TREES 20AND 20THEIR 20ROLE 20IN 20WATER 20MANAGEMENT

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TREES 20AND 20THEIR 20ROLE 20IN 20WATER 20MANAGEMENT Powered By Docstoc
					VEGETASI POHON
       &
  RAIN-WATER
 MANAGEMENT




                 1
              Environmental Benefits of Tree

   Trees alter the environment in which we live by moderating climate,
 improving air quality, conserving water, and harboring wildlife. Climate
   control is obtained by moderating the effects of sun, wind, and rain.
    Radiant energy from the sun is absorbed or deflected by leaves on
    deciduous trees in the summer and is only filtered by branches of
 deciduous trees in winter. We are cooler when we stand in the shade of
 trees and are not exposed to direct sunlight. In winter, we value the sun
radiant energy. Therefore, we should plant only small or deciduous trees
                        on the south side of homes.

 Wind speed and direction can be affected by trees. The more compact
the foliage on the tree or group of trees, the greater the influence of the
windbreak. The downward fall of rain, sleet, and hail is initially absorbed
or deflected by trees, which provides some protection for people, pets,
and buildings. Trees intercept water, store some of it, and reduce storm
                  runoff and the possibility of flooding.

Dew and frost are less common under trees because less radiant energy
           is released from the soil in those areas at night.

Temperature in the vicinity of trees is cooler than that away from trees.
The larger the tree, the greater the cooling. By using trees in the cities,
we are able to moderate the heat-island effect caused by pavement and
                      buildings in commercial areas.

 Air quality can be improved through the use of trees, shrubs, and turf.
Leaves filter the air we breathe by removing dust and other particulates.
 Rain then washes the pollutants to the ground. Leaves absorb carbon
  dioxide from the air to form carbohydrates that are used in the plant
  structure and function. In this process, leaves also absorb other air
pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide and give
                                 off oxygen.
By planting trees and shrubs, we return to a more natural, less artificial
   environment. Birds and other wildlife are attracted to the area. The
  natural cycles of plant growth, reproduction, and decomposition are
    again present, both above and below ground. Natural harmony is
                    restored to the urban environment.
                                                                         2
              10 Best Trees You Should Plant
         Consider Planting These Trees in Your Yard
                      By Steve Nix, About.com Guide


   I've reviewed the popular literature for you, polled my About Forestry
   forum and the Internet for the most popular trees and compiled these
 frequently requested trees to use as a starting place. By further studying
the commercial appeal of each of these individual species and taking into
            account horticulturists' praise I selected my ten best.

                              No Tree Is Perfect
 Remember, all yard trees have good and bad characteristics. It is a rare
tree that will satisfy your needs throughout its entire life span. A tree can
   outgrow its original purpose very quickly or grow into its intended
purpose very slowly. Understanding this concept is the key to proper tree
                            planting in your yard.




                                                                          3
                       Tree Roots Effects on Soil
Full of benefits, trees have an enviable position in any landscape, shade,
  controlling soil erosion, home to many birds, fruits and flowers. Of all
the parts of a tree, the roots are perhaps the most unappreciated, as they
                                 are unseen.

                                       Roots
   There are two types of roots; primary roots that grow deep down
vertically into the soil and secondary roots that branch out horizontally.
 The architecture of the root system is to absorb water and inorganic
               nutrients and anchor the plant to the ground.

                                      Effects
 The roots affect the soil, depending on the type of the tree and the soil.
These effects have a direct impact on all the plants grown near the tree.
Normally a healthy tree represents healthy soil. A big tree takes up most
of the water available in the soil, leaving the other plants dry. Growing as
   well as mowing lawn grass is another difficulty around a large tree,
especially if the roots are protruding outside. Tree roots help control soil
 erosion, however in some cases the roots have a negative effect on the
             soil by causing a phenomenon called allelopathy.

                                Allelopathy
 Derived from two words; allelonwhich means of each other and pathos
which means to suffer. It refers to the chemical inhibition of one species
   by another, by releasing a chemical affecting the development and
growth of surrounding plants. In other words, plants try to get their own
    space, by restricting other plants from growing too close to them.
Allelopathic chemicals secretion are not just restricted to the roots, they
are also found in branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. The decomposed
  leaves and bark affect the top layer of soil, while the roots affect the
 surrounding soil. The chemical curtails the root growth of other plants
 by inhibiting their nutrient source, thus influencing their evolution and
                                distribution.

                                         Juglone
  It is an aromatic organic allelopathic compound occurring naturally in the roots,
bark and leaves of trees in the Juglandaceae family. It releases certain enzymes that
  inhibits the metabolic function, stunting the growth of many plants and at times
     even killing an allelopathy intolerant plant. The quantity of Juglone released
depends on the weather and soil conditions. The black walnut is the most commonly
known for its allelopathic properties. When Juglone sensitive plants come within 0.5    4
   to 0.25 inches of the tree roots, they turn yellow, wilt and die. This in turn, also
                                     infects the soil.
                           Trees:
                  The Original Multi-taskers
•      Provide social, ecological, and economic benefits
•      Their beauty inspires writers and other artists.
•      Their leaves and roots clean the air we breathe and the water
       we drink




         Top 10 Reasons Why Trees Are Valuable and Important


     Trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It's
    not too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on
                               this beautiful planet.
    In fact, some claim can be made that our mother's and father's ancestors
                    climbed trees - another debate for another site.
      Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground troops
                            on an environmental frontline.
      Our existing forest and the trees we plant work in tandem to make a
                                  better world.                           5
    Studi Pengaruh Kualitas Vegetasi pada Lingkungan Termal
    Kawasan Kota di Bandung Menggunakan Data Citra Satelit

          Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Suwardi Tedja, Benedictus Edward
                        Laboratorium Teknologi Bangunan
          Sekolah Arsitektur, Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Kebijakan
                            Institut Teknologi Bandung
                              E-mail : titus@ar.itb.ac.id


     Tulisan ini membahas lingkungan termal kawasan perkotaan yang
 dipengaruhi oleh berbagai aspek antara lain bentuk permukaan kawasan,
    kepadatan dan penggunaan bahan bangunan. Salah satu aspek fisik
   permukan kawasan yang diyakini para ahli dapat mempengaruhi suhu
      udara adalah vegetasi seperti taman kota, pohon di tepi jalan dll.

    Konsep zoning pada kota membentuk kawasan dengan keunikan
   karakteristik fisik permukaan dan vegetasinya sehingga membentuk
 kenikan lingkungan termal seperti terbentuknya pulau-pulau panas (heat
                                  island).

   Penelitian ini memanfaatkan data satelit Landsat ETM yang mengambil
citranya dalam 7 band termasuk di dalamnya citra termal. Metoda ini cukup
akurat karena citra (termal) satelit mempunyai resolusi 1 pixel = 60mx 60 m.
   Pendataan suhu udara lingkungan juga dilakukan dengan pengukuran
           lapangan untuk pembanding data citra satelit tersebut.

Analisis dilakukan terhadap pengaruh tipe vegetasi (pohon, perdu, rumput
di lahan terbuka dll) terhadap fisik permukaan kawasan (bentuk permukaan
       kawasan, kepadatan, penggunaan bahan bangunan) dari aspek
     pembentukan lingkungan termalnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
   lingkungan termal kawasan kota sangat dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik
                                 vegetasinya.




                                                                        6
                    Manfaat pohon di perkotaan

•     Save Energy
•     Improve air quality
•     Extend life of paved surfaces
•     Increase traffic safety
•     Increase real estate values
•     Increase sociological benefits
•     Protect our water resources




                         1. Trees Produce Oxygen

       Let's face it, we could not exist as we do if there were no trees. A
    mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people
    inhale in a year. What many people don't realize is the forest also acts
                  as a giant filter that cleans the air we breath.
                                                                            7
      Air hujan dan Siklus Hidrologi
•   Urbanization dramatically alters the hydrologic cycle
     – Increases runoff
     – Increases flooding frequency
     – Decreases infiltration and groundwater recharge
•   Nationwide impervious surfaces have increased by 20% in
    the past 20 years


                               Lesovedenie

           Effect of vibrations of tree roots on soil permeability.
               Danilik, V. N., Makarenko, G. P., Tolkach, O. V.
         Ural'skaya Lesnaya Opytnaya Stantsiya, VNIILM, Russia.


Measurements were made in the Urals of the wind-induced movements of 33 roots
of Scots pine [Pinus sylvestris] and Norway spruce [Picea abies] trees, and of the
               effect of these root movements on soil permeability.
Details are given of the procedure; measurements were made when the amplitude
of crown tip swaying was 1.4-3.0 m, which corresponded to a strong wind of 11-13
   m/s. Root movement occurred in the vertical and the horizontal planes, both
                        perpendicularly and along the root.
The amplitude of the root vibrations depended on the structure of the root system,
soil mechanical composition, distance from the stem, amplitude of stem sway, and
                                   root diameter.
The greatest vibrations (0.05-1.11 mm) were those vertical and horizontal across the
  roots, but they rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the stem. Wind-
 sway of the stems, leading to vibration of the roots and the ball of soil, increased
   water permeability along the roots on average by a factor of 3.7, and of the soil
    within the root system by a factor of 1.2-1.9. Swaying trees accelerated the
  movement of water along the vibrating roots much more on light than on heavy
                                       soils.




                                                                                  8
                      Journal of Arboriculture
           Fill soil effects on soil aeration and tree growth.
      MacDonald, J. D., Costello, L. R., Lichter, J. M., Quickert, D.
   Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, One
                 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

 A 4-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fill soil on tree
 growth and soil aeration. Cherry trees (Prunus × yedoensis 'Afterglow')
were grown for 3 years in a test plot in Davis, California, U.S., after which
the block of trees was divided into three subplots. In one subplot, 30 cm
(12 in.) of compacted fill soil was installed over the root zone, while in a
  second subplot, aeration piping was installed prior to fill installation.
A third subplot was left without fill (control). Oxygen diffusion rate (ODR)
   and moisture levels were measured in the base soil before and after
                              addition of fill.
  Trunk diameter was measured at fill installation and 1 year later, while
 stem water potential was measured after 1 year. Fill soil neither reduced
soil aeration levels nor had a negative impact on tree growth. Tree growth
in fill subplots was equivalent to or greater than controls. Aeration piping
     did not enhance oxygen diffusion rates in the underlying field soil.
Roots developed in the fill but did not grow preferentially around aeration
pipes. Although aeration deficit may play a role in fill-induced plant injury,
other factors may play an equal or greater role. These factors include soil
   compaction and root injury during fill installation, and water deficit
  following fill installation. All factors should be considered in pre- and
                       post-fill tree management plans.                    9
        How Do We Know That Trees Improve Soils?
Underlying all aspects of the role of agroforestry in maintenance of soil
fertility is the fundamental proposition that trees improve soils. How we
                          know that this is true?

1. The soil that develops under natural forest and woodland is fertile. It is
  well structured, has a good water-holding capacity and has a store of
 nutrients bound up in the organic matter. Farmers know they will get a
              good crop by planting on cleared natural forest.
 2. The cycles of carbon and nutrients under natural forest ecosystems
  are relatively closed, with much recycling and low inputs and outputs.
3. The practice of shifting cultivation demonstrated the power of trees to
                    restore fertility lost during cropping.
   4. Experience of reclamation forestry has demonstrated the power of10
                 trees to build up fertility on degraded land.
                      Acta Phytoecologica Sinica

   Modeling canopy rainfall interception in the upper watershed of the
                             Minjiang River.

     Li ChongWei, Liu ShiRong, Sun PengSen, Zhang YuanDong, Ge JianPing
     College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.


