mazon ropical ainforest Designed for Elementary by: Catherine Hess Deborah Hybarger Renee McFarland Nicole Peterson Kim Romano Lauren Sierens Page 3 Introduction General Information The topic focus in this unit plan is the Amazonian Tropical Rainforest set up for the later elementary level, most likely fourth or fifth grade. The class period is approximately 40 minutes in length although there is some leeway as we may be fully integrating this subject with other subject areas, thus encompassing that time as well. This is a great topic for a team-teaching opportunity as it can be integrated seamlessly in each discipline. Refer to the section labeled Lesson Plans (page 15) for a more in- depth look at how this unit will be integrated in each subject area. Resources Needed Most of our resources came from the Internet, books, and teacher resources given to us by organizations promoting conservation of the Amazon tropical rainforest. These resources can be found near the end of this document in the Resource section (page 49). Why Chosen The Amazonian Tropical Rainforest was chosen for several reasons. As stated in the social studies section of the Michigan Content Standards, we teach social studies to prepare young people to become responsible citizens. Part of being a responsible citizen encompasses using knowledge of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services to make personal, career and societal decisions about the use of scarce resources. In showing the students how the rainforest is a scarce resource, they Page 4 can develop this economic perspective. Also, they will use methods of social science investigation to answer questions about society. In comparing our society to that of the people of the Amazonian tropical rainforest, students are learning this inquiry approach and applying it to their lives here in Michigan. Also, because we are a global community and realize the effects one place has on another, the students will research and come to conclusions about how we are impacting the rainforest and its effects on us. Thus the students will construct and express thoughtful positions on this public issue (really a world issue). Not only will they be highly involved in public discourse and decision making, but they will think of how they can act constructively to further the public good (action versus passivity). Being a responsible citizen requires citizen involvement and it is our goal to allow the students to discover that they need to be involved in community and world decisions for it impacts them directly. Hopeful Outcomes We hope that the students will be able to use their own paradigm and prior knowledge of their environment and culture to make a comparison to the Amazon tropical rainforest. Students should know some of aspects of the rainforest biome (e.g., consists of 4 layers or strata). Students should know some of the products that come from the Amazon tropical rainforest and what type of resource they are (e.g., natural, human, capital) and even apply that knowledge later to their own region or nation. Students should be aware of how the Amazon tropical rainforest affects not only indigenous people, but also the globe (e.g., trade, deforestation – greenhouse effect). Students should be able to be exposed to elements of another culture to appreciate that Page 5 culture and their own (e.g., through making rain stick, listening to their music, writing pen pal letters to people who live in the Amazon tropical rainforest). Core Democratic Values In our unit plan, the students will be presented with three Core Democratic Values; Right to Life, the Pursuit of Happiness, and Common Good. They will learn about a group of indigenous people who inhabit the Amazon rain forest. Students will be reflecting on the Amazonian Indians’ Right to Life – in their own area, undisturbed by the rest of the world’s need to occupy land and resources. The Indians have been increasingly infringed upon and now resort to extra methods to fend for themselves. This includes cutting down forests to provide a field for agriculture. Their Pursuit of Happiness comes from wanting to provide for their family. However, the Amazon’s poor soil conditions make it impossible to be sedentary as the fields are only good for a couple of years, thus the Indians move on and clear additional land to start again. Where is the fine line between the Amazonian people Right to Life and Pursuit of Happiness and the effects on the Common Good? Students will struggle with the issue of Common Good by asking themselves if it is it in the best interest (for the welfare and benefit) of the community to destroy the rainforest and its inhabitants. They will then analyze how this situation affects our Right to Life and the Common Good of us in our region. They will understand how the Amazon tropical rainforest does have an impact here and around the world (products, contributes to water cycle, provides oxygen, medicine, and the greenhouse effect). Page 6 Standards The following lists the strands and standards that will be covered fro the Michigan Standards for Social Studies. The standards used for this unit came from the Geographic Perspective, Economic Perspective, Inquiry, Public Discourse and Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement: Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.EL.1.1 -All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of places, cultures, and settlement. Students will locate and describe cultures and compare the similarities among the roles of women, men, and families. SOC.II.EE.1.2 -All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of places, cultures, and settlement. Students will describe the natural characteristics of places and explain some basic causes for those characteristics. SOC.II.EE.2.1- All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe how people use the environment to meet human needs and wants. SOC.II.LE.2.1-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will explain basic ecosystem concepts and processes. SOC.II.LE.2.3-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe the major physical patterns, ecosystems, resources, and land uses of the state, region, and country and explain the processes that created them. SOC.II.LE.4.1-All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patters and explain the processes that created them. Students will draw sketch maps of the community, region, and nation. SOC.II.LE.4.2-All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patterns and explain the processes that created them. Students will describe places, cultures, and communities in the United States and compare them with those in other regions and countries. Page 7 Strand IV Economic Perspective SOC.IV.EE.2.1- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will connect economic needs with businesses that meet them. SOC.IV.EE.2.2- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will select a particular good or service and describe the types of resources necessary to produce and distribute it. SOC.IV.LE.2.1- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will distinguish between natural resources, human resources, and capital equipment in the production of a good or service. SOC.IV.EE.5.1- All students will describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and analyze the resulting challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and government. Students will recognize economic exchanges in which they participate. Strand V Inquiry SOC.VI.LE.1.2-All students will acquire information from books, maps, newspapers, data sets and other sources, organize and present the information in maps, graphs, charts and timelines, interpret the meaning and significance of information, and use a variety of electronic technologies to assist in accessing and managing information. Students will organize social science information to make maps, graphs and tables. Strand VI Public Discourse and Decision Making SOC.VI.LE.2.1-All students will engage their peers in constructive conversation about matters of public concern by clarifying issues, considering opposing views, applying democratic values, anticipating consequences, and working toward making decisions. Students will engage each other in conversations, which attempt to clarify and resolve issues pertaining to local, state, and national policy. SOC.VI.LE.3.1-All students will compose coherent written essays that express a position on a public issue and justify the position with reasoned arguments. Students will compose a short essay expressing a decision on a local, state, or national policy issue. Strand VII Citizen Involvement SOC.VII.MS.1.2-All students will consider the effects of an individual’s actions on other people, how one acts in accordance with the rule of law, and how one acts in a virtuous Page 8 and ethically responsible way as a member of society. Students will engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem they have studied. Controversy The controversy of this unit topic needs to be reinforced with the students in making certain you relate the issues to their lives here in Michigan. The tropical rainforest of the Amazon does have an impact on them. On one hand the tribal people of the Amazon must now compete for basic needs. Most are cutting down the rainforest to provide farmland. However, the soil is so low in minerals that the land is good for only a couple of years before they have to move on and clear more land. This nomadic frame is destroying a vast resource of food, ecosystems for a multitude of plants and animals. Some of these plants (and ones not even discovered yet) are being used as medicines to treat and prevent diseases. Also, the huge tract of vegetation provides for the cleansing of the water cycle and helps to control the greenhouse effect (not to mention oxygen for all humans to breathe). Other people are responsible for the deforestation due to mining. Other reasons include using the lumber for building and furniture making. This is where the controversy comes into being. How can we help the people to survive on minimal choices, and still preserve habitat and the support system for our lives? Possessed Student Skills We assume students will know how to write a topic paper (i.e., the writing process). We also feel that at this grade level students should be knowledgeable in the basics of navigating and using a computer. Students should likewise know how to use Page 9 a book or an internet site for basic research. Students will also have prior knowledge of how to create a Venn diagram for contrasting and comparing. Skills Needed through Directed Teaching One of the lessons involves being able to read latitude and longitude on a map or