objective of the filter is defined as: shift the phase angle of the input
       current with the phase angle of the fundamental load current component. For discreet implementation the
       objective can be obtained without sensing the input voltage. The controller on the sensed input currents
       applies phase shifting method and a resistor emulator type input current shaping strategy is applied on the
       phase shifted current. The proposed control algorithm is computationally simple furthermore effective in
       filtering the harmonic currents. The simulation results for various kinds of nonlinear loads are presented in
       this paper.

[14]   G. Chen, M. Rentzch, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, S. Ragon, V. Stefanovic, and M. Arpilliere, "Analysis and
       design optimization of front-end passive components for voltage source inverters," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1170.

                                 This paper presents a systematic design optimization approach for inductors and
       capacitors in front-end rectifiers for voltage source Inverters. Analytical relationships between various
       design variables, operating conditions, and performance and physical constraints are established under
       nominal, overload and Inrush conditions. A new method to analytically calculate the inrush current is
       developed considering the nonlinear characteristics of the Inductor core materials. A design optimization
       program based on the established analytical relationships and a genetic algorithm is developed. Examples
       show that the optimization process can lead to a smaller/lower-cost inductor and capacitor design.

[15]   M. Chen, D. Xu, J. Lou, and M. Luo, "Transformer secondary leakage inductance based zvs dual bridge
       dc/dc converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       1082.

                                 A novel ZVS dual bridge DC/DC converter is presented. The converter is
       composed of two dual-transistor-forward converter, coupled with a single high frequency transformer. Zero
       voltage switching is realized by introducing a proper leakage inductance to the secondary of the high
       frequency Isolation transformer in cope with a designed PWM control. Operation principle and ZVS
       condition of the proposed converter are analyzed. Experimental results obtained from a 3.2kW prototype
       are given. Extensions of the proposed converter topologies are presented.

[16]   R. Chen, B. Yang, F. Canales, P. Barbosa, J. D. Van Wyk, and F. C. Lee, "Integration of electromagnetic
       passive components in dps front-end dc/dc converter - a comparative study of different integration steps,"
       in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1137.

                                 In most of the power electronics converters, the overall footprint and profile of the
       whole system are in large part determined by the footprint and profile of the passive components and the
       interconnections between them. Integrated magnetics, Planar magnetics and passive integration techniques
       have been topics of research for the past few years to reduce the parts count, footprint and profile of the
       passive components, hence increasing the power density of the whole converter. This becomes especially
       prominent in the Distributed Power System (DPS) front-end converters, as the trend is moving from 2U
       (1U=1.75 inches) standard toward 1U standard. This paper presents a comparative study of the integration
       steps of passive components of an Asymmetrical Half Bridge Circuit (AHBC) for DPS front-end DC/DC
       converter application. Four AHBC converters using discrete passive components, non-planar integrated
       magnetic components, planar integrated magnetic components and passive Integrated Power Electronic
       Module (IPEM), respectively, are constructed and tested. Comparisons are made from the viewpoints of
       volume, profile, efficiency, EMI and thermal performances of the four converters. The experimental result
       shows that the passive IPEM, which integrates all the passive components, has much higher power density,
       lowest profile, lower temperature rise and similar efficiency.

[17]   S. Chen, T. W. Nehl, J. S. Lai, X. Huang, E. Pepa, R. De Doncker, and I. Voss, "Towards emi prediction of
       a pm motor drive for automotive applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 14.

                                 Technology innovations in automobiles increasingly involve high power electric
       motor drives, leading to an increasing level of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the requirements to
       meet electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). A numerical prediction of EMI/EMC has the potential to
       evaluate EMI performances at the design stage and before prototyping. It can also help reduce the
       post-prototype EMC cost by minimizing late re-design and modifications of a drive implementation. This
       paper describes a systematic approach towards early EMI prediction of motor drives. It is able to calculate
       the conducted EMI through modeling of parasitic coupling and circuit simulation. Methodologies for
       extracting parasitic parameters of major EMI components of a PM motor drive are developed using FEM
       analysis, experimental measurement and analytical approximation. Major EMI characteristics of the PM
       motor drive is then predicted by using a circuit simulator to solve the motor drive circuitry with high
       frequency parasitic parameters. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and the
       effectiveness of the EMI simulation approach is demonstrated.

[18]   Y. Chen, K. Smedley, F. Vacher, and J. Brouwer, "A new maximum power point tracking controller for
       photovoltaic power generation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 58.

                                 This paper proposes a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method in
       combination with One-cycle control for photovoltaic power generation. This control scheme is based on the
       automatic current-adjusting feature of One-cycle control. The output current of the Inverter can be adjusted
       according to the voltage of the photovoltaic (PV) array so as to extract the maximum power from it. In the
       mean time, One-cycle control guarantees that the output current is in the same shape of and in phase with
       the grid voltage. All these are accomplished in one power stage and a simple control circuit. No detection
       and calculation of power are needed. Compared with previously proposed approaches, this method Is much
       more efficient and more cost-effective and yet exhibits excellent performance. The principle is explained
       qualitatively and extensive experiments have been carried out to verify and validate the proposed method.

[19]   Y. K. Chen, Y. C. Wu, T. F. Wu, and Y. E. Wu, "A single-stage electronic ballast with emergency lighting
       features," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1185.

                                   This paper presents a single-stage electronic ballast with emergency lighting
       features. The ballast can function as a regular ballast, emergency ballast, battery charger or discharger and
       power failure detector, achieving regular and emergency lighting features. The single-stage converter used
       in the ballast is an integration of a bi-directional flyback converter and two half-bridge series-resonant
       parallel-loaded inverters. Derivation and operating principle of the proposed converter is first presented and
       an application to regular and emergency lighting is then developed. With the proposed converter and a
       single-chip microcontroller (EM78P458), a low cost, multi-feature electronic ballast can be readily
       implemented and installed. Simulation results and hardware measurements have verified its feasibility and
       the desired features.

[20]   A. Cheng, "Power electronics: From electronic plumbing to business enabler," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 191.

                               The current state of the power electronics industry is discussed. The companies
       are focussed on marketing of their products and services. It was concluded that as the power electronics
       industry grows more sophisticated, the industry needs to work together to educate users and others on its
       provided values.

[21]   S. J. Chiang, "A three-phase four-wire power conditioner with load-dependent voltage regulation for
       energy saving," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       159.

                                This paper presents a multi-functional three-phase four-wire power conditioner. It
       can compensate the reactive power, harmonic current, unbalanced power and zero-sequence current of the
       load with a capacity-limitation manner. It also can regulate multiple load voltages simultaneously based on
       the prescribed P-V characteristics of distinct loads for energy saving. Detailed design of the controllers
       providing these multiple functions is presented. A 6KVA system with the inverter regulating two different
       load types simultaneously is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is confirmed
       through some experimental results.

[22]   J. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. McKenzie, and Z. Du, "A complete solution to the harmonic elimination
       problem," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 596.
                                  The problem of eliminating harmonica in a switching converter is considered.
       That is, given a desired fundamental output voltage, the problem is to find the switching times (angles) that
       produce the fundamental while not generating specifically chosen harmonics. In contrast to the well known
       work of Patel and Hoft [1][2] and others, here all possible solutions to the problem are found. This is done
       by first converting the transcendental equations that specify the harmonic elimination problem into an
       equivalent set of polynomial equations. Then, using the mathematical theory of resultants, all solutions to
       this equivalent problem can be found. In particular, it is shown that there are new solutions that have not
       been previously reported in the literature. The complete solutions for both unipolar and bipolar switching
       patterns to eliminate the 5<sup>th</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup> harmonics are given. Finally, the unipolar
       case is again considered where the 5<sup>th</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, 11<sup>th</sup>, and
       13<sup>th</sup> harmonics are eliminated along with corroborative experimental results.

[23]   H.-J. Chiu, P.-L. Pan, and W.-H. Yeh, "A novel rapid charger of lead-acid batteries with energy recovery,"
       in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 756.

                                A novel rapid charger of lead-acid batteries is proposed in this paper. While
       providing the high charging efficiency and prolonging the lifetime of batteries, the circuit topology exhibits
       extreme simplicity. Experimental results are shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed rapid charger.

[24]   S.-W. Choi, C.-Y. Won, and G.-S. Kim, "A new three-phase harmonic-free rectification scheme based on
       zero-sequence current injection," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 165.

                                  This paper proposes a new three-phase harmonic-free rectification scheme based
       on a zero-sequence injection technique. The proposed scheme incorporates two half-bridge inverters and
       two single-phase transformers to actively and Individually shape the positive and negative dc rail currents
       of the rectifier. The shaped zero-sequence harmonic currents are then circulated through the ac side of the
       rectifier via a zigzag transformer, resulting in pure sinusoidal input currents in the three-phase diode
       rectifier. A design example along with component ratings calculation is detailed. Experimental results on a
       1.5kVA prototype are provided to validate the proposed technique.

[25]   M. Cichowlas, M. Malinowski, M. P. Kazmierkowski, and F. Blaabjerg, "Direct power control for
       three-phase pwm rectifier with active filtering function," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 913.

                                 A novel Virtual Flux based Direct Power Control Space Vector Modulated
       (DPC-SVM) for 3-phase PWM rectifier with compensation of higher harmonics function is presented. The
       active and reactive power is used as a control variables for the PWM rectifier and active filtering operation.
       As a result several coordinate transformations are eliminated. Simulated and experimental steady state and
       dynamic performance for PWM rectifier and active filtering operation are presented. Among the main
       advantages of DPC-SVM are: simple algorithm, good dynamic and operation at constant switching
       frequency. Additionally a line voltage sensors were replaced by the virtual flux estimator which also help to
       achieve sinusoidal line current in case of distorted line voltage.

[26]   R. Cormier, "Providing real customer satisfaction product support from a customer's point of view," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 215.

                                The issues related to real customer satisfaction are discussed. The power product
       manufacturers provides engineering support with customer service engineers (CSE) and application
       engineers (AE) to their customers. It was found that it is necessary to understand the challenges that
       customers encounter in all phases of power supply introduction.

[27]   K. De Gusseme, D. M. Van de Sype, A. P. Van den Bossche, and J. A. Melkebeek, "Sample correction for
       digitally controlled boost pfc converters operating in both ccm and dcm," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
       Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 389.
                                  PFC converters for the higher power range are commonly designed for continuous
       conduction mode. Nevertheless, at light load, DCM will appear close to the crossover of the line voltage,
       causing the converter to switch between CCM and DCM. As a result of this switching during a line period,
       the converter dynamics change abrubtly, yielding input current distortion. Moreover, if digital control is
       applied, another source of input current distortion is posed by the sampling algorithm. After all, the
       sampling algorithm is only designed to produce samples of the averaged input current in CCM. In this
       paper, after a study of the input current distortion caused by the sampling algorithm, a correction factor is
       derived to compensate for the error on the input current samples. The theoretical results are verified
       experimentally by using a digitally controlled boost PFC converter.

[28]   D. I. M. De Silva, N. K. Shrestha, R. Azar, G. A. J. Amaratunga, F. Udrea, P. R. Palmer, D. Chamund, L.
       Coulbeck, and P. Waind, "Trench gate igbts for zero current switching applications," in Proceedings of
       IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 933.

                                This paper reports on the behaviour of Trench IGBTs in comparison with
       equivalent DMOS IGBTs in zero current switching converters. Extensive experimental results backed up
       by accurate Spice modelling are presented. These results indicate the superior performance of Trench
       IGBTs particularly at high switching frequencies, currents and junction temperatures in resonant
       applications.

[29]   A. Dell'Aquila, M. Liserre, V. G. Monopoli, and C. Cecati, "A multilevel front-end stage for traction
       systems with a passivity-based controller," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
       and Exposition, 2003, pp. 690.

                                   This work addresses the control of a high voltage, high power single phase
       rectifier suitable for traction applications. A multilevel H-bridge single phase configuration has been
       considered. Such a converter often presents instability problems making difficult its design and uncertain
       its behaviour. This paper proposes a new controller based on the passivity-based approach. Such a
       controller allows stability, unity-power factor, good balancing of the two dc links and a satisfactory
       transient behaviour even in presence of sudden load changes. A different choice of the damping parameters
       allows fulfilling the system requirements in terms of reduced dc link voltage error or low grid current
       distortion or to find an optimum trade-off between them. The better performance in comparison with a PI
       are demonstrated.

[30]   S. Deng, H. Mao, J. Mazumdar, I. Batarseh, and K. K. Islam, "A new control scheme for high-frequency
       link inverter design," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 512.

                                 A high-frequency link Inverter design with bi-directional power flow using
       cycloconverter techniques is proposed in this paper. A new control scheme is used to reduce the switching
       losses and overall size. Detailed operation modes are discussed and the harmonic components for the key
       waveforms are analyzed with theoretical calculation. The control scheme is verified by both the simulation
       and experimental results.

[31]   U. Drofenik and J. W. Kolar, "Teaching thermal design of power electronic systems with web-based
       interactive educational software," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 1029.

                                  For designing reliable power electronic systems it is essential to understand basic
       thermal issues like the stationary and transient relation of the power semiconductor losses the junction
       temperature and the application of thermal equivalent circuits. Also, thermal properties are of special
       importance in connection with further increasing the compactness of power converter systems. The aim of
       this paper is to give an introduction into the basic theory of heat energy conduction and thermal design
       which should serve as an addition to the Java applets compiled in a the iPES-Thermal, a module of the
       interactive educational software iPES which is freely available at www.ipes.eth2.ch and employed at the
       ETH Zurich for supporting an introductory course on power electronics.
[32]   N. J. Elias, "Instruction set modeling of micro-controllers for power converter simulation," in Proceedings
       of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 996.

                                Simulation has become an increasingly important design tool as power converter
       technology has evolved. Programmable digital control requires a simulation model that can incorporate the
       control software without degrading the speed of the simulator. This can be accomplished by extending the
       instruction set model (ISM) concept originally developed for digital simulations. This paper develops the
       principles by which the ISM concept can be adapted to the analog/mixed-signal simulation of power
       converters. A model of a commercial microcontroller is used to present typical simulation applications that
       demonstrate the important benefits achieved.

[33]   W. Fei, Z. Lu, L. Xia, D. Jiang, and Z. Wu, "High insulation multiple output switch power supply used for
       driving of igbts in medium-high voltage inverter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1066.

                                 High insulation multiple output switch power supply used for driving of IGBTs in
       medium-high voltage inverter is developed by means of a high frequency ac current source and special
       transformers with single-turn primary winding. The number and locations of outputs of the power supply
       can be arranged very easily to meet the requirements of the inverter. The isolation voltage among all
       outputs and input can be considerable high if the primary winding is made by high-voltage cable.
       Compared with other power supply used in same purpose, the proposal one has the advantage in size,
       weight, cost, efficiency and reliability. With the increase of voltage level and number of devices in the
       inverter, the proposed power supply will be more advantageous.

[34]   G. Feng, W. Zhang, and Y.-F. Liu, "An adaptive current mode fuzzy logic controller for dc-to-dc
       converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 983.

                                 This paper introduces a new fuzzy logic controller (FLC) using inductor current
       feedback for significantly Improving the dynamic performance of DC-to-DC converters. Inductor current
       plays an important role in high performance DC-to-DC converter control and FLC is suitable to deal with
       time-varying nonlinear nature of power converters. Based on the feedback of the inductor current, the new
       control method combines the merits of both the conventional FLC and current mode control. The dynamic
       performance of power converter system is improved. Furthermore, in order to enhance system robustness
       and adaptability, a new nonlinear configuration called extended state observer (ESO) Is developed. By
       using ESO, the influence of load disturbances and parameter changes are precisely estimated and
       compensated without accurate knowledge of converter parameters. Simulation results have demonstrated
       that the proposed methods ensure good robustness and adaptability under modeling uncertainty and
       external disturbance, such as load current variation, supply voltage changes and converter parameter
       changes. It is concluded that the proposed topology produces substantial improvement of dynamic
       performances such as small overshoot, more damping and fast transient time under different operating
       conditions. In addition, small signal frequency response analysis demonstrates that by using the proposed
       FLC, the bandwidth and phase margin of the closed loop system have been significantly increased.