The headwaters of the Minjiang River are on the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau.
   Canopy rainfall interception plays an important role in the water balance at the
                                    regional-scale.
Many studies on canopy rainfall interception have been carried out at the stand level
but less effort has been devoted towards understanding canopy interception at large
  scale, neither in the Minjiang River basin nor other areas. In this study, modeling
canopy rainfall interception in subalpine forests and meadows in the upper reaches
  of the Minjiang River was carried out by using field surveys, MODIS data, and RS,
                               GPS and GIS technologies.
 LAI (leaf area index), vegetation cover and canopy capacity per unit leaf area were
 the main parameters used in the model. LAI was derived from the vegetation index
     and measured using a LAI-2000 in the forests and LAI-3000 in the sub-alpine
    meadows. The LAI of coniferous stands were multiplied by a correction factor
because of the clumped arrangement of needles in the crown. Normalized difference
  vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were composed by
red, near-infrared and blue reflectances from the 500 m 32-day composites available
                from the MODIS level 3 surface reflectance (MOD09A1).
 The results indicated that LAI was non-linearly correlated to NDVI and EVI. EVI was
   preferable to NDVI as NDVI saturates in well-vegetated areas and the degree of
   correlation between LAI and EVI is higher than that between LAI and NDVI. The
results showed that the LAI of vegetation in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River
were in the following categories: 28.57% between 0 and 2, 63.06% between 2 and 4.5,
                                 and 8.37% above 4.5.
LAI was estimated using EVI, and the results showed that LAI could better reflect the
  spatial distribution of the vegetation. LAI in the upper watershed was lower than
  down river due to a large number of trees in the down river. Vegetation cover was
derived from NDVI. The spatial distribution of canopy capacity per unit leaf area was
         modeled on the basis of a vegetation-classification map (1:1000000).
Canopy rainfall interception in the well-vegetated areas was higher than that in other
                                         areas.
  The model was validated using field measurements made in Wolong and Miyaluo
  and some additional sites in the upper watershed of the Minjiang River. Empirical
     expressions to describe evaporation from the wet canopy were derived from
   additional sites and evaporation from the wet canopy was closely correlated to
                                        rainfall.
Based on the empirical expressions, simulation results showed that there was a 15.4
              percent error in Wolong and a 19.4 percent error in Miyaluo
                                                                                   11
    Semakin banyak pohon, semakin sedikit limpasan
                 permukaan air hujan


Fayetteville, Arkansas: increasing tree canopy from 27-40%
            reduced their storm water runoff by 31%
South Miami residential study found that a 21% existing tree
        canopy reduces the storm water runoff by 15%
 For every 5% of tree cover added to a community, storm
              water is reduced by approximately 2%




            Communal Benefits of tree
   Even though trees may be private property, their size
     often makes them part of the community as well.
  Because trees occupy considerable space, planning is
  required if both you and your neighbors are to benefit.

    With proper selection and maintenance, trees can
 enhance and function on one property without infringing
        on the rights and privileges of neighbors.

      City trees often serve several architectural and
 engineering functions. They provide privacy, emphasize
  views, or screen out objectionable views. They reduce
 glare and reflection. They direct pedestrian traffic. They
    provide background to and soften, complement, or
                    enhance architecture.




                                                              12
   Pergerakan air hujan di dalam profil tanah

                   2. Trees Clean the Soil

  The term phytoremediation is a fancy word for the absorption of
dangerous chemicals and other pollutants that have entered the soil.
  Trees can either store harmful pollutants or actually change the
                 pollutant into less harmful forms.

Trees filter sewage and farm chemicals, reduce the effects of animal
 wastes, clean roadside spills and clean water runoff into streams.

                                                                  13
    Bagaimana pohon mempengaruhi air hujan ?

•    Above ground effects:
      – Interception, evaporation and absorption of
         precipitation
•    Ground surface effects:
      – Temporary storage
•    Below ground effects:
      – Infiltration, permeation and filtration


            Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science

 Impact of growing trees/grasses on physical properties of a saline soil.

   Nandagoudar, S. A., Patil, S. G., Manjunatha, M. V., Hebbara, M., Gupta, R. K.,
                                     Minhas, P. S.
AICRP on Management of Salt-affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture,
       Agricultural Research Station, Gangawati, Karnataka 583 227, India.



 A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station,
Gangawati, Karnataka, India, to study the effect of tree species alone or
 in combination with grasses on physical properties of a saline soil.

Six tree species viz. Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia
sissoo, Azadirachta indica, Sesbania grandiflora and Hardwickia binata
  and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were planted in 1991 and
         physical properties were determined during 1995-96.

Due to the improvement in soil organic carbon, physical characteristics
such as porosity, infiltration rate, hydraulic conductivity and aggregate
 stability improved under different tree covers, while, bulk density and
                       erodibility of soil decreased.

Acacia nilotica and Casuarina equisetifolia had higher influence on these
 bio-physical properties than the other species. Grasses when planted
                  with trees had complementary effect
                                                                      14
                  Hydrological Sciences Journal
Measurement of rainfall interception by xerophytic shrubs in re-vegetated
                               sand dunes.

   Wang XinPing, Li XinRong, Zhang JingGuang, Zhang ZhiShan, Berndtsson, R.
      Shapotou Desert Experimental Research Station, Cold and Arid Regions
 Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
                260 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.

  More than 40 years of re-vegetation using mainly xerophytic shrubs
Artemisia ordosica Krasch. and Caragana korshinskii Kom. at Shapotou
Desert Experimental Research Station near Lanzhou, China has resulted
   in established dwarf-shrub and herbaceous cover on sand dunes.
Precipitation, as the sole source of water replenishment in the semiarid
     area, plays a pertinent role in sustaining the desert ecosystem.
 A field study was conducted to (a) measure interception loss on shrub
  canopies during individual rainfall events, (b) determine the canopy
 storage capacity of individual plants, and (c) explore the relationship
              between interception and rainfall parameters.

     The total rainfall and its respective partitions as throughfall were
  determined and the interception losses in the studied ecosystem were
  quantified. Interception loss was shown to differ among the xerophyte
taxa studied. During the growing seasons, the average shrub community
      interception loss is 6.9% and 11.7% of the simultaneous overall
precipitation, for A. ordosica and C. korshinskii, respectively. Taking into
       account the observed rainfall conditions and vegetation cover
  characteristics, it was concluded that the interception loss was 2.7% of
   the total annual precipitation verified in the period for the A. ordosica
 community with an average cover of 30%, canopy projection area of 0.8
                m2 and canopy storage capacity of 0.75 mm.
 In contrast, interception loss for the C. korshinskii community was 3.8%
    with an average cover of 46%, canopy projection area of 3.8 m2 and
                     canopy storage capacity of 0.71 mm.

For individual plants of both shrubs, the proportion of interception loss to
    gross rainfall decreased notably as the rainfall intensity increased
 between 0 and 2 mm h-1, while it tended to remain constant at about 0.1-
     0.2 for A. ordosica and 0.1-0.3 for C. korshinskii when the rainfall
                          intensity was >2 mm h-1.

                                                                            15
 Food production, poverty alleviation and environmental challenges as
 influenced by limited water resources and population growth. Volume
 1A. 18th International Congress on Irrigation and Drainage, Montréal,
                              Canada, 2002
      Towards improving of water management in fruit-tree
               plantations under micro-irrigation.

                                Koumanov, K. S.
   Nat.Cent. Agric.Sci., Inst.Fruit Growing, 12 Ostromila, Plovdiv 4004, Bulgaria.



Precise water balance under micro-sprinkling and drip irrigation of fruit
trees showed that the application efficiency was strongly dependent on
     both the climatic conditions and the soil hydraulic properties.

Root activity affected irrigation water redistribution, creating zones with
low soil moisture values (down to wilting point) along the skeletal roots
   very soon (20 hours) after the irrigation. Under drip irrigation, soil
moisture in the remaining part of the bulb was still close to field capacity
                   but roots were not able to access it.

     When the wetted soil volume was larger, as under micro-sprinkler
 irrigation, root water uptake was found to be, spatially and temporarily,
  very dynamic. Hence, crop water use efficiency would be increased if
  irrigation strategy was based on physical models of evaporation from
  partially wetted soil surface, irrigation water redistribution in the soil,
                           and root water uptake.

Microsprinkling was found to affect positively microclimate in fruit-tree
plantations, decreasing air temperatures and increasing significantly air
                                humidity.
    This effect was more pronounced in dry and hot conditions. The
   experiments were carried out in peach and almond plantations on
     various soil types carried out in Bulgaria and California, USA




                                                                                     16
             3. Trees Control Noise Pollution

 Trees muffle urban noise almost as effectively as stone walls.

 Trees, planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around
your house, can abate major noises from freeways and airports.


                                                             17
             4. Trees Slow Storm Water Runoff

Flash flooding can be dramatically reduced by a forest or by
planting trees. One Colorado blue spruce, either planted or
growing wild, can intercept more than 1000 gallons of water
                 annually when fully grown.
Underground water-holding aquifers are recharged with this 18
                slowing down of water runoff
         Pengaruh di atas permukaan tanah

 •    Intercept rainwater on leaves, branches and trunks –
      slowing its movement
 •    Evaporation of some of this intercepted precipitation of
      the tree surfaces
 •    Absorption of a small portion into leaves or stems



                         Physical Geography
     Vegetation effects on soil and water losses on weathered granitic
                          hillslopes, South China.

                            Woo, M. K., Luk, S. H.
         Dep. Geography, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4K1, Canada.

Deforestation of weathered granitic hillslopes of South China (Guangdong
                   Province) has led to widespread erosion.
   Using small experimental plots under different vegetation cover, the
        effects of land use on soil and water losses were examined.
 Overland flow increased as the cover conditions changed from forest to
  fern, to tilled soil and, eventually, to bare ground. This is related to the
 amount of interception and infiltration, both of which decreased as the
   vegetation cover decreased. Most slopes consist of a combination of
  loose materials and weathered granite and the resistance to sediment
                  entrainment could not be easily determined.

 The potential sediment yield increased as vegetation cover decreased.
  Based on empirical relationships between rainfall, overland flow and
potential sediment yield, it is demonstrated that soil and water losses can
  be greatly reduced as vegetation is re-established on these denuded
                             subtropical slopes.




                                                                           19
               Ground Surface Effects
•   Leaf litter and other organic matter can hold precipitation and
    stemflow on a site, reducing the amount and peak rates of runoff
•   Roots and trunk bases of mature trees tend to create hollows and
    hummocks on the ground




                                                                       20
                           Below Ground Effects
•      Organic material from leaf litter and other tree detritus tends to
       increase infiltration rates by increasing pore spaces in soil
•      Organic material also increases the moisture-holding capacity of
       these sites
•      Root mats of trees also tend to break up most soils further
       improving infiltration and moisture-holding capacity



                         Indian Journal of Agroforestry
    Effect of soil depth on early performance and characteristics of roots of
                        some tree species on a hill slope.

                                     Singh, K. A.
    ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Barapani (Meghalaya) - 793 103, India.


A field experiment was conducted in Meghalaya, India, to determine the effects of soil
 depths on root characteristics and biomass productivity of four tree species (Pinus
 kesiya, Michelia champaca, Grevillea robusta and Cupressus torulosa) planted on a
                                      hill slope.
    Changes in root characteristics revealed that vertical penetration of main root,
    number of roots and root weight per plant increased in proportion to soil depth
     occupied by the tree species. The main root changed its course of orientation
 sensing impediments and moved down the hill slope. Mean root spread decreased
  significantly in the deep soil in case of M. champaca and P. kesiya but it increased
    marginally in case of G. robusta and C. torulosa as compared to shallow soils.
 Broadleaved M. champaca and G. robusta had reduced root length, thicker proximal
   diameter of main and lateral roots in shallow soils while in pine group of plants,
either length of main root was shorter in deep soil than the shallow soil as in case of
     P. kesiya or there was no significant difference in root length as in case of C.
torulosa, both the tree species also grew thicker roots in the deep soils. Effect of soil
            depth on plant growth became evident 18 months after planting.
    The differential behaviour of tree species in response to soil depths indicated their
    adaptation and success on the hill slopes through changes in root characteristics
    particularly root spread and modification in different parts of shoot i.e., basal and
     breast height diameters, number of branches per plant, canopy length in case of
     broadleaved tree species and canopy length and canopy diameter both in case of
                                pine group of tree species.
Thus, the little difference in root number under different soil depths and tendency to
   spread extensively under shallow soil depth leading to minimal variation in total
biomass productivity helped P. kesiya to be most adaptive on the shallow soils of the
                                                                                  21
          hill slopes followed by M. champaca, a broadleaved tree species
                  Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

 Shade tree effects in an 8-year-old cocoa agroforestry system: biomass
    and nutrient diagnosis of Theobroma cacao by vector analysis.

