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					ESL Stages S3 and S4: Endangered Animals

Unit Description
 This unit uses the topic of endangered animals to introduce and practise language skills and research skills. Many of the learning activities include concepts, language and texts that
will help ESL students to engage meaningfully with Science terms and concepts in their mainstream classes. A feature of the unit is the way language skills and research skills are
progressively developed and recycled.

There are possible links with a relevant text study, for example, Gorillas in the Mist.

Links to other KLAs
The unit links to content from the Geography strand from SOSE and the Biological Science strand from Science.

Suggestions for the mainstream classroom
The context for this unit is an ESL classroom setting. However most of the activities from the unit, including many of the language activities, would be relevant to all students in
mainstream Science, SOSE or English classrooms. Activities from the unit suited to the mainstream context include:

   Introductory activities including visual presentation and predicting the topic       Information gap activity
   Reading strategies for dealing with difficult texts                                  Note taking exercises
   Classification sorting exercise                                                      Using a data chart
   Translating from graphs to sentence form                                             Preparing for a guest speaker
   Role play                                                                            Modeling a writing task

The text Science Worksheets (O’Toole, 1992) provides a wide range of useful language activities on this and other topics in science and geography. See also the resource list at the
end of the unit.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                     PAGE 1
      Unit overview

Text-based tasks                                    Language focus                                                   Assessment

                                                    Language Functions                                               ESL Companion
1.    Visual presentation
2.    Introducing key terms and concepts            describing, degree, similarities/differences,                    Outcomes from the ESL Companion are specified
3.    Reading passage                                                                                                throughout the Unit.
                                                    predicting, causation, explaining, defining,
4.    World distribution of endangered animals      comparing/contrasting, analysing and interpreting, concluding,   Informal observation
5.    Threats to endangered animals                 expressing an opinion, seeking clarification
6.    Ecosystems: Surveying and skimming the text                                                                    Observe group dynamics and students’
7.    Reading the text for detail                                                                                    performance of their assigned roles in group
8.    Group discussion                                                                                               discussions and activities.
9.    Natural selection experiment: Habitat         there is/are, simple present and present continuous
                                                    modality                                                         Planned observation
10.   The impact of human activity
11.   Role play                                     superlatives                                                     Observe students’ use of tables to take notes and
12.   From notes to paragraphs                      conditional                                                      organise information.
13.   Excursion to a zoo or animal sanctuary        formulating questions                                            Use of cloze exercise to assess students’
14.   Revision of the topic                                                                                          understanding of graphically presented information
                                                    Text Organisation
15.   Research task                                                                                                  and associated language.
                                                    paragraph structure topic sentences
16.   Library skills                                                                                                 Focused analysis
                                                    structure and language features of an information report
17.   Modeling an informative report
                                                                                                                     Use graphic outline to assess comprehension of a
18.   The final product                             Pronunciation
                                                                                                                     chapter in a text-book and its layout.
                                                    practising the difference between the short and long vowel       Use criteria for assessing science experiment
Resource file: (Worksheets and other resources)     sounds                                                           report and information report.
 Interpreting a graph                              links between spelling and pronunciation                         Use data charts to assess note-taking and
 How to construct a graphic outline                                                                                 paraphrasing skills.
 Reading for detail
 Annotated informative report
 Data chart                                        notetaking                                                       Self or peer assessment
 Some resources                                    science experiment report                                        Encourage students to give feedback to each other
                                                    report for the school newspaper                                  in group work activities, including post-excursion
                                                    information report                                               activities.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                         PAGE 2
S3 and S4 learning outcomes addressed in this unit

                               Speaking and Listening                       Reading                                        Writing
Communication                  ... in supportive classroom situations,      Interpret...a range of accessible              Communicate ... through a range of text
                               express the gist of ideas and opinions.      mainstream texts in use across the             types after teacher modelling and
                               (ESSLS301)                                   curriculum ... (ESRES301)                      support. (ESWRS301)

                               ... present complex ideas and information    Read independently … a wide range of           Write...texts from across the mainstream
                               in a sustained, organised way.               accessible mainstream texts and ...            curriculum types after appropriate
                               (ESSLS401)                                   interpret the texts to provide a variety of    teacher modelling. (ESWRS401)
                                                                            responses. (ESRELS401)
Contextual understanding       Adapt speech in common classroom             Interpret accessible texts from across the     Demonstrate understanding of how the
                               interactions to take some account of the     curriculum drawing on related                  purpose and audience of a text can
                               particular context and audience.             background information ...                     influence the content and form of the
                               (ESSLS302)                                   (ESRES302)                                     writing. (ESWRS302)

                               Show understanding of how shades of          Interpret range of texts from across the       Draw on an understanding of different
                               meaning can be expressed ... to take         curriculum in terms of their purpose           text types to adapt writing taking some
                               account of purpose and context.              audience and context. (ESRES402)               account of purpose and audience.
                               (ESSLS402)                                                                                  (ESWRS402)

Linguistic structures and      Manipulate available spoken English          Identify some of the qualities that            Have sufficient control of key linguistic
features                       repertoire to communicate in extended        improve the cohesion and accessibility of      structures and features to write cohesive
                               but predictable situations. (ESSLS303)       written texts. (ESRES303)                      texts for a range of purposes.
                               Show sufficient control of basic             Show an awareness of the role of the
                               structures and features of spoken English    structures and features in a range of          Use an expanding repertoire of English
                               to participate effectively in a supportive   accessible mainstream texts.                   structures and features to convey a range
                               mainstream classroom. (ESSLS403)             (ESRES403)                                     of school-based language functions and
                                                                                                                           shades of meaning. (ESWRS403)

Strategies                     Collaborate with the teacher to form         Use a range of strategies for                  Focus on planning and editing writing to
                               strategies for improving...speech            understanding text at the word, sentence       improve range and clarity of expression.
                               performance. (ESSLS304)                      and whole-text level ... (ESRES304)            (ESWRS304)

                               Develop speaking and listening strategies    Find...information...and employ                Plan, review and redraft writing to
                               to participate effectively in a supportive   strategies for interpreting unfamiliar texts   enhance its fluency, accuracy, and
                               mainstream class. (ESSLS404)                 in common use across the curriculum.           appropriateness to purpose and audience.
                                                                            (ESRES404)                                     (ESWRS404)

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                           PAGE 3
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                       Assessment and notes

