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					Cognitive ALL
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the
question.
1) The three memory stages, in order of processing, are 1) _______
A) working; long term; short term.
B) recall; recognition; rehearsal.
C) sensory; working; short term.
D) sensory; cognitive; short term.
E) sensory; working; long term.

2) The ability of the hippocampus to transfer intermediate memories into long-term memory is known as
2) _______
A) consolidation.
B) engram.
C) networking.
D) transduction.
E) plasticity.

3) ________ occurs when newly learned information prevents the retrieval of previously stored, similar
information. 3) _______
A) Suppression
B) Implicit amnesia
C) Explicit amnesia
D) Retroactive interference
E) Proactive interference

4) Hermann Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve revealed that we forget 4) _______
A) all information that is not personally relevant to us.
B) for meaningless information, quickly at first and then forgetting tapers off.
C) nothing, everything is held in long-term memory.
D) immediately after being exposed to new information.
E) None of the above are correct

5) Mnemonics are methods for 5) _______
A) encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.
B) retrieving information that has already been stored in LTM.
C) repressing memories that are too painful to remember.
D) reducing the bias we sometimes experience when storing memories.
E) enhancing our ability to detect sensory information.

6) Heuristic strategies show that our thinking is often based on 6) _______
A) common sense rather than learning.
B) logic rather than emotion.
C) experience rather than logic.
D) trial and error learning rather than algorithms.
E) logic rather than creativity.

7) Many individuals can remember an entire sentence that is read to them even though it exceeds the
amount of information we can generally hold in short-term memory. They do this by 7) _______
A) using long-term memory.
B) employing the method of Loci.
C) using the phonological loop.
D) using sensory memory.
E) using their sketch pad.



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8) Once children understand that there are rules regarding language, they have 8) _______
A) reached the babbling stage.
B) acquired grammar.
C) acquired syntax.
D) reached the telegraphic stage.
E) reached the two-word stage.

9) In pro active interference, old memories act to 9) _______
A) add additional information to permanent external memory.
B) block our ability to learn new information.
C) distort our sensory memory.
D) cause us to forget other old memories.
E) reverse the order of items in LTM.

10) Children regardless of where they are brought up, speak primarily about which of the following
categories of ideas? 10) ______
A) locations, movable objects and movers
B) needs, themselves and movers
C) parents, moveable objects and themselves
D) themselves, parents and needs
E) moveable objects, themselves and locations

11) ________ are unique brain wave patterns that are associated with particular stimuli. 11) ______
A) Background "noise"
B) Event-related potentials
C) Quantitative trait loci
D) Long-term potentiations
E) Artificial concepts

12) An algorithm would not be the best strategy when trying to 12) ______
A) follow a specific procedure during a science lab.
B) calculate your grade point average.
C) follow the directions on a box of legos in order to build the fort pictured on the cover.
D) choose whether you would like to have roses or lilacs in your garden.
E) use a mathematical formula to figure out the answer.

13) Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001 is an example of a(n)
13) ______
A) procedural memory.
B) implicit memory.
C) semantic memory.
D) flashbulb memory.
E) sensory memory.

14) Individuals who have amazingly developed skill despite their mental handicap are referred to as 14)
______
A) savants.
B) mentally challenged.
C) geniuses.
D) thriving in emotional intelligence.
E) None of the above

15) The most representative example of a category is called a(n) 15) ______



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A) schema.
B) availability heuristic.
C) mental set.
D) algorithm.
E) prototype.

16) Ebbinghaus found that when he returned to a list of words that he had previously memorized week
before, it took him ________. 16) ______
A) longer to remember the list again
B) longer to remember the first half of the list
C) less time to remember the list again.
D) the same amount of time to remember the list again
E) longer to remember insignificant words on the list

17) In order to get material into permanent storage, it must be made meaningful while it is in 17) ______
A) working memory.
B) eidectic memory.
C) recall memory.
D) long-term memory.
E) sensory memory.

18) Which of the following provides evidence to support the idea of a Language Acquisition Device
(LAD)? 18) ______
A) People around the world inherently know the same language.
B) All languages share all of the same sounds.
C) We learn much of the language we know from our peers and our parents.
D) Parents who talk to their children while in the womb have children who talk much earlier.
E) Children worldwide proceed through the steps of language in much the same way.

19) Your friend Edward is lost and needs your help finding the mall, you find out where he is and then
guide him verbally to his destination. Your ability to give Edward good directions to the mall is based on a
19) ______
A) hierarchy.
B) prototype.
C) hindsight bias.
D) mental set.
E) cognitive map.

20) According to Freud, those individuals who had been held in concentration camps during word war II
would ________ these memories because they are too painful to remember. 20) ______
A) ignore
B) remember
C) displace
D) project
E) repress

21) Your memory of how much fun you had last Spring break is an example of 21) ______
A) semantic memory.
B) sensory memory.
C) episodic memory.
D) chunking.
E) procedural memory.

22) As language develops, people 22) ______



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A) move from the babbling to the one-word stage.
B) All l of the above are trues about the development of language.
C) begin to combine morphemes into meaningful units.
D) lose the ability to makes sounds that are heard in other languages.
E) begin to learn rules of grammar.

23) Remembering the explanation that your psychology professor gave when she described neural
networks is likely held in your 23) ______
A) distributed learning.
B) procedural memory.
C) semantic memory.
D) priming.
E) implicit memory.

24) When you get a new cat, you will note her unique markings, so that you can form a memory of what
she looks like in comparison with other cats in the neighborhood. What would a cognitive psychologist
call this process of identifying the distinctive features of your cat? 24) ______
A) encoding
B) retrieval
C) eidectic imagery
D) storage
E) recollection

25) Which of the following is true of creativity? 25) ______
A) Creative people have unique personality flaws.
B) Creative achievement requires great leap of imagination.
C) Low motivation can facilitate creativity.
D) A person can become an expert after a year of study.
E) Creativity first involves becoming an expert in a specific field.