                    Isaac, M. E., Timmer, V. R., Quashie-Sam, S. J.
  Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks St., Earth Science Centre,
                              Toronto, M5S 3B3, Canada.


Farm product diversification, shade provision and low access to fertilizers
  often result in the purposeful integration of upper canopy trees in cocoa
(Theobroma cacao) plantations. Subsequent modification to light and soil
      conditions presumably affects nutrient availability and cocoa tree
nutrition. However, the level of complementarity between species requires
 investigation to minimize interspecific competition and improve resource
                                  availability.
     We hypothesized beneficial effects of upper canopy trees on cocoa
  biomass, light regulation, soil fertility and nutrient uptake. We measured
      cocoa standing biomass and soil nutrient stocks under no shade
(monoculture) and under three structurally and functionally distinct shade
trees: Albizia zygia (D.C.) Macbr, a nitrogen fixer; Milicia excelsa (Welw.), a
    native timber species; and Newbouldia laevis (Seem.), a native small
stature species. Vector analysis was employed to diagnosis tree nutrition.

Cocoa biomass was higher under shade (22.8 for sole cocoa versus 41.1
  Mg ha-1 for cocoa under Milicia), and declined along a spatial gradient
from the shade tree (P<0.05). Percent canopy openness differed between
 the three shade species (P=0.0136), although light infiltration was within
      the optimal range for cocoa production under all three species.

 Soil exchangeable K was increased under Newbouldia, while available P
 decreased and total N status was unaffected under all shade treatments.
 Nutrient uptake by cocoa increased under shade (43-80% and 22-45% for
N and P, respectively), with K (96-140%) as the most responsive nutrient in
                         these multistrata systems.

 Addition of low-density shade trees positively affected cocoa biomass
 close to the shade tree, however proper management of upper stratum
   trees is required for optimum cocoa productivity and sustainability

                                                                                   22
                          Below Ground Effects

 •     Deep roots tend to improve the rates of percolation of water from
       upper soil horizons into lower substrates
 •     Trees take up water through their roots that is eventually
       transpired onto leaf surfaces and evaporated
 •     Tree roots act as natural pollution filters (biofilters) using nitrogen,
       phosphorus and potassium.


                              Indian Forester

     Pattern of root distribution in 30-month old five tree and two shrub
              species of an arid region of north-western India.

               Virendra Singh, Rajbahadur, Hooda, M. S., Balkrishan
      Department of Agroforestry, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural
                          University, Hisar, Haryana, India.



 Structure and distribution of root systems were studied in 30-month old
   trees of 5 species (Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocephala, Dalbergia
 sissoo, Azadirachta indica and Prosopis cineraria) and 2 shrub species
  (Prosopis juliflora and Cajanus cajan) raised at a spacing of 4×0.5 m at
                                 Hisar, Haryana.
 Maximum penetration of root systems was observed in P. cineraria (138
 cm depth), followed by Acacia nilotica, D. sissoo, L. leucocephala and P.
   juliflora, while Azadirachta indica and C. cajan showed comparatively
    shallow root systems (85 and 65 cm depth, respectively). P. juliflora
showed the maximum root spread (347 cm), followed by L. leucocephala
(228 cm), Acacia nilotica (216 cm), D. sissoo (187 cm), Azadirachta indica
  (95 cm), C. cajan (80 cm) and P. cineraria (31 cm). The top 30 cm of soil
  had the maximum distribution of root biomass in C. cajan, Azadirachta
 indica and L. leucocephala (45-62% of the total), whereas the maximum
  distribution of root biomass in P. juliflora, Acacia nilotica and D. sissoo
              (34-40% of the total) was in the top 30-60 cm of soil.
 Root distribution in P. cineraria was almost uniform throughout the soil
  column. The superficial location of a high proportion of roots in stands
 of C. cajan, Azadirachta indica and L. leucocephala indicates that these
 species will show strong root competition if intercropped with crops, in
 comparison with Acacia nilotica, D. sissoo and P. juliflora in which most
of the roots had a subsurface location. A vertical root system and narrow   23
         crown in P. cineraria make this species the most suitable for
                             agroforestry systems
                5. Trees Are Carbon Sinks
  To produce its food, a tree absorbs and locks away carbon
   dioxide in the wood, roots and leaves. Carbon dioxide is a
global warming suspect. A forest is a carbon storage area or a
 "sink" that can lock up as much carbon as it produces. This
  locking-up process "stores" carbon as wood and not as an
                  available "greenhouse" gas.
                                                            24
           EPA‘s Tree Canopy Target Goals

•     Set to protect a community‘s green infrastructure and
      maximize the environmental benefits
•     For metropolitan areas east of the Mississippi
       – Average tree cover for all land use 40%
       – Suburban residential                  50%
       – Urban residential                     25%
       – Central business districts             15%



           What Makes a Good Soil Improving Tree?
 It would be useful to have guidelines on which properties of a tree or
  shrub species make it desirable for the point of view of soil fertility.
     This would help in identifying naturally occurring species and
selecting trees for systems which have soil improvement as a specific
                                objective.

 Nitrogen fixation and a high biomass production have been widely
  recognized as desirable. However, many properties are specific to
  particular objectives of systems in which the trees are used. Even
species that are shunned for their competitive effects may have a role
                           in certain designs.
    An example is the way in which Eucalyptus species with a high water
     uptake, which adversely affects yields in adjacent crops, have been
        employed to lower the water table and so reduce salinization.




                                                                        25
                    6. Trees Clean the Air

Trees help cleanse the air by intercepting airborne particles,
  reducing heat, and absorbing such pollutants as carbon
      monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
Trees remove this air pollution by lowering air temperature,
     through respiration, and by retaining particulates.




             SIKLUS ENERGI                                   26
             Peranan Matahari
                     Faktor Komplikasi
•     Presence of soil compaction
•     Presence of soil textural discontinuity
       – Has the site been disturbed in the past?
•     Management of the ground surface
       – Is litter layer removed?
       – Is soil surface exposed in winter?
       – How much of the surface is like a natural forest? (number
          and size of trees)




The properties which are likely to make a woody perennial suitable for
     soil fertility maintenance or improvement are:
1.     A high rate of production of leafy biomass.
2.     A dense network of fine roots, with a capacity for abundant
       mycorrhizal association.
3.     The existence of deep roots.
4.     A high rate of nitrogen fixation.
5.     A high and balanced nutrient content in the foliage; litter of high
       quality (high in nitrogen, low in lignin and polyphenols).
6.     An appreciable nutrient content in the root system.
7.     Either rapid litter decay, where nutrient release is desired, or a
       moderate rate of litter decay, where maintenance of a soil cover is
       required.
8.     Absence of toxic substances in the litter or root residues.
9.     For soil reclamation, a capacity to grow on poor soils.
10.    Absence of severe competitive effects with crops, particularly for
       water.
11.    Low invasiveness.
12.    Productive functions, or service functions other than soil
       improvement.

                                                                             27
   Pergerakan air dalam tanah




Forces affecting the energy of soil water
    Matric force (absorption and capillary)
                    Gravity
             Osmotic forces
                                              28
               Pergerakan air dalam tanah

•     Field Capacity is the amount of water held in the soil after
      gravitational water had drained away
•     Movement of water is the soil is controlled :
       –   Gravitational forces if saturated
       –   Matric forces if unsaturated




                       7. Trees Shade and Cool
      Shade resulting in cooling is what a tree is best known for. Shade
       from trees reduces the need for air conditioning in summer. In
    winter, trees break the force of winter winds, lowering heating costs.
     Studies have shown that parts of cities without cooling shade from 29
    trees can literally be "heat islands" with temperatures as much as 12
              degrees Fahrenheit higher than surrounding areas.
          Soil Factors Influencing Infiltration
•     Infiltration is the mode of entry of all water into the soil
•     Rate of infiltration determined:
        – Initial water content
        – Surface permeability
        – Internal characteristics of the soil
•     Intensity and duration of rainfall
•     Temperature of soil and water




                    8. Trees Act as Windbreaks
    During windy and cold seasons, trees located on the windward
     side act as windbreaks. A windbreak can lower home heating
    bills up to 30% and have a significant effect on reducing snow
    drifts. A reduction in wind can also reduce the drying effect on
        soil and vegetation behind the windbreak and help keep 30
                        precious topsoil in place.
              Soil Factors Influencing Infiltration
•     Soil compaction reduces the infiltration rate
•     Microrelief under trees provides catchment basins during heavy rains
•     Removal of litter layer reduces the infiltration rate




                    9. Trees Fight Soil Erosion
    Erosion control has always started with tree and grass planting
      projects. Tree roots bind the soil and their leaves break the
                      force of wind and rain on soil.
     Trees fight soil erosion, conserve rainwater and reduce water
               runoff and sediment deposit after storms.
                                                                      31
Soil Factors Influencing Infiltration cont.




         Forest soils have a high percentage of macropores
  The frost type found in forest soils promotes infiltration year-long



                10. Trees Increase Property Values
   Real estate values increase when trees beautify a property or
 neighborhood. Trees can increase the property value of your home by
                             15% or more.
                                                                 32
     Importance of the Litter Layer




 Absorbs several times its own weight
     Breaks the impact of raindrops
  Prevents agitation of the mineral soil
Discourages formation of surface crusts
                                       33
                 Forest Ecology and Management

    Spatial distribution of root length density and soil water of linear
 agroforestry systems in sub-humid Kenya: implications for agroforestry
                                   models.

                             Radersma, S., Ong, C. K.
     Department of Soil Quality, Agricultural University, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC
                            Wageningen, Netherlands.