[35]   Q. Feng, J. Y. Hung, and R. M. Nelms, "Digital control of a boost converter using posicast," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 990.

                                Analysis, design, simulation and DSP-based implementation of a digital controller
       using a Posicast element are presented for the boost converter. Different from the classical Posicast
       approach, the proposed control method here reduces undesirable sensitivity greatly by using Posicast within
       a feedback loop. Furthermore, unfavorable effects on system stability caused by the RHP zero and parasitic
       elements in the boost converter's dynamics can be ignored in the design of controller because of its narrow
       open-loop bandwidth. Transient and frequency responses are presented. The performance of a
       Posicast-based controller for a boost converter has been investigated through simulation and verified by
       experiment. The sensitivity of the system dynamical response to variations in controller parameters was
       examined. The effect of load resistance variation was also tested.
[36]   A. Fernandez, J. Sebastian, M. M. Hernando, P. Villegas, and J. Garcia, "New self-driven synchronous
       rectification system for converters with a symmetrically driven transformer," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 352.

                                 Synchronous Rectification (SR) is mandatory to achieve good efficiencies with
       low output voltages. If the transformer is driven asymmetrically without dead times, Self-Driven
       Synchronous Rectification (SDSR) is a very interesting solution. However, if the transformer is driven
       symmetrically, the synchronous rectifiers are off during the dead times and, as a consequence, the
       efficiency is lowered. This paper deals with a new SDSR system that keeps the rectifiers on even during the
       dead times. Thus, it can be used to obtain very low output voltages, such as 1.5 V, with quite good
       efficiency. Moreover, it can be used over a wide input voltage range. The new system is implemented in a
       prototype in order to measure the real efficiency that can be achieved with the proposed scheme.

[37]   J. Flannery, "Surface mount power converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 812.

                                  Application boards on which on-board power supplies are used are populated
       substantially with surface mount components. These are typically assembled with conventional single or
       double sided SMT (surface mount technology) reflow processes. The few remaining PTH (plated through
       hole) components need to be manually placed and soldered either by hand or by a process such as selective
       wave, selective jet or robotic soldering. The complexity of many modern application boards in terms of
       layer count and component density, combined with the desire to eliminate these additional process steps is
       leading to a desire for the elimination of the remaining PTH components of which the dc-dc converter is
       the most conspicuous. This paper deals with many of the challenges faced when designing and using a state
       of the art, surface mountable, high density power-supply which must be treated as a single surface mount
       component. These Issues Include Interconnect design, joint strength and reliability, electrical and thermal
       conductivity, as well as manufacturing considerations such as pick and place compatibility, inspection and
       rework.

[38]   R. Francis and M. Soldano, "A new smps non punch thru igbt replace mosfet in smps high frequency
       applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       953.

                                 The continuous request from the market for higher power density and lower cost
       in commercial power supplies has forced semiconductor manufacturer to push device optimization to the
       limit or to develop new device solutions. Some of the new devices can surely Improve performances, but in
       some cases the price to pay for Increased complexity is too high. The IGBT device has a long history of
       success in motor drive and inverter applications, where switching frequencies are relatively low compared
       to SMPS. For this reason the development of new devices has always been driven by different requirements
       than SMPS ones. An NPT IGBT family has been developed and optimized targeting specifically SMPS
       applications. This paper shows the feature of this device in a critical comparison with equivalent products
       available on the marked today.

[39]   L. Gao, R. A. Dougal, and S. Liu, "Active power sharing in hybrid battery/capacitor power sources," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 497.

                                 The objective of this work in to determine to what extent the performance of a
       battery/capacitor hybrid power source can be improved by isolating the battery through a power converter.
       The performance of an active hybrid power source (battery/capacitor/converter) is compared to that of a
       passive hybrid (battery/capacitor) using both simulation and experiment. Particularly in this paper, two
       cells of Sony US18650 lithium-ion battery and two cells of Maxwell PC 100 supercapacitor are used as the
       energy storage components in the power source construction. Both the experimental data and the simulation
       results show that the active hybrid power source achieved greater mass and volume densities of power
       without drawing excessive currents from the battery. The active hybrid yielded a peak power of 130 W
       with terminal voltage variation (1.31V), compared to a maximum of 42 W for the passive hybrid with
       voltage variation 1.7V.
[40]   W. Gao, E. Solodovnik, R. Dougal, G. Cokkinides, and A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos, "Elimination of numerical
       oscillations in power system dynamic simulation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 790.

                                 This paper addresses numerical oscillations encountered in power system dynamic
       simulation resulting from trapezoidal numerical integration rule. Two methods are presented to eliminate
       the numerical oscillations: trapezoidal with numerical stabilizer method and Gear's second order method. A
       detailed comparison is given regarding the accuracy of the trapezoidal rule, trapezoidal with numerical
       stabilizer method, and Gear's method. The validity of the new methods is demonstrated in the simulation of
       a power electronic circuit within Virtual Test Bed. The new methods are of great significance in performing
       a meaningful simulation for power electronics circuits.

[41]   C. Gezgin, "A transient prediction and stability analysis tool for dc-dc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1014.

                                 An Excel-based tool that calculates both the output voltage deviation
       V<sub>max</sub> due to load transients as well as small-signal stability characteristics of a DC-DC
       converter is presented. Using a macromodel of theconverter, the tool calculates and plots the voltage loop
       gain characteristics of a DC-DC converter for a wide variety of load networks and voltage-sense methods.
       The tool also predicts stability margins of the converter+load combination and estimates the
       under/overshoot of the regulated output voltage due to a given load transient. The method used is unique in
       the sense that 1) it decouples the closed loop system into converter-only and load-only subsytems which
       allows a very convenient way of calculating loop response when the load is varied; and 2) the
       converter-only subsystem can be characterized by measured data which yields a very accurate prediction of
       the loop response, and hence the stability margin. The transient response of the converter is estimated by
       mapping the closed-loop system to a second order parallel RLC network and analytically deriving the
       response of the RLC network. The purpose of the tool is to enable the converter user to get an accurate
       estimate of stability margins and transient response of the module in an application without actually making
       measurements.

[42]   R. Giri, R. Ayyanar, and N. Mohan, "Common duty ratio control of input series connected modular dc-dc
       converters with active input voltage and load current sharing," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 322.

                                  A control scheme was proposed to ensure active voltage sharing and load current
       sharing of 'n' identical dc-dc convertors, connected in series at the input and parallel at the output. Input
       voltage sharing and output current sharing were achieved by applying a common duty ratio signal to input
       series, output parallel-connected convertors. A model of the scheme that predicted the dynamic voltage
       sharing among the convertors was developed. Simulation and experimental results validated the proposed
       control concept.

[43]   D. Hammell, M. Holveck, and E. Limpaecher, "Low-cost, scr-based premium power quality variable speed
       drive technology," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 853.

                                 A unique variable speed drive topology is presented. This topology has been
       shown to use Silicon Controlled Rectifier switches without commutation circuitry at a frequency of 2 kHz
       to produce input and output waveforms with current total harmonic distortion below 3%. Furthermore, the
       voltage rise on the output is 1.2 v/us without inductive filtering, which preserves motor insulation and
       bearing life. The topology is low cost due to its minimal switching complexity.

[44]   L. Hao and H. A. Toliyat, "Bldc motor full-speed operation using hybrid sliding mode observer," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 286.

                              This paper presents a full speed range control scheme for surface mount BLDC
       motor. The developed topology looks like field-oriented controls for sinusoidal PM motors but the fifth and
       seventh harmonics variables have been taken into consideration as well as the fundamental variables. The
       proposed method results in an increase in developed torque. Also, it shows the same controllability as in the
       sinusoidal PM motor over the flux weakening operation compared to the conventional six-step BLDC drive
       system. In this paper, the line-to-line average model of the BLDC motor in rotor multiple reference frame
       (MRF) first is developed. A sliding mode observer then is introduced to estimate the rotor position and
       speed used in the MRF. After that, a full speed range control algorithm is developed based on the
       line-to-line average model. Finally, simulation and experiments have been done to verify the validity of the
       proposed method.

[45]   J. G. Hayes, N. O'Donovan, M. G. Egan, and T. O'Donnell, "Inductance characterization of high-leakage
       transformers," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       1150.

                                 In this paper, the inductances of high-leakage transformers are Investigated by
       analysis, measurement, and finite-element simulation. Series-coupling tests, featuring differential coupling
       (series opposing) and cumulative coupling (series aiding), are conducted in addition to the standard
       open-circuit and short-circuit tests. This paper initially reviews and discusses the various test approaches
       featuring the open-circuit, short-circuit and series-coupling tests. Two very different types of high-leakage
       transformers are then characterized based on these tests. The short-circuit and series-coupling tests
       performed comparably for Investigating the spatial variations of the primary and secondary leakage
       Inductances of the high-power, highleakage transformer first investigated. For the second low-power,
       high-leakage, high-resistance planar transformer the differential-coupling test proves to be a more useful,
       accurate, and insightful test than the short-circuit test.

[46]   L. Heinemann, J. Mast, and G. Scheible, "Power supply with high insulation capability to feed electronics
       on the high potential side in power distribution networks," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 767.

                                Intelligent measurement systems, communication or control equipment on the
       high potential side of power distribution networks require power supplies with very high insulation
       capability and low power level. To end up with a low volume, low costs and a high efficiency of the
       complete system, a resonant switch mode power supply with a special transformer design was selected,
       designed and built up. The power supply is designed to transfer 2.5 W, guarantees a partial discharge free
       insulation voltage of more than 50 kV and an insulation test voltages of more than 80 kV. The power
       supply is based on a class-E converter to utilize the dominating parasitic elements of the high frequency
       transformer as resonant elements.

[47]   M. Hirokawa, H. Miyazaki, K. Matsuura, and T. Ninomiya, "Improvement of transient response in
       high-current output dc-dc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 705.

                                The technique of improvement of transient response in high-current output dc-dc
       converters was investigated. The output voltage deviation of 50mV at a slew rate of 300A/&mu;s was
       performed on a prototype with an output of 1.3V/130A. It was found that a novel transient detector and
       synchronous operation of the current doubler rectifiers can be used to improve the transient response of a
       high-power output VRM.

[48]   L. Hua and S. Luo, "Design comparisons between primary-side control and secondary-side control using
       peak current mode controlled active clamp forward topology," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 886.

                                 The purpose of this paper is to provide a general comparison between
       primary-side control and secondary-side control from the perspectives of industrial designs. Definitions and
       comparisons between the two controls are given, and a small-signal model of active clamp forward
       topology is developed. Finally, experimental results are presented, with which theoretical analysis and
       predication are verified.
[49]   W. Huang, D. Clavette, G. Schuellein, M. Crowther, and J. Wallace, "System accuracy analysis of the
       multiphase voltage regulator module," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 731.

                                  The paper analyzes the system accuracy of the multiphase voltage regulator
       module (VRM), and identifies the influential factors contributing to the system errors. PSpice Monte Carlo
       analysis, a more realistic statistical method of system accuracy prediction, is used to simulate the load line
       of the multiphase voltage regulator module for the next generation microprocessors. The Monte Carlo
       simulation result is compared with a worst-case analysis, a root-sum-square method, and is verified by the
       experimental results of a three phase synchronous buck converter.

[50]   W. Huang, G. Schuellein, and D. Clavette, "A scalable multiphase buck converter with average current
       share bus," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 438.

                                 The paper presents a scalable multiphase synchronous buck converter which meets
       the tight requirements of the next generation microprocessors. Flexibility in the number of phases (1-16
       phases) accommodates requirements of various applications. The converter can be easily expanded or
       paralleled with other Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM) through an average current share bus. The
       distributed control IC architecture allows for local phase current signal processing, which minimizes
       induced noise and facilitates layout while reducing the gate driver to power stage impedance. The
       experimental results are given to show the advantages of the converter.

[51]   X. Huang, T. Nergaard, J.-S. Lai, X. Xu, and L. Zhu, "A dsp based controller for high-power interleaved
       boost converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 327.

                                  High power boost converter has become the essential part of the distributed power
       system that enables energy to be fully utilized in fuel cell powered electric vehicles and stationary power
       systems. This paper presents a DSP-based fully digital control implementation for an interleaved high
       power dc/dc boost converter. A dual-loop average current mode current control method is employed to
       achieve the fast transient response. Different anti wind-up schemes for a typical PI-controller are evaluated
       through simulation and experiment. Simulation and experiment results of the 20-kW boost converter under
       start-up condition and load transient condition are also presented. The results show that this typical
       controller with proper anti wind-up scheme achieves better transient performance than without anti wind-up
       scheme.

[52]   B. T. Irving, Y. Panov, and M. M. Jovanovic, "Small-signal model of variable-frequency flyback
       converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 977.

                                An accurate, straight-forward, small-signal model of the variable-frequency
       flyback converter is presented. The model, which replaces the switching devices with dependent sources
       representing average terminal currents, is similar to the discontinuous-conduction-mode, three-terminal
       switch model presented in the past. However, since the converter always operates at the boundary of
       discontinuous and continuous-conduction-modes under both steady state and transient conditions, the
       inductor can be removed from the average large-signal model. In fact, the control-to-output transfer
       function can be accurately described with its current loop closed at frequencies less than half of the
       switching frequency. The model is extended to the ringing-choke converter, which is a common type of
       variable-frequency flyback converter used in many cost-sensitive applications. The small signal model is
       validated with measurements made on an offline, S-V/ 2-A experimental prototype.

[53]   Y. Jang and M. M. Jovanovic, "A new three-level soft-switched converter," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1059.

                                A three-level, constant-frequency, Isolated converter which employs a coupled
       Inductor to achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) of the primary switches in the entire line and load range
       is described. Because the coupled inductor does not appear as a series inductance in the load current path, it
       does not cause a loss of duty cycle or severe voltage ringing across the output rectifiers. The operation and
       performance of the proposed converter was verified on a 1-kW prototype.

[54]   Y. Jang and M. M. Jovanovic, "A new family of full-bridge zvs converters," in Proceedings of IEEE
       Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 622.

                                 A family of soft-switched, full-bridge (FB) pulse-width-modulated (PWM)
       converters that features zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of all bridge switches over a wide range of input
       voltage and output load with minimal duty cycle loss and circulating current is described. The ZVS of the
       primary switches is achieved by employing two magnetic components whose volt-second products change
       in the opposite directions with a change of phase shift between the two bridge legs. One magnetic
       component is a transformer while the other magnetic component is either a coupled inductor or a
       single-winding inductor. The transformer is used to provide isolated output(s), whereas the inductor is used
       to store energy for ZVS.

[55]   R. A. Jensen and C. R. Sullivan, "Optimal core dimensional ratios for minimizing winding loss in
       high-frequency gapped-inductor windings," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
       and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1164.

                                 Numerical techniques are used to find the inductor core dimensional ratios that
       minimize winding loss. It is shown that common core shapes result in significant excess losses, even if the
       shape of the wire winding is optimized. A design example demonstrates the practical implications of this
       technique for choosing cores-a standard core with dimensional ratios close to optimum provides a 32%
       savings in power loss compared to another popular core shape. Further improvements in power loss could
       be achieved by using optimized core shapes. Improvements to software for shape-optimization of windings
       are described, including accounting for different turn lengths at different radii, the ability to select gaps in
       different core legs, and better approximations of three-dimensional field geometry.

[56]   S.-J. Jeong and S.-H. Song, "Current control of 12-pulse regenerative converter for 20ka magnetic power
       supply," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 256.