globe. The students might need a mini-lesson in this area. The students also need to be taught how to write a diamante poem explaining how it is structured (e.g., number of lines, two things to compare). For the pen pal lesson, students will need to be directly taught on how to write to someone of a different culture. This could be in terms of what is acceptable and not acceptable to write about and respecting other people’s cultures and differences. Five Senses Our road map includes a lot of the five senses. The use of the five senses are very important in understanding and analyzing the Amazonian Rainforest. The first sense that was used was sight. Students are able to compare and contrast the two environments (Amazonian Rainforest to Michigan). They are to analyze how the two are the same and how they are different by looking at the Venn diagram and completing their posters. Students will also be engaged in making dioramas. These dioramas will be placed around the classroom where the students will feel like they are taking a walk through the rainforest. The second sense that was used was hearing. Students will be able to hear what the rainforest sounds like by making rain sticks. They can play these rain sticks as instruments and are able to take in what they hear and try to visualize what it would be Page 10 like to live in the Amazon Rainforest. Students will also listen to music on the background during the taste fest and be able to get a feel for living in the rainforest. The students will be able to compare the sounds of the rainforest to the sounds we hear in Michigan. The third sense that was used was the sense of touch. Students will be able to learn about the different layers of the rainforest by making a ―canopy‖ (upper layer) on one of their soil coins. One student will hold the ―rain can‖ above the can with the canopy and another student will pour half the water into it. This demonstration will force the students to think about what happened to the soil as a result of the rain. Since the students are performing this demonstration and touching the materials, they are more able to think at a higher level. Students will also be able to touch the items that they barter or trade. The students who are role-playing the Indians will be able to know what it feels like to make these products. Students will also create dioramas using the information from Webquest. They will be touching their dioramas in order to analyze how their diorama looks compared to the actual rainforest. The fourth sense that was used was the sense of smell. Students are able to take a field trip to The Rainforest Café and smell the murky and musty smells of the Amazon Rainforest. They can compare the differences between how the Amazon Rainforest smells with the smells of Michigan. The final sense that was brought up in our road map was taste. Students will try different foods (such as fruits and vegetables) in order to distinguish which foods are produced from the rainforest and which foods are not. Page 11 Technology The students will use a variety of different forms of technology throughout the Amazon Tropical Rainforest unit. Students will be viewing video recordings for analysis and pleasure. They will have the experience of going on an adventure by performing a webquest on the computer. The students will use their navigation skills to research and gather information from various websites to incorporate in their assignments. They will have an opportunity to interact with all aspects of the rainforest using an electronic CD- Rom game about the rainforest. There will also be a collection of overheads the teacher presents to the class throughout the unit. Once the students have collected data, they will create graphs using the Microsoft Excel program. The students end the unit by creating electronic postcards, which consist of designs representing what they have learned from the unit and letters to their pen pals. Page 12 Chronology of Events Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 The Mitten and the Rain lesson The Mitten and (day 2) * – the Rain lesson Continuing Animals of the (day 1) * – Intro comparing, but Rainforest to Unit Compare Layers of the focus more on Field Trip - lesson – (day 1) and Contrast Rainforest Amazon tropical Rainforest Café* * - Webquest Math lesson* rainforest and research, incorporation – Listen to music begin pamphlet graphing rainfall of rainforest comparisons people Make rain sticks* Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Amazon Tropical Rainforest: The Animals of the CD Rom – Products lesson Rainforest Amazon Trail II History of the History of the – Economics * lesson – (day 2) Language Arts Amazon area Amazon area Math * - Finish Journal – Have (day 1) (day 2) incorporation – pamphlet and you lost anything product pricing diorama valuable to you? comparison charts Day 11 Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15 Trading Day with Trading Day with Postcards about the Amazonian Controversy of the Amazonian the Rainforest Indians lesson the Canopy Indians lesson Controversy of lesson* - Closing (day 2)* - Focus lesson (day 1) *- (day 1)* - Focus the Canopy lesson for unit; on trading and Begin on learning lesson (day 2) *- Fern Gully movie economic controversial about the Mock debate and pen pals; activity of the discussion and Amazonian how to help Amazonian research Indians protect rainforest Indians * Detailed lesson plan included in unit plan. Page 13 Day 1: The Mitten and the Rain lesson (day 1) – Intro to Unit: Compare and Contrast; First we will look at the Rainforest Biomes video (30 min.) and then contrast and compare the Amazon Tropical Rainforest to Michigan’s geography and environment (i.e., land features, climate, and plants). Math incorporation – graphing rainfall comparisons Day 2: The Mitten and the Rain lesson (day 2); Students will continue comparing, but focus more on Amazon tropical rainforest; listen to music of rainforest people and make rain sticks. Day 3: Layers of the Amazon Tropical Rainforest lesson; Students will be studying the canopy, underbrush, and other layers. Students will also be introduced to some of the animals that live in each of the layers. Day 4: Field Trip – Rainforest Café; The staff at the restaurant give the students a 30 minute tour in which they discuss the animals of the rainforest. The students can see the animatronic animals move and make realistic sounds. The restaurant also has an area that constantly trickles water like rain so the students can hear, see, and feel what it would be like in a rainforest. The ceiling and walls are covered like a rainforest would be as well. Day 5: Animal of the Rainforest lesson (day 1); Students will do a more in depth study of all the animals of a rainforest. They will perform a Webquest to research animals (including physical characteristics) and the animal’s habitat. From the research they will produce a tour pamphlet of four animals. Day 6: Animal of the Rainforest lesson (day 2); Students will finish their pamphlets and make a diorama of one of the animals which is to include the animal and its habitat (e.g., rainforest canopy). Day 7: History of the Amazon area lesson (day 1); Students will learn about the history of the Amazon area with focus on the Amazon tropical rainforest, including resources, tribal people, explorers, etc. Day 8: History of the Amazon area lesson (day 2); Students will learn about the history of the Amazon area with focus on the Amazon tropical rainforest, including resources, tribal people, explorers, etc. Page 14 Day 9: Amazon Tropical Rainforest: The Products lesson; In this economics-based lesson, students will learn about natural resources, human resources and capital resources along with a firsthand look and taste of some of those traded products. Math incorporation – product pricing comparison charts. Day 10: CD-Rom Amazon Trail II; Students will gain knowledge exploring the habitats and wildlife of the rainforest. They will learn about the Amazon's history, geography, and ecology along with learning about indigenous peoples and their cultures. Language Arts Journal – Have you lost anything valuable to you?; This is to get the students to begin analyzing the effects something taken away has. It can incorporate human and environmental impact. This will be used for Day 13 when beginning the controversial aspect of keeping the rainforest versus cutting them down (something taken away). Day 11: Trading Day with the Amazonian Indians lesson (day 1); Students will be introduced and develop a base knowledge about the Amazonian culture. By looking at some indigenous artifacts and comparing it with their own culture students will get a better understanding of themselves in the world. Day 12: Trading Day with the Amazonian Indians lesson (day 2); Students will continue to learn about the Amazonian Indian culture through the process of trade. They will connect economic needs with business needs, select a particular good and identify what resources are necessary to produce it, and recognize economic exchanges they participate in. Day 13: Controversy of the Canopy lesson (day 1); Students will begin controversial discussion of the Amazon rainforest. They will gather information for the indigenous people, learn about the habitat, and the environmental impact for the world. Day 14: Controversy of the Canopy lesson (day 2); Students will use their research and role- playing cards to perform a mock debate. Each student will take a side of the controversy and persuade others to believe their opinion through careful research and application. Day 15: Postcards about the Rainforest lesson; Closing lesson for unit. Students will watch Fern Gully (movie) and make postcard to give to their Amazonian pen pals. They will also brainstorm how to help protect rainforest. Page 15 Bulletin Board / Display The bulletin board used for this unit will show some of the products from the Amazon rainforest that are seen or used in our everyday life. The products are located on the left hand side of the bulletin board. On the right side of the board are some pictures of animals that are found in the Amazon rainforest. In the middle is a picture of the continent of where the rainforest is located. You can see the location of the rainforest because it is shaded in with green. Our bulletin board will also be inquiry-based. There will be blank green leaves for the students to write questions on regarding the rainforest of the Amazon. As we address them and answer them fully they will move up the ―Finding the Forest‖ section. The forest floor is where they post questions leaves. Then as the class might address the issue in differing stages it moves up the rainforest layers until it reaches