IN SIMULTANEOUS AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS TREES CAN COMPETE WITH CROPS
  FOR WATER, ESPECIALLY IN SEMI-ARID AREAS. HOWEVER, IN THE (SUB)HUMID
TROPICS, ON P-FIXING OXISOLS/FERRALSOLS SMALL DECREASES IN SOIL WATER
 CONTENT CAUSED A DECREASE IN P-TRANSPORT TO ROOTS AND THEREWITH A
  SOIL-DRYING INDUCED P-DEFICIENCY. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS
      THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER CONTENT IN CROP FIELDS
    BORDERING TREE LINES AND ITS RELATION WITH ROOT LENGTH DENSITY
DISTRIBUTION OF THE TREES THROUGHOUT THE SOIL PROFILE. TO ACHIEVE THIS,
  SOIL WATER CONTENT AND TREE ROOT LENGTH DENSITIES THROUGHOUT THE
 SOIL PROFILE WERE MEASURED OVER A PERIOD OF 2 YEARS IN AN EXPERIMENT
   WITH LINES OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN THE MIDDLE OF MAIZE FIELDS IN SUB-
HUMID WESTERN KENYA. SOIL WATER CONTENT WAS SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED (2-
7 VOL.%) NEAR TWO OF THE THREE FAST-GROWING TREE SPECIES, EUCALYPTUS
  GRANDIS AND GREVILLEA ROBUSTA, BUT NOT NEAR CEDRELLA SERRATA AND
     THE SLOWER GROWING MARKHAMIA LUTEA. THESE DIFFERENCES WERE
    RELATED TO DIFFERENCES IN WATER USE. EUCALYPTUS AND GREVILLEA
  SHOWED HIGH WATER USE AND CEDRELLA AND MARKHAMIA LOW WATER USE.
  HOWEVER, SOIL WATER CONTENT DISTRIBUTION WAS NOT RELATED TO ROOT
 LENGTH DENSITY DISTRIBUTION. ROOT LENGTH DENSITIES HARDLY DECREASED
  WITH DISTANCE TO GREVILLEA AND CLEARLY DECREASED WITH DISTANCE TO
        CEDRELLA. MOST WATER-UPTAKE MODELS, INCLUDING THOSE OF
 AGROFORESTRY MODELS, ASSUME THAT ROOT LENGTH DENSITY DISTRIBUTION
      THROUGHOUT THE PROFILE IS PROPORTIONAL TO WATER EXTRACTION
                         THROUGHOUT THE PROFILE.
   THE ABSENCE OF A CLEAR RELATION BETWEEN ROOT LENGTH DENSITY AND
 WATER EXTRACTION NEAR GREVILLEA TREE LINES OPPOSED THIS VIEW. IT CAN
BE EXPLAINED BY A DECREASE IN WATER-POTENTIAL GRADIENT BETWEEN ROOT
  AND SOIL AT INCREASING DISTANCE FROM THE TREE BASE. IF THE CHANGE IN
  ROOT LENGTH DENSITY IS SIMILAR OR SMALLER THAN THE CHANGE IN WATER-
   POTENTIAL GRADIENT BETWEEN ROOT AND SOIL, THE DECREASE IN WATER-
    POTENTIAL GRADIENT BETWEEN ROOT AND SOIL IS OF SIMILAR OR LARGER
     IMPORTANCE FOR DETERMINING TREE-WATER EXTRACTION DISTRIBUTION
 THROUGHOUT THE PROFILE THAN ROOT LENGTH DENSITY. THUS, MODELING OF
     SPATIAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS CANNOT ASSUME A DIRECT RELATION
BETWEEN TREE-WATER EXTRACTION AND ROOT LENGTH DENSITY, BUT NEEDS TO
 INCLUDE DECREASING WATER-POTENTIAL GRADIENT BETWEEN ROOT AND SOIL
                                                                   34
   ALONG ROOTS WITH INCREASING DISTANCE TO THE STEM BASE, ESPECIALLY
                    OVER THE HORIZONTAL DIMENSION.
Importance of the Litter Layer




     Increases soil biotic activity
 Increases incorporation of organics
Slows down lateral movement of water
                                   35
                        Indian Forester
Impact of soil water availability on carbon sequestration in tree
           biomass and soil in arid region of India.

                  Singh, G., Bilas Singh, Rathod, T. R.
    Division of Forest Ecology and Desert Development, Arid Forest
             Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India.



 ARID REGIONS HAVE LOW CAPACITY TO SEQUESTER CARBON DUE
TO LOW SOIL WATER AVAILABILITY AND PLANT GROWTH. HOWEVER,
CONSIDERING THE LARGE EXTENT OF SUCH AREAS TOTAL CAPACITY
        OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION MAY BE IMPORTANT.
   ONE-YEAR-OLD PLANTED SEEDLINGS OF E. CAMALDULENSIS, A.
 NILOTICA AND D. SISSOO WERE MAINTAINED AT DIFFERENT WATER
REGIMES BY RE-IRRIGATING THE SEEDLINGS AT 36.2 MM (T1), 26.5 MM
   (T2), 20.2 MM (T3), 18.1 MM (T4) AND LIVE SAVING IRRIGATION (T5)
  WHEN THE SOIL WATER CONTENT DECREASED TO 7.56, 5.79, 4.44,
3.23% AND DRYING OF LEAVES (T5) IN THE RESPECTIVE TREATMENTS
     CONDUCTED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL FIELD OF ARID FOREST
         RESEARCH INSTITUTE, JODHPUR, RAJASTHAN, INDIA.
  CARBON CONTENT BOTH IN DRY BIOMASS AND SOIL INCREASED
     WITH AGE OF THE SEEDLINGS, BUT IT DECREASED WITH
DECREASING IRRIGATION QUANTITY. A NEGATIVE CARBON BALANCE
   WAS OBSERVED IN T5 AT 12 MONTHS AGE. AT THE AGE OF 48
    MONTHS, CARBON CONTENT VARIED FROM 14.91 TO 0.72 KG
SEEDLING-1 IN E. CAMALDULENSIS, 8.67 TO 1.74 KG SEEDLING-1 IN A.
     NILOTICA AND 12.42 TO 0.36 KG SEEDLING-1 IN D. SISSOO.
CARBON DENSITY WAS HIGH UNDER A. NILOTICA AND LOW UNDER E.
                     CAMALDULENSIS.
  THE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT SEVERITY OF SOIL WATER STRESS
    AFFECTED CARBON SEQUESTRATION, WHEREAS ENHANCED
  AVAILABILITY OF SOIL WATER THROUGH IRRIGATION INCREASED
            CARBON STORAGE IN BIOMASS AND SOIL.
      THEREFORE, THERE IS SCOPE TO INCREASE CARBON
     SEQUESTRATION IN DRY AREAS THROUGH RAINWATER
  MANAGEMENT AND SUPPLYING ADDITIONAL IRRIGATION DURING
                  AVAILABILITY OF WATER.               36
                   Australian Journal of Botany
  Impacts of tree plantations on groundwater in south-eastern Australia.

             Benyon, R. G., Theiveyanathan, S., Doody, T. M.
          Ensis, PO Box 946, Mount Gambier, SA 5290, Australia.


 In some regions dependent on groundwater, such as the lower southeast
  of South Australia in the Green Triangle, deep-rooted, woody vegetation
    might have undesirable hydrological impacts by competing for finite,
                       good-quality groundwater resources.
 In other regions, such as the Riverina in south-central New South Wales,
   where rising water tables and associated salinization is threatening the
        viability of agriculture, woody vegetation might have beneficial
 hydrological impacts. In response to a growing need to better understand
the impacts of tree plantations on groundwater, annual evapotranspiration
     and transpiration were measured at 21 plantation sites in the Green
  Triangle and the Riverina. Sources of tree water uptake from rainfall and
   groundwater were determined by measurements of evapotranspiration
                     and soil water over periods of 2-5 years.
      In the Green Triangle, under a combination of permeable soil over
groundwater of low salinity (<2000 mg L-1) at 6-m depth or less, in a highly
 transmissive aquifer, annual evapotranspiration at eight research sites in
    Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus plantations averaged 1090 mm
       year-1 (range 847-1343 mm year-1), compared with mean annual
  precipitation of 630 mm year-1. These plantation sites used groundwater
     at a mean annual rate of 435 mm year-1 (range 108-670 mm year-1).
At eight other plantation sites that had greater depth to the water table or a
   root-impeding layer, annual evapotranspiration was equal to, or slightly
less than, annual rainfall (mean 623 mm year-1, range 540-795 mm year-1).
  In the Riverina, where groundwater was always present within 3 m of the
    surface, Eucalyptus grandis trees at three sites with medium or heavy
      clay, alkaline, sodic, saline subsoils used little or no groundwater,
   whereas E. grandis and Corymbia maculata trees at a site with a neutral
sandy soil and groundwater of low salinity used 380 and 730 mm year-1 of
groundwater (respectively 41 and 53% of total annual evapotranspiration).

We conclude that commonly grown Eucalyptus species and P. radiata are
able to use groundwater under a combination of light- or medium-textured
            soil and shallow depth to a low-salinity water table     37
    Affect of Micropores in the Soil
•   Lead to better soil structure
•   Increases organic matter incorporation
•   Increases percolation rates and root penetration




                                                       38
                     Water Resources Research

    Ecohydrological controls on soil moisture and hydraulic
        conductivity within a pinyon-juniper woodland.

Lebron, I., Madsen, M. D., Chandler, D. G., Robinson, D. A., Wendroth, O., Belnap, J.
 Department of Soils and Biometeorology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA.




     THE IMPACT OF PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND ENCROACHMENT ON
  RANGELAND ECOSYSTEMS IS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH A REDUCTION OF
  STREAMFLOW AND RECHARGE AND AN INCREASE IN SOIL EROSION. THE
 OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY IS TO INVESTIGATE VEGETATIONAL CONTROL ON
  SEASONAL SOIL HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES ALONG A 15-M TRANSECT IN
              PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND WITH BIOCRUST.
WE DEMONSTRATE THAT THE JUNIPER TREE CONTROLS SOIL WATER CONTENT
   (SWC) PATTERNS DIRECTLY UNDER THE CANOPY VIA INTERCEPTION, AND
BEYOND THE CANOPY VIA SHADING IN A PREFERRED ORIENTATION, OPPOSITE
TO THE PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION. THE JUNIPER ALSO CONTROLS THE SWC
 AND UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY MEASURED CLOSE TO WATER
  SATURATION (K(H)) UNDER THE CANOPY BY THE CREATION OF SOIL WATER
                   REPELLENCY DUE TO NEEDLE DROP.
 WE USE THIS INFORMATION TO REFINE THE HYDROLOGIC FUNCTIONAL UNIT
      (HFU) CONCEPT INTO THREE INTERACTING HYDROLOGIC UNITS:
   CANOPY PATCHES, INTERCANOPY PATCHES, AND A TRANSITIONAL UNIT
 FORMED BY INTERCANOPY PATCHES IN THE RAIN SHADOW OF THE JUNIPER
                             TREE.
    SPATIAL AUTOREGRESSIVE STATE-SPACE MODELS SHOW THE CLOSE
 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN K(H) CLOSE TO SOIL WATER SATURATION AND SWC
 AT MEDIUM AND LOW LEVELS, INTEGRATING A NUMBER OF INFLUENCES ON
                     HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY.




                                                                                  39
                          Soil Frost Types
•      Granular
        – Small frost crystals intermingled with soil particles
        – Found in woodland soils with litter
        – May be more permeable than unfrozen soil
•      Honeycomb
        – Has loose porous structure
        – Found in highly aggregated soils and also formed in
          organic layers and litter layers


                        Effects Of Trees On Soils
    The capacity of trees to maintain or improve soils is shown by the high
      fertility status and closed nutrient cycling under natural forest, the
    restoration of fertility under forest fallow in shifting cultivation, and the
               experience of reclamation forestry and agroforestry.

      Soil transects frequently show higher organic matter and better soil
    physical properties under trees. Some species, most notably Faidherbia
    albida, regularly give higher crop yields beneath the tree canopy. Trees
                    improve soil fertility by processes which:

                         * increase additions to the soil;
                          * reduce losses from the soil;
          * improve soil physical, chemical and biological conditions.

        The most important sets of processes are those by which trees:

                      * check runoff and soil erosion;
          * maintain soil organic matter and physical properties;
* increase nutrient inputs, through nitrogen fixation and uptake from deep
                                soil horizons;
                  * promote more closed nutrient cycling.


                                                                              40
         American Society of Agricultural Engineers
            Vol. 34(1): January-February 1991

              Citrus Tree Spacing Effects on Soil Water
                  Use, Root Density, and Fruit Yield

      J. D. Whitney, A. Elezaby, W. S. Castle, T. A. Wheaton, R. C. Littell

 Soil water content, root density, and fruit yield measurements were
   made on 'Hamlin' orange trees on Milam rootstock at two tree
  spacings-6 x 4.5 m (370 trees/ ha) and 4.5 x 2.5 m (889 trees/ ha).
  Soil water use per unit land area for the seven- and eight-year-old
         trees was not significantly affected by tree spacing.
Water use was greatest underneath the canopy dripline and generally
            decreased with increasing soil depth to 1.65 m.
 Root densities of the seven-year-old trees were greater at the 4.5 X
          2.5 m spacing and generally decreased with depth.
  Fruit yields per ha were greater for the 4.5 x 2.5 m spacing in the
 early years, were comparable for both spacings during the seventh
  and eighth years, and favored the 6 x 4.5 spacing in the 9th year.