                                 High current magnetic power supply for superconductivity coil of tokamak
       requires fast dynamic performance of di/dt and smooth change over of current direction. To meet the
       specification high performance DSP-based controller is designed for 12-pulse thyristor dual converter with
       interphase transformer(IPT). Not only the total current of Y and &Delta; converter units but also the
       difference for those should be regulated fast and accurately. Proportional and integral controller is designed
       for difference current control and the controller output is compensated to &Delta; converter. A new
       algorithm for the calculation of the Initial firing angle is proposed for the minimization of non-ideal effect
       during the change over of dual converter currents.

[57]   Z. Jiang and R. A. Dougal, "Control design and testing of a novel fuel-cell-powered battery-charging
       station," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1127.

                                 This paper presents a novel system design for a fuel-cell-powered battery-charging
       station. This battery charging station allows multiple batteries to be charged simultaneously. Three baseline
       static charging algorithms are proposed to coordinate the power distribution among the battery branches.
       The control strategies include equal rate charging, proportional rate charging and pulse current charging.
       These charging algorithms are then realized in MATLAB/Simulink, and the current and voltage regulations
       are Implemented using the classical proportional-integral approach. The system simulation is conducted in
       VTB by embedding Simulink objects and cosimulating with MATLAB. The experimental tests are
       performed by compiling Simulink codes and downloading onto the DSpace platform. The simulation and
       experimental results are also given.

[58]   T. Jin and K. M. Smedley, "Operation of unified constant-frequency integration controlled three-phase
       active power filter with unbalanced load," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
       and Exposition, 2003, pp. 148.
                                   The theory and experiments have demonstrated that the Unified
       Constant-frequency Integration (UCI) controller features excellent performance, simple circuitry, and low
       cost for the control of three-phase APF connected to either symmetrical or asymmetrical three-phase power
       systems. In reality, three-phase grid voltages and/or three-phase nonlinear loads may not be balanced all the
       time, therefore it is vital for an APF to be able to handle unbalanced source or load. Studies have shown
       that the UCI controlled APF performs satisfactorily in unbalanced systems. In continuation, the
       performance of a three-phase APF working in unbalanced load with a UCI controller is evaluated in this
       paper. Simulation and experiment results indicate that with UCI control, sinusoid input current can be
       realized, whether the loads are balanced or unbalanced.

[59]   I. D. Jitaru, "Self-driven constant voltage reset circuit," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 893.

                                  This paper presents a reset mechanism, which combines the advantages of the
       active clamp reset and the traditional third wire reset technique. In this concept the reset voltage is constant
       similar to the third wire reset, wherein a constant voltage is applied to the transformer during the reset
       cycle. The technology has several key advantages from the active clamp reset mechanism. The energy
       contained in the leakage and magnetizing inductance is recycled, and the voltage across the main switch is
       clamped. In addition to this, the flux trough the transformer is symmetrical to zero and the duty cycle can
       be higher than 50%, similar to the active clamp circuit. Though this circuit contains most of the active
       clamp circuit' key features it does not exhibit its limitations. One of the drawbacks of the active clamp
       circuit is its behavior during transients wherein the duty cycle changes. During transients, until the reset
       capacitor charges to its optimum level, the voltage across the switch may reach uncontrollable levels. In
       this reset technique the voltage across the switch is constant regardless of the duty cycle and reacts to
       transients without any limitations. In additional to this the implementation is very simple; it does not
       require any additional driving and timing circuits for the reset switch. The reset switch is driven directly
       form the transformer by a driving winding and the reset voltage can be easily adjusted by a resistor divider.
       Using this technology a DC-DC Converter was implemented, providing 1.2 V @ 20 A, from an Input
       voltage range of 36 V to 60 reaching an efficiency of 86% at full load.

[60]   X. Kang, E. Santi, J. L. Hudgins, P. R. Palmer, and J. F. Donlon, "Parameter extraction for a physics-based
       circuit simulator igbt model," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 946.

                                 A practical parameter extraction method is presented for the
       Fourier-based-solution physics-based IGBT model. In the extraction procedure, only one simple clamped
       inductive load test is needed for the extraction of the eleven and thirteen parameters required for the NPT
       and PT IGBT models, respectively. Validation with experimental results from various structure IGBTs
       demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed IGBT model and the robustness of the parameter extraction
       method.

[61]   S. Kim and P. N. Enjeti, "Control of multiple single phase pfc modules with a single low-cost dsp," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 375.

                                 In this paper, a new control scheme is proposed for controlling multiple
       single-phase power factor correction (PFC) modules with a single low-cost digital signal processor (DSP).
       The proposed scheme allows for multiple PFC modules of different current ratings to be operated in
       parallel and controlled via a single DSP. DSP based control handles simple current sharing and provides
       size reduction. The paper describes a current sense technique for each PFC module and a closed loop
       control algorithm for output voltage and Input current control for operating multiple modules. In the
       example design, switching frequency is set at 120 kHz and two continuous conduction mode (CCM) PFC
       stages are operated in parallel and controlled via a single TMS320LF2407 DSP. Experimental results show
       that the proposed scheme is capable to be used for modern switching power supplies.

[62]   S. Kim, M. H. Todorovic, and P. N. Enjeti, "Three phase active harmonic rectifier (ahr) to improve utility
       input current thd in telecommunication power distribution system," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 805.

                                   Modern telecommunication power supply systems have several parallel connected
       switch mode rectifiers to provide -48V DC. Typical switch mode rectifier configuration includes a three
       phase diode rectifier followed by a DC-DC converter. Such a system draws significant harmonic currents
       for the utility resulting in poor input power factor and high total harmonic distortion (THD). In this paper, a
       three phase active harmonic rectifier (AHR) scheme is proposed. In AHR scheme, a diode rectifier module
       is replaced by 6-IGBT PWM rectifier to supply load harmonics as well as its own active power. Each
       DC-DC converter module is connected to a shared 48V dc-link. The AHR module together with parallel
       connected switch mode rectifiers is controlled to achieve dean input power characteristics. The VA ratings
       of AHR scheme is compared with an active power filter (APF) approach. The control design is based on the
       synchronous reference frame approach. Analysis, simulation and experimental results show that AHR
       offers several advantages such as lower VA rating, better current control response, efficient use of AHR
       dc-link, small size, and stable de-link voltage control.

[63]   T.-H. Kim, B.-K. Lee, and M. Ehsani, "Sensorless control of the bldc motors from near zero to high speed,"
       in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 306.

                                  This paper presents the theory and practice required to implement a novel
       sensorless operation technique for the brushless DC (BLDC) motor. The proposed new sensorless drive
       method breaks through the chronic problem of the sensorless BLDC motor drives, lack of low speed
       operation, so that it ensures highly accurate, robust sensorless operation from near zero to high speed. For
       this purpose, a physically insightful, speed-independent function, based on a new flux linkage function, is
       used. A simulation result of the proposed sensorless method is shown, and the result discussed. Also, the
       validity of the proposed method is verified through the experimental results.

[64]   H. W. Koertzen, "Impact of die sensing on cpu power delivery," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 451.

                                  This study is regarding power delivery to a desktop microprocessor. It shows the
       advantages and disadvantages of sensing the feedback signals of the voltage regulator at the silicon die of
       the CPU, compared to the current method of sensing it at the socket. The main advantage is that the
       response time of the voltage regulator is improved, without increasing the bandwidth of the feedback loop.
       The down side is that the tolerance band of the voltage regulator increases. In most cases the net benefit of
       die sensing is positive, resulting in increased microprocessor performance at no additional cost. Simulated
       and measured results are presented.

[65]   H. Krishnamurthy, G. Narayanan, R. Ayyanar, and V. T. Ranganathan, "Design of space vector-based
       hybrid pwm techniques for reduced current ripple," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 583.

                                Switching sequence used by conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM)
       involves equal division of zero vector time between the two zero states in every subcycle. The sequences
       employed by bus-clamping PWM involve use of only one zero state in a subcycle. This paper deals with
       two sequences, which use only one zero state and involve division of active vector time within a subcycle.
       A novel hybrid PWM technique, employing these two sequences in conjunction with the conventional
       sequence, is proposed. The proposed PWM technique is designed using the notion of stator flux ripple. A
       procedure is presented for designing hybrid PWM techniques involving multiple sequences for reduced
       current ripple. The proposed PWM technique results in reduced current ripple over CSVPWM at higher
       modulation indices. Experimental results on a 2hp prototype induction motor drive are presented.

[66]   E. Lam, R. Bell, and D. Ashley, "Revolutionary advances in distributed power systems," in Proceedings of
       IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 30.

                                Rising power demands and increasing number of supply voltages required in
       modern communications and computing systems are driving advancements in distributed power
       architectures. Primary-side isolated 48V power modules have matured with Single and Dual-outputs
       (+3.3V and +5V) achieving ultra-high density and greater efficiency. Secondary-side PWM controllers
       have evolved to higher frequency and efficiencies and are giving way to yet another distributed power
       concept, the quasi-regulated +12V single-output power module. Several power module manufacturers are
       now offering this new +12V Brick driven by demands from the system OEMs. In this paper we explore
       ever changing distributed power architectures, integrated PWM circuitry and new distributed power supply
       topologies that are enabling new information infrastructure systems.

[67]   E. Landsman, "Scalable data center architecture for on- demand power infrastructure," in Proceedings of
       IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 10.

                                  The present design of the power infrastructure of the typical data center in use
       today is hopelessly outdated. Because knowledge of the ultimate power demand is not known when the
       design is done, a lot of assumptions are made, and most systems are oversized. The result is waste of
       capital investment because of over sizing, waste of space, increased building time, lower reliability, lower
       electrical efficiency (typical installation is only 35% loaded), high engineering costs because every system
       is unique, and complex systems which are hard to repair.

[68]   H. Lavric and J. Nastran, "A hybrid voltage amplifier for power calibrator with harmonics analysis
       capability," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 925.

                                 The paper describes a voltage amplifier that is capable of accurate amplifying
       voltages up to 300 V rms within the frequency range from 40 Hz to 70 Hz with or without the presence of
       higher harmonics. Its sophisticated topology consists of a supreme linear amplifier and an inner hybrid
       power amplifier with an output transformer. The hybrid power amplifier, which acts as a self-oscillating
       system, is composed of a superior three-stage class AB amplifier and an inverter. The later provides a full
       load current while the former filters the waveform ripple. In this way a power efficient system is obtained
       whose efficiency at a full output power exceeds 90%.

[69]   B. K. Lee, J. P. Hong, and M. Ehsani, "Generalized design methodology of reduced parts converters for
       low cost bldc motor drives," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 277.

                                Various reduced parts convertors were proposed for the two-phase brushless DC
       (BLDC) motor and a generalized design methodology was established for the multi-phase motor. As the
       examples of multi-phase BLDC motors, the four-phase and five-phase were considered in the study. It was
       found that a four-phase BLDC motor could be operated as two of a two-phase BLDC motor with
       modification of winding connection. This meant that only four switches were enough to drive a four-phase
       BLDC motor.

[70]   D.-Y. Lee, H.-J. Noh, D.-S. Hyun, and I. Choy, "An improved mppt converter using current compensation
       method for small scaled pv-applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
       and Exposition, 2003, pp. 540.

                                 An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small-scaled
       PV-applications is presented in this paper. The proposed method implements maximum power point
       tracking (MPPT) by variable reference current which is continuously changed during one sampling period.
       Therefore, the proposed MPPT converter with current compensation method increases the power
       transferred to the load above 9%. As a result, the utilization efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV)-module can be
       increased. In addition, as it doesn't use digital signal processor (DSP), this MPPT method has the merits of
       both a cost efficiency and a simple control circuit design. Therefore, it is considered that the proposed
       MPPT method is proper to low power, low cost PV-applications. The concept and control principles of this
       improved MPPT method are explained in detail and the validity of the proposed method is verified through
       several simulated results.
[71]   K. Lee, K. Yao, X. Zhang, Y. Qiu, and F. C. Lee, "A novel control method for multiphase voltage
       regulators," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 738.

                                This paper proposes a novel control method for the multiphase voltage regulators
       (VRs) to power the next generation of microprocessors. With a simple structure, this control can achieve
       multiphase current sharing, very fast transient response, and adaptive output voltage regulation. Simulation
       and experimental results show that the proposed control scheme significantly improves the performance, as
       compared with existing control methods.

[72]   K.-B. Lee, J.-H. Song, I. Choy, and J.-Y. Yoo, "An inertia identification using roelo for low speed control
       of electric machine," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 1052.

                                A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the motor drive system in very
       low speed is proposed in this paper. The simple speed estimation scheme, which is usually used in most
       servo system for low speed operation, is sensitive to the variation of the machine parameter, especially the
       moment of Inertia. To estimate the motor Inertia value, Reduced-Order Extended Luenberger Observer
       (ROELO) is applied. The effectiveness of the proposed ROELO is applied by simulations.

[73]   T. Lequeu, D. Magnon, G. Kalvelage, and P. Aubin, "Study and application of an innovating topology of
       converter: Sparc - serial and parallel auto regulated configuration," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1070.

                                 Gerard KALVELAGE and Philippe AUBIN (patentees of the SPARC patent) of
       the FAIVELEY Transport company propose a new topology of insulated converter. Two converters, one on
       the primary side (input) and a second one on the secondary side (output), allow to combine several
       transformers in series (for high voltage) and/or in parallel (for high current). Mixed combinations are also
       possible (voltage and current of middle magnitude). The converters used have a "ladder" structure, thus
       distributing the voltage and/or the current in the switches. A particular control mode ensures an alternating
       voltage at the transformer terminals. Indeed a circular shift of the instructions sent to the switches leads to
       various kinds of commutations, such as a hard-switching with voltage and current divided by two: the
       commutation losses will therefore be reduced by a factor of 4. The interlacing of the switches' orders
       removes the discontinuities in the input and output electric signals, which present a weak ripple signal at
       high frequency, reducing the size of the associated filters. The principle of operation is illustrated together
       with steady state analysis. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed converter topology is verified by
       implementing a 5 kW-20 kHz prototype using IGBTs and fast recovery diodes.

[74]   D. Li, X. He, and Y. Deng, "High reliable power electronic system design based on bionics," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 471.

                                 This paper proposes a novel bionic approach for enhancing reliability of power
       electronic system by utilizing some principles including autonomous decentralized architecture,
       redundPOST http://216.228.1.34/authrev/RevuploadRese inspired from human body system. The
       application of bionics in power electronics is innovative from the methodological point of view. Finally, a
       single phase full-bridge power inverter based on autonomous decentralized architecture is investigated. The
       investigated inverter has advantages in reliability, flexibility and user-friendliness compared to
       conventional centralized power converters. The proposed autonomous decentralized architecture in this
       paper has a promising prospect and paves the way towards future Plug and Play power electronic systems
       for so many significant advantage.

[75]   P. Li and B. Lehman, "A simple design for paralleling current-mode controlled dc-dc converters," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 898.

                                This paper proposes a new current sharing method. It utilizes the inner current
       loops of current mode controlled converters to achieve the current sharing, and decouples control loops
       from the voltage regulation and current-sharing regulation instead of adding control loops as in traditional
       master-slave methods. Therefore, the performance is guaranteed in both the large and small signal sense.
       This is verified by experimental results.

[76]   Y. P. Li, F. C. Lee, and D. Boroyevich, "Igbt device application aspects for 50-kw zero-current-transition
       inverters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 518.

                                 This paper addresses two application aspects of IGBT devices for two different
       types of three-phase zero-current-transition (ZCT) soft-switching Inverters, which are built with SO-kW
       power rating for electric vehicles (EV) traction motor drives. One aspect is the characterization of main
       IGBTs under different ZCT conditions, for which switching loss reductions are quantified, and variations
       of soft-switching behaviors and mechanisms under different resonant tank designs are investigated and
       compared. The other is the selection and characterization of auxiliary switches. From the analysis on the
       unique operation conditions of the auxiliary switches, it is concluded that the current ratings specified for
       commercial IGBTs can not meet the requirements for the auxiliary switches. Accordingly, methods to
       select and characterize suitable auxiliary switches are proposed, and IGBTs from different manufacturers
       are tested and compared using the proposed methods. Hardware implementation and experimental results
       of the 50-kW prototypes are provided.