the top two layers, the canopy and emergent layers – the question then has been answered. Page 16 Lesson Plans The following is a concept map of how to apply the unit of the Amazon Tropical Rainforest to all the other disciplines: Arts Create dioramas of animals and habitat Language Arts Music/PE/Dance Create & design Share literature of Listen to song pamphlet rainforests & about rainforest indigenous people Sing songs with Write pamphlet rainforest information theme/information Write to in journals Amazon Organize & report Tropical information Write to pen pals Rainforest Social Studies Mathematics Economics – trade, Make graphs to compare & products for this contrast Amazon tropical topic area rainforest & Michigan Geography of the Multiply price of products Amazon tropical made from Amazon Science rainforest tropical rainforest to Identify animals of the History of the number of goods a trader Amazon tropical Amazon tropical wants to purchase rainforest rainforest Study the habitats of this topic Study ecology of the Amazon tropical rainforest Page 17 The Mitten and the Rain Compare and Contrast Lesson Objective(s) The students will: Learn about the geography and environment (i.e., land features, climate, plants, and population) of the Amazonian tropical rainforest. Use what they have previously learned about Michigan geography and environment to compare and contrast the two environments (Amazon tropical rainforest and Michigan). Evaluation The students will be evaluated through their poster. On each poster will be an outline of Michigan and next to it a picture of Brazil (which includes the Amazon tropical rainforest). Students are to make this into a Venn diagram like poster. Inside each outline will be categories the students have to include and write examples of (land features, climate, plants, and population). Each place will have contrasting examples. In the link in between, students will write down what is similar and how these two different geographical locations do impact and affect each other. Michigan Standards: Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.LE.2.3-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe the major physical patterns, ecosystems, resources, and land uses of the state, region, and country and explain the processes that created them. SOC.II.LE.4.1-All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patters and explain the processes that created them. Students will draw sketch maps of the community, region, and nation. SOC.II.LE.4.2-All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patterns and explain the processes that created them. Students will describe places, cultures, and communities in the United States and compare them with those in other regions and countries. Strand V Inquiry SOC.VI.LE.1.2-All students will acquire information from books, maps, newspapers, data sets and other sources, organize and present the information in maps, graphs, charts and timelines, interpret the meaning and significance of information, and use a variety of electronic technologies to assist in accessing and managing information. Students will organize social science information to make maps, graphs and tables. Page 18 The Mitten and the Rain Poster Rubric 3 2 2 1 Outstanding Good Satisfactory Requires Additional Help Outlines of Accurately drew Drew the Drew the Inaccurately Michigan the outline of outline of outline drew the outline Michigan with Michigan with Michigan with of Michigan and great skill – some accuracy minimal missed some (including the – (including the accuracy –may portions (the Upper Upper have missed Upper Peninsula and Peninsula and some portions Peninsula or Lower Lower (the Upper Lower Peninsula) Peninsula) Peninsula or Peninsula) Lower Peninsula) Outline of Accurately drew Drew the Drew the Inaccurately South the outline of outline of South outline of South drew the outline America South America America with America with of South with great skill some accuracy minimal America accuracy Highlight Highlighted the Highlighted the Highlighted the Did not Amazon area Amazon area Amazon area Amazon area highlight the with great with good with minimal Amazon area accuracy accuracy accuracy Information Included all five Included four of Included three Included two or Needed categories: the five of the five fewer of the five 1. Average categories categories categories temperature 2. Average precipitation 3. Type of vegetation 4. Land features 5. Location on map (lines of latitude and longitude) Creativity Showed great Showed some Showed Showed no creativity (i.e. creativity minimal creativity color, how creativity displayed, additional materials, etc.) Page 19 Rationale Students at this age are learning about Michigan and need to apply what they know to other places around the world. Students need to know about the environment and the interaction with humans and its subsequent impact. Materials Movie: Rainforest Biomes World map or globe with latitude and longitude lines Resource books on Michigan and the Amazon tropical rainforest Per student: Poster board Markers Glue Art scraps Opener I will introduce this lesson by having someone come up and draw the state of Michigan on the board. We will do a brief review of Michigan. Then I will ask someone to come up and point to South America on the world map (or globe). Another student will locate Brazil on the map (or globe). I will then ask them if they know what type of land features are in Brazil. It will eventually lead to a rainforest and we will point out the Amazon. Procedures Day one is a review of Michigan geography/environment (land features, climate, and plants) and in introduction into the Amazon tropical rainforest. On this day show the Rainforest Biomes video. Day two is a more focused discussion of Amazon tropical rainforest geography/environment (land features, climate, and plants). Day two will also be a culmination of comparison and contrasting of the two environments. The following is for Day two: 1. Students can work alone or in teams of two to create a poster comparing and contrasting Michigan and the Amazon tropical rainforest. 2. Each student or team will receive a poster. They will make an outline of the Michigan and next to it an outline of South America highlighting the Amazon tropical rainforest. They are to make a bridge in between the two areas. Show a sample poster of an outline if needed. Students are to use this as a Venn diagram. 3. Inside each outline will be categories the students have to include and write examples of (land features, climate, and plants). This will be the area for contrasting examples (examples specific to that environment only). 4. In the bridge in between, students will write down what is similar between these two different geographical locations and how they predict these two areas do impact and affect each other. Page 20 Sample Poster: Wrap-up When all the students finish their posters, each student or team will explain their poster to the class. We will make a cumulative poster on easel paper posted in the classroom for all students to refer to for the rest of the unit. Tell students they will be covering the different layers that make up the rainforest tomorrow. Page 21 Rain Sticks from the Rainforest Objective(s) The students will: Use materials to make a rain stick and the sound of rain. See the connection between the sounds of the rainforest and the rain stick. Evaluation The students’ completed rain sticks and a class discussion about the significance of the rain stick. Rationale This lesson is designed to have the students appreciate the sounds of the rainforest and the rain stick. Materials Per student: Cardboard tube 30 Stickpins Tape 1 Cup of rice Decorative paper Opener Tell students they are going to create the sounds of the rainforest right in the classroom. Procedures 1. Discuss the sound of the rainforest. 2. Pass out all of the materials to each student so they can make their own rain stick. 3. Stick all 30 pins through the cardboard tube, in 5 rows with 6 pins in each row. 4. Put a strip of tape around each row to hold pins in place. 5. Tape one end of the tube shut. 6. Pour in 1 cup of rice. 7. Tape the other end of the tube shut. 8. Cover the tube with paper, taping it shut at the edge. 9. Turn the stick over slowly and listen to the rain. 10. Discuss about the symbolic nature of the rain stick – today used as a percussion instrument and represents a ―back to nature‖ feeling. Wrap-up The students use their rain sticks and discuss the symbolism. Talk about the sound of the rainforest rain hitting the vegetation. Tell students they will be discovering more about the vegetation of the rainforest tomorrow. Page 22 Layers of the Rainforest Lesson Objective(s) Students will be able to construct a diagram of the four different layers of the rainforest and be able to explain how soil erosion effects the rainforest. Evaluation Students will complete a diagram on the four layers of the rainforest to demonstrate their knowledge. They will also record in their science journals what they learned about soil erosion and the rainforest. Michigan Standards: Social Studies Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.LE.2.1- All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will explain basic ecosystem concepts and processes. Science Strand V.1. Geosphere SCI.V.E.1.1- All students will describe the earth’s surface. Students will describe the major features of the earth’s surface. SCI.V.E.1.3- All students will describe and explain how the earth’s features change over time. Students will describe natural changes in the earth’s surface. Rationale This lesson on soil erosion and layers of the rainforest will be directed towards the 3 rd and 4th grade levels. Opener (This part is taken from: http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/guides/honduras/hontropical.html) Have four children, each representing a different forest layer, stand in front of one another: 1. First layer (emergents): One student raises his or her arms up as if reaching for the sun. 2. Second layer (canopy): The second student holds his or her arms out front in a circle as if they are an umbrella. 3. Third layer (understory): The third student kneels with arms stretched out to the side as if they are the branches of young trees. 