26) A "good thinker" possesses which of the following attributes? 26) ______
A) They make use of effective thinking strategies.
B) They avoid jumping to rash conclusions.
C) They avoid misleading thinking strategies.
D) They are capable of careful reasoning.
E) All of the above are correct

27) In studies that were completed regarding students' cognitive maps of the world, researchers found that
27) ______
A) all students regardless of where they lived chared a cognitive map that was very similar.
B) the majority of students held placed Europe at the center of the world.
C) most students placed the United States at the center of the world.
D) most students made Australia much smaller than it actually is.
E) there were no conclusive findings from the study.

28) Usually about 500 people attend the annual exquisite Irish food festival. This year however about
5000 people have attended because the word has spread that the boiled cabbage last year was "out of this
world". Kelly who is organizing the event knows that there is usually 500 people there, while she knows
more people are in attendance she estimates the crowd to be about 1000 people. She is probably
underestimating the crowd due to 28) ______
A) cognitive maps.
B) the anchoring bias.
C) mental set.
D) self-imposed limitations.
E) the representativeness heuristic.


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29) An implicit memory may be activated by priming, and an explicit memory may be activated by a
recognizable stimulus. In either case, a psychologist would say that these memories are being 29) ______
A) recalled.
B) cued.
C) stored.
D) learned.
E) chunked.

30) All of the following are components of thought except 30) ______
A) schemas.
B) scripts.
C) images.
D) concepts.
E) stimuli.

31) Which of the following statements best describes forgetting, as characterized by Ebbinghaus's
forgetting curve? 31) ______
A) Ebbinghaus's method of relearning showed that we never really forget.
B) We never forget.
C) We forget at a constant rate.
D) We forget rapidly at first and then more slowly as time goes on.
E) We forget slowly at first and more rapidly as time goes on.

32) The ________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes
information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall. 32) ______
A) spatial analyses
B) distributed learning
C) mood-congruent
D) engram
E) levels-of-processing

33) If you are unable to remember the name of your second grade teacher because you haven't thought of
her in awhile, you are demonstrating 33) ______
A) the serial position effect.
B) encoding specificity.
C) absent-mindedness.
D) transience.
E) misattribution.

34) If Ellie who is 21/2 years old says, "Cookie me now", she is demonstrating 34) ______
A) telegraphic speech.
B) one-word speech.
C) babbling.
D) overregularization.
E) two-word speech.

35) You are baby sitting one Friday evening and after the children are in bed you decide to watch the
movie 'Scream'. After watching the movie you are sure that you hear sounds coming from the basement
and are frightened that there may be a killer in the house. In reality the chances that someone has broken
into the house are no better than they were before you watched the film, however your are still scared. This
is an example of which of the following 35) ______
A) the availability heuristic.
B) an anchoring bias.



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C) divergent thinking.
D) hindsight bias.
E) confirmation bias.

36) Long-term memory is thought to have 36) ______
A) a limited capacity of approximately 1000 items.
B) a seven-item capacity.
C) a repressed capacity.
D) an unlimited capacity.
E) a large chunking capacity.

37) ________ bias refers to a situation in which people ignore or overlook information that disagrees with
their beliefs. 37) ______
A) Availability
B) Knowledge
C) Representativeness
D) Hindsight
E) Confirmation

38) Because ideas in LTM are stored in terms of meaning, a practical way to improve memory is to 38)
______
A) wait until the last moment to learn new material.
B) cut down on alcohol intake on study days.
C) make the material meaningful when it is in working memory.
D) use only maintenance rehearsal when studying.
E) study in a noisy crowded environment.

39) If you keep accidentally calling your new girlfriend your old girlfriends name, you are experiencing
39) ______
A) proactive interference.
B) misattribution.
C) transience.
D) encoding specificity.
E) repression.

40) Highly emotional memories such as those which many prisoner's of war have experienced may cause
post-traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has found which brain structure to play a significant role in
these emotional memories? 40) ______
A) amygdala
B) reticular activating system
C) pons
D) pituitary
E) hypothalamus

41) The typical vocabulary of a six-year old is 41) ______
A) 10,000 words.
B) 5,000 words.
C) 60,000 words.
D) 1,000 words.
E) 7,000 words.

42) Results from PET scan studies suggest that 42) ______
A) a single brain region mediates thought.
B) most types of mental processing occur throughout the brainstem.



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C) thought occurs in widely distributed areas of the brain, and that a range of highly specialized modules
deal with different kinds of thought.
D) a single "thinking center" mediates thought.
E) the cerebellum is loosely divided into subsections which deal with different kinds of thought.

43) Brian cannot remember the name of the flower he just planted even though he knows he is familiar
with it's name, his lack of remembering demonstrates the ________. 43) ______
A) tip of the tongue phenomena
B) recognition
C) chunking
D) mnemonic devices
E) method of loci

44) You are at a party, first you are introduced to Tina and immediately following that introduction you
meet Gina, they both look similar and you have not met them before, which of the following may be
prohibiting you from correctly remembering their names even moments later? 44) ______
A) retroactive interference
B) serial position effect
C) transience
D) bias
E) interference

45) We are always aware of ________ memory whereas ________ memory may be incidentally learned.
45) ______
A) episodic; semantic
B) semantic; procedural
C) implicit; explicit
D) explicit; implicit
E) semantic; episodic

46) The TOT phenomenon is explained as due to a poor match between 46) ______
A) mnemonics and engrams.
B) retrieval cues and encoding in LTM.
C) semantic memory and recall.
D) implicit and explicit memory.
E) episodic memory and recognition.

47) The awareness of what your friend wore to school last April 21st must first pass through 47) ______
A) declarative.
B) working.
C) photographic.
D) sensory.
E) procedural.