[77]   Z. X. Liang, F. C. Lee, J. D. Van Wyk, D. Boroyevich, E. Scott, J. Chen, B. Lu, and Y. Pang, "Integrated
       packaging of a 1kw switching module using planar interconnect on embedded power chips technology," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 42.

                                 A 1 kW MOSFET half-bridge switching subassembly with gate drivers has been
       designed and fabricated, in integrated three-dimensional (3-D) form factor, using a planar integration
       technology, through building up dielectric/metallization thin-film interconnection directly on co-planar bare
       power chips embedded in a ceramic carrier. The 3-D geometrical layout was optimized through simulating
       electrical and thermal performance, with Maxwell Q3D and I-DEAS, respectively. The advantages of this
       module have been experimentally demonstrated by the electrical and thermal performance in the testbeds
       and IPEM-based DC/DC converter.

[78]   C. C. Liaw, C. M. Liaw, H. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, and C. M. Huang, "Robust current control and
       commutation tuning for an ipmsm drive," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
       and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1045.

                                   The operating performance improvement of an Interior permanent magnet
       synchronous motor (IPMSM) drive via robust current control and intelligent commutation tuning is studied
       in this paper. First, the nominal motor parameters are estimated and a robust current control scheme is
       designed to possess close and robust winding current tracking performance. It is known that the torque
       generating capability of an IPMSM is affected by the changes of commutation instant and field excitation.
       The proof is given to show that the latter can be equivalently achieved by tuning the commutation instant,
       and the effects of these two variations on the IPMSM drive performances under speed open-loop and
       closed-loop conditions are observed analytically and experimentally. Then accordingly, an intelligent
       tuning approach is developed to automatically determine the advance of commutation instant. The
       minimum current command is achieved to obtain better torque generating capability equivalently. A
       DSP-based IPMSM drive is established and the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches is
       demonstrated experimentally.

[79]   A. Lidow and G. Sheridan, "Defining the future for microprocessor power delivery," in Proceedings of
       IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 3.

                                A brief review of the primary technical challenges confronting power management
       for the computing and information technology world was presented. The innovations in power
       semiconductor processes and device design were also elaborated. The changes in architecture and thermal
       management and the emergence of integrated solutions that would be needed to meet these power
       management challenges were also analyzed.
[80]   M. Liserre, A. Dell'Aquila, and F. Blaabjerg, "Genetic algorithm based design of the active damping for a
       lcl-filter three-phase active rectifier," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 234.

                                   The use of a LCL-filter mitigates the switching ripple Injected in the grid by a
       three-phase active rectifier. However stability problems could arise in the current control loop. In order to
       overcome them a damping resistor can be inserted, at the price of a reduction of the efficiency. On the
       contrary the use of the active damping seems really attractive but it is often limited by the use of more
       sensors respect to the standard control and by the complex tuning procedure. This paper introduces a new
       active damping method that does not need the use of more sensors and that can be tuned using genetic
       algorithms. It consists of adding a filter on the reference voltage for the converter's modulator. The tuning
       process of this filter is easily done, for a wide range of sampling frequencies, with the use of genetic
       algorithms. This method is used only for the optimum choice of the parameters of the filter and an on-line
       implementation is not needed. Thus the resulting active damping solution does not need new sensors or
       complex calculations. Moreover, in the paper particular attention is devoted to the dynamics of the system
       due to the introduction of the active damping.

[81]   C. Liu, F. Teng, C. Hu, and Z. Zhang, "Lclc resonant converter for multiple lamp operation ballast," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1209.

                                This paper presents a design methodology, analysis, and practical considerations
       of LCLC resonant converter for multiple lamp operation ballast. According to the basic requirements of
       multiple lamp operation ballast (MLOB), the design procedure can be outlined to determine resonant
       parameter. Consequently, independent MLOB can be achieved under voltage-source half-bridge LCLC
       resonant converter with zero voltage switching (ZVS). Finally, some experimental results obtained from a
       prototype are shown to verify the theoretical discussion.

[82]   C. P. Liu, N. K. Poon, and M. H. Pong, "A low output ripple dc to dc converter topology using voltage
       overlapping technique," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
       2003, pp. 610.

                                A new converter topology is proposed which uses voltage overlapping method
       with certain overlapping period that can theoretically provide smooth and regulated DC output voltage
       without the need of an output filter. An isolated DC/DC converter prototype with output voltage and
       current of 2.5V and 15A respectively was built to demonstrate its operation. Very low output ripple is
       observed.

[83]   J. Liu, T. G. Wilson Jr, R. Wunderlich, R. C. Wong, Q. Zhao, W. Dong, and F. C. Lee, "Large-signal
       model of a downstream dc/dc converter for analysis and design of front-end pfc rectifier using computer
       simulation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       1002.

                                  For large-signal analysis and design of power supply system with multiple
       converters, the simulation speed becomes much critical when simulation is employed as virtual prototyping
       approach. Previously published models for downstream DC/DC converters at the power semiconductor
       switch level or even the power stage level can hardly meet this requirement. This paper proposes a model
       that can accurately emulate the input characteristics of downstream DC/DC converters under low frequency
       small-signal situation or large-signal process. The model is very simple, which makes simulation very fast,
       therefore can greatly facilitate the design and verification of front-end PFC voltage loop compensator, and
       the analysis and design of many PFC transient issues in distributed power systems.

[84]   W. Liu, Q. Song, X. Xie, Y. Chen, and G. Yan, "6kv/1800kva medium voltage drive with three-level npc
       inverter using igcts," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 223.

                                This paper presents a 6kV motor drive consisting of a 24-pulse rectifier and a
       three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter using IGCTs. It is suitable for feeding standard industrial
       motors. Experimental results from the industrial installation show that the design and the implementation
       are successful.

[85]   P. C. Loh, D. G. Holmes, Y. Fukuta, and T. A. Lipo, "A reduced common mode hysteresis current
       regulation strategy for multilevel inverters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 576.

                                  This paper presents a new hysteresis current regulation technique with reduced
       common mode switching for three-phase multilevel inverters. The proposed technique uses three
       Independent multilevel hysteresis current regulators to generate three sets of complementary gating signals
       through the comparison of the measured current errors with implemented hysteresis limits. These gating
       signals are then distributed to each complementary switch pair of the multilevel inverter structure to switch
       with reduced common mode voltage. Additionally, by intelligently compensating for transition delays
       during dead-times, common mode voltage can essentially be eliminated completely. Two versions of the
       common mode regulation technique are derived by using either the line currents or differences between the
       line currents, known as delta currents, as the control variables. A detailed investigation is presented to
       determine that the delta currents are the optimal control variables. The performance of the proposed
       strategy is confirmed through both simulation and experimental investigations.

[86]   T. Lopez, G. Sauerlaender, T. Duerbaum, and T. Tolle, "A detailed analysis of a resonant gate driver for
       pwm applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
       pp. 873.

                                  Gate drivers generate significant losses, especially at high frequencies. While
       conventional solutions dissipate all the energy, resonant gate drivers partly recover it. A resonant gate
       driver is studied in detail with the emphasis on PWM operation. Compared to other resonant drivers, the
       investigated driver combines simplicity, fast switching and loss reduction. Advantages and limits are
       discussed using a mathematical model and a prototype.

[87]   B. Lu, W. Dong, Q. Zhao, and F. C. Lee, "Performance evaluation of coolmos [trademark] and sic diode
       for single-phase power factor correction applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
       Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 651.

                                 The low conduction loss and switching loss characteristics make CoolMOS
       [trademark] and SiC diode attractive for the single-phase CCM PFC converters. In this paper, based on the
       device level and converter level evaluation, the loss reduction capability of the CoolMOS [trademark] and
       SiC diode is quantified. In addition, for the first time, a successfully operating 1kW 400KHz single-phase
       CCM PFC is demonstrated by using CoolMOS [trademark] and SiC diode.

[88]   J. Luo, N. Pongratananukul, J. A. Abu-Qahouq, and I. Batarseh, "Time-varying current observer with
       parameter estimation for multiphase low-voltage high-current voltage regulator modules," in Proceedings
       of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 444.

                                 Current sharing in interleaved converters is an essential issue for low-voltage,
       high-current Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs). The most common method is to sense the average
       voltage across low-side switches to obtain phase currents. In this paper, an instantaneous current sensing
       method is presented to observe instant load current and phase currents for multiphase buck converter. Since
       the load value is time varying, an adaptive control method is applied to estimate load changing. The
       proposed current observer can also be used for other topologies requiring current sensing. A digital
       observer is designed and implemented using a DSP controller.

[89]   S. Luo, L. Hua, H. Mao, and I. Batarseh, "A high-frequency ac distributed power system with dual pwm
       buses," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 63.

                                A high-frequency (HF) AC distributed power system (DPS) with dual PWM buses
       is presented. Experimental prototype with a total of 210W output power for three Independent outputs, i.e,
       3.3V@30A, 5.0V@10A, and 12V@5.1A, was built to verify the concept presented in this paper. The
       experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system works well and the around 80% efficiency,
       which is 3% higher than that from single bus DPS under same operation conditions, can be obtained.

[90]   J. H. Ly and K. Siri, "Frequency response analysis for dc-dc converters without small-signal linearization,"
       in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1008.

                                 Presented herein is a frequency-domain analysis approach using Matlab Simulink
       models via Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of dc-dc converter closed-loop systems without small-signal
       linearization. Two modeling techniques are used: 1) Average large-signal model; 2) Pulse-by-pulse
       switching. It is shown that the frequency response result obtained with the Matlab Simulink and PSPICE
       model using average large-signal technique is comparable. Moreover, contrary to using PSPICE, obtaining
       frequency response using FFT via the Matlab Simulink model with the pulse-by-pulse switching method is
       easy and straightforward. The reason is that Matlab can accommodate script files for repetitive simulation
       data processing, whereas PSPICE cannot. Frequency domain analysis on the dc-dc converter model using
       the pulse-by-pulse switching technique leads to a more accurate result since all non-linear elements in the
       circuit are included. The proposed "software analyzer approach" is demonstrated and validated with a
       converter power system operating in the solar-array voltage regulation mode.

[91]   L. L. Macomber, "Reduce capacitor count 50% in bus-capacitor arrays using new electrolyte," in
       Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 764.

                                 The use of a new electrolyte in reducing the capacitor count in bus-capacitor
       arrays is discussed. The electrolyte permit the capacitors' internal temperature to be 70 &deg; C above
       ambient, and thus permit doubling the ripple current per capacitor. It is shown that the new electrolyte for
       the aluminum electrolytic bus capacitors can eliminate the need for extra capacitance and reduce the
       capacitor count by 50%.

[92]   R. Malik, "The power system challenge - understanding the total picture," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
       Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 202.

                                   The designing of an optimal power system was discussed. Various issues and
       trade off for designing a power system specifically for server applications were also studied. It was found
       that it is the responsibility of the power system designer to have in-depth knowledge of the server system
       and future technology to produce a cost effective power system.

[93]   H. Mao, J. A. Abu-Qahouq, S. Deng, and I. Batarseh, "A new duty-cycle-shifted pwm control scheme for
       half-bridge dc-dc converters to achieve zero-voltage-switching," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
       Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 629.

                                Asymmetric control scheme is an approach to achieve ZVS for half-bridge
       isolated DC-DC converter. However, it is not suited for wide-range input voltage due to the uneven voltage
       and current components stresses. This paper presents a new "duty-cycle-shifted PWM control" scheme for
       half-bridge isolated dc-dc converters to achieve ZVS operation without asymmetric penalties and without
       adding additional components. Because the duty cycle width is kept identical for both switches, the
       asymmetric current and voltage stresses problem is eliminated. The principles of operation and key features
       are illustrated. Experimental results verify that higher efficiency is achieved with the proposed
       "duty-cycle-shifted" control method, especially at higher switching frequency.

[94]   H. Mao, J. A. Abu-Qahouq, S. Luo, and I. Batarseh, "New zero-voltage-switching half-bridge dc-dc
       converter and pwm control method," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
       Exposition, 2003, pp. 635.

                             This paper presents a new half-bridge isolated dc-dc converter topology associated
       with a new PWM control method to achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of all switches. Switching losses
       and losses related to transformer leakage inductance are significantly reduced, which provides converter
       with the potential to operate at higher efficiency and higher frequency. The principle of operation and
       features of proposed topology are illustrated and experimentally verified.

[95]   M. I. Marei, E. F. El-Saadany, and M. M. A. Salama, "An intelligent control for the dg interface to mitigate
       voltage flicker," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
       179.

                                 Distributed Generation (DG) is used widely in the modern distribution systems.
       This paper proposes a novel functionality of the interface between DG and the utility network to mitigate
       the voltage flicker and regulate the voltage at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) along with its main
       function of controlling the power flow. The voltage leveling is achieved by tracking its envelope utilizing
       an intelligent control based on ADAptive LINEar neuron (ADALINE). One of the advantages of the
       proposed control is its insensitivity to the parameter variation, which is vital for distribution system
       applications. Extensive simulation of the proposed DG interface is conducted to evaluate the performance
       of the proposed control algorithm for multifunction operation.

[96]   N. Mi, B. Sasic, J. Marshall, and S. Tomasiewicz, "A novel economical single stage battery charger with
       power factor correction," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
       2003, pp. 760.

                                  A single stage AC-DC topology with power factor correction is proposed for
       battery charger applications. Desired features for battery charger such as low cost, fast charging, charge
       profile programmability, high efficiency and high reliability are fully achieved by means of proposed
       solution. Additionally, its multiphase operation configuration provides easy power scaling. The proposed
       approach is superior to conventional ferro-resonant regulation widely used for EV (Electrical vehicle)
       charger applications. It is especially suitable to low cost and high power applications. The feasibility and
       practical value of the proposed approach are verified by the experimental results from a 1 kW product
       prototype.

[97]   B. Miller, "Conference proceedings - ieee applied power electronics conference and exposition - apec:
       Foreword," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.


[98]   B. Miller, "Conference proceedings - ieee applied power electronics conference and exposition - apec:
       Foreword," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.


[99]   J. M. Miller, "Power electronics in hybrid electric vehicle applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
       Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 23.

                                  Hybrid electric vehicles are enjoying more widespread customer acceptance than
       battery electric vehicles because of their performance and economy. Today two of the major global
       automotive companies have hybrid electric vehicles for sale in most areas of the globe with cumulative
       sales now exceeding 120k. Whereas battery electric vehicles may find niche applications in route travel and
       short commuting the hybrid electric vehicle provides un-compromised utility and fuel economy benefits
       ranging from 5% to 50% or higher compared to the non-hybrid base vehicle. Ac drives are now ubiquitous
       in hybridized power trains due to their high durability and ease of control via power electronics. However,
       because of the unique application requirements of an automotive propulsion system the present ac drives
       are still inadequate in meeting the full drive system performance requirements and package volume targets.
       Consequently, today's hybridized power trains continue to utilize ac drives that have either over rated
       electric machines or power electronics or both. This paper is motivated by the premise that the most
       economical solution to wide CPSR and overall performance of ac drives for hybrids rests on power
       electronics. The paper will describe the present situation and what efforts are underway, principally in
       transmission systems, to provide ac drives that are better matched to personal transportation vehicles.
[100]   A. Monti, R. Dougal, E. Santi, D. Li, and K. Proddutur, "Compensation for step-load variations when
        applying synergetic control," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 334.

                                  The theory of synergetic control was introduced in a power electronics context in
        a previous paper. In this paper we review the theory, then focus on some practical aspects with reference to
        both simulations and actual hardware. In particular we address step load response and we experiment with
        several different approaches. Adaptive and other control laws are introduced to improve the control
        performance. A small-signal analysis is presented, which allows prediction of closed-loop response time.