                                                                              41
                        Soil Frost Types
•   Stalagtite
     – Forms partially fused, columnar ice crystals
     – Connects a heaved soil surface to the soil below
•   Concrete
     – Forms intricate multiple thin ice lenses
     – Common in soils going through freeze-thaw sequences
     – Common in exposed soil areas (agriculture)
     – Much less permeable that other frost types


                           Tree effects on soil

       Trees may also adversely affect associated crops. The effects of
      allelopathy (inhibition effects) have probably been exaggerated by
       mistaking them for, or confounding them with, other processes.
    Competition for water is a serious but not insuperable problem in all dry
      environments, whereas competition for nutrients has rarely been
                                  demonstrated.

    Where the net effect of tree—crop interactions is positive, the length of
     the tree—crop interface, or extent of the ecological fields, should be
    maximized. If the net effect is negative, the aim of agroforestry system
            design should be to reduce the length of the interface.

       A range of properties have been identified which make tree species
          suited to soil improvement. For many purposes, high biomass
    production, nitrogen fixation, a combination of fine feeder roots with tap
       roots and litter with high nutrient content are suitable. Tolerance to
    initially poor soil conditions is clearly needed for reclamation. About 100
      species have been identified which are known to fulfil soil-improving
             functions, but there is much scope to increase this range.


                                                                           42
                          Implications of Frost Types

 •      Forests and prairies rarely yield runoff regardless of
        steepness, even when frozen
 •      Forested areas provide storm water protection and protect
        the quantity and quality of groundwater

                                Hydrological Processes

 Rainfall interception by an isolated evergreen oak tree in a Mediterranean
                                  savannah.

      David, T. S., Gash, J. H. C., Valente, F., Pereira, J. S., Ferreira, M. I., David, J. S.
     Estação Florestal Nacional, INIAP, Av. da República, Quinta do Marquês, 2780-159
                                       Oeiras, Portugal.


 Redistribution of ground-level rainfall and interception loss by an isolated
    Quercus ilex tree were measured over 2 years in a Mediterranean oak
    savannah. Stemflow, meteorological variables and sap flow were also
                                   monitored.
 Rainfall at ground level was measured by a set of rain-gauges located in a
   radial layout centred on the tree trunk and extending beyond the crown
                                     limits.
 Interception loss was computed as the difference between the volume of
  rainwater that would reach the ground in the absence of the tree and the
 volume of water that actually fell on the ground sampling area (stemflow
   included). This procedure provided correct interception loss estimates,
                       irrespective of rainfall inclination.

Results have shown a clear non-random spatial distribution of ground-level
rainfall, with rainwater concentrations upwind beneath the crown and rain-
                            shadows downwind.

   Interception loss amounted to 22% of gross rainfall, per unit of crown-
  projected area. Stand interception loss, per unit of ground area, was only
8% of gross rainfall and 28% of tree evapotranspiration. These values reflect
 the low crown cover fraction of the stand (0.39) and the specific features of
  the Mediterranean rainfall regime (predominantly with few large storms).
                                                                          of
   Nevertheless, it still is an important component of the water balance 43
                      these Mediterranean ecosystems .
Groundwater –Surface Water Flows




                                   44
 Tree root damage to buildings. Volume 1: causes, diagnosis and remedy. Volume 2:
              patterns of soil drying in proximity to trees on clay soils.


Tree root damage to buildings. Volume 1: causes, diagnosis and remedy.
   Volume 2: patterns of soil drying in proximity to trees on clay soils.

                                   Biddle, P. G.
             Willowmead, Ickleton Road, Wantage, Oxon. OX12 9JA, UK.


   This 2-volume set of books provides a comprehensive analysis of, and practical
     guide to, how the interaction of trees, soils and water can cause foundation
 movement and damage to buildings. The problems addressed are multidisciplinary,
involving structural engineers, engineers, arboriculturalists, soil scientists, insurers
 and their loss adjusters, architects, and builders and planners, as well as providing
  work to the legal profession. All aspects of the problems involved are addressed.
  Volume 1 has 20 chapters, each with a brief summary and a case study at the end;
                            essential points are highlighted.
The first 10 chapters describe the interactions of trees, soils, water and buildings: (1)
  Introduction; (2) The tree - an account of tree physiology and growth; (3) The root
 system; (4) The soil - types and behaviour in relation to water content; (5) Seasonal
 changes in soil moisture content; (6) Persistent moisture deficits - when the winter
 process of rewetting of the soil after summer drying is not complete; (7) Interaction
     between trees and buildings - soil and foundation movements, buildings and
persistent water deficit, and the influences of buildings on the soil and tree roots; (8)
     Influence of the weather; (9) Comparative effects of different species, and of
  individual trees and groups; and (10) Other forms of damage by tree roots - direct
 physical damage and damage to drains and underground services. Chapters 11-16
describe the investigation of damage: (11) Strategy for investigating damage; (12-14)
   Site investigations: I. The building; II, The soil; and III. The tree; (15) Monitoring
building movement; and (16) Heave and recovery: diagnosis and prediction. Chapters
    17-20 address remedy and prevention: (17) Remedial action after damage; (18)
 Prediction and prevention of damage; (19) The legal framework; and (20) A revised
  role for the professions. Volume 1 ends with a list of references, cross references
              between botanical and common names, and a subject index.
Volume 2 presents the accumulated results from 3 research projects which started in
 1978 (with the Milton Keynes (UK) Development Corporation), and were extended in
   1981 (under instruction from the UK National House-Building Council) and 1983
 (under instruction from the UK Department of the Environment). These investigated
the pattern of soil drying, both spatially and with time, that occurs in the proximity of
        trees on clay soils. A total of 60 trees on open-field sites were studied.
     These included a range of tree species and clay soil types. The relevance and
    application of these results to urban situations are addressed in Volume 1. The
  methods used in the research are described in the introduction to Volume 2 - they
involved the use of 5 neutron probe access tubes per tree, by means of which the soil
   water profiles of each were monitored over long periods. The rest of the volume
  presents detailed research data for each tree, including photographs and coloured45
  diagrams. These cover the overall time period 1978-94, although different periods
                                 apply to different trees.
              Black Earth Creek Study
•     Black Earth Creek receives 80% of its water from groundwater
•     Main recharge occurs in spring and fall
•     Recharge from the agricultural uplands is highly variable
•     Wooded hill slopes generate no significant runoff
•     Forested slopes are significant recharge areas



                               Lesovedenie

    Effect of soil density on the growth of the root systems of
                           tree seedlings.

                                 Korotaev, A. A.
             Lesotekhnicheskaya Akademiya, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.

     Seedlings of Picea abies, Larix sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, Betula
     pendula, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata were grown in soils of
                       density 1.2, 1.3...1.9 g/cm³.

      Data are presented on depth of root penetration and total root
     biomass. In terms of root growth rate and the ability to penetrate
    dense soil layers, oak and larch were the best and spruce and lime
                         were the poorest species.

      The critical density of clay loam illuvial soil is 1.89 g/m³ for oak,
    1.84 for birch, 1.80 for birch, 1.72 for pine, 1.61 for spruce, and 1.55
     g/cm³ for lime. In experiments where the soil density in the lower
    horizon was greater, the total root biomass produced was virtually
          the same, as reduced root growth in the dense soil was
          compensated by more active root growth in the topsoil .




                                                                               46
           Urban trees enhance water infiltration
   Traditional stormwater management focuses on regulating the flow of
runoff to waterways, but generally does little to restore the hydrologic cycle
   disrupted by extensive pavement and compacted urban soils with low
                               permeability.

The lack of infiltration opportunities affects groundwater recharge and has
          negative repercussions on water quality downstream.

   Researchers know that urban forests, like rural forest land, can play a
   pivotal role in stormwater mitigation, but developing approaches that
exploit the ability of trees to handle stormwater is difficult in highly built city
 cores or in urban sprawl where asphalt can be the dominant cover feature.




                      keepitcleandenver.org/how.html                         47
                     Environmental Management
                 Volume 44, Number 4 / October, 2009

  Transpiration and Root Development of Urban Trees in Structural Soil
                        Stormwater Reservoirs
Julia Bartens , Susan D. Day , J. Roger Harris, Theresa M. Wynn and Joseph E. Dove


Stormwater management that relies on ecosystem processes, such as tree
canopy interception and rhizosphere biology, can be difficult to achieve in
     built environments because urban land is costly and urban soil
 inhospitable to vegetation. Yet such systems offer a potentially valuable
    tool for achieving both sustainable urban forests and stormwater
  management. We evaluated tree water uptake and root distribution in a
   novel stormwater mitigation facility that integrates trees directly into
                  detention reservoirs under pavement.
  The system relies on structural soils: highly porous engineered mixes
           designed to support tree root growth and pavement.

  To evaluate tree performance under the peculiar conditions of such a
  stormwater detention reservoir (i.e., periodically inundated), we grew
    green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and swamp white oak
 (Quercus bicolor Willd.) in either CUSoil or a Carolina Stalite-based mix
   subjected to three simulated below-system infiltration rates for two
                             growing seasons.

Infiltration rate affected both transpiration and rooting depth. In a factorial
 experiment with ash, rooting depth always increased with infiltration rate
for Stalite, but this relation was less consistent for CUSoil. Slow-drainage
 rates reduced transpiration and restricted rooting depth for both species
and soils, and trunk growth was restricted for oak, which grew the most in
                              moderate infiltration.
Transpiration rates under slow infiltration were 55% (oak) and 70% (ash) of
   the most rapidly transpiring treatment (moderate for oak and rapid for
  ash). We conclude this system is feasible and provides another tool to
  address runoff that integrates the function of urban green spaces with
                               other urban needs.




                                                                              48
       Trees enhance water infiltration

  Virginia Tech scientists used two container experiments to
establish that urban tree roots have the potential to penetrate
     compacted subsoils and increase infiltration rates in
reservoirs being used to store stormwater. In one study, roots
 of both black oak and red maple trees penetrated clay loam
 soil compacted to 1.6 g cm-3, increasing infiltration rates by
                     an average of 153%.

   In another experiment, researchers created a small-scale
 version of the stormwater best management practice (BMP)
  under study by the three universities. This BMP includes a
 below-pavement stormwater detention reservoir constructed
    of structural soil. Structural soils are engineered mixes
designed to both support pavement loads and simultaneously
provide rooting space for trees. In this study, green ash trees
  increased the average infiltration rate by 27 fold compared
                    with unplanted controls.

 In the experiment, a structural soil reservoir (CUSoil, Amereq
  Corp., New York) was separated from compacted clay loam
      subsoil (1.6 g cm-3) by a woven geotextile in 102-liter
containers. The roots of ash trees planted in the structural soil
   penetrated both the geotextile and the subsoil within two
                              years.




                                                              49
                Trees and Storm Water:

•   The impact of urban trees on hydrology is
    extremely variable and complex, in general
    increases in tree cover and tree size over a site will
    result in reduced total runoff amounts and peak
    runoff rates.
•   Effects are greatest during the growing season
•   Effects are greatest on sites whose soils are
    relatively impermeable



                         TREES
        Help Cities Meet Clean Water Regulations

  Tree cover in urban areas can provide cities with reduced costs for
      stormwater management and improvement in water quality.
                                 American
 Forests has developed a computer software package to measure the
  effects of urban tree cover and impervious surfaces on stormwater
that will help city managers meet ever tightening water quality regula-
 tions. Scientific research and time-tested engineering practices pro-
               vide the basis for the software calculations.