48) At a high-school class reunion you are likely to experience a flood of memories that would be unlikely
to come to mind under other circumstances. What memory process explains this? 48) ______
A) implicit memory
B) encoding specificity
C) anterograde amnesia
D) retrograde amnesia
E) the TOT phenomenon

49) Which of the following is a culturally defined script that would violate most Americans ideas of
acceptable behavior. 49) ______



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A) The expectation that people stop at red lights.
B) The idea that women should not reveal their face or arms in public.
C) The idea that people who know one another should say 'hello'.
D) The expectation that children should share with one another.
E) The idea that we should listen to our teachers.

50) In problem-solving, a(n )________ will nearly always to produce the correct answer. We often
however use ________ because they are much more efficient and are often still correct. 50) ______
A) mnemonic device; scripts
B) retrieval cue; cognitive maps
C) prototype; anchoring bias'
D) a mental set; schemas
E) algorithm; heuristics

51) Another term for eidectic imagery is 51) ______
A) implicit memory.
B) photographic memory.
C) episodic memory.
D) engram.
E) recognition.

52) Your parents remember details regarding when John F. Kennedy was shot, and you remember details
about a mugging you saw last month. Your parents memory is more likely to be ________ and your is
likely to be ________. 52) ______
A) totally wrong; distorted
B) distorted; distorted
C) accurate; accurate
D) distorted; accurate
E) accurate; distorted

53) Eidectic memory is most often found in 53) ______
A) those with an incredibly high I.Q.
B) idiot savants.
C) children.
D) the elderly.
E) All of the above

54) Consider the following concept hierarchy-food, desserts, chocolates, ________. The last term should
be 54) ______
A) edible food.
B) brownies.
C) side dishes.
D) main courses.
E) vanilla ice cream.

55) Wendell is a great surfer but he never considers surfing as a career, instead he goes into accounting
which he has no real passion for, Wendell is exhibiting 55) ______
A) an error identifying the problem.
B) self-imposed limitations.
C) functional fixedness.
D) a heuristic.
E) a algorithm.

56) The physical changes that are associated with memory are known as a(n) 56) ______



                                                                                                            8
A) engram.
B) phoneme.
C) schema.
D) long-term potentiation.
E) phosgene.

57) Long-term potentiation suggests that 57) ______
A) a neuron can hold information for more than a minute.
B) all incoming messages will be sent to permanent storage in long-term memory.
C) sensory memory has the ability to store memories indefinitely.
D) millions of neurons can be involved in storing a single memory.
E) None of the above explain long-term potentiation.

58) Which one of the following systems reconstructs material during retrieval? 58) ______
A) computer memory
B) human memory
C) eidectic memory
D) information recorded in a book
E) video recorder memory

59) After the outcome is known, people often have distorted thinking about their original expectations due
to 59) ______
A) their prototypes.
B) confirmation bias.
C) representativeness heuristic.
D) hindsight bias.
E) availability heuristic.

60) Social cues that help to express meaning in communication include 60) ______
A) facial expressions.
B) body language.
C) feedback from those they are talking to.
D) intonation.
E) All of the above

61) Leon is an architect, he has been plotting out restaurants. For all of the restaurants in in the past, Leon
has worked the traffic flow in a clockwise manner. For the current restaurant this will not work, but Leon
cannot think of another way to route the traffic. leon is experiencing 61) ______
A) divergent thinking.
B) incorrectly identifying the problem.
C) working backward.
D) an anchoring bias.
E) a mental set.

62) The idea proposed by Noam Chomsky that suggests that all individuals are born with an innate ability
to learn language. 62) ______
A) overregularization
B) linguistic relativity theory
C) grammar
D) language acquisition device
E) morpheme

63) What is the prototypical example of a vehicle? 63) ______
A) bike B) bus C) boat D) car E) train



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64) A guitarist uses ________ to recall how to play the notes of a specific song. 64) ______
A) procedural memory
B) mnemonics
C) semantic memory
D) a flashbulb memory
E) episodic memory

65) ________ was the first to hypothesize that people form cognitive maps of their environment to help
guide their actions toward certain goals. 65) ______
A) Edward Tolman
B) John Von Neumann
C) Bob Greene
D) Noam Chomsky
E) George Sperling

66) When you learn the tango, you forget the mambo that you learned last year, this is an example of 66)
______
A) transience.
B) proactive interference.
C) retroactive interference.
D) persistence.
E) serial position effect.

67) ________ occurs when memories are retrievable, but they are associated with the wrong time, place, or
person. 67) ______
A) Misattribution
B) Repression
C) Bias
D) Priming
E) Interference.

68) Which of the following is NOT true of the memory process of encoding? 68) ______
A) Emotionally charged experiences are easily encoded.
B) Encoding involves linking a new concept with one already in memory.
C) Encoding requires conscious attention.
D) A stimulus is identified during encoding.
E) B and D are correct

69) Brad is home when all of his lights suddenly go out. His thought that "this is what happens when a
fuse is blown" would be said to 69) ______
A) utilizing a heuristic.
B) identifying the problem.
C) demonstrating functional fixedness.
D) evaluating a solution.
E) using an algorithm.

70) A "feathered biped" is the artificial concept of a(n) 70) ______
A) bird.
B) sea horse.
C) penguin.
D) human.
E) animal.




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71) The key tasks of a memory system is to 71) ______
A) sense, understand, and rehearse.
B) process, rearrange, and simplify.
C) perceive, chunk, and recall.
D) be exposed to, combine, and consider.
E) encode, store, and retrieve.

72) Knowing how to check out a book at the library is an example of 72) ______
A) a script.
B) a natural concept.
C) a cognitive map.
D) an artificial concept.
E) an event-related potential.

73) Many psychologists view creativity as a form of 73) ______
A) artificial concepts.
B) intuition.
C) convergent thinking.
D) divergent thinking.
E) intelligence.