[101]   J. T. Mossoba and P. T. Krein, "Design and control of sensorless current mode dc-dc converters," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 315.

                                  Sensorless current-mode (SCM) control of dc-dc converters is a feed forward open
        loop scheme, which is compared to peak current-mode (PCM) control. Small signal model simulations of
        each controller are validated by experimental results. SCM offers improvement over the line disturbance
        rejection of current-mode control without feedback or current sensing. SCM is demonstrated to be useful in
        both open loop and closed loop configurations, by exploiting its inherent reference tracking and line
        disturbance rejection. In contrast, PCM requires high gain two-loop control for voltage regulation.

[102]   J. J. Nelson, G. Venkataramanan, and A. M. El-Refaie, "Fast thermal profiling of power semiconductor
        devices using fourier techniques," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 1023.

                                   Accurate prediction of temperature variation of power semiconductor devices in
        power electronic circuits is Important to obtain optimum designs and estimate reliability levels.
        Temperature estimation of power electronic devices has generally been performed using transient thermal
        equivalent circuits. In the presence of varying load cycles, it has been typical to resort to a time domain
        electrical simulation tool such as P-Spice [trademark] or SABER [trademark] to obtain a time series of the
        temperature profiles. However, for complex and periodic load cycles, time series simulation is time
        consuming. In this paper, a fast Fourier analysis based approach is presented for obtaining temperature
        profiles for power semiconductors. The model can be implemented readily into a spreadsheet or simple
        mathematical algebraic calculation software. The technique can be used for predicting lifetime and
        reliability level of power circuits easily. Details of the analytical approach and illustrative examples are
        presented in the paper.

[103]   C. Nesgaard, "An array-based study of increased system lifetime probability," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 476.

                                   A redundancy control scheme, which is based on the array technology that
        increases the overall reliability quite considerably was discussed. To provide feedback to the redundancy
        control system, each block in the overall power system can take on two different logic values. Results
        showed that a considerable increase in system survivability was possible when the proposed array-based
        control and implementation technique was applied.

[104]   E. R. Olson and R. D. Lorenz, "Integrating giant magnetoresistive current and thermal sensors in power
        electronic modules," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
        pp. 773.

                                  Motor drive technology relies on power electronic devices and current sensors for
        motor control. With active thermal control of IGBT junction temperatures, the reliability and full utilization
        of power devices can be improved. The intent of this research is to introduce the module-level integration
        of the GMR field detector as both a current and temperature sensor. The integration effort also includes a
        new type of flexible planar interconnect to replace conventional wire bonds. The integration goal is to
        improve the reliability and lower the cost of motor drive systems. Cost and reliability will benefit from a
        lower parts count and fewer interconnections. Because of the small size, inherent galvanic isolation,
        temperature dependence, high sensitivity and bandwidth, the magnetoresistive field detector offers
        promising options for both integrated current and temperature sensing methods. This research describes the
        operation of GMR, as well as the necessary signal conditioning circuitry for integrated current and
        temperature sensing. The measured performance attributes of the sensor are also shown. Finally, future
        plans are discussed which involve combining the current and temperature sensing capabilities with the
        design of an interconnect layout and observers for junction temperature estimation.

[105]   V. M. Pacheco, L. C. Freitas, J. B. Vieira Jr, E. A. A. Coelho, and V. J. Farias, "Stand-alone photovoltaic
        energy storage system with maximum power point tracking," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 97.

                                  This digests deals with the study of a stand-alone photovoltaic system, which is
        able to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic array for all solar intensity conditions and to provide
        output voltage regulation. The proposed system consists of a dc-dc converter in combination with battery
        energy storage in a simple structure. Operating principle and control strategy are described. Digital
        simulation is included, supporting the validity of the concept.

[106]   J.-H. Park and B. H. Cho, "The zero voltage switching(zvs) critical conduction mode(crm) buck converter
        with tapped-inductor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
        2003, pp. 1077.

                                  This paper proposes a critical conduction mode buck converter that has
        soft-switching operation by tapped-inductor. In this converter, both the active switch and the diode have
        soft switching operation by the resonance between the switch parasitic capacitors and the filter inductor.
        And, the turn-off switching loss of the active switch is reduced by the decrease of the turn-off current. In
        addition, tapped-inductor changes the conduction operation, which makes some advantageous conditions
        that diminish the conduction loss and device stresses. Therefore, this topology, ultimately, achieves both
        the power and cost efficiency by the simple variation of the classical structure. For the proposed converter
        evaluation, this paper provides the operation analysis of the converter and the hardware verification by
        50W prototype operating at maximum 70kHz.

[107]   S. Park and T. M. Jahns, "A self-boost charge pump topology for a gate drive high-side power supply," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 126.

                                   A self-boost charge pump topology is presented for a floating high-side gate drive
        power supply that features high voltage and current capabilities for use in Integrated Power Electronic
        Modules (IPEMs). The transformerless topology uses a small capacitor to transfer energy to the high-side
        switch from a single power supply referred to the negative rail. Unlike conventional bootstrap power
        supplies, no switching of the main phase-leg switches is required to provide power continuously to the
        high-side gate drive, even if the high-side switch is permanently on. Additional advantages include a low
        parts count and simple control requirements. A piecewise linear model of the self-boost charge pump is
        derived and the circuit's operating characteristics are analyzed. Simulation and experimental results are
        provided to verify the desired operation of the new charge pump circuit.

[108]   S.-I. Park, T.-S. Kim, S.-C. Ahn, and D.-S. Hyun, "An improved current control method for torque
        improvement of high-speed bldc motor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
        and Exposition, 2003, pp. 294.

                                    The BLDC (Brushless DC) motor is characterized by linear torque to current and
        speed to voltage. It has low acoustic noise and fast dynamic response. Moreover, it has high power density
        with high proportion of torque to inertia In spite of small size drive. However, at high-speed operation,
        torque and speed response characteristic is deteriorated by the motor inductance components in stator
        windings. It is difficult that the BLDC motor is used to the Industrial application requiring a wide range of
        operating speeds. Phase advance angle control method of different methods used to improve torque and
        speed response is used widely at high-speed operation. However, conventional phase advance angle control
        method was considered about forward motoring mode. Therefore, position Information error of rotor that
        reverse motoring mode has phase lag angle of double comparing with forward motoring mode is occurred.
        Consequently, torque performance is destroyed significantly. In this paper, a control method using
        adjustment of the phase advance angle is proposed. This proposed method improves the torque and speed
        response characteristic by minimizing delay of current at high-speed operation. Simulated results prove the
        effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with the conventional control method.

[109]   M. Pavier, A. Sawle, A. Woodworth, R. Monteiro, J. Chiu, and C. Blake, "High frequency dc:Dc power
        conversion: The influence of package parasitics," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 699.

                                    Operating power MOSFET devices at frequencies over 1MHz will pose
        significant challenges to established power electronic packages such as the D2-Pak and wirebonded SO-8
        devices. In this paper the high frequency parasitic impedances of a range of power electronic packages are
        presented. Results show that a source mounted power package technology based upon a copper clip type
        assembly has considerably lower parasitic impedance compared to conventional power packaging at
        frequencies in the range of 500KHz to over 1MHz. The resistance of conventional packages recorded over
        this range of frequencies increases significantly as the frequency approaches 1Mhz. This is expected to be a
        result of skin effect related phenomena occurring in wire bonds and package leads. Package impedance
        data up to frequencies of 5MHz will be presented for a range of packages along with efficiency data
        recorded from devices operating in multi-phase buck converter circuits.

[110]   L. Petersen and R. W. Erickson, "Reduction of voltage stresses in buck-boost-type power factor correctors
        operating in boundary conduction mode," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
        and Exposition, 2003, pp. 664.

                                 In this paper a new converter is proposed for universal line PFC operated in
        Boundary Conduction Mode. The proposed Modified SEPIC enables the use of lower voltage rated
        semiconductors compared to other single-switch buck-boost derived topologies with a resulting
        performance comparable to the boost topology. The operation and the design procedure is described in
        detail and the proposed converter is experimental verified with a 210V, 100W prototype for the universal
        line input (90Vac-270Vac).

[111]   J. E. Piatt, "Application of the dell direct model to the ac inverter market," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 209.

                                   In this paper, I examine the application of a direct-business model to a
        predominantly indirect market. Currently, the majority of inverter sales are completed through an indirect
        sales channel, utilizing the services of distributors. After careful analysis of the Inverter market and a
        leading direct-marketing manufacturer in the electronics industry, I have developed several conclusions that
        maximize the effectiveness of sales efforts in the inverter market. Most important to the sales success of
        Inverter manufacturers is the willingness to Identify areas of outsourcing and to identify partners for such
        efforts. A careful distinction between OEM and end-user sales must be made. Ideally, a partner that can
        directly market to OEMs without interference from distributors should be identified.

[112]   J. D. Pollock, T. Abdallah, and C. R. Sullivan, "Easy-to-use cad tools for litz-wire winding optimization,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1157.

                                  Existing advanced and powerful techniques for optimizing litz-wire winding
        designs are complex and usually require using multiple expensive software packages. A new CAD tool has
        been created to make advanced litz-wire design methods available to any designer through an easy-to-use
        web interface. The software performs two-dimensional field simulations and returns designs optimized
        considering cost and loss. It is shown that simple fullbobbin designs, compared to optimized choices, can
        result in much higher loss with almost no cost advantage or much higher cost with almost no loss
        advantage, whereas the optimization results provide a full range of choices providing the lowest loss at any
        given cost or the lowest cost at any given loss.
[113]   N. K. Poon, C. P. Liu, and M. H. Pong, "A zvs approach for ac/dc converter with pfc," in Proceedings of
        IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 684.

                                 Other than integrating the PFC and the DCDC converter, this approach resort to
        the conventional two stage design with constant operating frequency and ZVS for all switches. A small
        switch is added between the PFC and asymmetric half bridge DC/DC converter to produce a four switch
        AC/DC converter with PFC. A 91% efficiency 12V 10A universal off line ACDC adapter is built to
        demonstrate its merits.

[114]   A. Prodic, D. Maksimovic, and R. W. Erickson, "Digital controller chip set for isolated dc power supplies,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 866.

                                  This paper describes a digital controller chip set for high-frequency DC-DC power
        converters with galvanic isolation. The secondary-side controller includes an A/D converter and a
        transmitter that sends a digital error signal as serial data through an opto-coupler. The primary-side
        controller includes a serial-data receiver, a programmable digital FID regulator, and a high-resolution
        (10-bit) digital pulse-width modulator. The digital error signal transmission through the isolation boundary
        eliminates the problem of gain variation when the opto-coupler is used in linear mode. The chip set is tested
        as a replacement for a conventional analog current-mode controller in a 3.3 V, 20 A, 400 KHz DC power
        supply. Experimental results with the digital controller show improved dynamic responses compared to the
        responses obtained with the analog controller.

[115]   A. Prodic, D. Maksimovic, and R. W. Erickson, "Dead-zone digital controller for improved dynamic
        response of power factor preregulators," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
        and Exposition, 2003, pp. 382.

                                  This paper presents a simple control method for improvement of dynamic
        responses in a digitally controlled low-harmonic rectifier with power factor correction (PFC). The
        controller uses a fixed or self-adjusting dead zone in analog-to-digital conversion to eliminate the output
        capacitor ripple from the voltage control loop. The proposed control methods are tested in a completely
        digitally controlled 200 W boost PFC operating at 200 kHz switching frequency. Experimental results show
        that the simple controller implementation results in low current harmonics and significantly improved
        output voltage transient responses.

[116]   H. Qi and Y. Gao, "A novel si<sub>1-x</sub>ge<sub>x</sub>/si hetero-junction power diode for the
        fast-s witching and the soft recovery," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 964.

                                   A
        novelp<sup>+</sup>(Si<sub>1-x</sub>Ge<sub>x</sub>)-n<sup>-</sup>-n<su p>+</sup>
        hetero-junction power diode which has the gradual changing doping concentration in the
        n<sup>-</sup>-region is proposed. The device characteristics were simulated and the optimal design was
        given. From the result, it can be shown that the fast-switching and the soft recovery characteristics of the
        device are much improved but not notable changed in forward drop. The optimal design of the Ge
        percentage and the trade-off of the n<sup>-</sup>-region thickness for the fast-switching and the soft
        recovery are given.

[117]   Z. Qian, F. Z. Peng, J. M. Zhang, and X. G. Xie, "A 30v/1mhz ac/ac converter for high frequency ac
        distributed power system applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 795.

                                  This paper presents the design considerations for an AC/AC converter for high
        frequency AC Distributed Power System (DPS) applications. The developed circuit features simple
        structure and control strategy, high efficiency with sine wave output. A low power loss startup circuit for
        two stage converter is also proposed in this paper. Experimental results from a 200VA 30VAC/1MHZ
        converter with efficiency of 90% confirm the validity of the theoretical analysis.
[118]   Y. Ren, M. Xu, Y. Meng, and F. C. Lee, "A novel quasi-resonant phase-shifted full-bridge converter for 48
        v power pods," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        420.

                                   This paper proposes a novel quasi-resonant phase-shifted full-bridge
        (QR-PS-FB)* for high-frequency 48 V power pods. The topology can achieve a complete lack of body
        diode loss. It can also achieve soft switching at primary switches. Besides that, it can significantly reduce
        the ringing without any additional components. The theoretical analysis and simulation waveforms are
        provided. 1 MHZ, 1.2 V/70 A hardware is built and experimental results are also provided.

[119]   Y. Ren, M. Xu, K. Yao, and F. C. Lee, "Two-stage 48 v power pod exploration for 64-bit microprocessor,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 426.

                                  In this paper, a new two-stage structure is proposed. For the first stage, a concept
        of energy transfer by the leakage inductor combined with the resonance is used to achieve a simple, high
        efficiency isolation stage. Application of this concept leads to the discovery of a family of simple, high
        efficiency DC/DC transformers. In order to achieve optimal system performance, the intermediate bus
        voltage is also investigated. Finally, The experimental results are provided.

[120]   J. Ribas, J. M. Alonso, A. J. Calleja, E. Lopez, J. Cardesin, J. Garcia, and M. Rico, "Arc stabilization in
        low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for metal halide lamps," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1179.

                                  Discharge lamps present a negative dynamic characteristic that makes necessary
        using a current limiting element. In high frequency resonant ballasts current limitation is performed by the
        output resonant tank, but in low-frequency square-wave electronic ballasts arc stabilization is accomplished
        by the stage feeding the square wave inverter. Therefore, the design of the input converter must be made
        taking into account the lamp dynamic characteristic. In present paper a new procedure for obtaining the
        small-signal dynamic characteristic of metal halide lamps is proposed. Using the proposed methodology the
        small-signal characteristic of a 70W is obtained, this characteristic is then used for the design of an
        electronic ballast based on a buck-boost converter followed by a full bridge inverter. The limits for stable
        operation obtained are verified using a laboratory prototype.

[121]   J. I. Rodriguez and S. B. Leeb, "A multilevel inverter topology for inductively-coupled power transfer," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1118.

                                  This paper describes a multilevel inverter for delivering power to a set of
        frequency selectable induction heating targets for stimulating temperature sensitive polymer actuators. The
        proposed inverter topology overcomes the capacitor voltage balancing issue common to traditional
        multilevel inverters. This inverter is suitable for sustained real power transfer.

[122]   M. Saeedifard, A. R. Bakhshai, G. Joos, and P. Jain, "Modified low switching frequency space vector
        modulators for high power multi-module converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 555.

                                  Force-commutated PWM controlled multi-converter systems have been proposed
        for high power applications, particularly reactive power compensation and FACTS devices. Advantages of
        the space vector modulation make this PWM technique the prefered technique especially for high power
        applications. This paper presents new low switching frequency SVM strategies that lead to symmetrical and
        high quality output voltages fulfilling the high power application standards. Pattern generation options are
        analyzed and system waveforms are presented for different switching frequencies and number of modules.
        Results are validated by simulation and confirmed by experiments on a 5 kVA prototype unit.