Introductory Activities                                              Language of description                              Assessment
                                                                     There is/are...+ clause
1. Visual presentation                                                                                                     Initial diagnosis
                                                                     For example: There are men (who are) cutting
Prepare and present a collage of visual stimulus material relating   down trees in a forest.                              These introductory activities provide a
to the topic, for example:                                           Use of with :                                        diagnostic tool to establish student knowledge of
 large pictures of a variety of endangered animals, habitat         Animals with beautiful coats are in danger.          the topic, their control of the related language
     destruction, hunting of endangered species, goods made from                                                          and appropriate teaching/growth points.
     endangered animals, (leopard-skin coat, ivory jewelry),
     reserves, zoos                                                  Likely terms include:
 conservation posters (There is a set in the Wilderness              names of animals, e.g., panda, bilby,               Visual presentation
     Society’s World Environment Day Education Kit)                   words related to habitats and habitat
 conservation bumper bar stickers relating to the protection of         destruction, e.g. forest, ocean, environment,    Interesting visuals evoke interest in the topic and
     threatened animals (There is a collection in New Wave            killing, slaughter, hunting                        activate the students' prior knowledge, which
     Geography Book 1 p.2)                                            ivory, tusks, skins, fur, horns, jewellery,        they can then use as a framework for new
 relevant maps, tables or graphs.                                                                                        concepts. Use a variety of visuals to reinforce the
                                                                      dying out, extinct, threat
                                                                                                                          concepts and related issues.
                                                                      save, conservation, greenie, reserve, zoo.
Ask students to describe what they see in each picture and to
interpret the posters/bumper stickers. Introduce key terms as
required and write the key vocabulary used on the board for          Underline the stress patterns of the words and ask
students to copy into their workbooks.                               class to repeat the word after you. They then copy
                                                                     them into their workbooks.
Predicting the Topic
                                                                     Use these words to contrast the long and short 'i'
Explain that the collage represents the topic they are going to      vowel sounds by giving pairs of words to the
study. Ask students to guess what the topic is. Everyone writes a    students to say aloud. For example:
sentence. Discuss some appropriate sentence starters, for example    I vory - skins, dy ing out - extinct
I think that we will learn about ...                                 ti ger – killing
The topic could be....
                                                                     Note the long i as in tiger is a glided vowel
Ask students to explain the reasons for their suggestions.           composed of two sounds.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                    PAGE 4
Text-based tasks                                                       Language focus                                       Assessment and notes

1. Visual presentation (cont.)                                         Pronunciation and spelling                           Assessment
                                                                       Does winning have one or two ‘n’s?
Explaining the link between a picture and the topic                    Long vowels are often followed by one                 Pronunciation and spelling.
Allocate one or more visuals from the collage to each student and      consonant then e or i. Show how long sounds can      The Noughts & Crosses game offers a lively way
ask them to write a brief statement which explains how their           become short (and a different sound) by doubling     to monitor/practise pronunciation. Fill in the
visuals relate to the topic.                                           the consonant for example wi ne - wi ning,           boxes with unfamiliar words that practise the
                                                                       winning                                              short/long sound distinction in each of the nine
If appropriate, continue this introductory discussion by asking the     ti ger - bigger                                     boxes as shown below.
students if they know:                                                 or by removing the e, for example ra ge-rag
• of any other plants or animals from their country of birth or        wine - win, cute- cut                                Divide the class into half then ask a volunteer to
     from Australia (not represented in the introductory collage)      Point out how this awareness can often help with     pronounce the word in a box of their choice using
     that are under threat,                                            spelling, For example are there one or two ‘n’s in   the spelling cues contained in the word. If they
• why they are in danger                                               winning? (It has a short i sound.)                   are correct they get a 0 or X as appropriate. Point
• how many are left                                                                                                         out any neutral schwa sounds, for example on the
• what’s being done to save them, etc.                                 Also point out that, while these rules are useful,   second syllable of wetter, winner, & rapid
                                                                       there are always exceptions. For example
                                                                       givegiving, ca me camel,
If-then Game                                                           ki te-favourite
Cut up pairs of if-then or when-then sentences and hand them out.      Explaining the links
Each student gets only one half. One at a time they then read out
their half to the class. If a classmate can complete the sentence by   First model an example with a cause-and-effect
calling out a matching half sentence they get a point. The answers     statement, for example The picture shows a
can be a little obtuse & funny but they must make sense and show       panda eating bamboo. The panda is an
appropriate cohesive links. For example                                endangered animal. If people cut down all the
If she fell out of a tree he would go and watch TV.                   bamboo plants, the pandas may die out.
Thanh will call the Police  if I can’t finish my homework.
                                                                       Practise the form of cause-and-effect statements,     Spelling test
Once students are confident with the structure introduce topic-        for example using the If...then game.
                                                                                                                            Set a short spelling test where students are asked
based sentences.                                                                                                            to spell pairs of words, which you dictate, using
                                                                       Where appropriate, formal presentation of the
                                                                       rules of the structure can be helpful. Often such    the rules they have learned for example,
                                                                       practice needs to precede the more open-ended        skim, skimming, a ge, a ging,
                                                                       practice offered by the topic-based language

 ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                     PAGE 5
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                       Assessment and notes

2. Introducing key terms and concepts                                Key terms
Introduce the technical term 'endangered species' if students have   species                                                 Plotting vocabulary on a continuum
not already used it during the introductory task.                    Point out that the word species is both the
Species: Begin with a non-scientific definition of the word using    singular and plural form of the word.                As a comprehension exercise ask students to
the language that students will be familiar with, for example        Elicit or give examples of use for students to       differentiate the words extinct, endangered,
type/kind/sort of plant or animal. Then introduce a scientific       copy into their workbooks:                           threatened, and safe by placing them on a
definition i.e.                                                      There are seven species of snails found in Tahiti.   continuum. Ask them to include a definition and
1. A species is a group of animals (or plants) who                                                                        examples of animals next to each word. A display
                                                                     The human species has caused much damage to
   can breed with each other.                                                                                             size continuum can then be made for the
                                                                     the planet.
2. The offspring (for example children) are fertile (can breed).                                                          classroom.
3. There are slight differences between individuals of the group     endangered
and thus the species can be divided into subspecies, races,          Look at the base word danger as a way for
varieties etc.                                                       students to explore the meaning.
                                                                  Point out, with examples the difference between
A discussion of geographic isolation leading to the development   dangerous and endangered. Brainstorm on the
of a sub-species (for example Indian and African elephant) may be board words with similar meaning using a sketch
appropriate. Use dogs as an example of minor differences between of a whale as shown.
breeds of dog, but all one species

 ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                PAGE 6
Text-based tasks                                                    Language focus   Assessment and notes

3. Reading passage                                                                    Outcomes
Use an extract from a reference book, which explains the                             Reading passage:
difference between extinct, endangered and threatened. Many
texts include this information using the IUCN (International                         ESRES303     (Reading: LSF)
Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)                          ESRES304     (Reading: Strategies)
classification. See, for example, New Wave Geography Book 1,
p.2 or the Melbourne Zoo teacher notes: All But Lost, p.29).

As you read the passage together ask students to guess the
meaning of key words and phrases by using context clues, reading
before and after the word or phrase. Focus their attention on the
part of speech of the word when making a guess.

Give students the opportunity to write sentences using terms such
as endangered, threatened and extinct.

 ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                             PAGE 7
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                      Assessment and notes

4. World distribution of endangered animals                           Classification sorting exercise                     Assessment
Use a world map which shows the global distribution of                Classification categories include mammals, birds,  Outcomes
endangered animals (for example, Heinemann Atlas, p.140–41,           reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects.          ESRES301          (Reading: Communication)
New Wave Geography Book 1, 2nd ed. pp. 6–7).                                                                            ESRES401          (Reading: Communication)
                                                                      These categories can be introduced by giving
                                                                                                                        ESWRS301 (Writing: Communication)
Pre-teach significant vocabulary used in the key.                     small groups sets of animal pictures to sort into
                                                                      six groups. They then label their picture groups   Language of classification
Check that students can use the legend by asking questions, such      with the words 'Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, etc.    The language exercises can be set as homework
as:                                                                                                                     to assess student understanding of the concepts
 How many mammals are endangered in Australia?                       Follow this with a mix-and-match exercise where and language involved in classification, e.g. using
 What do the triangles represent?                                    the classification words are in one column and    expressions such as:
                                                                      their definition in the other.                    Tigers are classified as mammals.
Translating from map to graph (histogram) to                                                                            Kookaburras have feathers, so they are birds.
paragraph                                                             Language of Classification                        Vertebrates are divided into ...

Model how to construct a histogram (bar graph) showing the            Useful language exercises to practise the
                                                                      language and concepts of classification are found    Interpreting graphs
distribution of endangered animals in one of the geographic
regions used on the map, for example Australia. (See Endangered       in texts such as:                                   Hand out a cloze exercise on a passage, which
Resource 1. for an example.)                                          Learning English through General Science,           summarises the graph in prose form. This will test
***<Link to S3/S4 Resource file>***                                   Nucleus: English for Science and Technology,        understanding of graphic representation of
                                                                                                                          information and the language used to describe it.
Working in groups of three or four, students construct two graphs     Translating from graph to sentences
each of different regions. In this way, each group will eventually                                                        Notes
have six to eight graphs. It is important that all students use the   Superlatives: the highest number, the most, the
same scale so comparisons can easily be made.                         least etc.                                           Links to KLAs
                                                                      Expressing degree: more than two and a half         In Level 5 Science, students are required to
As a whole-class activity, ask students to use their graphs to make   times, less than twice, somewhat less,              identify the features of living things that are used
some statements about endangered animals. Write their                 Expressing similarity: Both Africa and Asia have    to classify them into major groups
suggestions on the board. Draw attention to useful language items                                                          Working with maps
used and/or suggest some to them.                                     Expressing differences: but, however, on the
                                                                      other hand, whereas, in contrast to etc.            Students with little formal education may not be
                                                                                                                          familiar with the legend/key on a map. It may be
Students then write their own sentences and/or a paragraph about
                                                                                                                          necessary to revise basic map interpretation.
the types of animals endangered in the year specified.

 ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                    PAGE 8
Text-based tasks                                                   Language focus                                        Assessment and notes

5. Threats to endangered animals                                  Word attack strategies for essential                   Assessment
Select a series of short paragraphs on a number of species, which vocabulary
                                                                                                                          Outcomes
include information on the reasons each animal is endangered.     Draw students’ attention to the any illustrations to
Read some of the paragraphs as a whole-class activity,            work out the meaning of words.                         ESRES303          (Reading: LSF)
demonstrating the word attack strategies suggested.
                                                                  Point out the base words where appropriate, for        ESRES401          (Reading: Communication)
Organising Information in table form
                                                                  example. destroy - (habitat) destruction               ESWRS303          (Writing: LSF)
Discuss the difficulty of quickly accessing the information       prey - predators,
gathered when it is in continuous prose form and how it could be commerce and forest-commercial forestry                 ESRES404          (Reading: Strategies)
organised differently so readers could more easily get an
                                                                                                                          Note form for tables
overview of the reasons animals are in danger of extinction.      Encourage students to use prefixes and suffixes
As a class exercise, construct the format for the table on the    where appropriate.                                     The tables students copy into their workbooks
board. Model the type of note form that is appropriate in such a                                                         will show how effectively they are able to write in
table by completing one of the paragraphs together. Working                                                              note form.
individually students copy and complete the table in their        Note form for tables
workbooks. This will involve students reading some paragraphs Discuss the features of notes, for example                 Notes
independently.                                                     omission of articles
]                                                                  only key words written down                           Skill development
                                                                   doesn't have to be a grammatical sentence            It is expected that most students will demonstrate
                                                                   no capital letters and full stops                    higher level skills in reading before they are able
                                                                   use of dot points.                                   to demonstrate them in their own writing.
                                                                                                                          Resources for short paragraphs
                                                                                                                         The Heinemann Atlas (pp. 140–41), Science in
                                                                                                                         Perspective Book 2 (pp. 292–94) and All But Lost
                                                                                                                         - teacher notes prepared by the Melbourne Zoo
                                                                                                                         (pp. 34–48) have appropriate illustrated
                                                                                                                         summaries. The former gives a global perspective
                                                                                                                         while the other two concentrate on Australian

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                   PAGE 9
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                       Assessment and notes

6. Ecosystems: Surveying and skimming the text                       Reading strategies                                   Assessment
Use a chapter from a class text or library book which includes an    If students are not familiar with the type of
                                                                                                                           Outcomes
introduction to the concept of ecosystem. A text which includes      strategies practised in the Surveying the Text and
illustrations, graphic material, headings, summaries, etc. is most   Skimming the Text sections you will need to work     ESRES302          (Reading: Contextual
appropriate. An example is the chapter ‘The Web of Life’ in          through them as whole-class activities initially.                                understanding.)
Vanishing Species.
                                                                                                                          ESRES401          (Reading: Communication)
Reading strategies: Surveying the text
                                                                                                                          ESRES304          (Reading: Strategies)
Ask students to:
 flick through the chapter taking note of the general layout                                                             ESRES403          (Reading: LSF)
 look carefully at the pictures, diagrams, captions, the                                                                 ESWRS303          (Writing: LSF)
   highlighted boxes of information, etc.
                                                                                                                          ESRES404          (Reading: Strategies)
 take note of any variations in print size, and what these
   indicate.                                                                                                               Matching Activity

Give students a graphic outline of the chapter using different-                                                           To assess student understanding of information
sized empty boxes and lines to denote the main headings, sub-                                                             in tables, construct a worksheet that contains:
headings and illustrations/diagrams/tables. Students fill in the                                                          – two or three tables of information relevant
boxes with the relevant words. See Endangered Resource 2 at                                                                    to the topic of endangered species
the end of this unit. ***<Link to S3/S4 Resource file>***                                                                 – a series of jumbled sentences that describe
                                                                                                                               the information.
Skimming the text
Ask the students to skim-read the chapter to find which pages or                                                          Ask students to sort the sentences under the
paragraphs they would read for detail if they wanted information                                                          correct table. This activity can be used to assess
on ecosystems, food chains, etc.                                                                                          both students’ ability to extract information from
                                                                                                                          tables and their use of the tables in helping to
                                                                                                                          make sense of text. Depending on the complexity
                                                                                                                          of the task, students might demonstrate
                                                                                                                          competence at Stages S3 or S4.
                                                                                                                           Graphic Outline
                                                                                                                          Requiring students to complete a graphic outline
                                                                                                                          of the chapter will indicate their understanding
                                                                                                                          of book layout.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                   PAGE 10
Text-based tasks                                                    Language focus                                     Assessment and notes