74) When you try to relate psychological terms you are learning in class to personal examples from your
life. You are using 74) ______
A) the method of Loci.
B) maintenance rehearsal.
C) elaborative rehearsal.
D) the phonological loop.
E) chunking.

75) if your psychology instructor asks you to provide a definition of assimilation, she is asking you to
answer a ________ question. 75) ______
A) procedural memory
B) implicit memory
C) recognition
D) memory trace
E) recall

76) During the memory process of ________, we select, identify the correct format for the memory
system. 76) ______
A) processing
B) storage
C) encoding
D) retrieval
E) access

77) Remembering names is usually harder than remembering faces because names require ________,
while faces require ________. 77) ______
A) declarative memory; procedural memory
B) storage;recall
C) encoding; retrieval
D) recall; recognition
E) short-term memory; long-term memory

78) A(n) ________ is a step-by-step solution to a problem that is likely to be successful. 78) ______



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A) schema
B) mental operant
C) rule of thumb
D) categorization process
E) algorithm

79) Because ________ memories of events before the age of three are extremely rare, early memories of
abuse are likely to be ________. 79) ______
A) procedural; distorted
B) declarative; forgotten
C) episodic; misattribution
D) semantic; biased
E) explicit; repressed

80) If George was trying to remember information for his Biology exam and he has encoded the
information correctly but cannot remember it after two days, there may be a problem with ________. 80)
______
A) retrieval.
B) elaboration.
C) sensory memory.
D) rehearsal.
E) storage.

81) Simon read the words 'bed,' 'night,' 'snore,' 'dream,' 'comfort,' and 'pillow' to Jennifer. As a result of
misattribution, we could expect Jennifer to 81) ______
A) only remember three or four of the words.
B) remember the first and last words, but not the middle words.
C) experience some sleepiness.
D) confuse the order of the words.
E) remember the word sleep.

82) A person who is a fine guitar player would be said to have a(n) ________ for it. 82) ______
A) divergence
B) prototype
C) schema
D) aptitude
E) algorithm

83) A child's acquisition of grammar first becomes apparent at 83) ______
A) the one-word stage.
B) the babbling stage.
C) the two-word stage.
D) adolescence.
E) the concrete operational stage.

84) many Alzheimer's patients have a memory the initially gives up newer thoughts and memories. They
may mistake their grandson for their own son. In many ways this resembles 84) ______
A) retrograde amnesia.
B) anterograde amnesia.
C) short-term memory.
D) long-term memories.
E) semantic memories.

85) When trying to find the solution to a complicated math problem, some people will begin with the



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answer and then try and find out how this cam to be, tis process is called 85) ______
A) reversibility.
B) inversion.
C) anchoring bias.
D) working backward.
E) means-ends analysis.

86) An eidectic image will fade from memory if you 86) ______
A) think about it.
B) are aware of it.
C) rehearse it.
D) describe it.
E) view it for too long.

87) Jenny is locked out of her car, it is cold and she is upset. Jenny forgets that she has a purse filled with
objects that might be of use in getting her into the car (bobby pins, eyeglass screwdriver, etc.). Jenny is
demonstrating 87) ______
A) the availability heuristic.
B) an algorithm.
C) functional fixedness.
D) the anchoring bias.
E) representative heuristic.

88) The "naming explosion" begins at about age 88) ______
A) 6 years.
B) All language development occurs evenly throughout the life span.
C) 9 months.
D) 3 years.
E) 18 months.

89) A heuristic is BEST described as a 89) ______
A) step-by-step procedure.
B) time-consuming process that guarantees success.
C) categorization process from general to specific.
D) schema.
E) rule of thumb.

90) Which part of memory has the smallest capacity? (That is, which part of memory is considered the
"bottleneck" in the memory system). 90) ______
A) explicit memory
B) sensory memory
C) long-term memory
D) implicit memory
E) working memory

91) Which of the following are the three essential tasks of memory? 91) ______
A) eidectic memory, short-term memory, and recall
B) Remembering, forgetting, and repressing
C) Recall, recognition, and relearning
D) Sensory, working, and long-term
E) Encoding, storage, and retrieval

92) Some people believe that psychology is all "common sense" and that we already knew most of what
research tells us about human nature. In reality we cannot make assumptions about human nature without



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doing research and collecting good data. The false belief that we already knew what psychology tells us is
known as ________. 92) ______
A) hindsight bias
B) the availability bias
C) the anchoring bias
D) convergent thinking
E) ignoring base rates

93) A dictionary definition would be an example of 93) ______
A) a concrete concept.
B) an artificial concept.
C) a natural concept.
D) a core concept.
E) an abstract concept.

94) Retrograde amnesia involves ________ and is induced by ________. 94) ______
A) the failure of semantic memory; abuse of alcohol
B) the inability to transfer into LTM; head trauma
C) the loss of prior memory traces; head trauma
D) the inability to transfer into LTM; cortical damage
E) memory distortion; meditation

95) Which of the following is a major objection to the "video recorder" theory of memory? 95) ______
A) Unlike a video recorder, memory takes in and stores an enormous quantity of information, not just
vision.
B) Memories are never accurate.
C) Memories do not degrade over time.
D) Unlike a tape-recorded video memory, human memory cannot be edited and changed at a later time.
E) Like perception, memory is an interpretation of experience.

96) Good problem solvers often use "tricks of the trade" or "rules of thumb" known as 96) ______
A) scripts.
B) heuristics.
C) deductive reasoning.
D) algorithms.
E) trial and error.

97) Place the following stages regarding language development in the correct order. 97) ______
A) one-word, babbling, two-word, telegraphic
B) babbling, one-word, two-word, telegraphic
C) babbling, two-word, one-word, telegraphic
D) babbling, one-word, telegraphic, two-word
E) one-word, two-word, babbling, telegraphic

98) To answer this multiple choice question, you must use 98) ______
A) implicit memory.
B) recall.
C) recognition.
D) the method of loci.
E) procedural memory.