4. Fourth layer (forest floor): This student lies on the floor with arms flat. Page 23 Ask them what they are representing. Remind class of what they have been studying the past two days. Show the class the materials to be used. Ask them what they think they will be studying about today – what part of the Amazon tropical rainforest? Materials You need enough materials for groups of 3-4: 2 small cans (tuna or cat food Soda Pop Can Tabs cans) Coins 2 standard-sized cans (with holes Newspaper in the bottom for a ―rain‖ can) Soil (enough to fill each can) Bottle Caps A large pitcher of water You will need just one of the following for the teacher to demonstrate. Large Planting Pot Tall plant Small plant Seedling Watering Can Reference materials include: The Rainforest Café: www.rainforestcafe.com ZOOM Rainforests: www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/rainforest/ Innovative Solutions for Global Conservation: www.rainforest-alliance.org VOCABULARY AND DEFINITIONS: Soil Erosion- When soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind Emergent layer- Highest layer of the Rainforest that contains giant trees that are much higher than the average canopy height. It houses many birds and insects Canopy layer- The upper parts of the trees. This leafy environment is full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more. Understory layer- A dark, cool environment under the leaves but over the ground. Forest Floor- Teeming with animal life, especially insects. The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here. Rainforest- They are very dense, warm, wet forests. They are havens for millions of plants and animals. The plants of the rainforest generate much of the Earth's oxygen. These plants are also very important to people in other ways; many are used in new drugs that fight disease and illness Page 24 Procedures 1. Give students background information: a) It is almost always raining in a rainforest. Rainforests get over 80 inches (2 m) of rain each year. This is about 1 1/2 inches (3.8 cm) of rain each week. b) The rain is more evenly distributed throughout the year in a tropical rainforest (even though there is a little seasonality). c) The soil of a tropical rainforest is only about 3-4 inches (7.8-10 cm) thick and is ancient. Thick clay lies underneath the soil. Once damaged, the soil of a tropical rainforest takes many years to recover. d) The forest canopy protects the soil from heavy rain by stopping it reaching the forest floor. The whole forest acts like a giant sponge and the tree roots help to keep the soil together. After the trees have been removed, the soil is left bare and open to rain, wind and heat. The soil is then easily and quickly washed away. The soil erosion causes rainwater to carry millions of tons of silt into rivers, streams and onto coral reefs many miles away. e) Without the sponge effect of the forest, the heavy rains pour into the rivers and cause flooding. The trees and the leaf litter contain the nutrients of the forest. When they are removed, the remaining soil is poor and desert-like. 2. Have students get into groups of three or four students. 3. Groups should have two members come up to the front to fill the cans with soil. 4. The remaining members will collect an assortment of bottle caps, soda pop tabs, coins, etc. (Make certain that they have a nick thick layer of newspaper beneath the cans). 5. Fill each group’s intact large can with water. 6. Have each group create a ―canopy‖ on one of the soil coins by using their soda pop tabs, coins, etc. (Make sure that it’s not completely covered, just ―protected‖). Do you remember what layer of the rainforest the canopy was? 7. One student holds the ―rain can‖ above the can with the canopy and another will carefully pour about half of the water into it. What happened to the soil as a result of the rain? 8. Repeat the procedure over the unprotected can. What happened to the soil? 9. Have the students gather around center table where the teacher has the pot with the large plant, smaller plant and seedling all planted in it. 10. Begin the second part of the experiment by another explanation of the four levels of the rainforest. 11. Have teacher ―rain‖ on the potted plants. Which of the three plants got the most direct water? Where is the soil wet? What effect if the larger plant having on the two smaller plants? 12. Have students write in their journal about soil erosion and poor soil quality and how it may affect plant and animal life. Extend it further to ask them to think about how it can also affect humans. 13. Then have the students take the four different colors of index cards and write the layers of the rainforest on each one with a brief description of where it is located, what type of vegetation grows there, what type of animals call that layer their habitat, and how much (percentage) of rain it receives. Page 25 14. Have the students draw a rainforest with each of the layers on half of a sheet of paper then glue the appropriate index cards to the correct layer. Wrap-up Tell students that they have learned the layers of the rainforest and have briefly gone over the animals that live there. Remind them of the field trip Monday and what to wear/bring. Tell them they will be able to look at a replica of the rainforest and challenge them to tell you the layers when they see it. Also inform them they will be doing additional research next week on an animal that lives in one of the layers of the Amazon tropical rainforest. Page 26 Rainforest Layers – Additional Information EMERGENTS The emergents consist of the tops of the tallest trees, which are much higher than the average canopy height (ranging up to 270 feet or 81 m). It houses many birds (like the scarlet macaw), insects, and more. CANOPY The canopy is the name given to the upper parts of the trees (about 65 to 130 feet or 20 to 40 m tall). This leafy environment is full of life: insects, arachnids, many birds (like the keel-billed toucan, the scarlet macaw, the cuckoo, and the hornbill), mammals (like the howler monkey, which is the second-loudest animal in the world, and the orangutan), reptiles (like snakes and lizards), and others. Plants in the canopy include thick, snake- like vines and epiphytes ("air plants") like mosses, lichens, and orchids (which grow on trees). UNDERSTORY The understory is a dark, cool environment that is under the leaves but over the ground. Most of the understory of a rainforest has so little light that plant growth is limited. There are short, leafy, mostly non-flowering shrubs, small trees, ferns, and vines (lianas) that have adapted to filtered light and poor soil. Some of these plants include ferns, palms, philodendrons, and heliconias. Animals in the understory include insects (like beetles and bees), arachnids, snakes, lizards, and small mammals (like the kinkajou) that live on and in tree bark. Some birds (like antbirds) live and nest within tree recesses and eat the abundant insects. Some larger animals, like jaguars, spend a lot of time on branches in the understory, surveying the area, looking for prey. FOREST FLOOR The floor of the forest is teeming with animal life, especially insects and arachnids (like tarantulas). The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here, including gorillas, anteaters, wild boars, tapirs, jaguars, and people. Page 27 Rainforest Café – Field Trip Objective(s) The students will: Identify the different types of animals and living conditions for the types of animals found in the rainforest. Actively seek answers to the questions on the Rainforest Worksheet. Evaluation The students will demonstrate their knowledge by the worksheets they turn in about the Rainforest. They will also write a response in their science journals on what they learned. A discussion will be held to compare and contrast the student’s individual response. Observe if students- *Attend field trip to Rainforest Café *Are able to identify types of animals that live in the rainforest *Complete a Rainforest worksheet Michigan Standards: Social Studies Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.EE.1.2-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of places, cultures, and settlement. Students will describe the natural characteristics of places and explain some basic causes for those characteristics. SOC.II.LE.2.1-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will explain basic ecosystem concepts and processes. Science Strand III.5. Ecosystems SCI.III.E.5.2- All students will explain how energy is distributed to living things in an ecosystem. Students will describe the basic requirements for all living things to maintain their existence. VOCABULARY AND DEFINITIONS: Emergent layer- Highest layer of the Rainforest that contains giant trees that are much higher than the average canopy height. It houses many birds and insects Canopy layer- The upper parts of the trees. This leafy environment is full of life in a tropical rainforest and includes: insects, birds, reptiles, mammals, and more. Understory layer- A dark, cool environment under the leaves but over the ground. Forest Floor- Teeming with animal life, especially insects. The largest animals in the rainforest generally live here. Page 28 Rainforest- They are very dense, warm, wet forests. They are havens for millions of plants and animals. The plants of the rainforest generate much of the Earth's oxygen. These plants are also very important to people in other ways; many are used in new drugs that fight disease and illness Strata- layers Rationale The students will be able to experience the sights and sounds of a rainforest by going to a restaurant that has totally incorporated the theme. The restaurant is within driving distance and is open during school hours. The Rainforest Café is located in Great Lakes Crossing Mall off of the I-75 freeway in Auburn Hills. The Rainforest Café opens at 10:00am Monday-Saturday and 11:00 am on Sundays. The fees for school groups are as follows: Student - $9.25, Adult Chaperone- varies (orders own meal), coordinator – free, bus parking – free. Weekends are the busiest days so it is advised to schedule your field trip Monday-Thursday. Contact person for the trip is Stacey Cura, Field Trip Coordinator, and the phone number is 248-333-0280. The goal of the Rainforest Café educational tours are to learn about the environment, conservation, endangered species, and rain forests from our experienced specialists. A 30-45 minute educational tour takes classes or other groups on a safari through the most realistic rain forest ever created! There is an all inclusive, per person charge includes the tour, and wild lesson plans, for use on-site or back in the classroom. This ties in the previous lesson of the layers of the rainforest and provides immediate visual feedback on the students seeing the layers. The restaurant also provides glimpses of some rainforest animals which will tie in with the next lesson of studying Amazon tropical animals more in-depth. Materials Pen/Pencil Tour guide packet Clipboard Reference materials include: The Rainforest Café http://www.rainforestcafe.com ZOOM Rainforests www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/rainforest Rainforest Café Auburn Hills John Howard – Tour Guide www.rainforest-alliance.org Page 29 Opener The students will participate in a class discussion on what they already know about the rainforest including the layers and what types of animals. Procedures 1. Set up the field trip 2-3 months in advance. 