[123]   M. Salo and H. Tuusa, "Experimental results of the current-source pwm inverter fed induction motor drive
        with an open-loop stator current control," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
        and Exposition, 2003, pp. 839.
                                   In this paper the control of the current-source PWM inverter fed induction motor
        drive is discussed. The vector control system of the induction motor is realized in a rotor flux oriented
        reference frame, where only the measured angular rotor speed and the dc link current are needed for motor
        control. Methods to damp the stator current oscillations and to compensate the capacitive currents drawn by
        the load filter are presented. The proposed methods operate in an open-loop manner and can be realized
        without measurement of any electrical variable. With the presented open-loop control methods the motor
        current sensors can be totally eliminated since the stator current measurements are not needed either for
        protection in the current source inverter fed drives. The proposed control methods are realized using a
        single-chip Motorola MC68HC916Y1 microcontroller. The experimental tests show excellent performance
        in both steady state and transient conditions.

[124]   M. Sanz, P. Alou, A. Soto, R. Prieto, J. A. Cobos, and J. Uceda, "Magnetic-less converter based on
        piezoelectric transformers for step-down dc/dc and low power application," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 615.

                                  This paper presents a very simple step-down DC/DC low power converter based
        on Piezoelectric Transformers (PTs) without any magnetic component. PTs become very interesting in this
        kind of applications comparing with magnetic transformers due to the higher power density. It is important
        to highlight that the PT has been specifically designed to avoid the use of magnetic components. Dynamic
        response of the power stage with the PT is analyzed, achieving a 2.5 kHz bandwidth. The use of a PT
        allows a wide input voltage range (20 V - 75 V), 3 V, 1 W DC/DC converter.

[125]   M. P. Sayani and J. Wanes, "Analyzing and determining optimum on-board power architectures for
        48v-input systems," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
        pp. 781.

                                   An optimum on-board power architectures for 48V-input systems was analyzed.
        The trade-offs in size, efficiency and cost of these on-board power architectures were explored. An
        intermediate bus approach with a wide-range input, regulated bus converter involved a premium in cost,
        space and power dissipation.

[126]   M. P. Sayani and J. Wanes, "Trends and drivers in isolated board-mounted dc/dc products for
        communications applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 37.

                                   The trends and driver isolated board-mounted DC/ DC products for
        communications applications were discussed. An exploration of the technology trends in communications
        end applications and the impact on the Board-Mount Power (BMP) market was performed. A brief review
        of the key drivers of efficiency within a BMP and enablers to progress in this dimension was also
        presented.

[127]   F. Schafmeister, S. Herold, and J. W. Kolar, "Evaluation of 1200v-si-igbts and 1300v-sic-jfets for
        application in three-phase very sparse matrix ac-ac converter systems," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 241.

                                  In this paper based on experimental investigations of the power semiconductor
        switching behavior and on analytical calculations the conduction and switching losses of a three-phase
        Very Sparse AC-AC Matrix Converter (VSMC) supplying a permanent magnet synchronous motor are
        discussed in detail. There, 1200V-Si-IGBTs/1200V-Si-ultra-fast-recovery diodes and
        1300V-SiC-JFET/Si-MOSFET cascodes are employed for realizing the converter power circuit. The worst
        case operating conditions are identified and the efficiencies resulting in dependency of the switching
        frequency and load current amplitude are shown in graphical form. Furthermore, the operating range of the
        VSMC with respect to the maximum admissible junction temperature of the power semiconductors is
        determined. Finally, topics to be treated in the continuation of the research are discussed briefly.
[128]   M. J. Schutten, R. L. Steigerwald, and J. A. Sabate, "Ripple current cancellation circuit," in Proceedings of
        IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 464.

                                    A ripple current cancellation technique injects AC current into the output voltage
        bus of a converter that is equal and opposite to the normal converter ripple current. The output current
        ripple is ideally zero, leading to ultra-low noise converter output voltages. The circuit requires few
        additional components, no active circuits are required. Only an additional filter inductor winding, an
        auxiliary inductor, and small capacitor are required. The circuit utilizes leakage inductance of the modified
        filter inductor as all or part of the required auxiliary inductance. Ripple cancellation is independent of
        switching frequency, duty cycle, and other converter parameters. The circuit eliminates ripple current in
        both continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. Experimental results provide better
        than an 80 X ripple current reduction.

[129]   D. Seyoum, M. F. Rahman, and C. Grantham, "Terminal voltage control of a wind turbine driven isolated
        induction generator using stator oriented field control," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 846.

                                  This paper presents the voltage build up process and terminal voltage control in an
        isolated wind powered induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine using stator flux
        oriented vector control. Here three-phase induction generator is excited using a PWM inverter/rectifier
        connected to a single capacitor on the DC side. Wind powered isolated induction generators have an input,
        wind, which is not controllable, but they can be set to operate within a given variation of speed. Unlike a
        grid connected induction generator, in an isolated induction generator there should be a control system that
        keeps the DC bus voltage at a constant value when the speed of the rotor is varied. The paper presents the
        control system to maintain the DC bus voltage at a constant value by varying the flux in the induction
        generator when the rotor speed is varied. During voltage build up the variation of magnetizing inductance is
        taken into consideration.

[130]   J. Shao, D. Nolan, and T. Hopkins, "Improved direct back emf detection for sensorless brushless dc (bldc)
        motor drives," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        300.

                                   Improved back EMF detection circuits for low voltage/low speed and high voltage
        sensorless BLDC motor drives are presented in this paper. The improvements are based on the direct back
        EMF sensing method from our previous research work described in reference [10], which describes a
        technique for directly extracting phase back EMF Information without the need to sense or re-construct the
        motor neutral. The reference method is not sensitive to switching noise and requires no filtering, achieving
        much better performance than traditional back EMF sensing scheme. A complementary PWM
        (synchronous rectification) is proposed to reduce the power dissipation in power devices for low voltage
        applications. In order to further extend the sensorless BLDC system to lower speed, a pre-conditioning
        circuit is proposed to amplify the back EMFs at very low speed. As a result, the brushless de motor can run
        at lower speed with the improved back EMF sensing scheme. On the other hand, another improved
        detection circuit is presented for high voltage applications to overcome the delaying problem caused by
        large sensing resistors. The detailed circuit models are analyzed and experimental results verify the
        analysis.

[131]   W. Shireen and R. A. Kulkarni, "A soft switching inverter module with modified dc-link circuit for high
        frequency dc-ac power conversion," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 507.

                                  This paper proposes an improved dc-link circuit for soft switching inverters with
        fewer components (two auxiliary switches) involving simpler control The operation principle and control
        arrangement of the modified dc-link circuit are explained. The experimental results from a 500 W
        laboratory prototype with a R-L load validate the operation of the proposed DC-link circuit. The modified
        DC-link circuit is then used to supply power to a single-phase full bridge PWM inverter with a 110 V, 60
        Hz half horsepower capacitor start motor. Experimental results from the laboratory setup verify the
        feasibility of the proposed DC-link circuit in achieving soft switching in PWM inverters.

[132]   B. N. Singh and P. Rastgoufard, "A new topology of active filter to correct power-factor, compensate
        harmonics, reactive power and unbalance of three-phase four-wire loads," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 141.

                                   This paper proposes a new topology of an Active Filter (AF) with improved
        control algorithm. The reactive power theory of three-phase circuits is used to obtain reference currents as
        control quantities for the AF. The developed improved control algorithm is first tested with a standard
        topology of the AF, thereafter, extended to control a new topology of four-pole AF system. The new
        topology of the AF system is capable to compensate harmonics and reactive power, correct power-factor
        and unbalance in three-phase four-wire balanced/unbalanced linear/nonlinear loads. The proposed new
        topology of the AF system fully compensates neutral current for nonlinear unbalanced load connected in a
        three-phase four-wire supply system, thereby preventing heating and bursting of neutral conductor. The
        new topology of the AF system is free from shoot through fault and exhibits a desired performance. The
        developed control algorithm is implemented using a TMS320C31 DSP system and performance of new
        topology of the four-pole AF system with improved control algorithm is simulated. Simulation as well as
        experimental results are given and discussed in detail.

[133]   K. Siri and K. A. Conner, "Independently sourced parallel-connected power systems with maximum power
        tracking," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 533.

                                  Presented herein is a multiple-channel distributed Maximum Power Tracking
        (MPT) power system with channel outputs connected in parallel, and channel inputs connected to
        independent power sources. A "shared-bus" current-sharing method utilizing the distributed MPT control
        system is well suited to regulate parallel-connected current-mode dc-dc converters dedicated to each power
        channel. For broader applications with distributed solar-array sources, the distributed MPT approach was
        implemented to achieve robust stability. The approach was successfully validated through a two-channel
        1500-W prototype, yielding nearly uniform current-sharing and reliable MPT performance. Each power
        channel was shown to track the array peak power from 50 W to 600 W with tracking efficiency of nearly
        100%. The multiple-channel distributed-MPT power system provides ease of power expansion, stable
        current-sharing, fault-tolerance, and autonomous MPT control.

[134]   H. Song, Y. Yu, M. Yang, and D. Xu, "A novel smc-fuzzy speed controller for permanent magnet brushless
        dc motor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 281.

                                   This paper presents a novel SMC-Fuzzy speed controller for permanent magnet
        brushless DC motor (BLDCM). The proposed controller employs only the signal of speed error, avoiding
        the sensitivity to the noise of the acceleration signal as in the conventional sliding mode controller (SMC).
        It is composed of an equivalent control term, a switching term and a fuzzy control term. The sliding mode
        controller that is made up of the former two terms ensures the system's stability. The SMC's chattering
        phenomenon is eliminated by varying its control continuously according to the distance of the system states
        from the sliding surface. While the fuzzy control term improves dynamic response and decreases the
        steady-state error in the boundary layer. Simulation results show the proposed controller is better than the
        conventional SMC controller with a boundary layer. The experimental results demonstrate the high
        performance of the proposed controller.

[135]   Q. Song, W. Liu, Q. Yu, X. Xie, and Z. Wang, "A neutral-point potential balancing algorithm for
        three-level npc inverters using analytically injected zero-sequence voltage," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 228.

                                  Based on the zero-sequence component of the reference voltages, this paper
        comprehensively analyzes the neutral-point variation and balancing control for three-level
        neutral-point-clamped inverter. An analytical method is proposed to accurately calculate the injected
        zero-sequence voltage for NP balancing. Based on the analytical analysis, the limitation of NP balancing
        control is revealed and the NP-fully-controllable region is presented. A real-time NP balancing algorithm is
        proposed as well. The feasibility of the proposed method is verified using simulation results for a
        6kV/1800kVA medium voltage drive.

[136]   S.-H. Song, S.-I. Kang, and N.-K. Hahm, "Implementation and control of grid connected ac-dc-ac power
        converter for variable speed wind energy conversion system," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 154.

                                   30 kW electrical power conversion system is developed for a variable speed wind
        turbine system. In the wind energy conversion system(WECS) a synchronous generator converts the
        mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the voltage and frequency of generator output vary along the
        wind speed change, a dc-dc boosting chopper is utilized to maintain constant dc link voltage. The input dc
        current is regulated to follow the optimized current reference for maximum power point operation of
        turbine system. Line side PWM inverter supply currents into the utility line by regulating the dc link
        voltage. The active power is controlled by q-axis current whereas the reactive power can be controlled by
        d-axis current. The phase angle of utility voltage is detected using software PLL(Phased Locked Loop) in
        d-q synchronous reference frame. Proposed scheme gives a low cost and high quality power conversion
        solution for variable speed WECS.

[137]   A. Soto, A. De Castro, P. Alou, J. A. Cobos, J. Uceda, and A. Lotfi, "Analysis of the buck converter for
        scaling the supply voltage of digital circuits," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 711.

                                  The energy consumption in mobile systems has become a big challenge that limits
        high performance and autonomy in mobile systems. The Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) is a recent
        technique that reduces energy consumption varying dynamically the supply voltage of the system
        accordingly to the clock frequency. The Buck topology is a good candidate to supply step variations of the
        output voltage meeting the DVS requirements. In this paper, it is analyzed which is the fastest output
        voltage evolution that can provide the Buck topology. The minimum time state transition in the Buck
        converter and its corresponding control law are obtained applying the Maximum Principle or Pontryagin's
        Principle. Design criteria for the Buck topology are derived from this result. The analysis is extended to a
        multiphase Buck converter. The minimum time control law is validated in a prototype. The measurements
        are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

[138]   Y. Sozer and D. A. Torrey, "Closed loop control of excitation parameters for high speed
        switched-reluctance generators," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 75.

                                   This paper presents a new approach to the automatic control of excitation
        parameters for the switched-reluctance generator (SRG) where the SRG system operates at sufficiently high
        speed that it operates in the single pulse mode. The turn-on and turn-off angles are the two parameters
        through which we can control the electric power generation. The objective of the work is to develop an
        easily implementable control algorithm that automatically maintains the most efficient excitation angles in
        producing the required amount of electric power. The work is focused on finding the most efficient
        excitation angles and characterizing them for easy implemention under closed loop control, Through
        modeling of an experimental SRG and extensive simulation, it can be seen that the optimal-efficiency
        turn-off angles can be characterized as a function of power and speed level. Within the closed-loop power
        controller, the optimal-efficiency turn-off angle is determined from an analytic curve fit. The turn-on angle
        is then used as the degree of freedom necessary to regulate the power produced by the SRG. Given that the
        turn-off angle is associated with optimal-efficiency at each speed and power point, overall operation is
        achieved at optimal-efficiency. The SRG, inverter and control system are modeled in Simulink to
        demonstrate the operation of the system when implemented within a voltage regulation system. The control
        technique is then applied to an experimental SRG system. Experimental operation documents that the
        technique provides for efficient operation of the SRG system through tuning the controller at only four
        operating points.

[139]   D. Spillane, D. O'Sullivan, M. G. Egan, and J. G. Hayes, "Supervisory control of a hv integrated
        starter-alternator with ultracapacitor support within the 42 v automotive electrical system," in Proceedings
        of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1111.

                                  In this paper, the development of an integrated starter alternator (ISA) system is
        described. The main system components are an induction machine drive system supplied by a high-voltage
        dc bus with ultracapacitor support and a high power dc/dc converter. The control of the induction machine,
        dc/dc converter and the overall supervisory control algorithm implemented on the ADMC330 DSP, are
        described. Having developed a functional integrated starter alternator, the relative merits of the technology
        are assessed. A comparison is made with a conventional starter motor during cranking. Timing diagrams
        illustrating DSP signals for an engine start-up sequence are also presented.

[140]   J. Sun, "Input impedance analysis of single-phase pfc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 361.

                                 Input impedance of single-phase boost power factor corrected (PFC) ac-dc
        converters is modeled and analyzed in this paper. A large-signal model is presented for the input impedance
        which overcomes the limitations of traditional piece-wise linearized models. The model is valid at
        frequencies ranging from the crossover frequency of the output voltage loop to half the switching frequency
        of the converter. Experimental results from a boost single-phase PFC converter are provided to validate the
        model. Input characteristics of typical boost PFC converter designs, such as input impedance dipping,
        leading phase of the input current, and responses to distorted lines are studied by using the model. A simple
        compensation technique to reduce the dipping in the input Impedance thereby improving converter
        performance and minimizing the potential for undesirable interactions with the input EMI filter is also
        presented.

[141]   R. Teichmann, S. Bernet, and M. Luscher, "State-of-the-art low voltage and high voltage igbts in soft
        switching operation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
        2003, pp. 938.