99) Patient H.M. is unable to form ________ memories as a result of the removal of his ________.on both
sides of his brain in order to stop epileptic seizures. 99) ______
A) implicit; cerebellum



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B) episodic; hippocampus and amygdala
C) procedural; thalamus
D) declarative; frontal cortex
E) semantic; medulla

100) A person experiencing the TOT phenomenon is unable to ________ a specific word. 100) ______
A) recognize
B) recall
C) encode
D) store
E) learn

101) The sensory register for vision is called ________ memory, whereas the sensory register for hearing
is called ________ memory. 101) ______
A) olfactory; auditory
B) implicit; explicit
C) explicit; implicit
D) iconic; echoic
E) declarative; procedural

102) A language's set of rules about combining and ordering words. 102) ______
A) overregularization
B) accommodation
C) grammar
D) syntax
E) morphemes

103) ________ refers to a situation in which personal beliefs, attitudes and experiences impact memory
103) ______
A) Bias
B) Suggestibility
C) Transference
D) Interference
E) Misattribution

104) What is the first step in problem solving? 104) ______
A) avoiding pitfalls
B) developing algorithms
C) selecting a strategy
D) identifying the problem
E) searching for analogies

105) The reason it may be difficult to remember how many rows of stars appear on the United States flag
is most likely due to 105) ______
A) sensory interference.
B) the limits of our visual system.
C) sensory adaptation.
D) the fact that we pay little attention to such details.
E) habituation.

106) If you are trying to remember the names of all the U.S. presidents, the serial position effect would
predict that you will have difficulty 106) ______
A) recognizing the names of the presidents on a list.
B) recalling the earliest presidents.



                                                                                                            15
C) remembering more than about seven (plus or minus two) of them.
D) recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.
E) recalling the most recent presidents.

107) ________ refers to the term for any system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information. 107)
______
A) Memory
B) Perception
C) Sensation
D) Processing
E) Learning

108) The odd feeling of recognition you get when visit a new place is known as 108) ______
A) a concept hierarchy.
B) deja vu.
C) a prototype.
D) a mental set.
E) an algorithm.

109) If you learn material for your political science course in a classroom, as then are asked to take an
exam for that course if a large lecture hall on the other side of campus, your scores may not be as high as
you would like. What may explain this phenomena? 109) ______
A) mnemonic devices
B) encoding specificity
C) mood-congruent learning
D) recall
E) recognition

110) Which one of the seven "sins" of memory is disputed by those who believe that memories of
childhood abuse can, in many cases, be recovered during adulthood? 110) ______
A) decay
B) persistence
C) transience
D) absent-mindedness
E) suggestibility

111) Which of the following is NOT a difference between eidectic imagery and other memories? 111)
______
A) Eidectic images are more common for children.
B) Eidectic images are more abstract.
C) Eidectic images are more vivid.
D) Eidectic images last longer.
E) Eidectic images are more like afterimages.

112) To remember the five Great Lakes, you might remember the word HOMES, because each of the five
letters in HOMES is the first letter of one of the Great Lakes. This strategy is known as 112) ______
A) a recognition task.
B) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
C) the method of loci.
D) maintenance rehearsal.
E) a natural language mediator.

113) When you begin working n your psychology research project you at first feel overwhelmed.
eventually however you begin to take each step at a time until you come to the end of the project. By the



                                                                                                              16
end of the school year you have a wonderful research project that was made less overwhelming by 113)
______
A) using an algorithm.
B) working backwards.
C) breaking the problem into it's subgoals.
D) using functional fixedness.
E) formal logic.

114) H.M. lost the ability to create new memories after his surgery, he is suffering from 114) ______
A) retroactive interference.
B) repression.
C) retrograde amnesia.
D) anterograde amnesia.
E) proactive interference.

115) Noam Chomsky believed that language was 115) ______
A) only learned after age 2.
B) attributable primarily to nurture.
C) attributable primarily to nature.
D) an equal mix of nature and nurture.
E) a result exclusively learned from watching one's parents.

116) The observation that depressed people tend to favor recall of depressing memories is known as
________ memory. 116) ______
A) anterograde
B) retrograde
C) mood-congruent
D) sociopathic
E) A and B are correct

117) Which part of long-term memory stores autobiographical memory? 117) ______
A) recognition memory
B) procedural memory
C) eidectic memory
D) semantic memory
E) episodic memory

118) Which psychologist believes that all people are born with a Language acquisition Device? 118)
______
A) Lennenburg
B) Skinner
C) Whorf
D) Freud
E) chomsky

119) A, an, ill, are all examples of 119) ______
A) syntax.
B) phonemes.
C) overregularization.
D) morphemes.
E) grammar.

120) What is the problem with many foreign language programs currently offered in U.S. schools? 120)
______



                                                                                                        17
A) They begin their foreign language training too late.
B) They offer children to many different foreign language options.
C) They are not rigorous enough.
D) They begin their foreign language training too early.
E) The do not have enough selection in the choices of langauge.

121) Modern cognitive research suggests that memory for emotionally arousing events 121) ______
A) is remembered vividly.
B) is distorted.
C) is difficult to retrieve.
D) cannot be uncovered.
E) is stored deep within the unconscious mind.

122) I think that all librarians are middle aged women with cardigan sweaters, glasses and a bun. If I meet
a librarian who fulfills these expectations, it would reinforce my 122) ______
A) script.
B) heuristic.
C) schema.
D) artificial concept.
E) All of the above

123) The TOT phenomenon occurs when 123) ______
A) memories interfere with one another.
B) you know a word but cannot name it.
C) a person strongly believes that incorrect memories are accurate.
D) the order of presentation impacts recall.
E) a flood of memories enter consciousness.