2. Send home info sheet and permission slip one month in advance so that volunteer chaperones have time to adjust their schedules. Each chaperone will have a group of 4-5 students. 3. Make group assignments prior to the trip and go over expected behavior on the field trip. Students may work together as a group on the field trip, but must turn in their own worksheets at the end. 4. The day before the field trip, the students will participate in a class discussion on what they already know about the rainforest including the layers and what types of animals. 5. A class discussion will be held on the morning of attending the field trip to the Rainforest Café. The students will discuss what they already know about the different types of animals in the rainforest, and also what they would like to learn. They will set up a KWL chart to see what they would like to know as well. 6. At the field trip, chaperones will be given packets with the students’ worksheets for the scavenger hunt that will be completed at the Rainforest Café. This also includes any necessary materials. 7. Upon arrival, all groups will immediately go to the Rainforest Café after entering Great Lakes Crossing Mall. 8. Students will attend an interactive tour of the Rainforest with a tour guide and complete the fill-in the blank questions. All background info will be given by tour guide about the animals, how they survive, where they live, and so on. 9. Students will then be given lunch. 10. After lunch students will have an additional one to two hour period to explore the rainforest and complete the ―scavenger hunt‖ worksheet. 11. Completed worksheets are to be given to the teacher, who will be walking around the Rainforest to monitor behavior. 12. Groups will then gather at meeting place and return to school. 13. The class as a whole will go over the worksheets by randomly choosing students to provide answers. 14. We will also be doing a journal entry of what we learned on our field trip about the rainforest. Students will write what they saw and the sounds they heard and compare them to what they see and hear in Michigan. Wrap-up Ask if students enjoyed the replica of the rainforest on the field trip. Ask them what they remembered the most. Most likely someone will say the moving animals. At this point remind them of the research they will begin tomorrow regarding choosing one Amazon tropical rainforest animal to study. Page 30 Animals of the Rainforest Objective(s) The students will: Identify various animals that live in the rainforest. Describe the animal’s habitat and physical characteristics. Create a tour guide pamphlet using their data. Create a diorama of an accurate display of one animal and its habitat. Evaluation The students’ completed pamphlets and dioramas. Michigan Standards: Social Studies Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.LE.2.1-All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will explain basic ecosystem concepts and processes. Science Strand III.5. Ecosystems SCI.III.E.5.2- All students will explain how energy is distributed to living things in an ecosystem. Students will describe the basic requirements for all living things to maintain their existence. Rational This lesson is designed to introduce students to the various animals that live in the rainforest and what they need to survive. Materials A Tropical Trip Webquest Construction paper Crayons Shoebox Glue Scissors Plastic animals Opener Tell the students they have been chosen to be the youngest ever Rainforest Rangers. They must guide the tourists through the wet and wild rainforest. They need to prepare for the tour, which includes teaching the tourists about four animals that live in the rainforest. Page 31 Procedures Day 1 1. Explain to the students that they are the youngest ever Rainforest Rangers. 2. Have students complete A Tropical Trip Webquest (see attached webquest information). 3. Students design a pamphlet, which includes information about four animals using construction paper and crayons. Day 2 4. Students complete pamphlets. 5. Students choose one animal from their pamphlet to create a diorama using the information gathered. a. Must include the animal and its habitat. Wrap-up The students display their dioramas and take a ―rainforest‖ tour around the classroom. Page 32 A Tropical Trip A WebQuest for 4th Grade Life Science Page 33 Introduction You have been chosen to be the youngest ever Rainforest Ranger. It is your job to guide the tourists through the wet and wild rainforest. You need to prepare for your tour, which begins in two weeks. Your tour includes teaching the tourists about four of the animals that live in the rainforest. To become an expert you must choose four animals and research each one. Find out about the diet, habitat and characteristics of each animal. Be the best youngest ever tour guide on this side of the equator. Task You are the youngest ever Rainforest Ranger tour guide. Choose four animals to learn about and be prepared to share important information with your tourists. You will be creating a pamphlet to give to your tourists, which includes information about the animals you chose. Here are some questions that you should answer about each animal: 1. What does the animal eat? 2. Describe the animal’s habitat. 3. Describe three or more physical characteristics of the animal. 4. How does the animal protect itself? 5. What makes the animal special or unique? Draw or find a picture of each animal for your pamphlet. Create a diorama of one of your animals and its habitat. Display it to your tourists at the beginning of the tour as a preview to entice them on their tropical trip. Page 34 Process First you will go to the Internet sites listed below to pick four animals from the rainforest. Record your choices in your science journal. Look at the pictures of your animals so you know exactly what they look like. Search for information about each of your animals throughout the Internet sites to become an expert. Make sure you find the answer to each of the questions listed above for each animal. Record your information in your science journal. Draw a picture of each of your animals for your pamphlet. You may also use pictures from the Internet sites. Design a pamphlet to give to your tourists, which includes the name, a picture and information about each animal. Choose one of your animals to create a diorama. Use the information gathered to make an accurate display of the animal and its habitat. The diorama will be shown to the tourist to begin the tour. Research the following sites! Tropical Rainforest Animals Animals of the Amazon Rainforest Zoom Rainforest The Rainforest Ecosystem Explore Animals of the Rainforest Rainforest Wildlife Page 35 Evaluation Amateur Rainforest Deputy Expert Rainforest Ranger in Rainforest Rainforest Ranger Training Ranger Ranger Animal Pamphlet Pamphlet Pamphlet Pamphlet Collection consists of one consists of two consists of consists of four animal animal three animal animal description descriptions descriptions descriptions from the from the from the from the rainforest. rainforest. rainforest. rainforest. Animal Completes two Completes Completes Completes all Description or fewer three questions four questions five questions questions for for each for each for each animal. each animal. animal. animal. Animal Picture Pamphlet Pamphlet Pamphlet Pamphlet contains a contains contains contains picture of one pictures of two pictures of pictures of four animal. animals. three animals. animals. Diorama Diorama is Diorama Diorama Diorama is incomplete. It includes animal contains color. accurate and does not and its habitat Includes some colorful. include the with few details of the Includes several animal and its details. animal and its details of the habitat. habitat. animal and its habitat. Conclusion You have become the youngest ever Rainforest Ranger tour guide. The information you have gained will be used to give your tourists an informational tour of the rainforest. Allow your tourist to have an exciting tropical trip by beginning with an explanation of your diorama. Then pass out your pamphlets and begin your tour through the rainforest. Teach your tourists fascinating facts about the animals that live in the rainforest. Good Luck! Page 36 Amazon Tropical Rain Forest: The Products An Economics Activity Objective(s) The students will: Gain knowledge about products that originated from the Rain forest that may be in their homes. Learn about natural resources, human resources and capital resources that the rain forest produces. Evaluation The students will demonstrate their knowledge by choosing which product is a natural resource, human resource or a capital resource at the varies stations. They will also be assessed on whether the students participated in their group. The students will record the different items at the stations and the type of resource. Michigan Standards: Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.EE.2.1- All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe how people use the environment to meet human needs and wants. Strand IV Economic Perspective SOC.IV.LE.2.1- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will distinguish between natural resources, human resources, and capital equipment in the production of a good or service. Rationale The students are learning this to gain knowledge of about the different economic resources that the rain forest has. Materials Different products from the rain forest (see the attached sheet) Letter explaining the children will taste different products. Opener 1. The students will discuss what they have learned about the Rain Forest. They will describe the characteristics of what they know. For example, they will tell where it is located, what kinds of animals live there and what kinds of plants grow there. 