                                  This paper presents switching and short circuit behavior of state-of-the-art low and
        high voltage IGBTs in soft switching operation. PT and NPT trench-gate IGBTs are compared with
        standard and optimized fast IGBTs in zero voltage and zero current switching operation. The soft switching
        characteristics of 1.2kV, 3.3kV, and 4.5kV IGBTs are presented. A test set-up that constitutes an auxiliary
        resonant commutated pole switching cell is used to characterize the devices.

[142]   S. T. Ting and H. Nianci, "A novel zero-voltage and zero-current-switching full-bridge pwm converter," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1088.

                                   A novel zero-voltage and zero-current-Switching (ZVSZCS) full-bridge PWM
        converter is presented. There is no additional winding or additional active switches or lossy components in
        the proposed converter to achieve ZVSZCS conditions, moreover, the ZVSZCS conditions are achieved
        without added control, so the converter is efficient and cost effective. The ZVSZCS conditions of the
        primary are achieved by changing the traditional configuration of ZVS-full-bridge PWM converter: a
        simple auxiliary circuit is added in the secondary and the center tap of the transformer's secondary is linked
        to the auxiliary circuit. The secondary rectifier voltage of the converter is clamped to a relative low level,
        so additional clamp circuit for the secondary rectifier is not necessary. The operation of the proposed
        converter is analyzed. And the experimental results of a 1.2KW prototype prove the novel converter is
        successful.

[143]   L. M. Tolbert, J. Chiasson, K. McKenzie, and Z. Du, "Elimination of harmonies in a multilevel converter
        with non equal dc sources," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
        2003, pp. 589.

                                  The problem of eliminating harmonics in a multilevel converter in which the
        separate DC sources vary is considered. That is, given a desired fundamental output voltage, the problem is
        to find the switching times (angles) that produce the fundamental while not generating specifically chosen
        harmonics. Assuming that the separate DC sources can be measured, a procedure is given to find all sets of
        switching angles for which the fundamental is produced while the 5<sup>th</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup> are
        eliminated. This is done by first converting the transcendental equations that specify the elimination of the
        harmonics into an equivalent set of polynomial equations. Then, using the mathematical theory of
        resultants, all solutions to this equivalent problem can be found. Experimental results are presented to
        validate the theory.

[144]   T. Tolle, T. Duerbaum, and R. Elferich, "De-embedding of reverse recovery losses in fast switching vrm
        applications," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        958.

                                   For the Synchronous Buck converter used in VRM applications, one major
        contributor to switching losses is reverse recovery. These losses however cannot directly be measured
        because capacitive current and several other phenomena superimpose the mere reverse recovery. The paper
        describes how calculate the capacitive part of the drain current and how to deembed the channel current out
        of the total drain current. This can show the size of Q<sub>rr</sub> and reveal effects such as gate
        bouncing and avalanche breakdown.

[145]   V. Tuomainen, "A passive clamp circuit for bifred converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 658.

                                  BIFRED is a well-known Single-Stage AC/DC converter. The converter integrates
        a power factor corrector stage and a dc-dc stage to a single switch converter. Due to this integration the
        leakage inductance of the transformer has a pronounced effect on the voltage stress of the switch. In this
        paper we propose a passive clamp circuit that clamps the voltage over the switch to a relatively low and
        predictable value. This allows for the use of a switching device of a lower voltage rating and, therefore, a
        device with a lower on-resistance and conduction losses.

[146]   D. M. Van de Sype, K. De Gusseme, A. P. Van den Bossche, and J. A. Melkebeek, "Duty-ratio
        feedforward for digitally controlled boost pfc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 396.

                                  When a 'classical' current control scheme is applied, the input current of a boost
        power factor correction (PFC) converter leads the input voltage, resulting in a nonunity fundamental
        displacement factor and in important zero-crossing distortion in applications with a high grid frequency
        (e.g. 400Hz power systems on commercial aircraft). To resolve this problem, a current-control scheme is
        proposed using duty-ratio feedforward. In this paper, the input impedance of the boost PFC converter for
        both the classical current-loop controller and the controller using duty-ratio feedforward are derived
        theoretically. A comparison reveals the advantages of the proposed control scheme: a low
        total-harmonic-distortion (THD) of the input current, a resistive input impedance, virtually no zero-crossing
        distortion and a fundamental displacement power factor close to unity. The theoretical results obtained are
        verified using an experimental setup of a digitally controlled boost PFC converter.

[147]   F. R. S. Vicenzi, L. C. Gomes de Freitas, E. P. Da Silva, E. A. A. Coelho, J. B. Vieira Jr, V. J. Farias, and
        L. C. De Freitas, "A new proposal of soft-commutated power oscillator that can be applied as an electronic
        ballast for fluorescent lamps," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 1191.

                                  A new switched power oscillator with reduced conduction losses, zero voltage and
        zero current turning on, and zero voltage turning off is presented in this paper. The proposed topology
        consists on a Half-bridge converter associated to a self-oscillating LC series resonant circuit. This new
        power oscillator can be applied as an electronic ballast for fluorescent lamps as well as an auxiliary
        medium open loop power supply. Circuit description, a simplified design guide line, mathematical analysis
        and simulation results are presented in this paper. Experimental results from a 100 Watts, 150 Volts input
        voltage laboratory prototype switching at 13.5 kHz are included.
[148]   J. A. Vilela Jr, A. R. Vaz, V. J. Farias, L. C. De Freitas, E. A. A. Coelho, and J. B. Vieira Jr, "A high power
        factor electronic ballast with a single switch and single power stage," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1198.

                                  This paper presents a high power factor electronic ballast used to operate
        fluorescent lamps with a single power stage and single-switch. This topology has been obtained by
        combination of Buck-Boost converter and a new inverter topology with coupled inductors. The use of a
        single active switch allows a reduction in the number of components used in control and power circuits.
        The equations used in the proposed reactor design and also in the choice of the semiconductor devices have
        been presented. A prototype with switching frequency equal to 50kHz has been built to startup 40W
        fluorescent lamps.

[149]   H. Visairo, E. Rodriguez, P. Alou, and J. A. Cobos, "Multi-output half-bridge converter with
        single-winding self-driven synchronous rectification," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 341.

                                  This paper presents a multi-output Half-Bridge converter with Single Winding
        Self-Driven Synchronous Rectification (SWSDSR), which is a very suitable topology for high-current
        low-voltage applications with a wide input voltage range. Important benefits as high efficiency and
        multi-output capability are obtained. With the proposed converter it is possible to drive all Synchronous
        Rectifiers through the gate voltage waveforms obtained from only one additional winding. Design
        considerations and experimental results of a 25W laboratory prototype are included in the paper.

[150]   C.-M. Wang, "A novel single-stage full-bridge buck-boost inverter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 51.

                                  A novel single-stage full-bridge series-resonant buck-boost inverter (FB-SRBBI)
        is proposed in this paper. The proposed inverter only includes a full-bridge topology and a LC resonant
        tank without auxiliary switches. The output voltage of the proposed inverter can larger or lower than the
        DC input one, depending on the instantaneous duty-cycle. This property is not found in the classical
        voltage source inverter, which produces an AC output Instantaneous voltage always lower than the DC
        input voltage. The proposed inverter circuit topology provides the main switch for turn-on at ZCS by a
        resonant tank built before the output choke. The nonlinear control strategy is designed against the input dc
        perturbation and achieves well dynamic regulation. An average approach is employed to analyze the
        system. A design example of 500W DC/AC inverter is examined to assess the inverter performance and it
        provides high power efficiency above 90% under the rated power.

[151]   J. Wang and F. Z. Peng, "A novel configuration of unified power flow controller," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 919.

                                 This paper presents a novel configuration of Unified Power Flow Controller
        (UPFC). The proposed configuration has two inverters connected face-to-face on the ac side instead of
        connected back-to-back through a common DC link. The new configuration has the following advantages:
        1) there is no active power exchange between the two inverters and both inverters only provide or absorb
        reactive power; 2) cascade multilevel inverters can be used in this configuration, thus eliminating the
        conventional magnetic interface - zigzag transformers, and greatly reducing power losses; 3) the total
        required VA rating of the inverters can be reduced greatly over a wide load conditions; and 4) The new
        configuration with modular cascade multilevel inverters and their redundancy has greater flexibility to
        system design and realization of higher reliability.

[152]   L. Wang, Y. Huang, Z. Zhang, and K. Tang, "Cascade multi-level converters with sample-time-staggered
        space vector modulation," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
        2003, pp. 268.

                               A novel modulation strategy for cascade multi-level converters, Sample Time
        Staggered Space Vector Modulation, is put forward in this paper. The equivalent switching frequency is
        improved and the harmonic component is greatly decreased under this technique. The frequency and
        harmonic feature is analyzed by simulation. The experimental result is in accord with the analysis.

[153]   S. Wang, F. C. Lee, and W. G. Odendaal, "Power connector parameter analysis by 2d," in Proceedings of
        IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 751.

                                  Modern high-speed microprocessors require low impedances connectors with their
        power supplies. This paper presents a method to calculate two-dimensional inductances, capacitances and
        resistances. The connector parameters are modeled under transient conditions and the effects of pin shape
        and pin location on connector parameters are analyzed. Good agreement was obtained between computed
        results and finite element software simulations. Guidelines are also presented for reducing the impedances.

[154]   S. Wang, F. C. Lee, and W. G. Odendaal, "Improving the performance of boost pfc emi filters," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 368.

                                 In order to design a high performance PFC EMI filter, many issues need to be
        considered beforehand. Some important issues including PFC noise source characteristics, its effects on
        EMI noise, impedance mismatch, and filter's parasitic parameters are discussed in this paper. Experiments
        are performed to verify the arguments. A filter is finally built to verify the analysis.

[155]   H. H. Weatherford and C. W. Brice, "Simulation of industrial ac drive system under fault conditions," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 457.

                                  An industrial motor drive suffers from periodic failures of the DC link aluminum
        electrolytic capacitor bank. Simulations pinpoint likely causes, including problems with the design of the
        balancing resistors. Stress on the capacitor can be produced by faults in the inverter and by open-conductor
        faults in the balancing resistors.

[156]   J. Wei and F. C. Lee, "A novel soft-switched, high-frequency, high-efficiency, high-current 12v voltage
        regulator - the phase-shift buck converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference
        and Exposition, 2003, pp. 724.

                                  This paper presents two novel soft-switched high-frequency high-efficiency, fast
        transient response 12V voltage regulator (VR) topologies - the phase-shift buck (PSB) and the
        matrix-transformer phase-shift buck (MTPSB) - for high current applications. They Improve efficiency at
        high switching frequencies and also feature very simple magnetic structures. For future high-frequency,
        high-current 12V VRs, PSB and MTPSB converters are the cost-effective solutions. Experimental results
        confirm the theoretical prediction.

[157]   S. Wei, B. Wu, F. Li, and C. Liu, "A general space vector pwm control algorithm for multilevel inverters,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 562.

                                  To solve the problem of computational complexity in multilevel inverters due to
        the large number of space vectors and redundant switching states, a simple and general space vector PWM
        algorithm is proposed. Based on this algorithm, the location of the reference voltage vector can be easily
        determined and the calculation of dwell times becomes very simple. More importantly, the proposed
        algorithm is general and can be directly applied to the cascaded H-bridge inverter of any voltage levels. In
        addition, a new switching sequence, Large-Small Alternation (LSA), is proposed for the minimization of
        total harmonic distortion. To verify the algorithms, a 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter drive system was
        constructed and experimental results are provided.

[158]   S. Wei, B. Wu, F. Li, and X. Sun, "Control method for cascaded h-bridge multilevel inverter with faulty
        power cells," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        261.

                                 To increase the fault tolerance for cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters, a novel
        control algorithm is proposed for the Inverter operating under faulty conditions. The influence of various
        faults on space vectors is investigated and the maximum achievable output voltage of the inverter with
        faulty power cells is derived. Making use of the redundant switching states, the proposed algorithm is able
        to produce a three-phase balanced line-to-line voltage with minimum harmonic distortion for the Inverter
        with disabled power cells. In addition, the control algorithm is suitable for use in the cascaded H-bridge
        inverters of any voltage levels. Simulation and experimental results are provided for verification.

[159]   R. V. White, "Emerging on-board power architectures," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 799.

                                  In recent years, the feature size of silicon devices has decreased at a steady rate.
        Each step in feature size has required a reduction in operating voltage. As today's system designers seek to
        maximize performance, they use a wide variety of integrated circuits. The result is a system that requires
        many different supply voltages for various devices in the system. It is not unusual for a system today to
        require seven or eight different voltages and systems with twelve or more voltages are not uncommon. To
        meet this challenge, the traditional distributed power architecture has been extended to create the
        Intermediate Bus Architecture. This paper explores the Intermediate Bus Architecture and highlights areas
        of special concern to system and power system developers.

[160]   A. Wojtasik and B.-E. Skoglund, "Technical risk and economic factors in telecom on-board power design,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 786.

                                 This paper addresses the cost and risk factors involved in the selection of on-board
        power solutions in telecom systems. The solutions considered include standard off-the shelf DC/DC power
        modules and designs based on discrete components mounted directly on the board. The study Includes all
        major sources of risk and expense for the OEM - design, time to market, manufacturing and test, and field
        support.

[161]   D. E. Wood and J. T. DiBene Ii, "High performance, low impedance power interconnects," in Proceedings
        of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 747.

                                  Power distribution Interconnects have become subject of stringent constraints on
        the electrical and mechanical performance as microprocessor speeds and their number of transistors keep
        rising. This increases the power/current draw dramatically both in magnitude and slew-rate. This paper
        describes a new power distribution Interconnect device that addresses these needs.

[162]   T. F. Wu, C. L. Shen, and H. S. Nei, "A 1&phi;3w grid-connection pv power inverter with apf based on
        nonlinear programming and fzpd algorithm," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 546.

                                 This paper presents design and implementation of a single-phase three-wire
        (1&phi;3W) grid-connection PV power inverter with active power filter which is based on nonlinear
        programming and fast-zero-phase detection (FZPD) algorithm. The proposed inverter system can not only
        transmit PV power but can compensate harmonic currents, supply reactive power, and balance power at
        source side even when the line voltages are highly distorted. Simulated and experimental results have
        verified the FZPD algorithm and demonstrated that when the voltage sources are highly distorted, the
        proposed inverter system can yield better power quality over that with zero-crossing detection.

[163]   W. Wu, W. Qiu, N. Pongratananukul, K. Rustom, T. Kasparis, and I. Batarseh, "Dsp-based multiple peak
        power tracking for expandable power system," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 525.

                                  A DSP-based improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) approach for
        multiple solar array application is presented. It incorporates a "shared bus" current sharing method that can
        regulate many paralleled current mode DC/DC converters. The modular architecture eases the expansion of
        system power. The current sharing and MPPT performance of the proposed system is validated and
        evaluated by a 500-W prototype with two solar arrays.

[164]   X. Xie, G. Luo, D. Jiao, Z. Qian, and J. M. Zhang, "An improved self-driven synchronous rectification for
        a resonant reset forward converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 348.

                                  An improved self-driven synchronous rectification (SDSR) for a resonant reset
        forward converter is proposed in this paper. Three 9-18V input, 5V/5A output, 210kHz resonant forward
        prototype converters with the conventional SDSR method, the gate charge retention SDSR method and the
        proposed method are built up to compare their efficiencies. Experimental results prove that a relatively
        higher efficiency is achieved with this proposed SDSR method.

[165]   X. Xie, Q. Song, G. Yan, and W. Liu, "Matlab-based simulation of three-level pwm inverter-fed motor
        speed control system," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,
        2003, pp. 1105.