7. Reading the text for detail                                      Describing relationships                           Assessment
Select the portion of the text that introduces ecosystems. Use an   Introduce useful vocabulary, for example:
                                                                                                                        Outcomes
activity sheet which requires students to identify the topic        is dependent on, depend(s) on, rely/relies on,
sentence of each paragraph, rewrite it in their own words, and      use(s), need(s), feed(s) on, Without B, A would    ESRES304          (Reading: Strategies)
draw a picture or diagram to represent the idea expressed in each   not ...
paragraph. For an example see Endangered Resource 3.                Flowers in the forest canopy depend on the         ESWRS303          (Writing: LSF)
***<Link to S3/S4 resource file>***                                 sunbirds for pollination.
                                                                                                                       ESRES401          (Reading: Communication)
 Include a sample answer for one paragraph for the students to
                                                                    Using the definite article for                      Science Worksheets
                                                                    generalisations                                    The publication Science Worksheets contains a
                                                                    Point out that textbooks often use a rather formal number of language based activities on the topic
Paragraph Structure
                                                                    use of "the' + the singular noun when referring to of ecosystems which can be used to assess
Revise how paragraphs are organised. Use the first paragraph of     every member of a species. For example             students' understanding of the topic. For example:
the selected portion of text to show:                               The gorilla feeds on fruit and leaves.             Worksheet 17.1 (topic: adaptation of organisms
 the topic sentence which introduces the paragraph                 Has roughly the same meaning as:                   to their habitat, language focus: using scientific
 support sentences, which may illustrate, explain, summarise,      Gorillas feed on fruit and leaves.                 vocabulary)
     refer back to the main topic, conclude etc.
                                                                                                                       Worksheet 17.2 (topic: ecosystems, language
                                                                                                                       focus: use of reference items)
Describing relationships
Use an annotated illustration of an ecosystem to develop an                                                            Worksheet 17.6 (topic: habitat destruction,
understanding of the interdependence of animals and plants in an                                                       language focus: paragraph structure)
                                                                                                                       The Melbourne Zoo Education publication All
Revise the use of if-then statements, for example:                                                                     But Lost, describes a learning game, 'Webbing
If the flying fox becomes extinct, (then) many trees will have no                                                      Game' (p. 7), which allows students to experience
way to spread their seeds.                                                                                             the interdependence of the elements of an
                                                                                                                       ecosystem. The game would help students
Allocate two or three species shown in the ecosystem illustration                                                      develop their understanding of the concepts of
to pairs of students. Ask them to write sentences explaining the                                                       ecosystem and interdependence.
relationships between their species and others in the ecosystem
and to write if-then statements to explain the implication of any
possible extinctions.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                PAGE 11
Text-based tasks                                                    Language focus   Assessment and notes

8. Group discussion                                                                  Assessment
Ask students to discuss in a small group how an understanding of
                                                                                      Outcomes
ecosystems helps to explain the importance of protecting
endangered species.                                                                  ESSLS301          (Speaking/Listening: Communication)

Write on the board A threat to one is a threat to all. Ask groups                    ESSLS401          (Speaking/Listening: Communication)
to discuss how this sentence relates to ecosystems and                               ESSLS303          (Speaking/Listening: LSF)
endangered species.
                                                                                     ESSLS304          (Speaking/Listening: Strategies)
Where appropriate, provide sentence stems to help the students                        Group discussion
summarise their discussion. for example:
One reason why protecting endangered species is important is ...                     Planned observation could focus on:
A threat to one is a threat to all' means that ...                                       group dynamics
                                                                                         use of extended sentences and target vocabulary
The scribe in each group writes down the group’s conclusions so                          conceptual understanding of topic.
these can be shared during a whole class discussion.
                                                                                     It may be necessary to assign roles or tasks within each group.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                   PAGE 12
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                         Assessment and notes

9. Natural selection Experiment: Habitat                              Vocabulary to be introduced                            Notes
Students work in pairs. Each pair has a set of 50 green, 50 blue      predator, advantage, camouflage, favoured,             The purpose of the natural selection experiment is
and 50 red toothpicks. Explain that the toothpicks represent          advantaged, reproduce, genes, inherit, offspring,      to demonstrate:
insects that live in a grassy habitat and that the students are going evolution, natural selection                            how some animals have to adapt to their
to take turns in being a predator of this insect.                                                                                 environment through camouflage if they are
                                                                      Expanding note form
                                                                      Give students opportunities to insert the 'left out'        to survive
One partner scatters the toothpicks in a grassy area. The predator
                                                                      words in the headings from the table used e.g:          how changes to the environment can affect
has 30 seconds to collect as many toothpicks as possible.                                                                         the survival of a species.
                                                                      Original Number - Original number of toothpicks
Students swap roles and the experiment is repeated on a dirt or
bitumen area. The results are recorded in a table as shown.           Number Removed from Grass - the number of
                                                                      toothpicks which were removed from the grass           Assessment

                                                                      Language of prediction and causation                    Outcomes
                                                                      Remind students of the use of the conditional
                                                                      when making predictions, for example:                  ESWRS301           (Writing: Communication)
                                                                      The green insects would survive best in a grassy       ESWRS401           (Writing: Communication)
                                                                      habitat because ...                                    ESWRS302           (Writing: Contextual und.)
                                                                      If the grass was removed (then) the insects would
                                                                                                                             ESWRS402           (Writing: Contextual und.)
                                                                      Language of science experiment reports
                                                                      Liaise with a science teacher to find out the          ESWRS303           (Writing: LSF)
Share results of the experiment as a whole class then discuss         experiment format expected of students in the
which coloured insects would likely have survived best in the                                                                ESWRS403           (Writing: LSF)
                                                                      school and highlight the conventions and
grassy environment.                                                   language used, for example:                            ESWRS304           (Writing: Strategies)

Use the experiment to introduce the concepts of natural selection       Aim: to show natural selection by ..                 Criteria for science experiment report
and evolution and the links to the animal’s environment. Discuss          (infinitive of purpose)
                                                                                                                                    appropriate structure
what would happen to the advantaged insects if the grass in their       Method: Find a grassy place.
                                                                                                                                    use of appropriate language
habitat was changed for example by:                                       (use of imperative)
                                                                                                                                    demonstrated understanding of the topic
    overgrazing                                                        Results use of tables
                                                                                                                                    ability to analyse and draw conclusions in
    the effects of global warming (grass turns brown).                 Discussion useful sentence starters, for
                                                                          example The experiment shows …

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                      PAGE 13
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                        Assessment and notes