124) Which one of the following would represent a concept hierarchy? 124) ______
A) cat, dog, giraffe, elephant
B) animal, mammal, dog, cocker spaniel
C) beaver, fox, cat, cougar
D) woman, girl, man, boy
E) lemur, monkey, chimpanzee, human

125) ________ are clusters of knowledge that provide general conceptual frameworks regarding certain
topics, events, and situations. 125) ______
A) Prototypes
B) Hierarchies
C) Algorithms
D) Schemas
E) Cognitive maps

126) Which of the following brain areas is primarily concerned with speech production? 126) ______
A) hippocampus
B) Wernicke's area
C) hypothalamus
D) Broca's area
E) parietal lobe

127) The storage capacity of working memory 127) ______
A) is smaller than both sensory and long-term memory.
B) varies more than both sensory and long-term memory.
C) is larger than sensory memory, but smaller than long-term memory.



                                                                                                        18
D) is larger than both sensory and long-term memory.
E) is larger than long-term memory, but smaller than sensory memory.

128) Getting information out of memory is known as 128) ______
A) encoding.
B) retrieval.
C) chunking.
D) storage.
E) elaboration.

129) When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for a brief period, the phone number is
thought to reside within ________ memory. 129) ______
A) working
B) procedural
C) long-term
D) sensory
E) gustatory

130) When you create in your mind a "typical day at school", you are experiencing 130) ______
A) deja vu.
B) functional fixedness.
C) concept formation.
D) a prototype.
E) an artificial concept.

131) If your mom reminds you to pick up your little brother from soccer practice, and then you friend calls
causing to you forget to pick up your brother, you would be said to be experiencing 131) ______
A) misattribution.
B) bias.
C) blocking.
D) transience.
E) absent-mindedness.

132) One of the reasons that people use algorithms is that these 132) ______
A) can solve almost any problem.
B) change over time as we become wiser.
C) are intuitive and obvious.
D) are flexible, because they are not too precise.
E) will always work if used properly.

133) Our ability to retain encoded material over time is known as 133) ______
A) recognition.
B) declarative memory.
C) chunking.
D) recall.
E) storage.

134) Working memory involves activity in circuits located with the ________ of the brain. 134) ______
A) prefrontal cortex
B) occipital lobe
C) parietal lobe
D) corpus callosum
E) cerebellum




                                                                                                        19
135) Which one of the following would be an example of the confirmation bias at work? 135) ______
A) Aaron agrees with Joel's taste in music.
B) Frank buys a lottery ticket because he read abut a lotto winner.
C) Mary ignores negative information about her favorite political candidate.
D) Bill buts a new RV, even though his wife was opposed to the purchase.
E) Natasha refuses to eat a dish she dislikes.

136) According to Freud, the only way to be free of repressed memories is to 136) ______
A) eliminate interfering information.
B) go back to the place where they occurred.
C) push them deep into the unconscious mind.
D) acknowledge your bias.
E) uncover them in therapy.

137) Jamal needs to remember his social security number but there are too many numbers for him to hold
it in his working memory. What technique would best help Jamal to remember his social security number.
137) ______
A) mnemonic device
B) employ sensory memory
C) chunking
D) method of Loci
E) iconic memory

138) You are an actor worried about remembering your lines. In order to help you a friend suggests that
you remember each portion of the script by linking it to different places in your home. What memory
technique has your friend suggested? 138) ______
A) rote memorization
B) method of loci
C) maintenance elaboration
D) persistence
E) None of the above

139) Which of the following is NOT true of highly creative people? 139) ______
A) They are very interested in the problem.
B) They question how problems are presented.
C) They prefer more complex problems.
D) They enjoy interacting with other creative thinkers.
E) They prefer to work in large groups.

140) Bonnie is trying to remember what grocery items she needs from the stores. She repeats the words,
"Eggs, cookies, bread, tortillas, and pretzels" over and over again in her mind. Bonnie is utilizing which
memory technique? 140) ______
A) transduction
B) elaborative rehearsal
C) retroactive interference
D) maintenance rehearsal
E) chunking

141) Which one of the seven "sins" of memory probably helps us avoid dangerous situations we have
encountered before? 141) ______
A) persistence
B) misattribution
C) absent-mindedness
D) bias
E) suggestibility


                                                                                                             20
142) Which of the following is NOT one of Daniel Schacter's "seven sins" of memory? 142) ______
A) encoding failure
B) suggestibility
C) transience
D) absent-mindedness
E) bias

143) What is the term for the controversial notion that memories can be blocked off in the unconscious,
where they can cause physical and mental problems? 143) ______
A) persistence
B) transience
C) interference
D) repression
E) absent-mindedness

144) The memory process of elaboration resembles the Piagetian concept of 144) ______
A) storage.
B) egocentrism.
C) assimilation.
D) recall.
E) recognition.

145) Because of the limited capacity of ________, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a
freeway during rush-hour. 145) ______
A) episodic memory
B) echoic memory
C) procedural memory
D) working memory
E) sensory memory

146) Because of self-consistency bias, 146) ______
A) Shawna believes that she always felt passionately about Matthew.
B) Sam may not love Florence any more.
C) Don may have trouble remembering how he initially felt about Vicki.
D) Pete's feelings about Anne may be stronger than they once were.
E) Tom believes that he loves Coral more than Mike does.

147) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that is consistently found among highly creative
people. 147) ______
A) extremely high intelligence
B) a high level of motivation
C) open-mindedness
D) independence
E) willingness to restructure the problem

148) How long does sensory memory generally last? 148) ______
A) 10 seconds
B) no limit to how long sensory memory will last
C) fraction of a second
D) 1 second
E) 1 minute

149) In Biology you are learning that a class of animals falls under the broader scope of a kingdom of



                                                                                                            21
animals and a family falls under class. You are learning a 149) ______
A) script.
B) syllogism.
C) mental set.
D) cognitive map.
E) hierarchy.