2. Then discuss the importance of the Rain Forest (home to over 50% of the worlds plants and species, it provides 40% of the worlds oxygen and supplies ingredients for 25% of our prescription drugs) and how it being cut down for lumber (for building and furniture) and the land is being used for farming and mining. Page 37 Procedures 1. Teacher: Tell the students they will be experiencing a part of the rain forest. They will be tasting and observing different products that are produced from the rain forest (at the end of the lesson). Explain resources and producers (Producers— make goods or provide services; Resources—are what producers use to make those goods and services). Have the students try and guess what kinds of products are produced from the rain forest. (Examples: fruits and vegetables— banana, avocado, lemon and papaya. Other food—Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, coconut, coffee and tea. Flowers like African violet, Begonia and Christmas cactus. Household products—rubber, chewing gum, varnish, printing ink, lacquer and medicine) 2. Discuss that the resources can be broken down into 3 categories: Natural resource, human resource and capital resource. a. Natural Resource—are those things found in and on the earth, such as water, oil and sunlight b. Human Resource—are people who work, like teachers, doctors, farmers and miners. c. Capital Resource—are tools, equipment and buildings we use to produce things. Like trucks, shovels, computers and farm equipment. 3. Give an example on the board (using the rain forest) and have the students decide which type of resource it may be. Use more examples if the students do not understand the concept. a. Natural Resource—Lumber, land, oxygen and ingredients for medicine b. Capital Resource—Saws, trucks, roads and farm equipment. c. Human Resource—Lumber jacks, drivers, mill managers and farmers. 4. Students: Divide the students into different 5 groups. Each group will go around to the different stations and classify the different goods into the 3 categories of productive resources. a. Station one: provide all natural resources—fruit, lumber and plants. b. Station two: provide all capital resources—farm equipment, toy trucks and tools. c. Station three: provide all human resources—cut out pictures of drivers, farmers and lumber jacks. d. Station four: mix them up and have the students place the items according to the type of resource. In this station place items that represent natural and human resources. e. Station five: Have items from all 3 categories, natural, human and capital resources. 5. To close this lesson the students will be able to observe and taste the different goods that are produced from the rain forest. IMPORTANT: make sure there are no allergies to any of the food they will be passing out. Send home a letter to the parents explaining the students will taste different products from the rain forest. List the products you plan on providing and have the parent circle the foods that the child is allergic to and eliminate that item from the list. Page 38 6. During the taste fest of rain forest goods play music in the back ground of sounds from the rain forest. Closure Review the products at the different stations and discuss what type of resource it is and why they believe it belongs to that resource. Ask the students what the resources are and the definition of them. Extension o Math: The students will do a worksheet that will compare the prices of products here to the prices of products in the Rain forest. This worksheet will deal with greater than and less than. They can also make a bar graph of the students favorite item form the rain forest. o Language Arts: Place the students into groups or pairs and have them promote a product from the rainforest. Each group will have a different product to promote and will make a poster or brochure in which they will describe it, draw it and describe why a consumer would want to use this item. Resources Martin, Laura, and Sally Ride E.S. (1996). Economics Lesson: The Rain Forest. Retrieved [April 17, 2004] from [http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade3/Econ_Interd.html]. Milani, M. (1994) Rain Forest Products. Access Excellence. Retrieved [April 17, 2004] from [http://accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1994/milani_rain.html]. Page 39 Products of the Rain Forest Food Products Avocado Other Food Products Banana Brazil nuts Guava Cashew nuts Lemon Coconut (whole and Lime shredded) Mango Coffee (beans and ground) Orange Macadamia nuts Papaya Tapioca Pineapple Tea Plantain Sweet potato Medicines Ipecac Spices and Flavors Quinine Allspice Black pepper (whole and Gums and Resins ground) Rubber (balloons, erasers, Cardamom balls, rubber bands, Cayenne (red pepper) gloves, tires) Chili pepper Chicle (chewing gum) Chocolate/cocoa (products) Copal (varnish, printing ink) Cinnamon Dammar (varnish, lacquer) Cloves Ginger (fresh and ground) Household Products Mace African violet Nutmeg (whole and ground) Begonia Paprika Bird’s-nest-fern Turmeric Bromeliads Vanilla (liquid and whole Christmas cactus bean) Rosy Periwinkle Page 40 Trading Day with the Amazonian Indians (Adopted from Joan M. Horn from Roosevelt Intermediate School) Objective(s) The students will: Be introduced and develop a base knowledge about the Amazonian culture. Take what it is like to barter for items without having a shared culture or spoken language. Evaluation After the lesson, students will be presented with four discussion questions about the Amazonian culture, and their impact on modern society. Michigan Standards: Strand IV Geographic Perspective SOC.II.EL.1.1 -All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of places, cultures, and settlement. Students will locate and describe cultures and compare the similarities among the roles of women, men, and families. SOC.II.EE.2.1- All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe how people use the environment to meet human needs and wants. Strand IV Economic Perspective SOC.IV.EE.2.1- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will connect economic needs with businesses that meet them. SOC.IV.EE.2.2- All students will explain and demonstrate how businesses confront scarcity and choice when organizing, producing, and using resources, and when supplying the marketplace. Students will select a particular good or service and describe the types of resources necessary to produce and distribute it. SOC.IV.EE.5.1- All students will describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and analyze the resulting challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and government. Students will recognize economic exchanges in which they participate. Rationale Students will learn how people use the environment to meet human needs and wants, and describe the human characteristics of places and explain some basic causes of those characteristics. Students will also learn to connect economic needs with business Page 41 needs, select a particular good and identify what resources are necessary to produce it, and recognize economic exchanges they participate in. Opener Day 1: Teacher passes around a number of artifacts from the Amazonian Indian culture, and facilitates a discussion about the artifacts. Materials Numerous Amazonian artifacts borrowed from the Children’s Museum in Detroit Several different books about the Amazonian Indians Encyclopedias Access to the Internet for research. Role cards marked Amazonian or Tourist (between the two, one for each student) Directions for each group (attached) One brown lunch bag for each tourist Day 2 Trade items that each student has made or collected Diary page for each student (attached) Procedures Day 1 1. The students will be handed (or on display) artifacts from the Amazon Indian culture. 2. The teacher will pose questions such as :What do you think this is? What could it be used for? Who do you think made it? Out of what materials? 3. Students will be introduced to the Amazonian culture using the book ―The Amazonian Indians,‖ by Anna Lewington) and the artifacts. 4. During this time the teacher should allow students to make comparisons between their culture and the Amazonian Indians’ culture. 5. Have students write thoughts on a class easel paper to use for the remainder of the unit. 6. Students will research further through books or on the Internet. 7. Students will write in their journals about the Amazonian Indians and their culture. 8. Briefly go over what was learned about the Amazonian culture. 9. Afterward, each student draws a card marked ―Amazon‖ or ―Tourist‖ from a box. 10. The directions (attached) are passed out to them and briefly discussed. Day 2 1. Refer back to the list of comparisons for the cultures and ask them to help create a village. 2. Trading day- Amazonian Indians take their places at row of desks (the village) and put their artifacts to be traded in front of them. The tourists place their artifacts to be traded in their brown paper bags and proceed to the village. While there both groups may use gestures and body language to communicate their wants and needs without talking. Page 42 3. Once they have finished trading, the students will fill out a diary page describing their experience. 4. They then will answer the four discussion questions for homework and bring back tomorrow for discussion and evaluation. Wrap up The discussion questions introduce the students to the possibility of modern society running the Amazonian Indians off their land for commercial use. This brings up a controversial side to our topic and will transition to our next lesson on the resources the rainforest has to offer, both natural, human, and land, and whether or not we should destroy it for those resources. Page 43 Directions for Tourist 1) You are to bring a small inexpensive item from home. 2) You can bring one item or many. Keep in mind; the Indians may want more than one thing for their items, or visa-versa. 3) You are very limited in space. As a tourist you did not have much room to pack a lot of things to trade. Everything you bring must fit into your brown paper lunch bag. 4) Some ideas can be: pencils, pens, erasers, stickers, candy, and small toys. Directions for Amazonian Indians 1) You must make the items you want to trade. 2) You can make just one item or many. 3) You can use markers, crayons, and paper, but the rest must be from nature, such as seeds, flowers, grass, sticks, and bark. 4) Ideas could be soap carvings, seed pictures, flower necklaces, leaf rubbings, use your imagination. Page 44 Diary Page When people go on vacation, or experience something new, they often write in journals or diary’s recording how they felt, and their reactions. Write about how you felt during your trading experience and what it makes you think about. Use as much detail as possible, and describe what happened as you were trading. Name_____________________ TOURIST or INDIAN Discussion Questions Name;_________________________________ TOURIST or INDIAN 1. Thinking back to what you have learned about the Amazonian Indians, do you think their culture will be around for many more generations? Why or why not. Give examples to support your answers. 2. Should tourist be able to buy items from the Indians with money? Explain your reasoning? 