10. The impact of human activity                                       Textbook reading activities                         Notes
                                                                      Encourage students to read the passage
A Case Study                                                                                                                 Recycling reading strategies
                                                                      independently. Remind them to use the word
Find, or write, a short expository passage about:                     attack strategies practised during the unit, i.e:     The 'recycling' of learning strategies, as with
 An animal threatened because of human activity.                     • reading before and after the word                   recycling vocabulary, builds student confidence
 A conservation strategy suggested for this animal.                  • using the part of speech of the word as a           and their control of the skills being used. The
                                                                           guide to its meaning                             particular strategies being repeated in the case
A possible example is the mountain pygmy possum. The                  • thinking of the 'base' word                         study are central to the research task that ends the
textbook Geography Around Us, Book 1 contains both short              • using the prefixes and suffixes that they           unit, and to much school learning.
newspaper articles and expository text on the mountain pygmy               know.                                            Assessment
Remind the students of the earlier activity where they                Surveying the text                                     Outcomes
summarised the threats to endangered animals. Explain they are
                                                                      By surveying the text students will get some ideas ESRES301                (Reading: Communication)
now going to examine more closely the reasons why one
                                                                      of the main content of the passage. When reading
particular animal is endangered. Introduce the reading by asking                                                         ESRES401                (Reading: Communication)
                                                                      the text independently they will then be able to
them to suggest the one greatest threat to animal and plant life on                                                      ESRES304                (Reading: Strategies)
                                                                      draw on the support of their prior knowledge.
this planet (humans).
                                                                                                                            ESRES404             (Reading: Strategies)
Textbook reading activities
                                                                      Note-taking: From sentence to point form
                                                                                                                            ESWRS303             (Writing: LSF)
If you are using a textbook repeat the surveying text activities
                                                                      The sample data chart used above in activity 9
described earlier paying particular attention to maps and
                                                                      requires the students to write in point form. Write    Data chart/worksheet
                                                                      a couple of sentences on the board about the          The completed worksheet/data chart will give an
Prepare a worksheet or data chart (e.g. see Endangered resource       mountain pygmy possum and ask the students            indication of the students' ability to scan text for
5.). ***<Link to S3/S4 Resource file>***                              how they could write the information in point         relevant paragraphs, read for particular
The chart requires students to scan the text for specific             form.                                                 information, and write in note form. You will be
information on aspects such as:                                                                                             able to note any improvements in their
• the animal’s appearance                                                                                                   performance of these skills by comparing their
• its habitat                                                                                                               work with that done on Ecosystems.
• its breeding habits
• the human activity that is threatening the animal
• why the human activity endangers the animal
• possible solutions.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                       PAGE 14
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                         Assessment and notes
11. Role play                                                        Role play                                              Assessment
Discuss categories of people who may be involved in a
                                                                     Preview possible arguments and language for
conservation issue. These might be: developers, bushwalkers,                                                             Outcomes
                                                                     expressing an opinion. Write the key words and
local residents, conservationists, government, timber workers.
                                                                     phrases on the board so students can refer to them ESSLS402 (Speaking/Listening:
Possible issues include:                                             as they work.                                                 Contextual understanding)
 pressure for more native forests to become farming land as
    populations grow                                                 For example:                                           ESSLS303        (Speaking/Listening: LSF)
 the pressure on the government to provide employment in            I think the development of ... is very important for   ESSLS403        (Speaking/Listening: LSF)
    the timber industry                                              tourism/jobs/the economy.                              ESSLS404        (Speaking/Listening: Strategies)
 the financial cost of protecting an endangered species.            I believe the ... is a good solution because …
                                                                     In my view Victoria/Australia/Kenya must do all         Expressing opinions
Write the name of each category type on a different card and         it can to …
allocate each card to a pair of students. The pairs then work out                                                           Observe how effectively students are able to express their
what attitude this category of person would have to the problem                                                             opinions and whether more practice on the language of
                                                                     Discuss what happens to the apparent strength of       discussion is required at this point.
of the endangered animal and a likely response to the proposed       the arguments if the underlined expressions are
solutions. Explain that they are going to take on the role of this                                                          Note that some students may be meeting S4 outcomes in
                                                                     omitted.                                               speaking and listening before they can show the same
                                                                                                                            level of competence in reading and writing.
Set the student pairs against other pairs so likely protagonists     See also the example of a role-play presentation
are together. Choose a confident student and model the role-                                                                Notes
                                                                     in ESL S3/S4 Unit Giving a class talk.
play for the other students. Then ask each pair to present their
views to each other and to argue in support of their position.                                                               S4 Extension
                                                                                                                            The discussion of the effectiveness of arguments is good
Debrief as a whole class discussing which arguments were the
                                                                                                                            preparation for VCE work on issues and could be
most persuasive and why. Relate the discussion to the broader
                                                                                                                            extended by looking at other persuasive devices in
issues of the topic.
                                                                                                                            argument for example exaggerating the opponent
                                                                                                                            position, citing ‘expert’ evidence etc.

                                                                                                                            Students should be assisted to discriminate between the
                                                                                                                            different registers appropriate to each role, for example,
                                                                                                                            government minister, timber worker, and to the context
                                                                                                                            in which their discussion takes place e.g. TV interview,
                                                                                                                            face to face meeting.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                        PAGE 15
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                      Assessment and notes

12. From notes to paragraphs                                          Forming questions                                   Notes
                                                                      Revise wh- questions, that is what, how, why,        Information Gap Activity: Choosing an
Information gap activity
                                                                      when, where, for example:                             animal
You will need a piece of text approximately one page in length,       What does the animal look like?
about a particular endangered animal. It should include               Where does it live?                                 Choose an animal like the panda that is not totally
information about:                                                    How many babies does it have at one time?           unfamiliar to students but which they probably don't
     • the animal’s appearance                                                                                            have a detailed knowledge of. Warn students that some
     • its habitat                                                                                                        questions may not have answers supplied in the text.
     • its life cycle                                                 Writing sentences from notes
     • reasons why it is endangered                                   Ask students to think back to earlier discussions
     • ways it is or could be protected.                              about the differences between sentences and          Outcomes
                                                                      notes. Quickly revise the differences between
Point out that this activity and the paragraph exercise practise      notes and sentences.                                ESWRS302         (Writing: Contextual
research skills for the final assessment for the unit.                                                                                               understanding)
                                                                      Demonstrate how to write a sentence from notes      ESWRS301         (Writing: Communication)
Procedure                                                                                                                 ESWRS303         (Writing: LSF)
                                                                      on the board. Use the notes from the information
1.   Students work in pairs. One partner has the text, the other      gap activity or some notes written by one of the    ESWRS304         (Writing: Strategies)
     tries to find out as much as possible about the animal by        students, for example:                              ESWRS404         (Writing: Strategies)
     asking questions of their partner. (Model the activity first,    Central China - bamboo forest                       ESRES304         (Reading: Strategies)
     giving the students the text to read. Ask the questions and      Pandas live in the bamboo forests of Central        ESRES404         (Reading: Strategies)
     write notes on the board as the students provide answers.)       China.                                              ESRES402         (Reading: Contextual
2.   Make sure each pair has time to prepare. The student asking                                                                                     Understanding)
     the questions, needs to jot down notes as they are given
     answers.                                                         Paragraph Writing                                    Paragraph Writing
3.   Take back the original text, then ask the pairs to use the       Revise paragraph writing as required, for           The paragraph should be assessed in terms of:
     notes to write a paragraph. Their first task will be to decide   example:                                             the content (how well they were able to ask and
     on how to order the information.                                 • use of cohesive devices                              answer questions to gain the information)
4.   Look at one or two of the paragraphs as a whole class. Focus     • sentence structure - word order, verbs             paragraph organisation (for example, their use of
     on teaching points you think are most relevant to the class.     • vocabulary extension                                 topic sentence, logical ordering, etc.)
                                                                      • logical ordering of information                    adequate control of language to convey meaning.
                                                                      • use of topic sentences and supporting