150) A temporary failure to recall where you left your keys is most likely due to 150) ______
A) proactive interference.
B) misattribution.
C) absent-mindedness.
D) the TOT phenomenon.
E) transience.

151) Concepts 151) ______
A) are basically the same from one person to the next.
B) can represent objects but not activities.
C) cannot be directly observed by researchers.
D) interfere with our ability to organize new information.
E) come in exactly two types, visual and auditory.

152) As you study the vocabulary in this book, which method would result in the deepest level of
processing? 152) ______
A) looking over the information, knowing that you will see it later
B) learning the definition given in the marginal glossary
C) thinking of an example of each term
D) marking each term with a high lighter each time it occurs in a sentence in the text
E) having a friend read a definition, with you having to identify the term in question in question form, as on
the TV show Jeopardy!

153) Noam Chomsky has presented evidence supporting his theory that 153) ______
A) different languages may have entirely different rules of grammar.
B) children are born with some rules of grammar programmed into their brains.
C) vocabulary is innate, but grammar is learned.
D) children learn language by imitating their parents.
E) grammar interferes with a child's ability to learn languages.

154) If you witness a mugging and the police ask, :"did you see the scar on the assailants face?" Eve if
there was no scar, you might reply that you did indeed see the scar. What fault of memory best explains
this honest mistake? 154) ______
A) bias
B) misinformation effect
C) transience
D) interference
E) persistence

155) Which of the following is true of prototypes? 155) ______
A) They are formed on the basis of commonly experienced features.
B) They are often based on dictionary definitions.
C) The more often they are perceived, the weaker their overall memory strength.
D) They are never used when the critical features approach applies.
E) They are slowly accessed and recalled.

156) When memories for unpleasant events are intrusive, what has occurred? 156) ______



                                                                                                           22
A) bias
B) transience
C) persistence
D) suggestibility
E) mnemonics

157) As the information in this book passes from one stage of your memory to the next, the information
becomes more 157) ______
A) important.
B) accurate.
C) meaningful.
D) interesting.
E) astute.

158) A math problem calls for finding the area of a triangle. You know the formula, so you multiply 1/2
the base times the height. You have used 158) ______
A) an algorithm.
B) functional fixedness.
C) a heuristic.
D) intuition.
E) an analogy.

159) Noam Chomsky believes that all children are born 159) ______
A) learn only their native language.
B) inherently know grammar.
C) with the ability to learn all languages.
D) knowing syntax.
E) knowing only the morphemes within their own language.

160) Chomsky believed that the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) was 160) ______
A) located in the parietal lobe of the brain.
B) essential if a newborn was to survive.
C) found in only some cultures.
D) a result our interactions with our environment.
E) a combination of speech centers located in the brain.

161) Blocking refers to the situation in which competing memories produce ________ leading to
forgetting. 161) ______
A) transference
B) transduction
C) misattribution
D) an engram
E) interference

162) The following eyewitnesses are being asked to recall what they say at an accident site. Who is most
likely to report a distorted memory? 162) ______
A) Ellyn, who has told her story to only one interrogator
B) George who is 35 and a lawyer
C) Mandy who knows that the recollection of memories can cause errors to occur
D) Eddie who has told his story already to five different interrogators each of whom asked different
questions
E) All of the above are likely to have faulty memories.

163) The capacity of working memory is about ________ items and this theory was developed by 163)



                                                                                                         23
______
A) twenty; Aronson.
B) thirty; Craik.
C) eleven; Miller.
D) seven, Miller.
E) three; Schacter.

164) Which one of the following is NOT an artificial concept? 164) ______
A) the dictionary definition of the word 'truth'
B) the lyrics to "New York, New York"
C) Einstein's theory of relativity
D) your mental image of the statue of Liberty
E) how to determine the radius of a circle

165) When Suzy scans the store window she decides that there is nothing that she is interested in. She is
using her ________ memory and when she is not interested in any of the objects, the information is
________. 165) ______
A) iconic; held for one minute
B) echoic; immediately disregarded
C) iconic; immediately disregarded
D) echoic; held for one minute
E) tactile; hed for one minute

166) If you look at the particular area on the chalkboard where a certain concept was written to help you
remember the term, you are using 166) ______
A) a mnemonic device.
B) eidectic memory.
C) implicit memory.
D) chunking.
E) a retrieval cue.

167) The concept of Transience suggests that long-term memory 167) ______
A) fade in strength over time.
B) increases as time passes.
C) become distorted by our expectations.
D) had unlimited capacity.
E) remain the same regardless of how much time passes.

168) ________ memory could explain how you know a certain person's name even if you cannot explain
how you know it. 168) ______
A) Explicit
B) Episodic
C) Procedural
D) Implicit
E) Semantic

169) ________ memory is the LTM subsystem that stores memory for how things are done. 169) ______
A) Semantic
B) Procedural
C) Eventual
D) Episodic
E) Declarative

170) New information is related to older memory information during the memory process of 170)



                                                                                                            24
______
A) elaboration.
B) storage.
C) rehearsing.
D) retrieval.
E) encoding.

171) You have seen many dogs in your life. Because of this, you have no problem picturing the new lab
that your friend is describing to you. This idea of what a dog looks like based on your prior experience is
called a 171) ______
A) normative schema.
B) natural concept.
C) mental prototype.
D) familiar concept.
E) deja vu experience.

172) You go to a new fancy restaurant, and you are nervous because you are on a first date. However,
since you have been to other nice restaurants before, you know that you will first be seated, then someone
will take your drink order,s then you will have an appetizer, followed by dinner. If all goes well of the
date, you may even stay for dessert! What is this an example of? 172) ______
A) algorithm
B) mental set
C) script
D) heuristic
E) episodic memory

173) Sperling's study involving recall of an array of 12 letters suggested that the actual capacity of sensory
memory is 173) ______
A) two or three items.
B) limitless.
C) about seven chunks.
D) seven (plus or minus two) items.
E) nine or more items.