                                                                      50
                   Trees and Storm Water:

•   Trees have a relatively greater effect on smaller storm runoff
    amounts than on large storm events
•   Surface and below-ground effects on runoff are much more
    significant than the above-ground effects




          www.treesaregood.com/treecare/tree_benefits.aspx



                                                                     51
  All of the effects on runoff are greatest when urban trees are
          large and well-established on undisturbed sites




     Vegetasi pohon sangat berpengaruh positif terhadap lingkungan
  termalnya dalam hal laju penurunan temperatur udara dan temperatur
                             udara rata-rata.
      Dengan demikian maka mekanisme pohon dalam pengendalian
        lingkungan termal dapat diintepretasikan sebagai berikut :

    - Pohon berpengaruh positif terhadap temperatur udara berdasarkan
   mekanisme pembayangan (canopy effect), di mana pohon memayungi
 daerah di bawahnya dari sinar matahari langsung sehingga tidak menjadi
                   panas dan berpengaruh pada udara.
   - Pohon berpengaruh positif terhadap proses pendinginan (penurunan
 temperatur udara sore hari) berdasarkan mekanisme evapotranspiration,
di mana pelepasan air dari permukaan daun pada sore hari mendinginkan
    permukaan daun dan mempengaruhi temperatur udara di sekitarnya.
      -Pohon berpengaruh negatif terhadap proses pemanasan (naiknya
   temperatur udara pagi hari) berdasarkan mekanisme ‗selimut‘ di mana
       canopy menghalangi pertukaran panas dengan daerah sekitarnya
sehingga lingkungan di bawahnya cepat menjadi panas. Efek dari laju naik
                                                                     52
  temperatur udara tidak terlalu berpengaruh pada temperatur udara rata-
                                    rata.
     Can urban tree roots improve infiltration through
    compacted subsoils for stormwater management?

  Global land use patterns and increasing pressures on water
  resources demand creative urban stormwater management.
  Strategies encouraging infiltration can enhance groundwater
recharge and water quality. We examined whether tree roots can
 penetrate compacted subsoils and increase infiltration rates in
         the context of a novel infiltration BMP (I-BMP).

      Urban subsoils are often relatively impermeable, and the
  construction of many stormwater detention best management
  practices (D-BMPs) exacerbates this condition. Root paths can
       act as conduits for water, but this function has not been
  demonstrated for stormwater BMPs where standing water and
     dense subsoils create a unique environment. We examined
      whether tree roots can penetrate compacted subsoils and
   increase infiltration rates in the context of a novel infiltration
 BMP (I-BMP). Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and red maple
 (Acer rubrum L.) trees, and an unplanted control, were installed
  in cylindrical planting sleeves surrounded by clay loam soil at
     two compaction levels (bulk density = 1.3 or 1.6 g cm−3) in
irrigated containers. Roots of both species penetrated the more
   compacted soil, increasing infiltration rates by an average of
                                  153%.
Similarly, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) trees were
     grown in CUSoil (Amereq Corp., New York) separated from
    compacted clay loam subsoil (1.6 g cm−3) by a geotextile. A
      drain hole at mid depth in the CUSoil layer mimicked the
overflow drain in a stormwater I-BMP thus allowing water to pool
                            above the subsoil.
     Roots penetrated the geotextile and subsoil and increased
        average infiltration rate 27-fold compared to unplanted
     controls. Although high water tables may limit tree rooting
depth, some species may be effective tools for increasing water
    infiltration and enhancing groundwater recharge in this and
            other I-BMPs (e.g., raingardens and bioswales).         53
                                                  54
msdgc.org/wetweather/why_do_sewers_overflow.htm
Urban tree roots have the potential to penetrate compacted subsoils
   and increase infiltration rates in reservoirs being used to store
                              stormwater.
  Bartens et al. Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through
                       Compacted Subsoils for
Stormwater Management? Journal of Environmental Quality, 2008; 37
                                (6): 2048                            55
Landscape ecology of trees and forests. Proceedings of the twelfth
  annual IALE (UK) conference, Cirencester, UK, 21-24 June 2004


   Investigating the impact of tree shelter belts on
                   agricultural soils.

     Carroll, Z. L., Bird, S. B., Emmett, B. A., Reynolds, B., Sinclair, F. L.
  Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Orton Building, Deiniol Road, Bangor,
                         Gwynedd, Wales, LL57 2UP, UK.


 There is growing concern that modern agricultural practices have
  reduced the infiltration capacity of the soil, thereby reducing the
  soil's ability to absorb rainwater. There are few quantitative data
 available, however, on the impact of land use on runoff and flood
                                  risk.

     A preliminary study was undertaken in the Nant Pontbren
    catchment, mid-Wales, UK. This land is used extensively for
   grazing and experimental tree shelterbelts were established in
  selected pastures. Infiltration rates were up to 60 times higher in
   areas planted with trees than in adjacent grazed pastures and
significant differences were also observed for soil moisture and pH.
 Surprisingly, soil bulk density varied little between the two areas.

 The results indicate that more research is needed to gain a better
      understanding of the processes in operation. This study
   demonstrates that farm trees could represent a key landscape
 feature, reducing runoff even when only a small proportion of the
                            land cover.




                                                                                 56
  ISHS Acta Horticulturae 620: XXVI International Horticultural Congress:
   Asian Plants with Unique Horticultural Potential: Genetic Resources,
                    Cultural Practices, and Utilization

  EFFECT OF RAINFALL INTERCEPTION ON SOIL MOISTURE, TREE SAP
      FLOW, AND FRUIT QUALITY IN PEACH (PRUNUS PERSICA)

            D.G. Choi, D.C. Choi, D.H. You, H.G. Kim, J. Ryu, S.D.


Effect of soil covering with black polyethylene film for rainfall interception
(RI) on soil moisture, tree sap flow, and fruit quality in ‗Okubo‘ peach were
investigated to find out the factor decreasing fruit quality, when it rained at
                               fruit mature season.
Cell size of fruit was rapidly increased until the late of May, nearly stopped
    at the early of June, and regrew from the late of June in the natural
 condition. Change of soil water was less and slower in the treatment of RI
                             than that in the control.
The RI retarded the soil water increasing, whereas soil water in the control
                  plot fluctuated with rainfall amount change.

  Soil water content in RI plot showed 80% lower at small raining and 40%
lower at heavy raining than that in the control plot. Amount of tree sap flow
                 during raining was high in all treatments.

  Tree sap flow kept high during the stable soil water period without rain,
    whereas it did lower during the unstable soil water period after rain.
        Pit splitting rate was 20% in control tree and 10% in the RI.

 Fruit hardness and sugar content were higher in RI treatment than that in
the control. Therefore, taste of fruits in the RI treatment was better than that
                                 of the control.




                                                                           57
              Agroforestry Systems (Netherlands)

 Effects of mulching with multipurpose-tree prunings on soil and water
              run-off under semi-arid conditions in Kenya.

                         Omoro, L. M. A., Nair, P. K. R.
      Agroforestry Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.


The effect of adding leaf mulches of Grevillea robusta, Cassia siamea and
  Gliricidia sepium on the rate of soil and water runoff from a crop field
  were studied during 2 cropping seasons in an Alfisol under semi-arid
                           conditions in Kenya.
Two rates of mulch of each species (2.24 t and 4.48 t, on dry matter basis,
  per ha) and a no-mulch control constituted the 7 treatments. Soil and
  water runoff losses after each major rainfall event and the changes in
                  ground and crop cover were measured.

  Rainfall erosivity and changes in soil bulk density and infiltration rate
   were also determined. Soil losses from the plots with mulches of C.
siamea, G. sepium and G. robusta were lower than those from the control.
 Over the 2 seasons, the cumulative soil losses from plots mulched with
   cassia, gliricidia and grevillea were 11%, 57% and 81% of that of the
   control plot. Similarly, water runoff losses from cassia, gliricidia and
 grevillea mulch plots were 28%, 48% and 58% of that of the control plot,
                                 respectively.

    Thus, cassia was found to be better than gliricidia and grevillea in
   reducing both soil and water runoff losses. Soil bulk density did not
change while the infiltration rate at the end of the experiment was higher
 than in the beginning. However, there were no significant differences in
           these soil physical properties among the treatments




                                                                                58
So How Do We Protect Water Quality and Our Streams as Watersheds
                           Change?

 Trees and forests play an incredible role in reducing stormwater in several ways
    and removing or filtering pollutanting that would otherwise wind up in our
                                    waterways.

                                   Interception
Tree canopies intercept and capture rainfall, reducing the amount that reaches the
  ground. In urban and suburban settings, a single deciduous tree can intercept
between 500 and 760 gallons per year, while a mature evergreen can intercept over
                                 4,000 per year.

                             Soil Infiltration
  Tree roots and forest soils allow for better infiltration of rainfall with
 rates of up to 15 inches per hour. The leaf littered forest floor acts like
a gaint sponge, allowing for slow infiltration into soils befre releasing it
            to natural channels and recharging ground water.

                               Evapotranspiration
 Tree consumer stormwater through a process called evapotranspiration. Water is
taken up by roots and move up through the tree until it is transpired back into the
atmosphere as water vapor. A single mature oak tree can consume (transpire) over
                       40,000 gallons of water each year.

                               Phytoremediation
 Trees are very good at removing pollutants such as nitrates & phosphates; and
    other contaminates such as heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, oils, and
                  hydrocarbons that are found in stormwater.

                                Riparian Buffers
      Trees and Riparian Forests protect and buffer streams and are critical to
    maintaining healthy, clean streams. Tree roots provide streambank stability,
reducing erosion, filter out sediments, remove nutrients, shade and cool the water,
  provide habitat for many different species, and provide the primary food source
         for aquatic insects that are a critical part of the aquatic food chain.
   Until recently, stormwater management strategies focused on detaining large
volumes of water in basins that had little to no effect on removing the pollutants in
     the stormwater. In December 2006, PA DEP unveiled new stormwater best
      management practices (BMPs) that work to protect water quality and put
 stormwater back into the ground where it fell. One of the 10 principles in the BMP
manual is to preserve and utilize natural systems such as forests, trees, and native
                                         soils.

                                                                                  59
     Trees and Forests Reduce the Impacts of Stormwater
As we begin to remove forest canopy and replace it with roads, parking
 lots, driveways, homes, patios, pools (impervious surfaces) and even
    grass, we immediately have impact on watersheds and receiving
                          streams (or lakes).
  With the increased amount of impervious surfaces, water runs off the
land, traveling on the surface towards the streams. As this ‗storm water
runoff‘ travels to the streams it collects pollutants and increases speed.
  The changes to the landscape, not only increase the volume of water
 that goes to the stream, it also shortens the amount of time it takes the
                         water to get to the stream.
  These increased or peak flows cause water to move quickly to the
  streams. This leads to flooding, streambank erosion, widening of
 streams, sediment deposited in streams, a loss of fish habitat, and
decline in water quality. In Pennsylvania there are over 12,200 miles of
polluted streams and over 3,000 miles of streams that are impaired by  60
                            storm water runoff.
                                  Geoderma
 Analysing the space-time distribution of soil water storage of a forest
              ecosystem using spatio-temporal kriging.

                       Jost, G., Heuvelink, G. B. M., Papritz, A.
  Institute of Forest Ecology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied
         Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter Jordan Str. 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.
                          Editors: Oliver, M. A., Lark, R. M.

In forest the soil water balance is strongly influenced by tree species composition.
    For example, differences in transpiration rate lead to differences in soil water
     storage (SWS) and differences in canopy interception cause differences in
                                       infiltration.
   To analyse the influence of tree species composition on SWS at the scale of a
     forest stand, we compare spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation and SWS.
  Geostatistical space-time models provide a probabilistic framework for mapping
                            SWS from point observations.
The accuracy of these models may be improved by incorporating knowledge about
       the process of evapotranspiration. In this paper we combine a physical-
        deterministic evapotranspiration model with space-time geostatistical
 interpolation to predict soil water storage in the upper 30 cm of soil (SWS30) for a
     0.5 ha plot in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and
          European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Kreisbach, Lower Austria.

 Soil water storage was measured at 198 locations by permanently installed wave
  guides. This was repeated 28 times, about every two weeks during the growing
seasons of 2000 and 2001. Incorporation of a process-based model in space-time
  prediction of SWS30 reduced the effect of precipitation on SWS30 predictions
                               prior to precipitation.
Spatial patterns of SWS30 between the permanent wilting point and field capacity
 depend on the precipitation and drying history, which is affected by vegetation.
Early in the growing season spruce starts to transpire markedly, which is common
for coniferous trees. During dry periods, spruce reduces transpiration earlier than
  beech. Overall beech transpires more than spruce during the growing season.