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                    PAGE 16
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                      Assessment and notes

13. Excursion to a zoo or animal sanctuary                           Preparing for the guest speaker                     Assessment
Take the students on an excursion to Melbourne Zoo, Healesville      Contact the speaker so you can explain the
                                                                                                                          Outcomes
Sanctuary etc. to focus on what can be done to save endangered       language competence of the students and tailor
animals and the role of zoos in conservation activities such as      the preparation to fit the likely situation. Also   ESSLS301       (Speaking/Listening: Communication)
captive breeding programs. If a zoo excursion is not practicable,    you can then find out some of the important         ESSLS401       (Speaking/Listening: Communication)
invite a guest speaker to the classroom for the same purpose. For    vocabulary items they plan to use so you can
example The Victorian Association for Environmental Education        revise them beforehand.                             ESSLS304       (Speaking/Listening: Strategies)
provides a visiting speaker service.
                                                                     Advise the speaker of the animals students
At the end of the unit students will be conducting a research        have selected for their research project so
activity on one animal. Organise for students to choose their        these can be featured.                               Preparation for the Excursion
animal before the excursion so they can gather information for
use in their project later.                                                                                              There needs to be thoughtful preparation before the
                                                                                                                         excursion so students find the experience engaging and
Preparation for the guest speaker:
                                                                                                                         Gathering information for the students’ research
Listening for the gist                                                                                                   project
If students are going to be listening to one of the education                                                            The excursion can provide an important resource and
officers during the excursion or to a guest speaker, they need to                                                        stimulus for the research project which follows. Prepare a
practise listening for the gist of what is being said. A modified                                                        task sheet asking students to:
dictogloss or listening comprehension activity, where students jot                                                        collect any information available on the animal
down the key words but are not required to reconstruct the text,                                                          ask specific questions of the speaker
is useful preparation. Students listen for the gist of the text                                                           visit the animal and note any survival features, for
during the first reading then focus on the main points by                                                                     example its large jaws, camouflage etc
selecting key words to write down during the second reading.                                                              note the kind of habitat provided for the animal for
                                                                                                                              example branches, open spaces, rocks, caves
Use a passage that will include the key vocabulary students are                                                           observe how it eats and what it eats, noting any
likely to encounter.                                                                                                          biological features that affect the way it eats
                                                                                                                          take photographs, or if able, make sketches.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                      PAGE 17
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                      Assessment and notes

13. Excursion to a zoo or animal sanctuary (cont.)                    Question Preparation                                Assessment
                                                                      Before students start the group work revise
Question preparation                                                                                                       Outcomes
                                                                      question forms using what, how, where, when,
Explain the aim of the excursion and/or guest speaker. Working        why, who.                                           ESSLS304        (Speaking/Listening: Strategies)
in small groups, ask students to write on strips of paper what they
already know about what can be done to help save endangered                                                               ESWRS404 (Writing: Strategies)
animals and what they need or want to find. Share these as a          Asking for clarification
                                                                                                                           Asking for information and clarification
whole class, then jointly decide on four or five key questions that   Write the students’ suggestion for ways of asking
the students record and take with them on the excursion. Add to       for clarification on the board and add any more     It is important that all students are able to ask for
these general questions the task sheet targeting their selected       that you think will be helpful, for example:        clarification or for information to be repeated.
animal.                                                               You said ..., I don’t quite know what you mean?     Make sure that all students practise asking for
                                                                      Can you repeat that please?                         information and monitor that they are able to do so
Asking for clarification
                                                                      What does …. mean?                                  on subsequent occasions later in the year.
Explain to the students that the speaker may say things they don’t
understand or use vocabulary they are unfamiliar with. Discuss                                                            Students’ ability to ask questions to clarify meaning
what they will do if this happens. Practise ways of asking for     Asking for specific information
                                                                                                                          indicates they are using Stage S3 listening
clarification. Have students record these in their workbooks.      Does river pollution make problems for the             strategies. An ability to record the information in
                                                                   platypus?                                              appropriate note form while listening indicates
Post excursion activities: What we learnt
                                                                   What can we do to help protect these animals?          higher level listening and writing skills.
Divide the class into four or five small groups, depending on the What effect will the Greenhouse Effect have on
number of key questions you prepared before the excursion. Give the pygmy possum?
two poster-sized sheets of paper to each group. Allocate one key
question to each group. On one sheet they put the question
allocated to them. The other sheet is headed ‘Other Things We

The reporter in each group presents their posters to the class.
Other class members can suggest additions.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                      PAGE 18
Text-based tasks                                                    Language focus                                        Assessment and notes

14. Revision of the topic                                           Features of a recount text                            Assessment
                                                                      Point out some of the most important language
Article for the school newspaper                                                                                           Outcomes
                                                                      features, for example:
Jointly construct an article about the excursion for the school        It will mostly be in the past tense (We went to   ESWRS301          (Writing: Communication)
newspaper or a noticeboard display. Most of the article will be in         the zoo. We saw many species of endangered
the form of a recount. The article can be written as a whole class                                                        ESWRS302          (Writing: Contextual
activity with the teacher acting as the scribe or else allocate small  It will use the first person plural (we) and                         understanding.)
groups to be responsible for writing individual paragraphs.                perhaps second person (The guide)
                                                                                                                          ESWRS303          (Writing: LSF)
                                                                       It will use of time sequence markers (for
Word grouping                                                              example: then, after that, next).              ESWRS304          (Writing: Strategies)
Working in small groups, students sort a set of words used                                                                ESSLS301       (Speaking/Listening:
                                                                    It will mostly be a recount of what they saw and
during the unit. The students can decide the number of word         did but perhaps the conclusion will involve some                         Communication)
groups they need. Students present their groupings to the class     personal reflection.
explaining their reasons for putting particular words together.                                                           ESSLS303       (Speaking/Listening: LSF)

                                                                    Word grouping activity
                                                                                                                           Word Grouping
                                                                    The set of words you choose for this task will
                                                                    depend on the exact materials used during the         Observe whether the students can group the
                                                                    unit, for example:                                    words logically and if they can explain the
                                                                    endangered, threatened, extinct, conservationists,    reasons for the groupings. This will give you an
                                                                    panda, mountain pygmy possum, habitat,                indication of the students' understanding of the
                                                                    ecosystem, community, food chain, conservation,       main concepts covered in the unit and the links
                                                                    captive breeding, natural selection, habitat          between them.
                                                                    destruction, introduced species, interdependence,
                                                                    mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, fish, forestry,
                                                                    national parks.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                 PAGE 19
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus                                         Assessment and notes