174) Sally said, "I goed to the store", she is demonstrating an example of 174) ______
A) morphemes.
B) two-word speech.
C) overregularization.
D) telegraphic speech.
E) phonemes.

175) Sheila is collecting information for a survey. She believes that individual on public aid have a
tendency to take advantage of the money they receive from the government. As sheila collects her data,
she dismisses the information regarding hard working individuals on public aid and focuses on the
information that suggests that people are taking advantage. sheila is demonstrating the ________. 175)
______
A) anchoring bias
B) double-blind research
C) confirmation bias
D) hindsight bias
E) type four error

176) A person who uses a drop of super glue to seal a paper cut on their finger has overcome the obstacle
to effective problem solving related to 176) ______
A) the anchoring bias.


                                                                                                           25
B) working backward.
C) regression to the average.
D) functional fixedness.
E) the representativeness heuristic.

177) Suggestibility can cause us to 177) ______
A) rehearse important material repeatedly.
B) distort memories and create false ones.
C) lose old memories in our LTM.
D) block painful or upsetting memories.
E) be unable to forget painful memories.

178) A Cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded,
stored and retrieved is known as 178) ______
A) chunking.
B) the forgetting curve.
C) the information-processing model.
D) eidectic imagery.
E) the elaboration method.

179) Ted asks Krystal to say the words 'hop,' 'pop,' and 'mop.' Then, Ted asks Krystal, "What do you do at
a green light?" Krystal quickly replies, "Stop," (instead of the right answer: "Go") because of 179) ______
A) TOT phenomenon.
B) recognition.
C) priming.
D) encoding specificity.
E) misattribution.

180) The best strategy by which to transfer information from working memory to long-term memory is to
engage in 180) ______
A) eidectic imagery.
B) elaborative rehearsal.
C) long-term potentiation.
D) maintenance rehearsal.
E) repression.

181) Meghan is a cheerleader at your high school, she is always happy and outgoing and you assume that
the rest of the cheerleaders act much the same way, this potentially false belief is an example of ________.
181) ______
A) the confirmation bias
B) backward thinking
C) an algorithm
D) the hindsight bias
E) the representative bias

182) A(n) ________ is a cognitive representation of a physical space. 182) ______
A) spatial heuristic
B) cognitive map
C) chunk
D) algorithm
E) confirmation bias

183) This type of memory is primarily what contributes to our sense of self. 183) ______
A) eidectic memory



                                                                                                          26
B) short-term memory
C) procedural memory
D) sensory memory
E) long-term memory

184) Were sensory memories to last longer than normal, 184) ______
A) we would need more working memory.
B) sensory memory would be able to hold more information.
C) it would ultimately destroy cortical neurons.
D) our senses would not work together.
E) old information would interfere with incoming information.

185) The memory failure caused by transience is adaptive in that it 185) ______
A) ensures memories are stored by both sight and sound.
B) retains the most important information.
C) eliminates memories that conflict with our beliefs.
D) makes it difficult to encode sensory memories.
E) prevents memory from becoming overwhelmed.

186) Knowing how to board a train is considered a ________ memory, while knowing that Abraham
Lincoln was the sixteenth president of t he United States is a ________ memory. 186) ______
A) recognition; recall
B) immediate; eventual memory
C) procedural; declarative memory
D) semantic; episodic memory
E) encoding; rehearsal

187) Which kind of forgetting is involved when the sociology I studied yesterday makes it more difficult
to learn and remember the psychology I am studying today? 187) ______
A) proactive interference
B) retrieval failure
C) retroactive interference
D) decay
E) heuristics

188) Absent-mindedness in a college student would typically involve 188) ______
A) a failure to encode a stimulus event.
B) a failure of iconic memory.
C) a failure to connect new input to previously stored information.
D) an old memory making it difficult to recall a newer one.
E) trying to study while watching television.




                                                                                                       27
1) E    26) E   51) B

2) A    27) B   52) D

3) D    28) B   53) C

4) B    29) B   54) B

5) A    30) E   55) B

6) C    31) D   56) A

7) C    32) E   57) D

8) D    33) D   58) B

9) B    34) A   59) D

10) A   35) A   60) E

11) B   36) D   61) E

12) D   37) E   62) D

13) D   38) C   63) D

14) A   39) A   64) A

15) E   40) A   65) A

16) C   41) A   66) C

17) A   42) C   67) A

18) E   43) A   68) C

19) E   44) E   69) B

20) E   45) D   70) A

21) C   46) B   71) E

22) B   47) D   72) A

23) C   48) B   73) D

24) A   49) B   74) C

25) E   50) E   75) E




                        28
76) C             127) A
         102) C
77) D             128) B
         103) A
78) E             129) A
         104) D
79) C             130) C
         105) D
80) E             131) D
         106) D
81) E             132) E
         107) A
82) D             133) E
         108) B
83) C             134) A
         109) B
84) B             135) C
         110) E
85) D             136) E
         111) B
86) D             137) C
         112) E
87) C             138) B
         113) C
88) E             139) E
         114) D
89) E             140) D
         115) C
90) E             141) A
         116) C
91) E             142) A
         117) E
92) A             143) D
         118) E
93) B             144) C
         119) D
94) C             145) D
         120) A
95) E             146) A
         121) A
96) B             147) A
         122) C
97) B             148) C
         123) B
98) C             149) E
         124) B
99) B             150) C
         125) D
100) B            151) C
         126) D
101) D            152) C


                           29
         178) C
153) B
         179) C
154) B
         180) B
155) A
         181) E
156) C
         182) B
157) C
         183) E
158) A
         184) E
159) C
         185) E
160) E
         186) C
161) E
         187) A
162) D
         188) E
163) D

164) D

165) C

166) E

167) A

168) D

169) B

170) A

171) B

172) C

173) E

174) C

175) C

176) D

177) B




                  30

				
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