The greater transpiration rates of beech are compensated for by greater soil water
         recharge after precipitation because less rainfall is intercepted.

At low water contents near the permanent wilting point SWS30 was spatially quite
  uniform. This was also the case at water contents nearfield capacity, probably
  because the soil physical parameters varied little. Space-time interpolation of
SWS30 and the prediction of soil water discharge and soil water recharge during
 periods of drying and rewetting demonstrate the important role of vegetation on
                          the spatial patterns of SWS30.


                                                                                  61
                  Benefits of Trees
Most trees and shrubs in cities or communities are planted to
 provide beauty or shade. These are two excellent reasons for
                           their use.
Woody plants also serve many other purposes, and it often is
helpful to consider these other functions when selecting a tree
    or shrub for the landscape. The benefits of trees can be
grouped into social, communal, environmental, and economic
                          categories.
                                                             62
  Variability of surface runoff generation and infiltration rate
under a tree canopy: indoor rainfall experiment using Japanese
                cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa)

 Kazuki Nanko , Yuichi Onda , Akane Ito , Shun Ito , Shigeru Mizugaki ,
                          Hiromu Moriwaki
  Hydrological Processes. Volume 24 Issue 5, 2010 Pages 567 - 575

 To estimate the variability of surface runoff generation and the
   infiltration rate on a bare surface in a forested area, indoor
experiments were conducted using 13 runoff boxes and a single
transplanted Japanese cypress tree (9·8 m in height) in a large-
scale rainfall simulator with spray nozzles (at a height of 16 m).

The surface runoff was measured for applied rainfall and for 12
kinds of throughfall with different intensities and kinetic energy
 (KE) (found among measuring points and canopy structures).
 While no surface runoff was observed for the applied rainfall,
surface runoff was observed for throughfall in each runoff box.
 Compared with the applied rainfall, the throughfall had larger
   drops due to canopy drip generation and thus had higher
    kinetic energy, which decreased the infiltration capacity.

   The maximum stable infiltration rate (IRMAX) was lowest for
     throughfall (44·2 mm h-1). Surface runoff generation and
  infiltration rates varied greatly under the canopy, even though
the rainfall applications were identical and the runoff boxes had
identical initial soil properties. The variability of IRMAX, ranging
 from 44·2 to 120·2 mm h-1, was caused by the variability of the
 throughfall intensity and kinetic energy. The index showing the
 best correlation to IRMAX was the effective unit kinetic energy
      (KE0 mm: J m-2 mm-1). The prediction of surface runoff
generation in a forested area requires estimations of the spatial
    variations of the amount and kinetic energy of throughfall.


           Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.                   63
           Logging effects on soil moisture losses
                            Ziemer, Robert R.
                               Date: 1978
Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado. 132 p.


 The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 15 feet by an isolated
 mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut forest in the California Sierra
    Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks for 5
                         consecutive summers.
Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening
    winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 50 feet were
continuously recorded during the same period. Each fall, a wetting front
 progressed from the soil surface, eventually recharging the entire soil
                       profile to ""field capacity"".

  During the recharge period, although the top portion of the soil was at
 ""field capacity"", the trees continued to deplete moisture from the drier
soil below the wetting front into early winter. Groundwater levels began to
rise within days after rainfall, whereas weeks or months were required for
   the wetting front to progress through the unsaturated zone above the
                                  water table.

Soil moisture depletion by the isolated tree was maximum at a depth of 8
to 13 feet and extended about 15 feet away from the tree. The influence of
 the tree on soil moisture depletion extended to a depth of about 18 feet
  and to a distance of about 40 feet. An excellent linear relationship was
  found between the quantity of soil moisture depleted by the tree at the
              end of the summer and distance from the tree.

   The isolated tree used between 2200 and 2600 cubic feet more soil
  moisture than a bare portion of the plot outside of the influence of the
                                   tree.―




                                                                        64
                          SIKLUS HIDROLOGI
                          Peranan vegetasi pohon




References

Burgess, S. and 5 others. 1998. Trees as water pumps: restoring water balances in
      Australian and Kenyan soils. Agroforestry Today 10(3): 18-20).
MacDicken, K.G. 1991. Selection and Management of Nitrogen Fixing Trees. Winrock
      International, Morriltion, Arkansas, USA.
Nair, P.K.R., and Latt, C.R. (eds.) 1997. Directions in tropical agroforestry research.
      Agroforestry Systems, Special Issue, 38: 1-249.
Niang, A. and 5 others. 1999. Soil fertility replenishment in western Kenya.
      Agroforestry Today 11(1-2): 19-21.
von Carlowitz, P.G. 1986. Multipurpose Tree and Shrub Seed Directory. ICRAF,
      Nairobi.
von Carlowitz, P.G., Wolf, G.V., and Kemperman, R.E.M. 1991. Multipurpose Tree and
      Shrub Database. An Information and Decision-support System. GTZ, Eschborn,
      Germany.
Webb, D.B., Wood, P. J., Smith, J.P., and Henman, G.S. 1984. A Guide to Species
      Selection in Tropical and Sub-tropical Plantations. Commonwealth Forestry
      Institute, Oxford, UK.
Young, A. 1989. Agroforestry for Soil Conservation. CAB International, Wallingford,
      UK.
                                                                                    65
                Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1809-1821, 2009
                www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/13/1809/2009/
                 © Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed
            under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.


 Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in
                       stagnic soils
               B. Lange, P. Lüescher, and P. F. Germann


      It is generally recognized that roots have an effect on
infiltration. In this study we analysed the relation between root
   length distributions from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.)
  Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Miller), European beech (Fagus
 sylvatica L.) and preferential infiltration in stagnic soils in the
   northern Pre-Alps in Switzerland. We conducted irrigation
experiments (1 m2) and recorded water content variations with
    time domain reflectometry (TDR). A rivulet approach was
  applied to characterise preferential infiltration. Roots were
  sampled down to a depth of 0.5 to 1 m at the same position
      where the TDR-probes had been inserted and digitally
                             measured.
The basic properties of preferential infiltration, film thickness of
 mobile water and the contact length between soil and mobile
    water in the horizontal plane are closely related to root
                           densities.
  An increase in root density resulted in an increase in contact
  length, but a decrease in film thickness. We modelled water
content waves based on root densities and identified a range of
 root densities that lead to a maximum volume flux density and
                        infiltration capacity.
 These findings provide convincing evidence that tree roots in
stagnic soils represent the pore system that carries preferential
    infiltration. Thus, the presence of roots should improve
                             infiltration.
                                                                  66
                       SIKLUS HIDROLOGI
                       Peranan bentang lahan




                     Social Benefits OF TREE
 We like trees around us because they make life more pleasant. Most of
    us respond to the presence of trees beyond simply observing their
beauty. We feel serene, peaceful, restful, and tranquil in a grove of trees.
   We are at home there. Hospital patients have been shown to recover
  from surgery more quickly when their hospital room offered a view of
                                     trees.
     The strong ties between people and trees are most evident in the
 resistance of community residents to removing trees to widen streets.
  Or we note the heroic efforts of individuals and organizations to save
             particularly large or historic trees in a community.
The stature, strength, and endurance of trees give them a cathedral-like
    quality. Because of their potential for long life, trees frequently are 67
  planted as living memorials. We often become personally attached to
                trees that we or those we love have planted.
                    Austral ecology ISSN 1442-9985
                     2005, vol. 30, no3, pp. 336-347
   Woodland trees enhance water infiltration in a fragmented
         agricultural landscape in eastern Australia

             ELDRIDGE David J. ; FREUDENBERGER David

    Since European settlement, Eucalyptus box woodlands have been
  substantially modified by agricultural practices, and in many areas in
   southern Australia are now restricted to scattered or clumped trees.
 We report here on a study to examine the impact of trees on water flow
(infiltration) in an agricultural landscape with substantial areas of extant
  native vegetation. We examined infiltration through coarse- and fine-
textured soils within four landscape strata, the zones below Eucalyptus
    melliodora and Callitris glaucophylla canopies, the intertree zone
    dominated by perennial grasses and a landscape homogenized by
                 cultivation and dominated by annual crops.

 We measured sorptivity, the early phase of water flow, and steady-state
    infiltration with disc permeameters at two supply potentials. These
     different potentials enabled us to separate infiltration into (i) flow
   through large (biopores) and small pores and (ii) flow through small
pores only where biopores are prevented from conducting water. On the
   fine-textured soils, both sorptivity and steady-state infiltration were
 significantly greater (approximately fivefold) under the timbered strata
     compared with the grassy slopes or cultivation. Differences were
    attributable to the greater proportion of macropores below the tree
canopies compared with the nontimbered strata. The lack of a significant
 difference on the coarse-textured soils, despite their macropore status,
   was attributed to differences in surface litter and plant cover, which
would maintain continuous macropores at the surface and thus conduct
                            large amounts of water.
 The tendency of slopes covered by cryptogamic crusts and grasses to
 shed run-off and for the trees to absorb substantial quantities of water
  reinforced the important ecological service provided by trees, which
  moderates large run-off events and captures small amounts of water
  leaking from the grassy patches. In the absence of these 'ecosystem
      wicks', run-off would find its way into regional groundwater and
                          contribute to rising salinity.


                                                                         68
NERACA AIR DI ALAM




                     69
                 Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam)

   Soil water depletion and recharge patterns in mixed and pure forest
              stands of European beech and Norway spruce.

                     Schume, H., GeorgJost, Hager, H.
 Institute of Forest Ecology, BOKU, University of Natural Resources and
 Applied Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, Vienna A-1190, Austria.

   Automated time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements in high
   resolution over soil depth and over time were performed in a mixed
 beech-spruce and a spruce stand during two hydrologically contrasting
                                seasons.
   Soil drying was more intensive and reached deeper soil layers in the
 mixed stand, which on the other hand allowed more stand precipitation,
compensating for the higher evapotranspiration rates. These results were
 confirmed by a large number of spatially distributed TDR measurements
   along grids of different spacing, which additionally covered a beech
 stand. Spatial water depletion patterns of the topsoil in spring appeared
  to be largely congruent with tree species distribution and reflected the
 higher water consumption of fully foliated beech. Variability was highest
 in the mixed stand, where a spatial correlation within a range of about 7
                              m was observed.
The pure stands lacked spatial correlation. The effect of the mixed stand
  on soil water depletion and recharge turned out to be non-additive as
compared to the pure stands of beech and spruce: changes of soil water
 storage under the mixed stand almost equalled the values measured in
  the beech stand. During selected drying periods in 2000 average daily
water extraction rates from the uppermost 60 cm of soil amounted to 1.65
mm in the beech as well as in the mixed stand, which is about 45% more
                          than under pure spruce.
   Maximum differences of up to 84% occurred in periods with high
evaporative demand. The over-proportionate evapotranspiration of the
mixed stand was exclusively attributable to beech, which deepened and
 intensified its fine-root system in mixture, while spruce rooted more
shallowly. The mixed stand extracted a higher percentage of water from
                 deeper soil layers than the pure stands.

                                                                     70
                           Peran Vegetasi
Salah satu peran vegetasi untuk mengendalikan lingkungan termal adalah
melalui mekanisme evapotranspiation (proses penguapan air dari daun ke
udara) yang dapat mempercepat pendinginan permukaan daun yang juga
              berakibat pada penurunan temperatur udara.

 Pengukuran terhadap proses evapotranspiration pernah dilakukan oleh
DOE Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory dan dilaporkan bahwa pohon
    berdiameter 30 feet dapat melepas air sebanyak 40 galon / hari.