15. Research Task                                                     Note-taking for a data chart                           Assessment

Refining the questions                                                Use a passage about an endangered animal.               Outcomes
                                                                      Indicate to the students that they will be
Explain to the students that they will be investigating one           practising a skill that will be necessary during the   ESRES301           (Reading: Communication)
endangered animal and presenting their findings as an                 information gathering stage of their investigation.
information report. Emphasise that the research task contains a                                                              ESRES401           (Reading: Communication)
                                                                      Point out also that the note-taking skill will be
number of research skills that they can transfer to any               useful for similar research tasks in other subjects.   ESRES303           (Reading: LSF)
investigative project in any learning area requiring research.
                                                                                                                             ESWRS303           (Writing: LSF)
                                                                      Refer to the information gap activity where they
On the board, brainstorm the type of information they could                                                                  ESWRS304           (Writing: Strategies
                                                                      used similar skills. Use the following steps:
include in their report. The type of information they look for will
vary with the level of the students. Possible topics include:                                                                 Paraphrasing
                                                                      1.   Read one paragraph of the text together.
 biological features of the animal that make it vulnerable           2.   Students turn the text over so they cannot        The advantage of the limited space of the data
 a description of its habitat including any threats                       refer to it. Ask them which column on the         chart is that it prevents students from copying text
 its eating habits, reliability of food supply                            data chart the information in the paragraph       directly. Check how well students are able to
 predators                                                                related to.                                       paraphrase information in their own words.
 statistical data and projections for the future,                    3.   Ask what they remember about the                  Students, particularly at the S4 level, should be
 attempts made to protect the animal.                                     information. As they speak, model by writing      using strategies that enable them to practise
                                                                           the information down as notes on the board.       paraphrasing texts.
                                                                      4.   Point out that students must understand every
Using a data chart                                                                                                            Criteria for research task
                                                                           word written down, even though they will
Use these ideas to formulate the key questions to be used on the           probably not have understood every word in        Give the students a handout which lists the
data chart. Give the students a copy of a data chart grid (See             the original text.                                criteria that will be used to assess their
Endangered Resource 5.)                                              5.    Repeat this as a whole-class activity for as      information report. The criteria should include
                                                                           many columns on the chart as necessary to         some of the research skills they used to
***<Link to S3/S4 Resource file>***
                                                                           give students the confidence to attempt at        investigate the endangered animal, understanding
After they have selected the animal they want to research, ask                                                               of the content, aspects relating to the structure or
                                                                           least one topic independently.
them, in groups of three, to complete the first column ‘What I                                                               organisation of the report Ensure that all students
already know’. This may include information gained from the                                                                  understand what they have to do to rate highly on
excursion and their visit to the animal’s enclosure and/or the talk.                                                         each of the criteria.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                        PAGE 20
Text-based tasks                                                        Language focus                                Assessment and notes

16. Library Skills                                                      Target words                                  Assessment
Before students start searching for information in the library,    Possible target words for the library catalogue
                                                                                                                      Outcomes
discuss what target words they will use when accessing the         include:
catalogue. Stress that it is unlikely that individual animals will be                                                ESRES404          (Reading: Strategies)
listed in the catalogue, although they may appear in the CD        Endangered animals/species
ROM, encyclopedias or on the Internet.                             World wildlife                                    ESRES304          (Reading: Strategies)
                                                                   Threatened species
Discuss how they will know if a book on animals will contain       Animals of Africa, Australia, South America, Asia
information on the particular one they are researching. Ensure all etc. (depending on the particular animal being     Note-taking
students understand how to use the index and contents pages.       studied).
                                                                                                                     The students' success with taking notes when
Demonstrate how to do this using one book that contains relevant
                                                                                                                     engaged in their own research will show you how
                                                                                                                     well they were able to apply the skills practised.

Research Steps
Give students some class time to locate three sources of                                                              Notes
information they think are relevant and appropriate for their level
of competence in English. Ask students to:                                                                             Checking out the Library
1. check with you that their materials are appropriate for their                                                      You need to do some preliminary viewing of the
     level of language development                                                                                    library’s resources or ask the librarian to do so, so
2. read all the information they have located on the animal they                                                      that the list of animals students may use for their
     are investigating, aiming for a general overview and an                                                          independent research can be restricted to those
     understanding of the gist of the material                                                                        for which there are accessible resources available.
3. think about which headings the material relates to
4. re-read and make notes on the data grid.                                                                           Involve the librarian in showing the students the
                                                                                                                      resources available in the library if students are
                                                                                                                      unfamiliar with them, e.g. useful references, CD
                                                                                                                      ROMs, Internet, catalogue etc.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                                  PAGE 21
Text-based tasks                                                      Language focus   Assessment and notes

17. Modeling an informative report                                                     Notes
Make clear that the purpose of the research is to inform and the
                                                                                        Modeling the text type
audience for their writing will be their peers (as well as you as
assessor).                                                                             It may be possible to use a report written by a
                                                                                       student in another class or you may have to write
Provide a sample model of an informative report on an                                  the report yourself in order for it to contain all the
endangered animal.                                                                     features you wish to demonstrate.
(For an example see Endangered resource 4.).                                            The data chart as a writing tool
***<Link to S3/S4 Resource file>***
                                                                                       The data chart itself can become a very powerful
Draw students' attention to the schematic structure of the report                      tool for organising the report.
by discussing the function/topic of each paragraph in the                              1. The first column provides information for the
sample. This can be marked alongside the relevant paragraphs                                first paragraph on classification.
on an OHT of the report to clearly show the text structure.                            2. The next four columns become four
Students make a copy of the schematic structure in their                                    paragraphs in the description section.
workbooks.                                                                             3. The last column becomes the conclusion.
                                                                                       4. The questions at the top can be reformed as
Look more closely at the organisation of each paragraph and                                 statements to make the topic sentences.
some of the typical language features in an information report.
Endangered resource 4. illustrates the typical structure and                            Joint construction
language features of an information report.
                                                                                       When jointly constructing an information report it
                                                                                       may not be necessary to write a whole report
Joint construction
                                                                                       before you feel that the students are sufficiently
Jointly write a report (or parts of a report) on an animal studied                     confident to write one independently.
as a whole class, for example an animal used for the information
gap activity or human impact activity. Start by asking every
student to write down a possible opening sentence. Write                               Assessment
several of their suggestions on the board. Consider the
alternatives together and ask students to select the one they think                    ESWRS303           (Writing: Strategies)
is best. Ask for further sentences to complete the first paragraph.
Continue in this fashion with the remainder of the report.                             ESWRS304           (Writing: Strategies)

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                    PAGE 22
Text-based tasks                                                     Language focus                                    Assessment and notes