                                  The need for energy savings and introduction of new high power devices like
        IGCTs accelerate the broad use of medium and high voltage adjustable speed drives (ASD) in industrial
        and traction applications. As part of the mission to design a 6kV, 1600kVA three-level converter-based
        ASD, a simulation system is developed using MATLAB package for the purpose of validating the practical
        power electronic circuits and offering suggestions for controller design. In the paper, various aspects of the
        proposed simulation system are discussed, including the Simulink modeling of the power electronic circuit,
        control mechanism of the simulation and the friendly graphic user interface (GUI). Some key issues in
        improving simulation efficiency are also highlighted. For illustration, two control schemes, the
        conventional V/F control and the Direct Torque Control (DTC), are investigated. The starting process of
        the controlled motor system is simulated. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed simulation
        system and also the superiority of DTC over open-loop V/F control in speed regulation and torque
        response.

[166]   Y. Xing, L. Huang, X. Cai, and S. Sun, "A combined front end dc/dc converter," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1095.

                                   Holdup time is a special requirement for front end DC/DC converters. It forces the
        converter to operate in a wide range for input voltage, which greatly degrades the converter's normal
        efficiency. In this paper a new front end DC/DC converter, a novel combination of an asymmetrical half
        bridge and a baby-boost with special control, is proposed. The baby-boost stands by under normal
        conditions and operates inherently only during the hold up time. As a result, the performances of high
        efficiency, power density and wide range of input voltage are all obtained. Topology and operation
        principles are presented with simulated and experimental results given in detail.

[167]   Y. Xiong, Y. Zhang, K. Wei, and Z. Zhang, "Carrier phase-shifted spwm based current-source
        multi-converter," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        89.

                                 Carrier Phase-shifted SPWM (CPS-SPWM) technique is applied to current-source
        multi-modular converter with output current harmonics minimization and without the use of high frequency
        modulation. Mathematical model of multi-modular CPS-SPWM technique is built and analyzed. Then
        digital current-source CPS-SPWM signal generating technique is developed. The proposition is verified by
        the experimental waveforms and the simulation results.

[168]   F. Xu, "An analytical framework for market research and forecasting in the power supply industry," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 187.

                                  The purpose of this paper is to propose a comprehensive analytical framework for
        market research and forecasting in the power supply industry. Within this analytical framework, there are
        three levels of analysis: macroeconomic conditions, business models, and technological developments,
        which correspond to a "macro-micro-macro" approach. Factors at each level of analysis affect market size,
        market growth and company market shares in different ways.

[169]   L. Yan and B. Lehman, "Isolated two-inductor boost converter with one magnetic core," in Proceedings of
        IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 879.

                                  This paper presents a new isolated two-inductor boost converter. All magnetic
        components are integrated into one magnetic core. The circuit has the two inductor windings Intrinsically
        coupled. The operation principle of the new circuit is presented. A prototype 100 W DC/DC boost
        converter has been built. Experimental and simulation results are both presented.

[170]   B. Yang, F. C. Lee, and M. Concannon, "Over current protection methods for llc resonant converter," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 605.

                                   LLC resonant converter was getting more and more attention in recent years
        because of its high efficiency, high frequency operation capability and simple structure. In this paper, the
        over current protection issue of LLC resonant converter is discussed. Three methods to provide over
        current protection function for LLC converter are proposed and investigated. They are: increase switching
        frequency control, variable frequency + PWM control, and diode clamping method. The pros and cons for
        each method were discussed. Tests were performed to verify the discussion.

[171]   G.-J. Yang, C.-Y. Du, Y.-P. Lu, and L. Sun, "Model of permanent magnet inductor type synchronous
        motor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 69.

                                   The linear model and magnetic network model have been developed for the
        three-phase permanent magnet inductor synchronous motor (PMISM) with distinguishing structures.
        Deduced from the established magnet network model, self inductance and mutual inductance are functions
        of rotor position rather than constants. It indicates the salient pole effects shouldn't be neglected. At last, the
        dq mathematical model associated with the output torque equations has been developed for torque control.

[172]   L. Yang, F. C. Lee, and W. G. Odendaal, "Measurement-based characterization method for integrated
        power electronics modules," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and
        Exposition, 2003, pp. 490.

                                  A measurement-based method for high frequency characterization of active
        integrated power electronics modules (IPEMs) is proposed. Parasitic inductances and capacitances inside
        the IPEM can all be extracted using this method without breaking the structure. The linearized model
        includes effects of the non-linear frequency dependencies of resistances and inductances, the structural
        capacitances and any ground planes. Extracted parameters are compared to those from commercial
        software and the results are in good agreement. A parallel resonance method is proposed for the
        characterization of common-mode capacitances.

[173]   K. Yao, K. Lee, M. Xu, and F. C. Lee, "Optimal design of the active droop control method for the transient
        response," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 718.

                                 Use of the Active droop control method is a popular way to achieve adaptive
        voltage position (AVP) for the voltage regulator (VR). This paper discusses the small-signal model of the
        active droop control method, which is shown to be a two-loop feedback control system. The compensator
        design Impacts both the current and voltage loops, making the design complicated. An optimal design
        method is proposed in order to achieve equal crossover frequencies for the two loops so that constant
        output impedance is realized in the VR. Simulation and experimental results prove the good VR transient
        response and high efficiency.

[174]   K. Yao, Y. Ren, J. Wei, M. Xu, and F. C. Lee, "A family of buck-type dc-dc converters with
        autotransformers," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003,
        pp. 114.
                                  This paper Introduces a family of buck-type DC-DC converters with
        autotransformers, including forward, push-pull, half-bridge, and full-bridge topologies. Compared with an
        isolated transformer, the autotransformer has a simpler winding structure, and it only needs to transfer part
        of the input power, resulting in a smaller secondary winding current. Analysis shows that the
        autotransformer can also help to reduce the voltage stress and current ratings of power devices in the
        DC-DC converters. For some applications, a simple lossless passive clamp circuit can be implemented to
        solve the transformer leakage problems, and the gate drive is significantly improved with a simple
        self-adaptive dead-time-controlled bootstrap gate driver. Simulation and experimental results show that the
        proposed topologies are very suitable for high-frequency applications.

[175]   M. Ye, M. Xu, and F. C. Lee, "1 mhz multi-resonant push-pull 48 v vrm," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied
        Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 413.

                                  For future high-end server and workstation applications, it will be impractical for
        voltage regulator modules (VRMs) to draw power from the 12 V output of the silver box because the
        voltage bus will be too low to deliver the increasing high levels of power. Therefore, distributed power
        systems (DPSs) with buses of 48 V will be more feasible solutions for future high-end computers. This
        paper presents a novel multi-resonant push-pull (MRPP) topology for 48 V VRMs, based on methods for
        reducing the conduction loss and eliminating the body diode conduction and reverse-recovery losses of the
        synchronous rectifier. Two 48 V-1.2 V 70 A prototypes are built, and their efficiency is 86% at 1 MHz.

[176]   S. Ye and Y.-F. Liu, "Emi filter design method for communication power sub-system," in Proceedings of
        IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 483.

                                 This paper Introduces an improved and simplified method to design EMI filters
        for switching power supplies (SPS), for both AC-to-DC and DC-to-DC. This method is based on using an
        engineer's way to measure the maximum and the minimum differential mode (DM) and common mode
        (CM) EMI noise impedance, and consider them in designing the EMI filters. Information of the topology
        and control method of the power supply is not needed. This method solves the limitations of the old EMI
        filter design methods, which are either too complicated to use, or based on ideal cases. The analyses and
        experimental results show that this method can guarantee that the required attenuation can be achieved,
        especially at low frequency.

[177]   J.-S. Yim, J.-H. Kim, S.-K. Sul, H.-J. Ahn, and D.-C. Han, "Sensorless position control of active magnetic
        bearings based on high frequency signal injection method," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power
        Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 83.

                                  This paper proposes a novel method to estimate the position of suspended body
        that hovers due to the electromagnetic force. The position information of the suspended body can be
        extracted from the coil currents, which contain the high frequency components due to the injected high
        frequency voltage without any additional hardware. The control of coil currents and the position of
        suspended body is performed with the digital controller using DSP. The effectiveness of the position
        estimation and control strategy without displacement sensors has been verified by simulation and
        experimental results.

[178]   H. Yu, J. Lai, X. Huang, J. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Hu, J. Carter, and L. Fursin, "A gate driver based
        soft-switching sic bipolar junction transistor," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics
        Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 968.

                                  This paper presented a new soft-switching concept that the soft transition is
        achieved based on gate driver control. A new soft-switched IGBT and MOSFET Gated Transistor
        (SS-IMGT) base drive structure is proposed for high power SiC BJT. The proposed base scheme can
        proportionally drive SIC BJT into near-saturate region. In addition, the zero voltage turn-on for BJT can be
        adaptively achieved at all load current range with very simple control. The whole SS-IGMT structure could
        be regarded as an "improved" voltage driven device. The new structure has Inherent soft transition property
        with reduced stress and switching loss. The proposed gate driver based soft switching method is verified by
        experimental test with both Si and SiC BJT. SiC BJT demonstrate superior turn-off behavior compared to
        Si BJT. Further effort will be on utilizing the excess energy of resonant inductor to further reduce the
        conduction voltage drop across SiC BJT.

[179]   A. Zaghlol, W. Leonard, and R. Culham, "Characterization of swaged mixed metal heat sinks," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1037.

                                   The present experimental study investigates the thermal performance of four
        heatsink combinations based on the forced convection heat transfer mode. The four designs consist of an all
        Aluminum, all Copper, Copper baseplate/Aluminum fin and Aluminum baseplate/Copper fin heatsink.
        Each heat sink combination was tested in pairs of heatsinks placed within a vertical wind tunnel of
        Plexiglas walls such that the fins were positioned vertically and parallel to the airflow inside the tunnel. A
        block heater providing 800 watts and covering 60% of the baseplate was placed in between two identical
        heat sinks. Experiments were performed for an approach velocity ranging from 2 m/s to 8 m/s. The average
        rise in temperature of eight measured locations was used to calculate the thermal resistance. The all Copper
        heatsink provided the lowest thermal resistance while the all Aluminum heatsink returned the highest value.
        The experiments show that there is marginal improvement of 3% in the performance of the
        Copper-Base/Aluminum-Fin heatsink due to the higher conductivity of the Copper base. The experiments
        show that the thermal performance can be improved by up to 14% by increasing the thermal conductivity of
        the fin material, as in the case of the Aluminum-Base/Copper-Fin heatsink.

[180]   W. Zhang, G. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, and B. Wu, "A new predictive control strategy for power factor correction,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 403.

                                   A new predictive control strategy for PFC is presented. Its basic idea is that all of
        the duty cycles required to achieve unity power factor in a half line period are generated in advance by
        using a predictive algorithm. Based on the average output voltage in the previous half line period, the duty
        cycles in the current half line period can be calculated by the predictive algorithm, which is derived from
        the differential equations of Boost topology. An optimization process is incorporated with the predictive
        algorithm to fine tune the parameter of model for the purpose of further reducing the harmonic current.
        Benefited from the proposed digital control strategy, the switching frequency of the PFC does not directly
        depend on the processing speed of the DSP. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy works well
        and unity power factor can be achieved with wide input voltage and load current variation range.

[181]   W. Zhang, D. Xu, and C.-H. Lee, "Design and performance of digital ballast for hps lamps," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1205.

                                    This paper presents the design and performance of digital ballast for HPS lamps,
        which employs a 8-bit microprocessor to improve the starting technique and operate HPS lamp at rated
        power over the service life. The system offers the capability of dimming lamp from 100% to 50% power by
        changing the switching frequency of the inverter. It is also found that, under present experimental
        conditions, the lamp is free acoustic frequency and resistive operated at high frequency. The 3.2kV ignition
        pulse is sufficient for a cold 250W HPS lamp startup. Experimental measurements have shown the
        feasibility of the digital ballast with the proposed control strategies.

[182]   C. Zhao, D. Xu, and H. Fan, "A pwm plus phase-shift control bidirectional dc-dc converter," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 641.

                                A PWM plus phase-shift control bidirectional DC-DC converter is proposed. In
        this converter, PWM control and phase-shift control are combined to reduce current stress and conducting
        loss, and to expand ZVS range. The operation principle and analysis of the converter are explained, and
        ZVS condition is derived. A prototype of PWM plus phase-shift bidirectional DC-DC converter is built to
        verify analysis.

[183]   Q. Zhao and F. C. Lee, "High performance coupled-inductor dc-dc converters," in Proceedings of IEEE
        Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 109.

                                  Many emerging applications call for high-efficiency, high-step-up DC-DC
        converters. Basic DC-DC topologies encounter extreme duty ratio and severe rectifier reverse-recovery
        problems. Cascade DC-DC converters can meet the requirements with the drawbacks of extra complexity
        and higher cost. Coupled-inductor DC-DC converters can provide high step-up voltage gain without the
        penalty of extreme duty ratio, but the stress and the loss related to the leakage energy are severe concerns.
        In this paper, high performance coupled-inductor DC-DC converters which can effectively handle the
        leakage energy are proposed. Not only the extreme duty ratios are eliminated but also the rectifier
        reverse-recovery problem is alleviated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results verify the proposed
        solutions.

[184]   S. Zheng and D. Czarkowski, "High-voltage high-power resonant converter for electrostatic precipitator,"
        in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1100.

                                  A phase-controlled series-parallel resonant converter for electrostatic precipitators
        is described. Compared with the traditional line-frequency power supplies, the converter is smaller in size,
        higher in efficiency, and provides a faster transient response. The converter is digitally controlled and the
        possibility of spark control using a DSP algorithm is explored. Operating behavior of the power supply
        with the nonlinear precipitator load is experimented and investigated.

[185]   H. Zhu, B. Arnet, L. Haines, E. Shaffer, and J.-S. Lai, "Grid synchronization control without ac voltage
        sensors," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 172.

                                   To improve the cost and reliability of utility-tied PWM inverter, this paper
        investigates an ac voltage sensorless grid synchronization control, either in grid-parallel inverter mode or in
        boost PFC rectifier mode. Based on d-q coordinate, the sensorless technique utilizes an ac line voltage
        estimator and an angle-searching algorithm. By commanding a positive or negative d-axis current, the fast
        current loop regulator controls a bidirectional power flow. The method can detect when the grid is gone, as
        a possible built-in anti-islanding function. Experiments verified the validity of the proposed method.

[186]   J. Y. Zhu and B. Lehman, "Control loop design for two-stage dc-dc converters with low voltage/high
        current output," in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp.
        859.

                                 This paper presents a general analysis framework for control loop design of
        two-stage converters. The results yield a thorough explanation of various loop design approaches. A
        three-loop method to extend the system bandwidth is proposed. The new control design algorithm is
        applied to a 48 V/3.3 V two-stage converter. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the control loop
        design approach.

[187]   Y. Zhu and B. Lehman, "Three-level switching cell for low voltage/high-current dc-dc converters," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 121.

                                  New three-level converter topologies are proposed for application of low
        voltage/high current output dc-dc conversions. The proposed converters operate with small current ripple.
        Therefore, filter inductor value can be reduced, leading to fast transient response. First, the operation
        principles of these converters are described. Then inductor design for the converters and control
        implementation is presented. Computer simulations and experiments verify the basic operation of the new
        converters.

[188]   P. Zumel, O. Garcia, J. A. Cobos, and J. Uceda, "Magnetic integration for interleaved converters," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 1143.

                                 In this paper several techniques for integration of magnetic components in
        interleaved converters are analyzed. Magnetic components define the way the energy is transformed.
        Several opposite approaches can be considered: from decoupled integrated inductors to tightly coupled
        inductors. The integration of inductors in the same core for multiphase converters is especially analyzed
        from the point of view of size, losses and coupling.

[189]   I. Zverev, "Switching frequency related trade off's in a hard switching ccm pfc boost convert," in
        Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2003, pp. 671.

                                 The combination of silicon carbide Schottky diodes (thinQ! [trademark]) and
        power MOSFET CoolMOS [trademark] C3 sets a new efficiency benchmark in hard switching circuits like
        CCM PFC. Much higher switching frequencies become feasible. Trade off between switching frequency,
        size of the system and power losses in all components will be discussed.

								
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