Pohon dan tanaman mendinginkan udara dengan cara membayangi dan
 mungurangi jumlah sinar matahari yang mencapai tanah. Jumlah sinar
matahari yang menembus canopy dinyatakan dalam nilai transmitansi1
                        yang bervariasi dari 0 – 100%.
Nilai 0 berarti sinar matahari sama sekali tidak dapat menembus canopy, 71
   nilai 100 berarti tidak ada sinar matahari yang ditahan oleh canopy.
                    Journal of Arid Environments

 Rain-water management for tree planting in the Indian desert.

                               Gupta, G. N.
Arid Forest Research Inst., Division of Forest & Desert Development, New
              Pali Road, Jodhpur 342005, Rajasthan, India.



   The influence of different systems of water harvesting and moisture
  conservation on soil moisture storage, growth, biomass accumulation
  and nutrient uptake by Azadirachta indica (neem), Tecomella undulata
 (rohida) and Prosopis cineraria (khejri) was studied in Rajasthan, India,
                             during 1990-1992.

  The ridge and furrow method of water harvesting was found to be the
  best treatment and significantly improved the growth of all 3 species
  (height by 58%, 35% and 40%, collar circumference by 73%, 56% and
    63%, and crown diameter by 111%, 51% and 131%, respectively).

Biomass accumulation by A. indica and T. undulata increased 3.8-fold and
 4.6-fold and root mass 4.5-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively. The mulching
 treatment was beneficial to A. indica and weeding treatment to all the 3
                                 species.

  Tree roots in water harvesting plots were deeper and had a
spread several times larger than the control. Nutrient uptake by
  these tree species increased several-fold as a result of the
     different water harvesting and moisture conservation
                          treatments.




                                                                        72
                         SIKLUS HIDROLOGI
                         Peranan vegetasi pohon




                       Economic Benefits of Tree
Individual trees and shrubs have value, but the variability of species, size, condition,
    and function makes determining their economic value difficult. The economic
    benefits of trees can be both direct and indirect. Direct economic benefits are
   usually associated with energy costs. Air-conditioning costs are lower in a tree-
   shaded home. Heating costs are reduced when a home has a windbreak. Trees
 increase in value from the time they are planted until they mature. Trees are a wise
       investment of funds because landscaped homes are more valuable than
  nonlandscaped homes. The savings in energy costs and the increase in property
                        value directly benefit each home owner.

     The indirect economic benefits of trees are even greater. These benefits are
available to the community or region. Lowered electricity bills are paid by customers
    when power companies are able to use less water in their cooling towers, build
   fewer new facilities to meet peak demands, use reduced amounts of fossil fuel in
  their furnaces, and use fewer measures to control air pollution. Communities also
 can save money if fewer facilities must be built to control storm water in the region.
                                                                                    73
To the individual, these savings are small, but to the community, reductions in these
                     expenses are often in the thousands of dollars.
example.




           74
                                 Plant and Soil
  Effects of changes in tree species composition on water flow
       dynamics - model applications and their limitations.

                        Armbruster, M., Seegert, J., Feger, K. H.
  Institute of Soil Science and Site Ecology, Dresden University of Technology, 01735
                                   Tharandt, Germany.
                              Editors: Hüttl, R. F., Bens, O.


  Water-plant relations play a key role in the water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.
 Consequently, changes in tree species composition may have distinct effects on the
  water retention capacity as well as on the pattern of streamflow generation. Such
changes may result from modified interception properties and transpiration related to
    differences in canopy properties and root distribution. In order to evaluate the
potential hydrological effects of the current silvicultural conversion from monocultural
conifer stands into mixed or pure deciduous stands the hydrological model BROOK90
    was applied to two forested upland catchments in Germany. The Rotherdbach
catchment (9.4 ha, 93 yr-old Norway spruce) is situated in the Eastern Ore Mountains.
 The Schluchsee catchment (11 ha, 55-yr-old Norway spruce) is located in the higher
                              altitudes of the Black Forest.
    The calibrated model is capable to describe rather well the temporal variation of
 streamflow but also the portions of the individual flow components. Data for a beech
  scenario were adapted for each site using a standard parameter set for deciduous
   trees provided by BROOK90. The annual discharge in the fictional beech stand at
Rotherdbach is 30 to 50% higher compared to spruce with an increase of soil moisture
     and especially the slow streamflow components. This mainly results from low
interception rates during winter time. In contrast, the spruce stand has a permanently
      higher interception rate. Effects of tree species conversion are moderate at
                                       Schluchsee.
  The annual discharge of a fictional beech stand at Schluchsee is 7 to 14% higher
    compared to spruce. There in contrast to Rotherdbach, effects of tree species
   conversion on soil moisture dynamics are small since vertical percolation in the
highly permeable soil dominates and precipitation is abundant. Practical forestry will
favorably establish mixed beech-spruce rather than pure beech stands. However, it is
 critical to simulate mixed stands with BROOK90. Therefore, a simple summation of
 model results from spruce and beech according to their respective area in a fictional
                     mixed stand can only be a first approximation.
      Advanced hydrological simulation of mixed stand conditions should regard
interactions of tree species and spatial parameter distribution. However, this is not yet
feasible due to a distinct lack of information. As a consequence, there is a strong need
   to collect relevant hydrological and ecophysiological data in mixed stands in the
                                          future.

                                                                                    75
Infiltration is governed by two forces: gravity and capillary action. While
  smaller pores offer greater resistance to gravity, very small pores pull
 water through capillary action in addition to and even against the force
                                    of gravity.
The rate of infiltration is affected by soil characteristics including ease of
 entry, storage capacity, and transmission rate through the soil. The soil
 texture and structure, vegetation types and cover, water content of the
 soil, soil temperature, and rainfall intensity all play a role in controlling
  infiltration rate and capacity. For example, coarse-grained sandy soils
    have large spaces between each grain and allow water to infiltrate
                                     quickly.
  Vegetation creates more porous soils by both protecting the soil from
 pounding rainfall, which can close natural gaps between soil particles,
 and loosening soil through root action. This is why forested areas have
             the highest infiltration rates of any vegetative types.

                                                                          76
    Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground
   surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a
 measure of the rate at which soil is able to absorb rainfall or
irrigation. It is measured in inches per hour or millimeters per
                                 hour.
    The rate decreases as the soil becomes saturated. If the
    precipitation rate exceeds the infiltration rate, runoff will
    usually occur unless there is some physical barrier. It is
  related to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the near-
surface soil. The rate of infiltration can be measured using an
                            infiltrometer.
                                                                77
                                Tree Physiology
  Converging patterns of uptake and hydraulic redistribution of
       soil water in contrasting woody vegetation types.

   Meinzer, F. C., Brooks, J. R., Bucci, S., Goldstein, G., Scholz, F. G., Warren, J. M.
Forestry Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis,
                                OR 97331-4401, USA.
                 Editors: Meinzer, F. C., Goldstein, G., Phillips, N. G.


  We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water
  potential (Ψsoil) to assess the effects of Ψsoil on uptake and hydraulic
 redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles
   at six sites characterized by differences in the types and amounts of
                      woody vegetation and in climate.
   The six sites included a semi-arid old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus
     ponderosa) forest, a moist old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
  menziesii) forest, a 24-year-old Douglas-fir forest, in Washington, USA,
  and three Brazilian savanna sites, in Distrito Federal, differing in tree
 density. At all of the sites, HR was confined largely to the upper 60 cm of
                                     soil.
     There was a common threshold relationship between the relative
magnitude of HR and Ψsoil among the six study sites. Below a threshold
Ψsoil of approximately -0.4 MPa, overnight recharge of soil water storage
increased sharply, and reached a maximum value of 80-90% over a range
 of Ψsoil from ~-1.2 to -1.5 MPa. Although amounts of water hydraulically
redistributed to the upper 60 cm of soil were relatively small (0 to 0.4 mm
  day-1), they greatly reduced the rates of seasonal decline in Ψsoil. The
  effectiveness of HR in delaying soil drying diminished with increasing
                       sapwood area per ground area.
 The relationship between soil water utilization and Ψsoil in the 20-60-cm
layer was nearly identical for all six sites. Soil water utilization varied with
a surrogate measure of rhizosphere conductance in a similar manner at all
six sites. The similarities in relationships between Ψsoil and HR, soil water
   utilization and relative rhizosphere conductance among the six sites,
suggests that, despite probable differences in maximum rooting depth and
  density, there was a convergence in biophysical controls on soil water
 utilization and redistribution in the upper soil layers where the density of
                             finer roots is greatest.
                                                                            78
                   TREE FOR SOIL IMPROVEMENT

The following are the principal trees and shrubs that have been employed for soil
improvement (from Webb et al., 1984; von Carlowitz, 1986; von Carlowitz et al., 1991;
MacDicken, 1994; Young, 1989a, p. 159).


Acacia auriculiformis       Acacia cyanophylla           Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii             Acacia nilotica              Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal                Acacia tortilis              Albizia lebbeck
Albizia saman (Samanea saman)                            Anacardium occidentale
Alnus acuminata            Alnus nepalensis              Alnus spp.
Atriplex spp.               Azadirachta indica           Bactris gasipaes
Bamboo genera               Cajanus cajan                Calliandra calothyrsus
Casuarina cunninghamiana                                 Casuarina equisetifolia
Casuarina glauca            Centrosema pubescens         Cordia alliodora
Crotalaria spp.             Dalbergia sissoo       Dactyladenia barteri (Acioa barteri)
Dendrocalamus spp.          Erythrina caffra            Erythrina orientalis
Erythrina poeppigiana       Faidherbia albida (Acacia albida)
Flemingia congesta (Flemingia macrophylla)
Gliricidia sepium           Grevillea robusta           Inga edulis
Inga jinicuil               Leucaena diversifolia       Leucaena leucocephala
Melaleuca leucadendron Melia azedarach                  Musanga cecropioides
Paraserianthes falcataria (Albizia falcataria)        Parkia biglobosa (Parkia africana)
Paulownia elongata          Peltophorum dasyrrachis
Populus deltoides           Prosopis chilensis          Prosopis cineraria
Prosopis glandulosa         Prosopis juliflora          Prosopis tamarugo
Schinus molle              Senna reticulata             Senna siamea (Cassia siamea)
Senna spectabilis (Cassia spectabilis)
Sesbania bispinosa
Sesbania grandiflora
Sesbania rostrata
Sesbania sesban
Tamarix aphylla
Tephrosia candida
*Tephrosia vogelii
*Tithonia diversifolia
Ziziphus mauritiana
Ziziphus nummularia
Zizyphus spina-christi




                                                                                   79
                             RAIN GARDENS
Tree box filters are mini bioretention areas installed beneath trees
 that can be very effective at controlling runoff, especially when
  distributed throughout the site.1 Runoff is directed to the tree
 box, where it is cleaned by vegetation and soil before entering a
 catch basin. The runoff collected in the tree-boxes helps irrigate
                              the trees.
Tree box filters are based on an effective and widely used ―bioretention or
rain garden‖ technology with improvements to enhance pollutant removal,
   increase performance reliability, increase ease of construction, reduce
    maintenance costs and improve aesthetics. Typical landscape plants
  (shrubs, ornamental grasses, trees and flowers) are used as an integral
 part of the bioretention / filtration system. They can fit into any landscape
    scheme increasing the quality of life in urban areas by adding beauty,
            habitat value, and reducing urban heat island effects.




             Manufactured Tree Box Filters For Stormwater Management
              (Source: Virginia DCR Stormwater Management Program)

                                                                          80
                        RAIN GARDENS

                         TREE BOX FILTER
 The system consists of a container filled with a soil mixture, a
       mulch layer, under-drain system and a shrub or tree.
   Stormwater runoff drains directly from impervious surfaces
                        through a filter media.
 Treated water flows out of the system through an under drain
 connected to a storm drainpipe / inlet or into the surrounding
soil. Tree box filters can also be used to control runoff volumes /
 flows by adding storage volume beneath the filter box with an
                         outlet control device.




          Tree Box Filters For Stormwater Management
    (Source: Prince George's County, MD Bioretention Manual)
                                                               81

				
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