18. The final product                                                Typical language features of an                   Assessment
Students draft their information reports using the information       information report
                                                                                                                        Outcomes
collected on the data chart. They then conference, re-draft, edit,      use of present tense when giving
and make final copies.                                                   classification and describing appearance,     ESWRS303          (Writing: LSF)
                                                                         behaviour and life cycle                      ESWRS301          ESWRS401
Hold a class reading session where students pass around their           use of verb to have to describe appearance
                                                                        use of modifiers, such as normally,           ESWRS302          ESWRS403
completed reports for each other to read, learn from and enjoy.
                                                                         usually, mostly, some, etc.                   ESWRS303          ESWRS404
Extension: Communication project
                                                                        use of the third person, usually no mention
As an extension activity students could use their project as the         of I or we or you.                            ESWRS304
basis for a communication project which might involve students                                                          Criteria for information report
publicising their concerns about the animal in the school or
                                                                                                                         suitability of the text for its purpose and
elsewhere. For example, they could:
 write a letter to a newspaper (exposition) alerting readers to
                                                                                                                         appropriate organisation of paragraphs,
    the issue
                                                                                                                          including the use of topic sentences
 write to a conservation group expressing their concerns and
                                                                                                                         appropriate cohesion within and between
    asking what they are doing
 make a poster
                                                                                                                         clarity of expression
 produce a leaflet
                                                                                                                         use of language features appropriate to the
 contribute to an interactive web site
                                                                                                                          report text type
 design a page for the school’s web site to showcase work of
                                                                                                                         evidence of changes in response to the
    their class.
                                                                                                                          consultation in the drafting process
                                                                                                                         understanding of the subject matter.

                                                                                                                        Self Assessment
                                                                                                                       Ask students to assess their own essays in terms
                                                                                                                       of the criteria. Students can then compare their
                                                                                                                       assessments with the teacher’s.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                              PAGE 23

                                                         Endangered animals in Australia



           No. o f sp ecies









Interpreting the graph
The following questions are an adaptation of the three level reading guide strategy where students are asked questions at
different levels of interpretation. Answer the following questions in groups by drawing a circle around Yes (Y) or No (N)

Does the graph provide the following information
1.   Eight species of Australian mammals are endangered                                              Y/N
2.   Twelve species of Australian birds are endangered                                               Y/N
3.   Birds have the most number of endangered species                                                Y/N
4.   The graph covers all Australian animals                                                         Y/N

Do the following statements show a true interpretation of the graph
1.   Most of Australia’s birds are endangered                                                        Y/N
2.   A bird is more likely to become extinct than a reptile                                          Y/N
3.   A greater percentage of insects is endangered than amphibians                                   Y/N
4.   The graph does not show what is causing the threats to extinction                               Y/N

Use your own knowledge and the graph to decide if the following statements
show a good understanding of the issue of endangered species
1.   A wide range of animal species are in danger of extinction in Australia                         Y/N
2.   Australians need to make sure that the habitats of Australian animals are protected             Y/N
3.   Extinction of species is natural so there is no need for concern                                Y/N

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals

How to construct a Graphic Outline: Stage One
Note: Only text which uses headings and sub-headings is suitable for a graphic outline. Text written in continuous prose is not

1. List the main topic headings down the left-hand side of a blank page. Space them out in proportion to the amount of text
   they relate to.
2. Add the relevant subheadings in the next column.
3. List any aids such as tables, maps, graphs and photographs next to the relevant sub-heading. In some books the layout may
   make it difficult for students to make these connections.
4. Draw boxes around each item and draw lines to connect related boxes. Use boxes of differing size to indicate the
   importance of different sections.

                Sample text is chapter one of Barton, M., Vanishing Species, Gloucester Press, London, 1991.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals

                                  READING FOR DETAIL: ECOSYSTEMS
Read carefully the section of text under the heading Nature’s Balance in the book Vanishing Species pp 4-5. Then complete
the following exercises. Use the answers provided for paragraph one as a model to help you.

Paragraph One:

Topic Sentence: The relationship between plants and animals and their habitat is known as an ecosystem.

Topic sentence in my words: An ecosystem is plants and animals living together in their environment.

Diagram of an idea in this paragraph: "One of the most basic relationships in an ecosystem is a food chain."

Paragraph Two:

Topic Sentence:...............................................................................................................................
Topic Sentence in my words: ..........................................................................................................
Diagram of an idea in this paragraph:

Paragraph Three:

Topic Sentence: ............................................................................................................. .................
Topic Sentence in my words: ................................................................................................. ........
Diagram of an idea in this paragraph:

Paragraph Four:

Topic Sentence: ..............................................................................................................................
Topic Sentence in my words: ..........................................................................................................
Diagram of an idea in this paragraph:

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals

Note: This is best used as an A3 size handout.

                               Classification             Physical            Behaviour &           Habitat                Threats        Solutions & The
                                                          Appearance          Breeding Habits                                             Future
                               Are they a mammal,         What do they look   How do they feed       Where do they live?   Why are they   What is being done
                               bird, insect,              like?               move, etc?             Why?                  threatened?    to protect them?
                               amphibian, reptile or      How tall/long are   How long is                                                 What else could be
                               fish?                      they?               gestation? How many                                         done to protect
                               What is their scientific   How much do they    offspring do they have                                      them?
                               and common name?           weigh?              at one time?                                                What is their future?
     What I already

     Resource 2


     Date of Publication:
     Resource 3



     Date of Publication:

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                           PAGE 28


Learning the language of the unit
Adamson, D. M. & Bates, Nucleus English for Science & Technology Biology Longman London 1997.
Cleland, B. & Evans, R., ESL Topic Books: Learning English through General Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1984.
O'Toole, Mitch, Science Worksheets, Rigby Heinemann Melbourne 1992.

Learning the content
Barton, M., Vanishing Species, Gloucester Press, London, 1991.
Heinemann Atlas, Rigby Heinemann Melbourne 1993.
Lower, C., Folley, L., & Lower, P., Geography Around Us Book. 1, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1990.
Melbourne Zoo Education Service Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla a resource -Melbourne 1990.
Melbourne Zoo Education, All But Lost: Teachers’ Notes, Melbourne, 1996.
Shadwick, B. & Barlow S., Science in Perspective, Book 2, Science Press, Sydney, 1991.
Stowell, R. & Bentley, L., New Wave Geography Book 1, Jacaranda Press, Brisbane, 1993.

World Wide Web
A good place to start is the DoE Sofweb Resource Centre at www.dse.vic.gov.au/resource.html This contains information on the Pygmy Possum and other endangered animals.
curriculum@work contains units of work from all KLAs plus a growing bank of resources on each topic.
CD-ROMs are updated regularly however they may not have much information on lesser known Australian animals.

Other resources
Burton, J., Close to Extinction, Franklin Watts, London, 1991.
Fossey, D., Gorillas in the Mist, Houghton & Mifflin, Illinois, 1983
Howes, J., Learn about the Living World: Endangered Animals, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1994.
Pollock, S., The Atlas of Endangered Animals, Belitha Press, London, 1993.
Simon, N., Vanishing Habitats, Franklin Watts, London, 1987.
Taylor, D., Endangered Forest Animals, Crabtree Publishing Company, New York, 1992.

ESLS3/S4Endangered animals                                                                                                                                        PAGE 29

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