3. Do you think the Amazonian Indians become part of modern culture, retreat further into the rain forest to avoid modern culture, or stay where they are and take their chances? 4. How did you feel as a tourist or Amazonian Indian when trading? Page 45 Controversy of the Canopy The Amazon Rainforest: A Controversial Issue Objective(s) The students will: Understand why rainforests are being destroyed. Be able to view both sides (saving the rainforest vs. destroying the rainforest). State their positions either for or against the deforestation process. Evaluation I will evaluate the students by how well they are able to debate their position in the mock trial. I will also assess them on how well the students write their journal entries. Do they have a point of view stated along with supporting arguments? Michigan Standards: Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.EE.2.1- All students will describe, compare, and explain the locations and characteristics of ecosystems, resources, human adaptation, environmental impact, and the interrelationships among them. Students will describe how people use the environment to meet human needs and wants. Strand VI Public Discourse and Decision Making SOC.VI.LE.2.1-All students will engage their peers in constructive conversation about matters of public concern by clarifying issues, considering opposing views, applying democratic values, anticipating consequences, and working toward making decisions. Students will engage each other in conversations, which attempt to clarify and resolve issues pertaining to local, state, and national policy. SOC.VI.LE.3.1-All students will compose coherent written essays that express a position on a public issue and justify the position with reasoned arguments. Students will compose a short essay expressing a decision on a local, state, or national policy issue. Rationale I decided to teach this lesson because many times students do not understand the importance of the Amazon Rainforest. Students also may have a difficult time understanding why people are cutting down the trees of the rainforest. Materials Index Cards (one index card for each group) The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rainforest by: Lynne Cherry Students’ Journals and Pencils/Pens Opener I will introduce this lesson by asking the students: Page 46 What kinds of animals are found in the Amazon Rainforest? How do you think people depend on the rainforest? Do you believe people have the right to cut down the trees? Procedures 1. After the opener discussion, I will read to the students the story called, The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rainforest by: Lynne Cherry. As I am reading, I will tell the students to listen carefully to the reasons the animals give for not cutting down the tree. 2. After reading the story, I could ask the students: How do you think the animals in the story felt when they saw a human that was bigger than them come and chop down their tree? In the end, who has the final say/power for what will happen? (humans do) Think up some examples in our community where our ecosystem or environment around us may be in danger. (examples: littering, pollution) Why do you think the rainforests are being destroyed? *If students are having difficulty with these questions, I can prompt them by saying that the rainforests are being cut down for many reasons including using lumber for building and furniture making. The land beneath the rainforest is good for farming and mining. Many people depend on the rainforest for their home. They use the forest products for food, clothing, and shelter. 3. After this discussion, divide the class into groups of 4 or 5. I could explain to the students that we will be engaging in a mock trial. I can explain that a mock trial is when students take sides defending a position on the rainforest. I could explain to them that I have index cards with either a rainforest animal on it or a human on it. Each group will receive an index card with a description about the animal or human. Once they receive their cards, they will brainstorm an argument to defend their position. (Role Playing Cards are shown below). 4. Groups should present to the class the point of view of the person or animal they have been assigned. Have students act out the situations. Wrap-up When all the students finish acting out their situations, have the students select the point of view he/she agrees with and write a journal entry from this perspective. Share the journal entries with the whole class. Discuss the issue and points of view. Role Playing Cards 1. You are Monkeys- The monkeys swing from vines to branches of the Kapok Tree. They are dependent on the tree’s vines to swing on. The Kapok Tree provides many monkeys to swing from branch to branch. Page 47 2. You are Tree Frogs- The tree frogs crawl on the leaves. Tree frogs need the leaves to hide from predators – so they can be camouflaged. The tree’s leaves match the tree frogs’ skin perfectly. 3. You are Porcupines- The porcupines swing down the Kapok tree from branch to branch. They need oxygen to live. All animals and people need oxygen to breathe. 4. You are a person who lives in the rain forest- You come from a very poor family. In order to meet the needs of your family, you decide to farm the rich soil underneath the rain forest. It is necessary for you to cut down the trees in order to plant your crops. The crops you plant will help put food on the table for you and your 15 family members. 5. You are a lumberjack who works for a lumber company- You have been a lumberjack in the rain forest for 30 years. You know no other business. You have always cut down the trees. Page 48 Postcards about the Rainforest Objective(s) The students will: Design a postcard about the Amazon Rainforest. Write a letter about the Amazon Rainforest and how it compares to the environment they live in. Evaluation The students read aloud and show their postcards/letters to the class before they send them to their pen pals. Michigan Standards: Social Studies Strand II Geographic Perspective SOC.II.LE.4.2-All students will describe and compare characteristics of ecosystems, states, regions, countries, major world regions, and patterns and explain the processes that created them. Students will describe places, cultures, and communities in the United States and compare them with those in other regions and countries. Strand VII Citizen Involvement SOC.VII.MS.1.2-All students will consider the effects of an individual’s actions on other people, how one acts in accordance with the rule of law, and how one acts in a virtuous and ethically responsible way as a member of society. Students will engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem they have studied. Language Arts Strand: Meaning and Communication ENG.1.LE.2.1-All students will demonstrate the ability to write clear and grammatically correct sentences, paragraphs, and compositions. Write fluently for multiple purposes to produce compositions, such as stories, reports, letters, plays, and explanations of processes. Rationale This lesson is designed to conclude the Amazon tropical rainforest unit by allowing the students to review what they have learned through verbal and written communication. They will also be given the chance to be a responsible citizen by brainstorming ideas on how to help protect and conserve the rainforest. Students will make a global connection with another culture by writing to students of the same age in the Amazon area. Materials FernGully - The Last Rainforest - movie Construction paper Markers Pencil Page 49 Opener Ask the students if they want to take an imaginary trip through the Amazon Rainforest. Tell them they are going to watch FernGully – The Last Rainforest (video), so sit back, relax and enjoy the movie while thinking about what they have learned. Procedures 1. Have students watch Fern Gully - The Last Rainforest 2. Have a discussion about the movie and what they have learned the past three weeks. 3. Let the students share their thoughts and feelings about the Amazon Rainforest. 4. Have the students design a postcard about the Amazon Rainforest using construction paper and markers. 5. Once they complete their designs, have them write a letter on the back of the postcards to their pen pals that live in the Amazon. The students should include interesting facts they have learned about the Amazon Rainforest and how it compares to the environment they live in. 6. They can also ask their pen pals any questions they may still have about the rainforest. 7. Have students share their postcards/letters in class to make certain it takes into consideration another culture’s feelings. 8. You can either mail or recreate the postcards electronically using Microsoft Draw or you can scan each student’s postcard and send electronically. Wrap-up Tell the students they can write and correspond with their pen pals for the remainder of the school year. Brainstorm ideas on how to help protect and conserve the Amazon tropical rainforest. Remind students that when the class goes to the Detroit Zoo they will be spending time in the Amphibian house which also has a rainforest portion. Page 50 Resources Aldis, Rodney. (1991). Ecology watch: rainforests. New York:Dillon Press. Balik, Michael J. PBS Online. Retrieved [April 23, 2004] from: [http://www.pbs.org/journeyintoamazonia/]. Chapin, Tom (1996). Around the world and back again [Sound recording]. New York: Sony Music Entertainment Inc. Cherry, Lynne. (1990). The Great Kapok Tree: a tale of the Amazon rain forest. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company. Cobb, Vicki. (1989). This place is wet. New York: Walker. The Cousteau Society. (1992). An adventure in the Amazon. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers. Coverdell, Paul D. Honduras Activities Grades 3 - 5: Tropical Rain Forests. World Wise Schools: Educators. Retrieved [April 24, 2004] from: [http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/guides/honduras/hontropical.html]. Cox, Jim (Writer), & Kroyer, Bill (Director). (1992). Fern Gully [Motion picture]. California: Fox Video. DuBosque, Doug. (1994). Draw!:rainforest animals a step by step guide. Peel Productions. The Educator’s Reference Desk. Retrieved [April 8, 2004] from: [http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/]. George, Jean Craighead. (1990). One day in the tropical rain forest. New York: Harper Collins. Gibbons, Gail. (1994). Nature’s green umbrella: tropical rain forests. New York: William Morrow. Goodman, Susan E. (1995). Bats, bugs and biodiversity: adventures in the Amazonian rain forest. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. Harris, Roger, J. (March 18, 2004). Jungle photos: Education, conservation, inspiration. Retrieved [April 5, 2004] from: [http://www.junglephotos.com/]. Page 51 JWM Production (Producer/Director). (2001). Biomes of the world in action: rainforest biomes [Motion picture]. Pennsylvania: Schlessinger Media. Lewington, Anna. (1993). What do we know about the Amazonian Indians?. New York: Peter Bedrick Books. Lourie, Peter. (1991). Amazon: a young reader’s look at the last frontier. Pennsylvania: Caroline House Martin, Laura, and Sally Ride E.S. (1996). Economics Lesson: The rain forest. Retrieved [April 17, 2004] from [http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/grade3/Econ_Interd.html]. McDermott, Gerald. (20010 Jabuti the tortoise: a trickster tale from the Amazon. San Diego: Harcourt. Milani, M. (1994) Rain Forest Products. Access Excellence. Retrieved [April 17, 2004] from [http://accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1994/milani_rain.html]. Missouri Botanical Garden (2002). Rainforest. Retrieved [April 5, 2004] from: [http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets/rforest/index.htm]. Morrison, Marion. (1993). The Amazon rain forest and its people. New York: Thomson Learning. MT & PK Productions. Learning about rainforests. Retrieved [April 17, 2004] from: [http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/krubal/rainforest/Edit560s6/www/animals.ht ml]. Noblet, Martine and Chantal Deltenre. (1995). The Amazon and the Americas. New York: Barron’s. Noseworthy, Alana. (2000). The great kapok tree: A social studies lesson. Retrieved [April 4, 2004] from: [http://www.atozteacherstuff.com/lessons/GreatKapokTree.shtml]. Palmquist, Mike (Producer). (1996). Amazon trail II [Electronic resource]. Minneapolis: MECC. Passport to Knowledge. (2002). Retrieved [April 8, 2004] from: [http://www.passporttoknowledge.com/rainforest/main.html]. Rainforest Alliance. (2004). Innovative solutions for global conservation. Retrieved [April 14, 2004] from: [www.rainforest-alliance.org]. Page 52 The Rainforest Café. (1999). John Howard – Tour Guide. Retrieved [April 14, 2004] from: [www.rainforestcafe.com]. Silver, Donald. (1993). Why save the rain forest? New York: Julian Messner. Waterlow, Julia. (1994). Rivers of the world: the Amazon. Texas: Raintree Steck- Vaughn. Woods, Mae. (1999). Protecting the rain forest. Minnestoa: Abdo Publishing. ZOOM Rainforests. (1998). All about rainforests. Retrieved [April 1, 2004] from: [www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/rainforest/]. Page 53 Reflection Catherine Hess What I have learned about the tropical rainforest is the different products that come from there as well as animals that live in the rainforest. There are some products that I would not have guessed would come from the rainforest. I also learned about the three types of resources (economics) they are capital resources, natural resources and human resources. I learned how to teach the Amazon rainforest by connecting it to social studies. I would have not made the connection to social studies with out my group. I connect the rainforest to the science aspect of it and not the social studies. However, I can now teach my students the science end of the rainforest and connect it to socials. To do this I would tie in the products (economics), the geography (location) and the controversy about cutting down the rainforest. I have learned that team work is important and it is important to do your part of the lesson or activity. I liked the contract each person had to sign to explain what they did to contribute to the lesson. I thought this would be a good way to make sure every member of the group is contributing. One thing about group work is everyone has a different schedule and putting everything together is a little difficult because the schedules may conflict. I thought my group was great, we did not have any conflicts and everyone came prepared every time we meet. Places I found to get ideas is from other people, my group had many great ideas. Therefore, I would ask other teachers about how I could teach a topic and pull their Page 54 ideas with mine to create a lesson. I like the internet also, because there are a lot of good ideas out there that a teacher can use. Deborah Hybarger I learned a great deal about the Amazon tropical rainforest. I learned about the specific biome of the rainforest along with the strata (layers). I learned more about the indigenous peoples through literature, their culture, and what is important to them. I learned of some of the animals that call the Amazon tropical rainforest their home and some of the subsequent folklore regarding those animals. I only briefly delved into their history, but discovered much about the present state of the rainforest and its future (or lack thereof). I learned by compiling the rest of the groups lessons into this unit how many different approaches there are to teaching this subject. Through their internet sites, I am excited to use some of the interactive tools and creative approaches. I learned that working in groups is great when you have a great support in the form of group members. We each did our best, collaborated well, compromised fairly, and stayed on task. Thus, it was a pleasurable experience to work with peers in forming a unit. I would like to apply this to the school I will someday be teaching in. Perhaps I could team up with another teacher (if teaching all subjects) or single subject teachers to fully integrate the topic being studied. I did not look online or teacher resource books for ideas for this unit or my lesson plan (introductory lesson). I wanted to come up with my own ideas to have a fresh Page 55 perspective and activity. I did find there were many resources at the library including informational texts and literature (folklore and stories) to parallel the rainforest unit. Renee McFarland I have always loved the movie, Fern Gully. After I saw this movie as a child, I thought the rainforest was such a cool topic. When my group decided to our road map on the Amazon Rainforest, I was excited to learn more about it. I never knew that the rainforest had different layers. I did not know that the top layer of the rainforest (where the upper parts of the trees are found) is called the ―canopy.‖ I knew a little bit about the animals of the rainforest, but I did not know that they lived in the canopy. I also found the controversy aspect interesting. I never realized that the soil from the rainforest is very valuable for farming. I always was a firm believer in saving the rainforest. After doing this roadmap, I am still a firm believer but I also am more open-minded to the other side of the story. I understand now that people need jobs. I also understand that trees are an excellent source for lumber. By tearing down the rainforest, these two needs can be met. I also learned that teaching about the rainforest could be very interesting. I believe that hands-on lessons are the way to teach the students. They are better able to understand the idea of the rainforest by doing hands-on activities. Working in groups can be very hard when each member does not live in the same area as you do. However, I felt that this group contributed the best they could. Deborah did an amazing job putting everything together and making the final project Page 56 look great! Our group had a lot of great ideas and we were able to connect those ideas by putting them together in lesson plan formats. I used the Internet for finding ideas about the Amazon Rainforest. I never knew that field trips could have great resources to incorporate ideas into the classroom. I learned that The Rainforest Café is a great place to find ideas on how to teach about the rainforest. I also learned that Webquest is a great Internet site to find hands-on approaches for the students to engage. Nicole Peterson While working on this assignment I learned a lot about the rainforest, how to teach it, and interesting web sights full of information and ideas. Before designing this unit, I was unaware of the different products that come from the rainforest, and that there are people that inhabit the land. The rainforest became a real place to me, rather than just a small area on the map. While working as a group I got many innovative ideas from the other members. I did not know that the Rainforest Café did tours. Going there for a field trip is much easier than going to Brazil, and is very insightful. The lesson plans that we used are much different than ―traditional‖ methods, and incorporate the multiple intelligences. I learned that there are many different possibilities to present the information in a creative, innovative way. The Internet is a wonderful source of information. While researching my topic, I found virtually hundreds of useful sites that give examples of a variety of lesson plans. Often just seeing other teachers ideas inspire me, or give me ideas. My group worked really hard to pull this all together. We collaborated every step of the way. No one was afraid to step up and take on some of Page 57 the work. We never had any issues over what to do, or who was doing what. Our group dynamics made working on this project an enjoyable learning experience. Kim Romano Needed Lauren Sierens I learned many interesting facts about the Amazon Rainforest throughout my journey of putting together my portions of the Road Map. I was amazed by the variety of animals that live in a tropical rainforest. There are numerous products that we use in our daily routines that come from the rainforest. A variety of disciplines can be incorporated into the topic. I think that teaching students about the Amazon Rainforest offers a great opportunity to compare Michigan to another environment. The students can compare human and natural resources that come from both areas. It is important to create lessons that engage the students as they gain knowledge. If the students are actively involved, they become more interested in the topic. The use of visual aides, such as computer images and videos make the topic more realistic for the students. It is essential to have cooperation and good communication among all group members to create a successful unit to use in the classroom. Working in a group that contains willing participants can be a very rewarding and enjoyable experience. The group members have the opportunity to delegate various jobs between group members utilizing people’s strengths and skills. It provides an opportunity for knowledge to be Page 58 exchanged between group members. Collaborating with group members gives people a chance to share information with others and build off of their classmates’ ideas to create an inspiring and fun unit.
Pages to are hidden for
"rainforest"Please download to view full document